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FIVE DIFFERENT MODELS OR THEORIES OF CHANGE.

DISCUSS THE
VALIDITY AND UTILITY OF THESE MODELS.

I KURT-LEWIN THEORY OF CHANGE:


It is also described as the Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze Model of Change
Proposed a simple three-step "unfreeze-change-refreeze model. It basically means going
from State A into an unfrozen, change, and then reforming in a different pattern,
1. The first step, “unfreeze” involves the process of letting go of certain restricting
attitudes during the initial stages through creating motivation and readiness to
change.
2. The second step, "change" involves alteration of self-conceptions and ways of
thinking through cognitive restructuring
3. The third step, "refreeze" involves solidifying or crystallizing the changes into a
new, permanent form for the individual/ organization .through helping the client
to integrate the new point of view into the total personality and self concept

The practical example, validity and utility of the model:


The model’s utility is in planned change, for example in a manufacturing plant we want
to raise a particular production level, we will see what all factors are helping towards
higher production level and what factors are pushing production down we will make a
systematic study. After that a planned effort to attain a new level and then effort to
stabilize on those levels. Then again the same process is repeated. The validity of the
method is established because in every new situation a equilibrium develops, in
manufacturing experience once certain level of production level is achieved it stabilizes
at that level. Therefore the efforts made in the system for planned change are validated.

II TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT:


The Definition:
"TQM is a set of systematic activities carried out by the entire organization to
effectively and efficiently achieve company objectives so as to provide products and
services with a level of quality that satisfies customers, at the appropriate time and
price."

Customer expectations inevitably drive and define 'performance' criteria and standards.
Therefore Quality Management Systems focus on customer expectations and ongoing
review and improvement.

Total Quality Control (TQC)-driven environments are based on advancing continuous


improvement at every level of the organization. To accomplish this improvement, there
must be an emphasis placed on becoming a learning organization, not only at the
operational level, but also at a conceptual level, where mental models need to be altered
as the organization's deep-rooted assumptions and norms are challenged in order to
reframe problems and generate radically different solutions. Organizations will benefit
from using the seven TQC tools (process mapping, flow-charting, force field analysis,
brainstorming, Pareto chart, cause-and-effect diagram, stratification, check sheet,
histogram, scatter diagram, and control charts) as analytical means of understanding and
improving processes.

These tools and techniques are used for identifying, measuring, prioritizing and
improving processes, which are critical to quality. Again these ideas and methods are
implemented through methodology of DRIVE (Define, Review, Identify, Verify,
Execute).

In order to succeed, TQM programs require managers to:

Assess customer requirements.


• Understand present and future customer needs;
• Design products and services that cost-effectively meet or exceed those needs.
Deliver quality.
• Identify the key problem areas in the process and work on them until they
approach zero-defect levels;
• Train employees to use the new processes;
• Develop effective measures of product and service quality;
• Create incentives linked to quality goals;
• Promote a zero-defect philosophy across all activities;
• Encourage management to lead by example;
• Develop feedback mechanisms to ensure continuous improvement.

TQM improves profitability by focusing on quality improvement and addressing


associated challenges within an organization. TQM can be used to:
• Increase productivity;
• Lower scrap and rework costs;
• Improve product reliability;
• Decrease time-to-market cycles;
• Decrease customer service problems;
HOW TQM IS A TOOL OF CHANGE

From the above discussion it is clear that it is a organization wide tool in which
there is complete customer orientation. At all levels and cross level teams are formed
to solve problems through above process. Team working skills have to be imparted
in whole organization. Ownership and empowerment takes place. Innovation and
creativity are other products of system. In sum we can say that it is apart from a
effective process of improvement, it is also a powerful management tool for bringing
change for all round improvement.

The practical example, validity and utility of the model:

A wide variety of organization have implemented the program under TQM, Six Sigma,
rigorous implementation of ISO and using it as a management tool of continuously
improvement. These all organization stand tall. The famous examples are Japanese Auto
and Electronics products manufacturing Cos., GE, Motorola and thousands of other
companies across Globe. The utility of the system has been proved not only in
Manufacturing but in Service sectors also. The implementation in true spirit has brought
change and what better can prove validity than the Japanese Auto Companies who have
captured a sizable U.S. and other countries markets.

III REAL-TIME STRATEGIC CHANGE (RTSC) AND SEARCH


CONFERENCES:

A method for involving dozens, hundreds or even thousands of people in the planning of
organizational change. The meetings usually require a single bloc of three days and two
nights.
The underlying theory is that people support changes that they help to plan.

Processes such Future Search or Search Conference can be used by smaller groups
(usually 15 to 65 people) to develop an initial plan. A Future Search Conference is a 2
1/2-day planning meeting that: (1) helps large, diverse groups (organizations or
communities) discover values, purposes, and projects they hold in common and (2)
enables people to create a desired future together and act in pursuit of it.
Future Search or Search Conference:
The Conference brings the "whole system" into the room to work on a task-focused
agenda. The purpose is to find common goals and to develop actions to help meet those
goals. It is meant to take stakeholders with different purposes and interests within an
organization and bring them together to create a common vision of the future. The
process can accommodate up to 64 participants per Conference, and several Conferences
may run simultaneously. It features a series of structured tasks that help participants
examine together the past, present, and future of their world, their community or
organization, and their personal lives.

The Conference tries to set aside participants' differences in order to focus on


common ground. Facilitators help participants self-organize by setting out a
workable process in which they come up with their own information, meanings, and
motivation.

REAL-TIME STRATEGIC CHANGE (RTSC):


RTSC can bring that plan to an entire company for refinement and implementation
planning.
Ford Motor Company's Mustang division used a version of RTSC to introduce total
quality management in the 1980s, responding to the challenge of Japanese automobiles.

Generally speaking, RTSC involves the "whole system" - everyone who is involved in the
development of a product or service as well as the customers who buy it. In the food
industry, for example, an RTSC conference would include suppliers of raw materials and
grocery retailers as well internal groups such as Logistics, Manufacturing, Sales, etc.
Suppliers and customers can provide information on how the company stacks up
compared with competitors, often by using a panel discussion format. Industry experts
may also provide information on key trends.

Work is done in a combination of large and small group settings. In the large-group
sessions, people are assigned to sit at round tables of eight to ten people. These are "max-
mix" groups representing different departments or organizations. Following various
presentations, the groups are asked to discuss what happened and formulate a brief
response. This helps keep the meetings lively and creative.

In the classic RTSC format, senior managers present an overview of their proposed
plan to the entire group. After small group discussions, people use post-its to write
what they agree with, what they disagree with, and what questions they have. The
managers have a full night to review this feedback. They return the next day to
answer the questions, reinforce areas of agreement, and respond to areas of
disagreement. This can be a lively event!
People then move into implementation groups to write more detailed action plans to
help kick-start the change process.

The large groups generate a great deal of energy, an important factor in successful
change.
The practical example, how change happens, validity and utility of the model:

The above process is in various forms like “Getting the whole system in the room”,
Search conferences and future Search Conference are also used for exercise in vision
building for organization apart from the detail discussed above. Similar is” Bechard’s
Confrontation Meeting” which is one day meeting of entire management of an
organization takes a reading of their organization health. Then remedial action and future
course is decided and action plan developed. The examples are listed above.

The utility is for both purposes, one it can be used to find a remedial situation in present
crisis situation faced by organization and second to develop future course to stay ahead in
competition. One of the basic purpose of all the above exercises is involving
everybody to find solution and seek their commitment in implementing solution.
The very process brings change in whole organization. People feel more involved,
committed, find challenges in their work, and they also take ownership of their
work.

The validity of the exercise is checked through follow up actions, periodical review, and
the process is discussed in detail in the meeting itself. Many Corporations are using the
method and the efficacy of the exercises has been proved time and again. The behavioral
studies and psychological studies have validated the behavioral aspects discussed above.
IV THE SOCIOTECHNICAL SYSTEMS AND QUALITY WORK LIFE
SYSTEMS

The STS systems must jointly optimize the relationship between social and
technical parts. The implementation of STS is seen as highly participative involving all
employees, engineers, staff experts, and managers. Similarly QWL is attempt to
restructure multiple dimensions of organization. In QWL too there is participation by
employees in shop floor decisions and in regard to all decisions relating to production.

THE SOCIOTECHNICAL SYSTEMS:


It should be clear that these principles do not constitute a 'recipe' or method for
designing effective work teams. They are guides to critical evaluation of design
alternatives making clear some of the differences between the sociotechnical systems
approach and traditional job design. The need for principles is demonstrated by an issue
that has emerged among work design practitioners in recent years.
If the outcome of a sociotechnical systems analysis and design is going to be a
self-regulating work group, why not simply organize teams and train workers for team
work? Why execute complex analyses and test designs against lists of principles? The
counter-question is: How will you design the work of a work team? An effective and
productive team is not simply a better functioning social system. If the core problems of
a work system were only organizational, we could automate and eliminate people.
Significant and meaningful change in the workplace that can achieve the dual
goals of improved Quality of Working Life and improved performance requires an
understanding of technical system contingencies. The primary activity within the work
group is work, not social interaction. The analysis and design process are necessary to
create work roles that integrate social and psychological needs with technical
opportunities. The principles of sociotechnical systems design outline an invention
process that assures the integrity of the design with respect to its values, its technological
challenges, and the productive purposes of the organization.

Principles and Design

Principles do not constitute a design process. Design as a craft involves


exploration, experiment, elaboration and elimination, trial and error, all with the intention
of making the most coherent and expressive use of an opportunity framed by a set of
outcome goals and constraints. Principles give direction to the process, suggest
innovative premises and provide an anchor for what is necessarily a creative sense
making process. A design team enacts the organization-to-be as a vision of the future, an
initial set of reasonable organizational prescriptions and specifications for a technical
system to be built. The principles of sociotechnical systems design are intended to
provide an intelligible basis for such a process of workplace innovation.

Validity and utility of the model and how change happens:


Utility is its complete relevance to address complex issues of work life balance,
appropriate design of work and having an employee friendly and productive work place
design. The larger issues of training, skills enhancing etc. are all addressed through the
both system. These techniques are being widely applied by the Companies and their
validity is well established. Primarily they are piloted and on it’s success they are
implemented fully and their evaluation is also conducted regularly. Making the whole
process as an exercise in which both the organizations goals and its people concern
are taken care, lead to a productive work place. A culture of participation and joint
problem solving is developed. The whole process is an effective change management
tool.

V SURVEY-FEEDBACK AND APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY:

SURVEY-FEEDBACK
This is very powerful way of introducing change, it involves very large numbers of
people in diagnosing situations that need attention within the organization and to plan and
implement improvements. The general method requires developing reliable, valid
questionnaires, collecting data from all personnel, analyzing it for trends, and feeding the
results back to everyone for action planning.

Focus of the Appreciative Inquiry

It is a survey feedback process that would engage all employees in a positive way.

Employee survey feedback processes typically look at the problem areas and seek
solutions.

Using appreciative inquiry, reaffirmed successes and positive attributes contributes to


success. It also allows meaningful and productive conversations that results in
rewarding results.

Planning and Design:

The design process begins by discussing vision and values of organization, an overview
of Appreciative Inquiry and potential ways of using AI to achieve organization’s
objectives.

Affirmative topics are explored by the Management. These topics were identified from
Employee Opinion Survey Results.

A session integrated the following elements is held for the concerned team is held:
1. EOS results for each department.
2. Fundamentals of AI and a process guide.
3. An interview protocol to capture compelling stories of best practices,
possibilities for future success, priorities and actions for making it happen.
4. Real time action planning for the management group to address their specific
results
Validity and utility of the model and how change happens:

The primary goal is to increase engagement and commitment at all levels of the
organization. To evolve a work environment that fosters commitment, dedication,
employee engagement, generates the highest levels of customer and employee
satisfaction, allows all employees to share the rewards of the System's success and
encourages all employees to reach their potential as individuals in service to their
customers. The whole process tries involvement across organization and changes the
system for better climate and culture. Net result is also to increase productivity.

As with all the above Change intervention, it is critical to establish a measurement of


success. The measure of success for this project would be improvement in the next
employee survey results, increased quality of the action plans, and documented successes.

Utility of the process is for continuous improvement involving whole organization and
tries to energize the entire organization with fresh vigor and purpose. Validity can be
established through the above follow up action.

THE HUMAN IMPLICATIONS OF MAJOR ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE,


FOCUSING IN PARTICULAR ON CHANGES THAT RESULT FROM THE
IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY AND THE CRITICAL SUCCESS
FACTORS FOR ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF
MANAGING PEOPLE.

The implementation of major organization change primarily resulting from


implementation of new technology has it’s own share of human implication. Like any
change there will be resistance because of fear of unknown. It is basically about whether
they will be able to cope and fear that new persons who are more familiar with new
technology might supercede them.
Then they are anxious about 1.Organization’s own future and it’s capabilities to change.
2. What change organization is planning about their job responsibilities and roles? 3.
Chances of success of technology 4. Change in work environment and their familiar
setting and working relation with people 5. Change in Management Personnel 6.What top
Management is thinking about future change in organization.

The success of the above is depended upon Management to address all the above and
other issues related to implementation of new technology. Basically Management has to
communicate to people the need of change, it’s urgency, how it plans to implement it.
It has to address all issues in detail and also formulate action plan to implement it.
A team is formed to implement the change, where all members have full faith in change.
It has to create a vision, plans and strategy and communicate across organization and
convince people through talking to them and addressing their above anxieties, training
people to face change and convincing people change will be good for them and
organization.
It has to empower people to implement change.
Have short term achievable plans and targets for total implementation and through short
term successful implementation create confidence in entire organization.
Consolidate improvements and go for bigger change.
Stabilize gains and evaluate changes for future improvement

THE HUMAN IMPLICATIONS OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES


PROPOSED IN THIS PAPER. EXPLAIN HOW EACH OF THE FIVE MODELS
OR THEORIES YOU IDENTIFIED COULD BE USED TO ADDRESS THE
HUMAN IMPLICATIONS.

The implication for employees is same as discussed above, the management too has their
share of anxiety about whether the Company will1. Successfully cope up with the new
technology 2.Satisfy and gear entire team to implement the project as per plans
3.Improve it’s competitive edge in market 4. Make aware customer about the changes and
have the whole process in such away that customer accepts new technology’s advantage
and successfully derive benefit out of them. The Company establish a lead in market 5.
Train and prepare the entire team to bring necessary changes so that Organization has
leverage in market place.
How each of the five models or theories you identified could be used to address the
human implications

I KURT-LEWIN THEORY OF CHANGE: Whole process has to be thought in terms of


facilitating and hindering factors and bring change. With this process we will be able to
meet human anxieties and create new equilibrium supporting change.

II TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT: The problems and necessary preparations to


be made will be identified for bringing change, various teams will be formed. Processes,
tool techniques as discussed under the topic will be used so that entire organization is
involved and change is smooth and better for Organization.

III REAL-TIME STRATEGIC CHANGE (RTSC) AND SEARCH CONFERENCES:


In this all people concerned will jointly meet on Management Agenda and all implication,
new vision, processes, work flow will be evolved through joint meeting . Commitment of
all people and involvement of all for the cause of change will be assured through the
process. The above detailed procedure under the head will be followed.

IV THE SOCIOTECHNICAL SYSTEMS AND QUALITY WORK LIFE SYSTEMS:


The utility of the above system is to evolve work practices, work flow, processes through
involvement of all concerned which suits the change and addresses to all concerns. The
issues of training, improvement of skills, competencies of persons all will be better
addressed if they are thought in terms of employees concerns. With the effective solution
to concerns, we can convert the whole situation as opportunity rather than problem for
Organization.

V SURVEY-FEEDBACK AND APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY:


Utility of this can be putting the whole thing in positive and true perspective and getting
feedback from all concerned employees about how to deal with situation.
This will ensure their involvement from beginning and the whole process can turn out to
be positive for the organization. Process discussed under the head has to be followed.

References Used:1. Organization Development by Wendell L. French and Cecil H. Bell,


2.Amazon.com 3,Wikedia Directory 4.businessballs.com 5.archieves.gov.research6.
learning_org.com7. emraldinsight.com 8. Publiceducation.org