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Luiz Carlos H. Ricardo

EPUSP, University of Sao Paulo

* EPUSP, University of Sao Paulo, ** EESC, University of Sao Paulo

crack. The application of linear elastic fracture mechanics,

The proposal of this paper is to make a review of i.e. the stress intensity factor range, ∆K, to the “small or

analytical crack closure models. Christensen discovered short” crack growth have been studied for long time to

the crack closure in 1963 and later defined by Elber in explain the effects of nonlinear crack tip parameters. The

1968 in his PhD work. This subject is a topic related to key for these nonlinear crack tip parameters is crack

short cracks. The first analytical crack closure model was closure. Analytical models were developed to predict

developed by Newman in 1974 based on the Dugdale crack growth and crack closure processes like Dugdale [

model. Since Newman, finite element and difference 4 ], or strip yield use the plasticity induced approach in

analysis have been conducted to obtain a basic the models considering normally plane stress or strain

understanding of crack growth and crack closure effects. In this paper will shown a review of some cracks

processes. Simple and complex models were developed closure models.

based on the plasticity induced crack closure behavior.

Since 1970 until today the most finite elements analysis THE IMPORTANCE OF CRACK CLOSURE

were conducted using two dimensional under both, plane

stress and plane strain conditions. In the literature few Elber measured the plastic deformation in the wake of a

works covering three-dimensional models can be found. growing fatigue crack measuring nonlinear crack opening

Chermahini did the first work discussing it, in 1986. This behavior. The concept of crack closure under nominal

paper also discusses the yielding zone, empirical crack tensile stress cycles was not recognized earlier; but

closure model, modified Dugdale and design concepts today the fatigue crack problem can be explain without

using short crack theory. considering crack closure and others mechanisms for

crack closure have been proposed.

INTRODUCTION

The technical significance of crack closure is related to

The discovery of crack closure mechanisms, such the growth of fatigue cracks under services load histories.

plasticity, roughness, oxide, corrosion, and fretting The ultimate goal of prediction models is to arrive at

product debris, and the use of the effective stress quantitative results on fatigue crack growth in terms of

intensity factor range, has provided and engineering tool to millimeters per year or some other service period. Such

predict small and large crack growth rate behavior under predictions are required for safety and economy reasons,

service loading conditions. These mechanisms have also for example, for aircraft and automotive parts. Sometimes

provided a rationale for developing new, damage tolerant the service load time history ( variable amplitude loading )

materials. is much similar to constant amplitude loading, including

mean load effects. In both cases quantitative knowledge of

The major links between fatigue and fracture mechanics crack opening stress level S op is essential for crack

were done by Christensen [ 1 ] and Elber [ 2 ]. The crack growth predictions, because:

closure concept put crack propagation theories on a firm

foundation and allowed the development of practical life • S op is required to define ∆K eff ( Kmax – K min )

prediction for variable and constant amplitude loading, by

such as experienced by modern day commercial aircraft. • ∆Keff is supposed to be the appropriate field

Numerical analysis using finite elements has played a parameter for correlating crack growth rates under

major role in the stress analysis crack problems. different cyclic loading conditions

Swedlow [ 3 ] was one of the first to use finite element

The correlation of crack growth data starts from the Since the early 1970s, numerous finite element and finite

similitude approach, based on the ∆K eff, which predicts difference analysis have been conducted to simulate

that equal ∆K eff cycles will produce the same crack growth fatigue crack growth and closure. These analyses were

increments. The application of ∆K eff to variable amplitude conducted to obtain a basic understanding of the crack

loading require prediction of the variation of Sop, during growth and closure processes. Parallel to these numerical

variable amplitude load history, which for the more analyses, simple and complexes models of the fatigue

advanced prediction models implies a cycle by cycle crack growth process were developed. Although the vast

prediction. The figure 1 shows the definitions of K values. majority of these analyses and models were based on the

plasticity induced crack closure phenomenon. Will be

discussing here some of these models covering plasticity

induced crack closure Newman [ 6 ].

analysis were conducted using two-dimensional analysis

under plane stress and plane strain. Since 1980 few

works were done covering three-dimensional models. The

first model covering was done by Chermahini [ 7 ] .

Newman and Armen [ 8 –10 ] and Ohji et al. [ 11 ] were

the first to conduct the two dimensional, analysis of the

crack growth process. Their results under plane stress

conditions were in quantitative agreement with

experimental results of Elber [ 2 ], and showed that crack

Figure 1 Definitions of K Values , Schijve [ 5 ] opening stresses were a function of R ratio ( Smin / Smax )

and the stress level ( S max / σ0 ).

The application of ∆K eff is considerably complicated by

two problems ( 1 ) small cracks and ( 2 ) threshold ∆K Blom and Holm [ 12 ] and Fleck and Newman [ 13,14 ]

values. Small cracks can be significant because in many studied crack growth and closure under plane-strain

cases a relatively large part of the fatigue life is spent in conditions and found that cracks did close but the cracks

the small crack length regime. The threshold problem is opening levels were much lower than those under plane

particularly relevant for fatigue under variable amplitude stress conditions. Sehitoglu et al. [ 15,16 ] found later the

spectrum, if the spectrum includes many “ small “ cycles. residual plastic deformations that cause closure came

It then is important to know whether the small cycles do from flanks of the crack. McClung [17-19 ] performed

exceed a threshold ∆K value, and to which extent it will extensive finite element crack closure calculations on

occur. The application of similitude concept in structures small cracks at holes, and various fatigue crack growth

can help so much, but the correlation to satisfy the specimens. Newman [ 20 ] found Smax / σ0 could correlate

results cannot happen and the arguments normally are: the crack opening stresses for different flow stresses ( σ0 )

for the middle crack tension specimen, McClung found

• The similarity can be violated because the crack that K analogy, using Kmax / K0 could correlate the

growth mechanism are no longer similar crack opening stresses for different crack configurations

for small scale yielding conditions.

• The crack can be too small for adopting K as a

unique field parameter Very little research on three dimensional finite element

analyses of crack closure has been conducted as

• ∆Keff and others conditions being nominally mentioned before. Chermahini [ 7 ] was the first to

similar, it is possible that other crack tip aspects investigate the three dimensional nature of crack growth

also affect crack growth, such as crack tip and closure. He found that the crack opening stresses

blunting and strain hardening, Schijve [ 5 ]. were higher near the obtained experimental crack opening

stresses, similar to Chemahini’s calculations, along the

crack front using Sunder’s striation method [ 21 ], with

backface strain-gages and finite element method.

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF CRACK CLOSURE first models proposed to explain crack growth retardation

after overloads. These models assume that retardation

exists as long as the current crack-tip plastic zone is the effective stress-intensity factor range can be

enclosed within the overload plastic zone. The physical calculated by :

basis for these models, however, is weak because they

do not account for crack growth acceleration due under ∆ K eff = ∆ Seff π a F (2

loads or immediately following an overload. Chang [ 24 ]

and Hudson [ 25 ] clearly demonstrated that retardation )

and acceleration are both necessary to have a reliable

model. Later models by Gallagher confirmed it [ 26 ]. Where:

account for the retardation and acceleration. A new

generation of models was introduced by Bell and Wolfman F – boundary correction factor

[ 28 ], Schijve [ 29 ], de Koning [ 30 ] and Baudin &

Robert [ 31 ] were based on the crack closure concept. ∆S eff – effective stress range

The simplest model is the one proposed by Schijve, who

assumed that the crack opening stress remains constant The figure 2 shows the center crack panel that will be

during each flight in a flight -by-flight sequence. The other used to evaluate the crack propagation.

models developed empirical equations to account for

retardation and acceleration, similar to the yield zone

models.

Modified Dugdale Model

There are many modified Dugdale models for example [

32 – 35], After Elber [ 2 ] defined the crack closure, the

research community began to develop analytical or

numerical models to simulate fatigue crack growth and

closure. These models were designed to calculate the

growth and closure behavior instead of assuming such

behavior as in the empirical models. Seeger [ 32 ] and

Newman [ 8 ] were the first to develop two type of models.

Seeger modified the Dugdale model and Newman

developed a ligament or strip yield model. Later a large

group of similar models were also developed using the Figure 2 Center Crack Panel, Newman [ 20 ]

Dugdale framework.

The figure 3 shows the panel idealized to finite element

method.

Budiansky & Hutchinson [ 34 ] studied closure using an

analytical model, while Dill & Saff [ 33 ], Fuhring &

Seeger [ 36 ], and Newman [ 37 ] modified the Dugdale

model. Some models used the analytical functions to

model the plastic zone, while others divided the plastic

zone into a number of elements. The model by Wang &

Blom [ 38 ] is a modification of Newman’s model [ 37 ] but

their model was the first to include weight functions to

analyses other crack configuration.

constant amplitude loading that was proposed the

following equation for fatigue crack propagation rates:

∆a

= C (∆K eff ) n (1

∆N

)

Figure 3 Finite Element Model of Center Crack Panel

Where C and n are constants of the material and ∆Keff is Newman [ 20 ]

the effective stress intensity factor range.He proposed that

The panel material was assumed to be elastic perfect

plastic with a tensile ( and compressive ) yield stress, σ0,

of 350.0 MN / m2 and a modulus of elasticity of 70000

MN / m 2 these properties are of aluminum alloy. The

released nodes will be done from node A to node F.

stresses would be affected by the mesh size chosen to

model the crack tip region. A finer element mesh size

would give more accurate results. Newman [ 20 ]

evaluated three kind of mesh as shows in table 1

Figure 5 Crack Surface Displacements and Stress Along

I 7.2 0.64 398 226 Crack Line, Newman [ 37 ]

II 14.4 0.16 533 300 calculate contact (or closure) stresses during unloading,

are influenced by plastic yielding at the crack tip and

III 20.9 0.08 639 358 residual deformations left in the wake of the advancing

crack. Upon reloading, the applied stress level at which

the crack surfaces become fully open is directly related to

contact stresses. This stress is called the “crack opening

W = 460.0 mm and a ≅ 28.0 mm stress”. Because they are no closed form solutions for

elastic plastic cracked bodies, simple approximations

must be used. In next will showed the equations that

governing the stress and deformations of the analytical

crack closure model. Because of symmetry, only one

quarter of the plate will be analyzed as showed in the

figure 6.

R = 0, Newman [ 20 ]

propagation. The mesh that shows the best agreement

with experimental results was the mesh II, but the mesh III

provides good results too. With the facilities in terms of Figure 6 System Used in the Analytical Closure Model

computer today, normally the time to evaluate this mesh Newman [ 37 ]

is almost nothing, being size of element and the

increment most used today to evaluate a crack closure The plate had a fictitious crack of half-length d and was

analysis or propagation. subjected to a uniform stress S. The rigid-plastic bar

element connected to point J was subjected to a

Newman [ 37 ] introduced a model that is possible compressive stress σJ. this element is in contact when the

evaluate crack closure and crack propagation analysis length of the element ( Lj ) is make V j = L j.

until failure the model received the name FASTRAN. The

formulation of FASTRAN is shows in next.

Where: ( K )s = Smax πd sec

πd

The equations that govern the response of the complete ( 10 )

system were obtained by requiring that compatibility be W

met between the elastic plate and all of the bar elements and

along the crack surface and plastic zone boundary. The πc

displacement at point i is : 2 −1

sen W πd

( K )σ 0 = −ασ 0 1 − sen πd sec ( 11 )

n π π d

sen W

Vi = Sf ( x i ) − ∑ σ j g ( xi , x j ) (3) W

j =1

solving the ( 21 ) for d and nothing that ρ = d – c gives :

W πc πS

ρ = c sen−1 sen sec max − 1 ( 12 )

f ( xi ) =

2(1 − η 2 )

( d 2 − x i2 ) sec

πd

(4 ) πc W 2ασ0

E W

In the plastic zone was arbitrarily divided into ten

graduated bar elements. The aspect ratios ( 2w i / ρ ) :

g( xi , x j ) = G( xi , x j ) + G( − xi , x j ) (5) 0.01; 0.02; 0.04; 0.06; 0.09; 0.12; 0.5; 0.2 e 0.3. The

smallest elements were located near the crack tip

2

−1 d − b2 x i

( x = c ). Doubling the number of elements in the plastic

(b 2 − x i ) cosh −

d b2 − x i

zone has less than a 1 percent effect on calculated crack

opening stresses. At the maximum applied stress, the

2(1 − η )

2

−1 d − b1 x i

2

− (b1 − xi )cosh

G( x i , x j ) = + plastic zone size was calculated from equation ( 12

πE d b1 − x i ). The length ( Li ) of the bar elements in the plastic zone

was calculated from equation ( 3 ) as:

b

+ d 2 − xi2 sen −1 2 − sen −1 1 b

d d 10

Li = Vi = S max f ( xi ) − ∑ ασ 0 g ( xi , x j ) ( 13 )

j =1

sen −1 B − sen − 1 B

2 1 sec πd (6)

Where f ( xi ) and g ( xi , x j ) are given by

− 1 b 2 − 1 b1 W

sen d − sen d equations ( 4 ) and ( 5 ), respectively. The bar elements

act as rigid wedges. The plastic deformation ( Li ) changes

(πbK ) only when an element yields in tension ( σj ≥ ασ0 )

sen or compression (σj ≤ -σ0 ). The division of the plastic zone

Where B = W for K = 1 or 2. (7)

K

sen(πd ) into a number of finite elements would allow for the

eventual use of a nonlinear stress-strain curve with

W

kinematic hardening instead of the rigid perfectly plastic

b1 = x j − w j ; b2 = x j + w j . The compatibility equation assumptions used here.

n

∑σ

j =1

ij g ( x i , x j ) = Sf ( x i ) − Li for i = 1 to n (8)

The applied stress level at which the crack surfaces

are fully open ( no surfaces contact), denoted as S0, was

calculated from the contact stresses at Smin. To have no

surface contact, the stress-intensity factor due to applied

One type of constraint is caused by tensile or

stress increment ( S0 - S min ) is set equal to the stress

compressive yielding of the bar elements and the other is

intensity factor due to the contact stresses. Solving for S0

caused separation ( Vj ≥ Lj ) along the crack surface.

gives :

2σ j

[sen ]

n −1

The plastic zone size ( ρ ) for a crack in a finite S0 = S min − ∑ −1

B2 − sen −1 B1 ( 14 )

width specimen was determined by requiring that the j =11 π

finiteness condition of Dugdale be satisfied. This condition

states that the stress intensity factor at the tip of the

plastic zone is zero and is given by:

(K ) s + ( K )σ 0 = 0 (9)

πb element at the crack tip. The length while the crack was

sen K grown under cyclic loading ( cycle-by-cycle ) over the

W length ∆c*. The number of load (∆N ) required to grow the

Where BK = for K = 1 or 2 ( 15 )

π c0 crack an increment ∆c* was calculated from equation ( 16

sen ) and the cyclic load history. When the sum of the crack

W

growth increments (∆c ) equaled or exceeded ∆c*, the

analytical closure model was exercised. If ∆N reached

and c 0 is the current crack length minus ∆c*. The 300 cycles, the model was exercised whether or not ∆c*

increment the width of element n, and its significance is was reached.

discussed in the next section. If σj = 0 for j = 11 to n – 1

at the minimum applied stress, then the crack is already This limits the number of cycles that can be applied

open, and S0 cannot be determined from equation ( before the model is exercised. The increment ∆c* was set

14 ). The stress σj at the crack tip changes from equal to summation of ∆c’s. Thus, ∆c* was less than or

compression to tension when the applied stress level equal to that computed from equation ( 19 ), and the

reaches S0. number of cycles ranged from 1 to 300. During the cyclic

growth computations, the cyclic stress history was

Crack Extension and Approximations monitored to find the lowest applied stress before (

S minb ) and after ( Smina ) the higest applied stress level (

The crack growth equation proposed by Elber [ 2 ] S maxh ). The application of the analytical closure model

states that the crack growth rate is a power function of the consisted of :

effective stress intensity factor range only. Later ,

Hardraht et al. [ 9 ] showed that the power law was • Applying minimum stress Sminb at crack length c

inadequate at high growth rates approaching fracture. The • Applying maximum stress Sminh at crack length c

results presented herein show that is also inadequate at • Extending crack and increment ∆c*

low growth rates approaching threshold. To account for • Applying minimum stress Smina at crack length c

these effects, the power law was modified to : + ∆c*

2

∆K 0 • Calculating cyclic load history

1− • Calculating new ∆c* from equation 19

∆K

dc eff • Repeating process when crack extension reaches

= C1∆K effC2 2 ( 16 ) new ∆c* or reaches 300 cycles.

dN K

1 − max

C5

S0

where : ∆ K 0 = C 3 1 − C 4

( 17 )

S max

K max = S max πc F ( 18 )

and

∆ K eff = (S max − S 0 ) π c F

test under constant amplitude loading. The factor F is the

boundary correction factor on stress intensity. The

analytical closure model provides extending the crack an

incremental value at he moment of maximum applied

stress. The amount of crack extension (∆c* ) was

arbitrarily defined

Where ρ max is the plastic zone caused by the maximum Figure 7 Crack Surface Displace under Constant

applied stress occurring during the ∆c* was calculated Amplitude Loading, Newman [ 37 ]

from equation ( 16 ) and the cyclic load history. Typical

values of ∆c* ranged between 0.004 and 1.0 mm,

depending upon the applied stress level and crack length.

The simulated crack extension (∆c* ) creates a new bar

5. Schijve, J.” Fatigue Crack Growth Closure:

Observations and Technical Significance”, ASTM

STP 982, PP. 5-34, USA, 1988

Perspective”, Progress in Aerospace Sciences, nº

34, pp. 347-390, USA, 1998

Plastic Finite Element Analysis of Fatigue Crack

Growth and Closure”, PhD Thesis, Old Dominion

University, Norfolk, USA, 1986

Fatigue Crack Propagation Including The Effects of

Figure 8 Calculated Crack Opening Stresses as Function Crack Closure”, PhD Thesis, VPI & SU, Blacksburg,

of Crack Length under Constant Amplitude Loading R = USA, 1974

0, Newman [ 37 ]

9. Newman, J.C. Jr.; Armen, H. Jr. “ Elastic-Plastic

The figures 7 and 8 show an example of application of the Analysis of Fatigue Crack Under Cyclic Loading”,

use of FASTRAN in a 2219-T851 aluminum alloy. AIAA Journal, nº 13, pp. 1017-1023, USA, 1975

CONCLUSION Fatigue Crack Closure ”, ASTM 490, pp. 281-301,

USA, 1976

The paper did a review of some analytical crack closure

models, giving a special attention for Newman’s models 11. Ohji K, Ogura K, Ohkubo Y. “ Cyclic Analysis of a

that are the most used in the aerospace industry. The Propagating Crack and Its Correlation with Fatigue

paper shows also that the methodology can be used at Crack Growth” Eng. Fracture Mechanics, nº 7,

the autoparts and carmakers in short time, as one of the pp.457-464, England, 1975

criterion to design the structures and systems.

12. Blom, A.F. & Holm, D.K. “ An Experimental and

Numerical study of Crack Closure”, Eng. Fracture

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Mechanics, nº 22, pp. 997-1011, England, 1985

Dr. Wolf Elber and Dr. Jim C. Newman Jr. from NASA ( 13. Fleck, N.A., “ Finite Element Analysis of Plasticity

National Aeronautics and Space Administration ) at Induced Crack Closure Under Plane Strain

Langley Research Center, Virginia, 23665, USA Conditions” , Eng. Fracture Mechanics, nº 25, pp.

441-449, England, 1986

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pp. 157-171, USA, 1981 CONTACT

29. Schijve, J. “ Prediction Methods for Fatigue Crack Luiz Carlos H. Ricardo, EPUSP, University of Sao Paulo

Growth in Aircraft Material”, ASTM STP 700, email: luiz.ricardo@poli.usp.br

pp. 3 -34, USA, 1980

Paulo de Mattos Pimenta, EPUSP, University of Sao Paulo

email : ppmenta@usp.br

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Predictions of Fatigue Crack Growth Rates Under Dirceu Spinelli , EESC, University of Sao Paulo

Variable Amplitude Loading”, ASTM STP 743, email : dspinell@sc.usp.br

pp. 63-85 , USA, 1981

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