Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 97

WORK BOOK

Heinemann English Language Teaching A division of Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Limited Halley Court, Jordan Hill, Oxford 0X2 8EJ
OXFORD MADRID FLORENCE ATHENS PRAGUE
SAOPAULO MEXICOCITY CHICAGO PORTSMOUTH(NH)

The author and publishers are grateful to the following for their permission to use copyright material in this book p17 British Defence and Aid Fund for Southern
Africa (November 1990 appeal letter); p28 The
Guardian (editorial text 21.2.91); p32 The Economist

TOKYO SINGAPORE KUALA LUMPUR MELBOURNE AUCKLAND JOHANNESBURG IBADAN GABORONE ISBN 0 435 28206 9 Martin Mills 1993 First Published 1993 All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in

(extract from 'A survey of Brazil' 7.12.91); p34 The Guardian ('Wiser W e l s h still h a n k e r for chips' by Vivek C h a u d h a r y 5.6.91); p43 The Guardian ('Cucumber thief put in cooler' by G a r e t h Parry 11.12.90); p 4 8 The Observer ('Albania tanks roll to quell protests 1 by Mark Frankland 16.12.90); p53 Carnell Ltd 1991 (advertisement: 'How to talk to your cat'); p58 Times Newspapers Ltd 1986 ('Krishna leaders face criminal charges' by Mark Hosenball Sunday Times 1.9.86).

any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Publishers. Designed by Mike Brain and Rob Fowler Illustrations by Peter Till, Peter Schrank, and John Batten While every effort has been made to trace the owners of copyright material in this book, there have been some cases whete the publishers have been unable to contact the owners. We should be grateful to hear from anyone who recognises their copyright material and who is unacknowledged. We shall be pleased to make the necessary amendments in future editions of the book.

Printed and bound in Great Britain by Thomson Litho 96 97 98 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

Contents
page To the Student Organising Your Learning: Introduction 1 6 7 12 13 15 20 21 26 27 32 33 38 39 44 45 50 51 56 61 66 71 77 UNIT 1 Learning and teaching English Organising Your Learning: Dictionaries UNIT 2 The family Organising Your Learning: Vocabulary Organising Your Learning: Grammar UNIT 3 Prejudice Organising Your Learning: Speaking (1) UNIT 4 Entertainment going out Organising Your Learning: Writing UNIT 5 The Third World Organising Your Learning: Reading (1) UNIT 6 Health and medicine Organising Your Learning: Speaking (2) UNIT 7 Crime and law enforcement Organising Your Learning: Listening UNIT 8 UNIT 9 UNIT 10 UNIT 11 UNIT 12 UNIT 13 Answer key Political ideas Animals Unusual beliefs, the occult Environmental problems Motoring, cars Travel, holidays

Organising Your Learning: Reading (2)

To the Student
This Workbook has four main aims: to develop the suggestions made in your Coursebook about organising your learning to offer further practice of the language presented in your Coursebook to introduce and practise related vocabulary and grammar points to provide further work on writing, pronunciation, and register The exercises can be done in class or as set homework, and a key is provided so that you can correct for yourself any exercise which you do on your own.

using an appropriate register, or style of English, depending on the situation speaking with little accent speaking fluently, with little hesitation writing understanding what you hear understanding what you read 3 What are your priorities? Bearing in mind the needs you considered in exercise 1 and your strengths and weaknesses, what do you most need to work on in your English? 4 Studying alone or in a group No course or language class can entirely reflect your personal priorities, so it is essential to organise your own learning outside the classroom. Note the advantages of studying in class or working on your English outside class time.

Organising Your Learning: Introduction


1 Why go on studying English? Your English is fairly good now. Most likely you manage quite well when you speak and hear it. So why do you want to go on studying? Look at the reasons for advanced English study below. Which of them are true for you? Are there any other reasons not mentioned here? pure interest in the language, and the culture(s) associated with it a specific need to use English well in a particular situation a long-term need for English in your work a desire to speak English as the 'international language' a need for English in your studies to pass an EFL exam (why?) 2 What are your strengths in English? All learners are better at some things than others in English. Grade your own performance on the skills below, using the following: VG: very good G: good QG quite good NVG: not very good expanding your passive vocabulary (what you understand) activating your passive vocabulary (using it) using grammatically correct English: in writing and speaking

in class

outside 5 Organising work outside the classroom The Organising Your Learning units in this Workbook and in your Coursebook provide suggestions and demonstration activities for working on your English outside the classroom. These range from fluency activities, to file management, to ways of making the most of your dictionary. You may well have other ideas of your own. Whatever shape your self-directed learning takes, the following basic rules are important: set aside a regular, realistic time for study or activities, and plan what you will do keep a record, even a simple one, of what you have done always be aware of the purpose of what you can do, and how this relates to what you want to achieve Good luck and enjoyable learning!

UNIT

Learning and teaching English

be used to doing 1 The sentences below are marked to show sentence stress. For example, in a evening is stressed, in b used is stressed. Say the sentences to yourself, stressing the correct syllable. a I'm used to eating late in the 'evening. b I'm 'used to teaching individual students. c They're'used to working in groups. d They're used to 'cold weather. e I'm used to teaching individual 'students. f She's 'used to risking her life. g I'm 'used to eating late in the evening. h They're used to lying in 'bed all morning. i They're 'used to cold weather. j She's 'used to the sight of blood. k I'm 'used to driving long distances without rest. 1 They're used to working in 'groups m She's 'used to getting up early. n She's used to risking her'life. 2 Match each sentence below with a sentence in exercise 1. Example:
8 We didn't get to the restaurant till I lpmt but that was OK. g I'm 'used to eating late in the evening.

1 She won't mind starting work at 6am. 2 Paris to Athens in three days should be no problem3 The students find all this individual work a bit dull. 4 She won't worry about being sent off to cover the war. 5 Penguins find summers in the zoo a bit uncomfortable. 6 The students work together really efficiently. 7 Working in an office will seem rather dull and safe, I expect. 8 We didn't get to the restaurant till 1 lpm, but that was OK. 9 They won't like getting up at dawn in the army! 10 She won't be shocked, working in the casualty department. 11 Penguins don't mind the English winter a bit! 12 No problem, I've given a lot of private lessons. 13 These early suppers in England are really strange. 14 I'm not sure about teaching such a big group. Check on page 77.

UNIT 1

Language register: not... any more and no longer to speak of changes 3 Sentences A and B below talk about the same change of situation, but B is more formal.
A: Bob Smith doesn't workhere anymore. B: Mr Smith is no longer employed by the company.

Emphasis: neutral and strong adjectives

Convert the following sentences in the same way, using the words in brackets. Do not change the form of the words. The first is done for you. a Alice doesn't live here any more, (resides, address)
Alice no longer resldee at this address.

b He doesn't respect what his parents believe in any more, (respect, beliefs) c We don't mind them being here any more, (objection, presence) d I'm not interested in all that any more, (interest, that matter) e He doesn't want to go on living any more, (desire, continue) f There's no reason why he should feel that way any more, (reason for, him, such an attitude) g I'm not going to take the job any more, (intention, the position) h People aren't hopeful any more that they can sort out the crisis without a war. (there, hope, crisis, resolved peacefully) i This structure isn't difficult for me any more, (presents, difficulties)

4 At twelve points in the dialogue below, adverbs qualify adjectives. Sometimes the adverbs and adjectives don't match, because one of them is too strong or too weak. In. these cases, replace one of the words, and write the new combination below. Where adverbs and adjectives do match, write OK below. The first two are done for you. A: Gosh, mother, I'm 1 absolutely exhausted, aren't you? I can't remember the last time I walked so far. It really is 2 fairly amazing how difficult it is to get a bus whenever it snows. B: Amazing? I should say it is 3 utterly deplorable. 4 Absolutely annoying, in fact. The bus company should do something about it. It is 5 fairly incredible that elderly people should have to walk in ice and snow in such weather. A: Young people, too! What about me? I'm
6 absolutely freezing!

B: Take that poor old lady over there, for example. She looks 7 absolutely scared that she's going to slip up and fall down. A: Still, I must say I'm 8 utterly pleased we went shopping today. If we hadn't we would probably never have found Dad's present. I bet he'll be 9 extremely delighted with it. All right, I know you found it a 10 rather strange colour, but I think it's nice. B: It is not strange, dear, it is 11 absolutely ugly. And I can't imagine your father in a hat, anyway. He'll
look 12 very ridiculous, I'm sure. A: Well, as long as it keeps his head warm, I'll be happy. 1 OK 2 absolutely I utterly amazing 3 4 5

Check on page 77.

6 7 8

UNIT 1

9
10 11 12
5 Fill in each gap in the following dialogues with an adverb + adjective combination. a Dinner guest: Mmm, this pie is

wide stone blind raving fast bored filthy dead

tired asleep stiff right awake slow cold rich mad deaf drunk

Modest hostess: Thank you, yes, it is isn't it? It's my own recipe, you know. b A: You really must see the new Mel Brookes' comedy. It's __ !

Check on page 77. 7 Fill the gaps with expressions from exercise 6. a Dinner's on the table, come and eat or your food will be, _________________ . b The children were minutes of going to ,and bed they within were.

B: I'm not a Mel Brookes fan really. I mean, he's , I suppose, but he doesn't make me laugh much, I must say. c A: Look, listen to me, it is this letter is posted today. B: Oh come on, calm down, I know it's that they should know soon, but it's not that urgent, surely? Check on page 77. Emphasis: adjective collocations 6 Adjectives like exhausted are quite strong on their own. However, some 'neutral' adjectives, like tired can combine with other words to make strong, emphatic combinations, or 'collocations'. Using your dictionary, match words on the left with words on the right to form collocations. Some left-hand words can be used more than once. that

I couldn't sleep though, no matter how hard I tried. c I stayed. , they've got a

'Oh yes, they're

house in the Bahamas, a flat in Paris, and a castle in Scotland. That's where they keep Uncle Angus locked up, by the way.' 'Why? Is he a bit strange?' 'Strange? d e is more like it!' from

I agree with him entirely, he's What a tedious film; I was beginning to end.

Check on page 77.

UNIT 1

Emphasis: similes 8 Similes with an adjective or a verb like stubborn as a mule and She works like a slave can also he used for emphasis. Each picture can combine with one of the words below to make a simile. Match the pictures and words and write the simile beneath each picture.

Emphasis: strong verbs 9 As with adjectives, some verbs are stronger than others. For example, she's struggling to understand is stronger than she's trying to understand. Using your dictionary, replace each verb in italics with a more emphatic verb from the list. The first is done for you. a The car left the road on a sharp bend and feU into the sea. plunged b The drawer was jammed shut but he managed to pull it open. c The thieves took her bag and ran off with it. d I absolutely dislike that man. e She threw her glass at the wall.. . f . . . , where it broke into a thousand pieces. g We searched the country, and finally found the sort of house we were looking for. h He asked her to forgive him, but she refused to.

i He pushed me out of the way in his hurry. j The kite rose into the air as the wind caught it.

k The police suddenly came i n , . . . 1 . . . hurried up the stairs....

m . .. and began knocking on the door. n I promise I'll never do it again. o Don't give up, Pm sure they'll find her soon. p Don't look at the man just because he looks a bit strange! q He walked in, very annoyed, and asked to see the manager. quiet light blind smoke drink (alcohol) old clean Check on page 77. 4 eat pretty sleep r Unfortunately it poured with rain, which spoilt the picnic.

UNIT 1

hurl grab hammer burst wrench race soar shatter stare shove swear demand loathe beg scour despair ruin Check on page 77. Explaining purpose and function 10 Complete the sentences in your own words using one of the following forms: infinitive
in order to so that for (people) to (do) for doing

Adding information and explaining purpose 11 Each sentence below makes two recommendations. Rewrite the sentence using the expression in brackets, and add a clause of purpose with so that or in order to. The first has been done for you. a A good language course should not only teach students the language, but also help them to develop their own best way of learning.
(apart from) (purpose: students can study effectively outside the classroom) Apart from teaching students the language, a good _ language course should help them to develop their own best way of learning, so that they can study effectively outside the classroom?

a Some teachers ask their students to work in groups they can talk freely. b Some teachers ask their students to work in groups opportunity to talk freely. c A language lab is good _____ pronunciation. d Our school has a language lab practise our pronunciation, e I go to the language lab pronunciation. f Phonemic script is pronounced. g Phonemic script is used pronounced. h Dictionaries print words in phonemic script . students how words are pronounced. i She writes words up on the blackboard students can see how they are spelt. j She writes words up on the blackboard show how they are spelt. k It's useful to have dictionaries in the classroom look words up in. 1 Make sure your written work is as good as you can make it your teacher can see where you her see how words are how words are practise my we can

b Apart from participating in classroom work, a good language student will work independently outside class time. (not only.. .but also) (purpose: to achieve her own learning objectives)

c A good language school will not only support its teachers with efficient teaching materials, but also pay them for preparation time.
(apart from) (purpose: the teachers can present an organised programme of work)

d Apart from working hard in the classroom, a good language teacher will spend time on lesson preparation.
(not only) (purpose: to be able to present an organised programme of work)

really have problems. Check on page 77. Check on page 77. 5

Organising Your Learning: Dictionaries


Choosing and exploring a dictionary Bilingual dictionaries are useful when you know what you want to say, but don't know the word in English. However, they can also lead you astray, if you use an English word as if it meant the same as its 'equivalent' in your own language in every context. A monolingual learner's dictionary avoids this problem, and will tell you more about usage. It is worth spending some time finding out what information a dictionary can offer you, especially if you are deciding which one to buy. 1 Compare two or three learner's dictionaries (the introductions and contents lists as well as the entries). Do they contain the following? words included specifically because they are common in modern English clearly laid out entries, so that meanings, derivatives (e.g. childhood, childish), idioms, compounds and phrasal verbs are easy to find explanations in easy-to-understand English helpful example sentences information about grammar, pronunciation, style (formality/informality), US/British differences separate sections on grammar, punctuation, prefixes and suffixes, important abbreviations, Christian names, place names, nationalities, measurements, abbreviations 2 Clear layout is especially important with very long entries, which may contain several meanings, plus phrases, compounds, and phrasal verbs. a Look up the following words as they are used in the sentence contexts. If you can, use two dictionaries. Which one is quicker? 1 He looks as if he's high on something. 2 He was speaking in such a high voice. 3 We're low on sugar. 4 I thought he was looking a bit low. b Look up the following, comparing dictionaries again if possible. 1 She's lying low at the moment, (phrase) 2 I feel like a Chinese takeaway, (compound) 3 He took to her straight away, (phrasal verb) 6

3 How words are pronounced should be made clear by your dictionary. It should include a table, showing all the sounds in phonemic script, with examples. A good idea is to record your teacher saying the example words, so that you can listen to them from time to time. 4 Using your dictionary, match the following words with their phonemic transcriptions on the right. a longingly b yawning c flame-thrower d jumbled e lotion f chocolate g fearless h frightful Check on page 77. 5 Word stress will also be shown by a good dictionary. Mark what you think is the stressed syllable in each word below. Check in your dictionary, then practise saying the words correctly. a operation b potential c particular d automobile e knuckle f coincidence g delicacy h kaleidoscope i quantitative j psychosomatic 6 Most sounds can be written in different ways in English (e.g. /su/ in low, alone, loan). If such a sound is at the beginning of a word you hear and want to look up, try to guess the probable spelling, and keep looking until you find your word. Write out the phonemic transcriptions below in normal script. To check your answers, look them up in your dictionary. If you don't find the word, try a different spelling. As a last resort, check on page 77.

wish + past simple/ past perfect, or would


1 Convert the infinitives in brackets to the correct tense, or could + infinitive.. 'Oh, Mummy, I wish I (1 tell _______ ) you ) be

'He's horrible. He laughed at me. Everything (10 ) alright if only he {11 not ) at me. 1 wish 1(12 never buy ) the stupid dress.' 'He laughed at you in your new dress? Is that all? Oh well, in that case . . . ' 'Oh, Mummy, I wish you (13 take me seriously! I wish 1 {14 never mention ) it to you!' Check on page 77. )

laugh

how horrible he is. If I ( 2 know _____ what he was like, I (3 never start

) going out with him. Oh, it's all gone wrong, I wish I (4 be ) dead!'

Don't talk such nonsense! So now you wish you (5 never meet ) him, do you?

Yesterday you were in love. You said if you (6 not go ) to the disco with him, you (7 not go ) with anyone. Now you're wishing you {8 never be born

Wish + would with clauses of purpose


2 Change each sentence below into a wish + would sentence, including a so clause to explain purpose. The first has been done for you. a You don't understand what you're supposed to be doing, because you don't listen properly.
I wish you would listen properly, so you would understand what you were supposed to be doing

_____ ). I wish I (9 keep up with ) you, you change too quickly for me. All right, what's so bad about him, then?

UNIT 2

b You always make such a mess because you don't take enough care. I wish c We can't get any sleep because of the noise you're making. I wish d We can't go to bed yet, not till they go home. I wish e I can't get any work done with you talking all the time. I wish f Because you won't make up your mind, I can't book the tickets. I wish ____________________________________ g He never fixes the car, so I have to take the bus to work. I wish ___________________________________ h Behave yourselves, you kids, I can't hear the television! I wish________________________________ Check on page 78. Wish + past perfect with third conditional 3 For each sentence below, write a wish + had sentence, followed by a clause of reason with a shortened third conditional. The first one has been done for you. a You didn't tell me, so I couldn't help.
I wish you'd told me; I could have helped if you had.

e I couldn't get a good job, because I didn't go to university. I wish____________________________________ f We didn't know she could babysit, so we had to stay in. I wish ____________________________________ Check on page 78. Wish + would or it's high time... 4 Wish + would can express impatient recommendation. It's time + past tense does this more forcefully. It's high time is even more forceful. Example: I wish you would make up your mind. It's high time you made up your mind! This can't he done when wish + would doesn't express impatience. Example: I wish you would come to the party. It's high time you came to the party. (Wrong) Recommending a change of habit, we usually add the verb to start. Example: I wish you would listen more carefully. It's time you started listening more carefully! Below, which wish + would sentences could be replaced with a forceful It's time sentence? Write out the new sentences. a 1 wish the government would tackle inflation. b I wish you would do some homework! c I wish it would stop raining. d I wish you would be a little more patient. e I wish you children would go to bed. f I wish they would put a stop to all these strikes. g I wish you would try this cheese, it's good. h I wish you would be a bit more punctual. i I wish you would grow up and act responsibly. j I wish you would explain tilings carefully Dad! Check on page 78.

b We spent a lot, so we can't take a taxi home. I wish c You didn't tell me you were coming, so I didn't cook anything nice for dinner. I wish d I couldn't go to university, because I didn't study hard at school.

I wish____________________________________

UNIT 2

Second, third and mixed conditional sentences 5 Write second, third or mixed conditional sentences based on the following prompts. a I'm sure he's rich; he bought that new car, didn't he? If __________________________ b I'm such a fool; that's why I didn't leave him long ago. If_ c I lost my address book, so I can't ring them up. If ________ d This government doesn't know what it's doing; it's increased interest rates! If______________________________________ e Tilings are bad for business because interest rates went up. Things f My marriage broke up because I was made redundant. My g Nobody will give him a job because he hasn't got a fixed address. Perhaps s o m e b o d y _ h He can't save any money because he hasn't got a job. If i He can't rent a place to live because he hasn't got any money. j He's in this mess because he came to London. He_____________________________________ Check on page 78. Word stress and vowel reduction 6 Four-syllable words can be stressed in one of the following ways. The big dot shows the syllable which carries the primary stress.

Say the words to yourself. Which of the stresspatterns do you think is/are the most common in English? Words in column 5 look like four-syllable words, but in normal speech one of the syllables is so reduced that it disappears. Using your dictionary, sort the words listed below into the 5 columns. 1 2 3 figurative fortuitous outmanoeuvre

4 oversubscribed

5 secondary

satisfying secretary literary sentimental nevertheless hesitation schizophrenia formidable subsidiary underexposed extravagant reasonable saturated notwithstanding preservative impossible impractical unrestricted insensitive disenchantment disotderly polytechnic Check on page 78Were you right about the most common stress patterns?

If_____________________________________ Phrasal verbs 7 Replace the words in italic with one of the phrasal verbs in Section E of your Coursebook. a How do you relate to your parents? b The marketing manager proposed some very interesting ideas. c Look, I'm counting on you for this lift tomorrow, so don't disappoint me, please! d Her son has the same personality as her. e I used to like honey, but I have stopped liking it.

UNIT 2

f Most criminals escape punishment for their crimes. g I really had to reprimand her this morning. h Can you share books today? There aren't enough for everyone to have one. a b e f

9 Below are the root verbs from four phrasal verbs. Beside each there are two or three meanings. Look up each root verb in your dictionary and find a phrasal verb for each of the meanings. Write the particle or particles on the line after the root verb. a Grow slowly become more enjoyable or attractive to (someone) become more grown up and stop doing (something) b Fall quarrel (with someone) become strongly attracted to someone laugh almost uncontrollably c Catch understand (something), or realise something is happening catch someone making a mistake, or trick them into making one _____ cause something to be understood; make people understand avoid a law, or difficulty, or restriction be successful and make progress in your life and career Check on page 78. 10 Use one of the phrasal verbs you discovered in exercise 9 to complete each sentence below. a She's very ambitious, you know, really keen to

c _________________ g d Check on page 78. 8 Fill the gaps with a phrasal verb from Section E. a The Ferrari had tyre problems, and the Maclaren. b After a tyre change, however, it soon it again. c Look that's enough! I am not going to you talking to your mother like that! d He's still very strange, I don't think he's . the shock of it yet. e 'There's no water.' 'We'll just have to baths, then.' f I can't stand winter. I'm already spring to arrive, g I can't explain everything. You'll learn more if you it _____ for yourself. h Many big companies their d Get h

b Jack and Jill have

, I think. I

executives remaining single, preferring them to marry. Check on page 78.

haven't seen them together for a long while. c Grammar exercises should try to help students, not them_______ ,

d It's a funny-tasting wine at first, but I think you'll find it you.

10

UNIT 2

e The children had been missing school secretly for days before their parents what was happening. f I used to like pop music, but I've it now. g You should have seen how ridiculous he looked; we just _____ when he came in.

Professional people earn a lot. Put on the other hand they have to work hard for their money. Take the case of GFs, for example. Taking Into account their morning and afternoon surgeries, and their visiting rounds, they work far longer days than most people.

h It was love at first sight. They each other the day they met. i To teach grammar, it's not enough to understand it; somehow you've got to your students as well. j Well, there are certain regulations, but I'm sure you can good accountant. Check on page 78. Supporting a statement: guided writing 11 Below are four sets of information. Each set comprises: a generalisation an example supporting information Write sentences using the examples and supporting information to support the generalisations. Use two or three sentences as necessary. The first one has been done for you. a professional people earn a lot/but/hand/work hard/their money them with the help of a it to

b developing countries/capacity/create wealth/but crippled/debt Brazil largest/economies/world/but/huge export earnings/used/pay/interest/foreign debt

apparently/difficult/reasonably-priced accommodation/London/short notice German students/letter/London/Unit 1 having/ Euston station/1 lpm/still/found/place/ stay/half-an-hour's/Yellow Pages

d European young people/tending/stay/home/ have/easy life/instead/own German law student/The stay at home kids four-room apartment/yet/cook/,/mother/washes/ clothes/him

GPs
taking/account morning and evening surgeries/ doing their rounds/work far longer day/most people

11

Organising Your Learning: Vocabulary


Teaching yourself vocabulary The vocabulary sections in your Coursebook aim to teach you new words and expressions, and exposure to English will expand your passive vocabulary. However, continuously expanding your active vocabulary is something you will probably have to work on yourself by a process of conscious learning. This section will give you some ideas. 1 Sources of new vocabulary If you are studying in Britain, you are surrounded by English. However, your long-term learning will most likely be done in your own country. Which of the following sources of new vocabulary are available to you there? books newspapers magazines English-language videos BBC World Service radio English-language TV programmes native speakers other proficient speakers of English songs Which do you actively use for expanding your vocabulary? What are the advantages of each? 2 Selecting vocabulary to learn Criteria for choosing items to learn are very personal, but it seems to be true that choosing words for ourselves makes them easier to learn. Try to pick up a few items whenever you read or listen to English. 3 Recording vocabulary A proper file (or small 'Filofax') is best for storing vocabulary, because pages can be added where you like or thrown away when they are no longer needed. Items can be recorded with all or any of the following: a translation (but be careful, as with bilingual dictionaries!) an explanation (not too long) a phonemic transcription (if the pronunciation is tricky) an example sentence, making the meaning and features of form clear (e.g. Prevent he didn't want to stay, but I prevented him from leaving) How do you record the items you collect?

A single word-list will soon become too long to work on and review. Instead, open a variety of smaller lists, according to, for example, topic (e.g. rock music, sport, finance, winter) the type of item (e.g. compounds like landscape, landlord, landmark) items having a common aspect of meaning (e.g. gasp, stare, amazing, beyond belief) Lists like these are more effective because: items on short lists are more prominent items on meaningful lists are linked, and remembered together reviewing can be more methodical a topic list with very few items shows there is a gap in your knowledge in deciding where to list a new item you think more about its rneaning(s) when reviewing, you can have ideas for new lists, and duplicate or transfer existing items to them. In doing this, you think again about the meaning of items, and consolidate your learning. The bubble puzzle opposite shows how this can work. Bubble puzzle The bubbles opposite contain eight lists. The word overthrow is common to bubbles B, C and D, so it appears on all three lists. The bubbles are linked in a chain by other words which are common to more than one list. For example, bubbles F and G are linked by
to fall for someone.

Place the vocabulary items given in the correct bubbles. Items linking bubbles will appear on each list, in positions shown by the arrows. a throwback to fall ill fiance overdraft to break up poll to throw out to pay off overcoat nuclear waste to overturn to fall to pieces rate of interest fiasco constituency bizarre budget deficit to overtake MP fall-out to fancy power station Check on page 79.

12

4 Reviewing, retention and consolidation Make a regular time for reviewing your word-store, and exchange ideas with other learners. Below are some suggestions. Arrange your lists with the words in one column, and the definitions etc in another. Cover each column in turn and test yourself on what is in the other. Write problem items on a separate list, and give this special attention. Put problem items on cards with the item on the back and an example sentence (with a gap for the word) on the front. Work through the pack testing yourself. Put ones you know on one side. Peep at the ones you get wrong, and put them back at the bottom of the pack, until you have remembered all of them. Write problem items on slips of paper and stick them on your wall where you will keep seeing them. Pick four or five items at random, and write a sentence containing them all. Associating items in a sentence context makes them easier to recall. Try to find 'mediating words' which (ink the English item with its equivalent in your language. For example, an English learner might find donate a helpful link between give and the French word dormer, or that camping was helpful in recalling o campo, the Portuguese word for countryside. Teach words to fellow learners and ask them to test you on your lists. Use items you are fairly sure about in extended writing for your teacher.

Organising Your Learning: Grammar


Setting a grammar research agenda At more advanced levels, it is sometimes difficult to see where you can make improvements in your English, even though you know it isn't (quite) perfect. This can make you feel you can't progress any more. One solution to this problem is to use your corrected written work to help you analyse your performance in English. Probably the only time your

b New lists are suggested by several of the items in the bubbles. What lists might include the following? MP to fall ill H-bomb overtake overcoat Check on page 79.

13

teacher can give your English her undivided attention is when marking and correcting your extended writing. Use this attention, and treat your returned homework as a basis for grammar research. Another idea is to ask your teacher (or others, if you are in Britain) to correct you as you speak, or to note down important errors and give you feedback later. Alternatively, record yourself speaking unrehearsed, and listen critically to the recording. Genuine (not careless) errors show you what you need to research and practise. Study the errors, and set up an ongoing agenda of problem areas to be tackled, either with your grammar or by asking your teacher or another student. In this way, you know you're making progress, because every problem you deal with means another improvement in your English.
Exercises

n o p q r s

perfect my French that I have studied for the previous 6 years. At the following weekends I hope to see as much as possible from England. I just have finished my studies in Germany. In case of needing advice, can I ask you after lessons? Whatever we'll do I'm sure it will be useful. I rather talk than studying always grammar, I arrived back to Spain and began working in a multinational company which head office was at my home town. I never had seen a so beautiful place as that.

Check on page 79. 2 Below are fifteen areas for further grammar research, based on the sentences. {Some of these will be dealt with in your Coursebook). Beside each item, write the letter(s) of the sentences in exercise 1 in which the relevant errors appear. word order future tenses sequences and time expressions logical connectors prepositions in case too, enough, so, such relative clauses and what clauses punctuation the first time adjective and i n f i n i t i v e .

1 The following twenty sentences are genuine examples of English from advanced students. Each contains one or more errors, underlined. Correct the errors. a There are by far too many qualified lawyers, for this it's hard to find work. b I went to an Italian-speaking school, to that my mother could help me with my work in case I needed it. c I'm glad to hear that some of that I said was of interest. d I'd rather you correct my errors, please, and can't it be a good idea to do a dictation every week? e Certificates prove you're really good jn something. f It seems sometimes almost impossible to keep pace with the others. g It's the first time I have to correct my own writing. h I don't see any reason to go again with the class to the computer room. i That is easy to be understood. j When I'll be back in Switzerland I'll have a holiday, and after 111 enter university to study law. k I'm not used to wtiting neither in English or in Italian. I After this, I could go to university, whereas I did a secretarial course instead. m After graduated, I had spent 3 months in Paris to

present tenses in future subordinate clauses modals rather


neither/nor

present perfect/past simple Check on page 79.

14

UNIT

Prejudice

Ability in the past could, couldn't, could have, able to, had managed to 1 In the following story, convert can + infinitive to an appropriate past form, affirmative or negative. My first English lesson
It was a rainy evening, and it was a long time since the last car had passed. We were trying to hitchhike from Salonika to London, because we (1 can afford) or drink. Jackie (3 can sleep) . the bus. We'd only got fifty miles that day, our third, and I (2 can see) _ _ _ _ us a bit, but I hadn't slept at all. Perhaps I (4 can do). , if I hadn't been so worried. getting to the Austrian border that night. The previous night had been spent in a misty dripping wood, with nothing to eat Suddenly we saw a car's headlights coming towards us. We rushed down to the edge of the road, hoping we (5 can make) it stop. We (6 can see)______it wasn't going very fast. The driver didn't see us at first, but the car was going so slowly that we (7 can run) alongside it waving for a few seconds, and finally we (8 can make) it stop. The driver said our stuff something we (9 can understand) Never mind, he was smiling! It was a tiny car, but we (10 can get)

inside. Great! But after a few minutes, the car turned up a narrow track, and stopped. We all got out into the rain. He smiled, and spoke again, before walking away into the darkness. I (11 can believe) before. If only I (12 can speak) the language! them was the water trickling down my neck. There was a haystack it. We were in an even worse position than

We (13 can make out) ______ small houses nearby, but no lights. If someone had been about, we (14 can offer) money to take us in, perhaps, but there was no one. I (15 can feel) virtual destruction of the haystack. Not (17 can make) covered by wet hay, our misery complete. nearby. That might offer shelter! We started digging into it, but after a few minutes all we (16 can achieve)

any shelter at all for ourselves, we huddled in the rain, thinly

We heard a voice. A boy was leaning over a fence, smiling and beckoning to us. We followed him to a nearby house, of a

15

UNIT 3

very simple, rustic appearance. He led us inside, and with the words 'mother' and 'eat' pointed to a shy, tough-looking lady, and a table. We sat, and presently the boy brought bread, salt, tomatoes, and hot milk. 1(18 can weep) boy sat with us and tried to start a conversation. I (19 can understand). he (20 can continue) clearly proud (21 can offer) with his studies. it to us. him an English lesson, before we went a lift to the nearest town for us. So for an hour or two I tried to teach him . him a bit. As we were leaving they gave us a bag with bread and tomatoes in, words to thank them, but the boy said they were happy (26 can offer) with relief! The that he had once studied English at school, but

They had decided that we should have his mother's bedroom. We tried to refuse it, but they insisted very firmly, and were We slept well, and after breakfast, the boy asked politely if 1(22 can give). - early that morning he (23 can arrange) something, and I think I (24 can help) to eat on the way. We (25 can hardly find) us their hospitality.

Check on page 79. Compound words 2 Use your dictionaries to discover compound words which have the following meanings. out compounds a out-of-date (adjective) b combination of clothes worn together (noun) c regular expenditure (noun) d strange, bizarre, very different from the normal (adjective) e a statement of the main facts or points (noun) f remote and private, far from other places (adjective) up compounds g improve, raise to a higher quality (verb) h sudden total change in a lifestyle, (noun) 1 the cost of maintaining a property (noun) j rebellion by ordinary people (noun) k tense, irritable or nervous (adjective) 1 improvement, especially in terms of statistics (noun) 3 Put one of the above compounds into each of the gaps below. a I earn quite a lot, but my _____ are so high that I never seem to have any spare money. b Take it easy, what are you so about? in

c Moving abroad is going to mean a real our lives.

d To be a successful political party, we must throw away e That's a nice ideas and become truly modern. you're wearing. our

f The government spent millions on nuclear capability. g Good news! There's been a slight sales figures.

in our

h Young British people often behave and dress in ways intended to shock older people. i The _____ was repressed by troops. j Unable to afford the _____ of their country houses, the British 'upper classes' often open them to the paying public. k People in villages are often cut off when

there is heavy snow. 1 This is a rough ______ of my plan, not a detailed proposal. Check on page 79.

UNIT 3

Prepositions

4 Put prepositions in the gaps in the following letter.

Dear Friend Your concern for the people of South Africa has been and continues to he 1 importance in their struggle against apartheid. It has helped to sustain them 2 tangible solidarity, 3 today. But there is a new situation. Organisations and people are unbanned and able to operate. Censorship has been lifted and human rights organisations are anxious to take 5 time 6 these structures to be fully effective - estimates are 7 much of the work that, for the past forty years, has been done by Defence and Aid. It will take some least one or two years. Meanwhile the work of Defence and Aid remains crucial. We must not fail in this last lap of the struggle; we cannot abandon so suddenly the thousands of people who depend 8 per month is needed. Legal Defence 1990 has seen a sharp rise 9 the number 10 political cases. We hope that this number will decline but there is no sign of this yet. The notorious Internal Security Act is still being implemented and people continue to be arrested and detained. Reports of torture and assaults in prison continue. The latest figures from IDAF are of a 4,333 caseload involving 34,686 individuals - and many of those in prison have families that need support. There are still 50 people 11_ sentence of death whose cases are 18 review. If their sentences are confirmed, money will be needed for their appeals. IDAF has successfully funded the appeal of the Delmas Three, and the death sentences have been quashed. This is a hopeful precedent. Currently under review is the case of the Upington 14 - the case in which the accused were sentenced 13 sentenced to death 16 death 14_ the grounds 17 being part of a crowd where a murder took the murder but the other 13 were 'Common Purpose'. . . The needs are place. The court found only one of the 14 guilty 1 5 _ us. The situation demands more, not less, support. To fulfil only the existing commitments, based on our present caseload, a minimum of 550,000 which many thousands 4 vital decades of

brutal repression and through the long night of poverty and deprivation. You have given people - men, women and children would, be utterly destitute and the gaols in South Africa even more crowded than they are

17

UNIT 3

overwhelming and, for the first time 18 been compelled to refuse to take 19 charges of Public Violence which arise 20 large number of related civil actions 21 fund these cases is a cause 22

. our history, IDAF, because of lack of funds, has the greatly increased number of cases involving the situation in the townships. There are also a the police for death and injury. Our inability to

deep regret. We cannot emphasise too strongly how

urgently your support is needed if we are not only to continue but to increase the humanitarian support we have worked to provide . . . We have always felt that because of Britain's close political and economic links 33 have been wonderfully generous 24 responsibility, We urge you to maintain and extend your support at this crucial time 25 finally been relegated to the past, and South Africa is truly democratic and free. We look forward to hearing from you. With our best wishes Sincerely yours apartheid has South Africa we have a special responsibility in this area of great human need. The people of Britain their recognition of this special need and special

Check on page 80. Language register in making complaints

5 Below are two dialogues. Each concerns the same complaint in a restaurant, but in one the customer and the manager are polite to each other, and in the other they are extremely rude. The dialogues have been mixed together and everything put in the wrong order. Paying attention to the politeness of the language, decide which parts belong to each dialogue. Write the letters in the correct order in the grid below. a Manager: Not at all, sir. One moment, sir, and I'll bring the menu. b Manager: Just let me look at the ribs, all right? It's you who's making the trouble. Well, they look all right to me. What's wrong with them? c Customer: You're the manager, I suppose. d Customer: Yes, please. Thank you very much, and I'm sorry to cause any inconvenience.

e Manager: Well, sir, I'm sorry you feel that way. Naturally, I'll be glad to return them to our kitchen. Can I offer to bring you the menu again? f Manager: I am, sir. What can I do for you? g Customer: These spare ribs are no good, there's no meat on them, h Manager: One steak. It'll take as long as it takes. We're very busy. i Customer: What's wrong with them? Look, I eat here a lot, and I'm telling you they're rubbish. Just look at them! There's no way I'm paying for that! j Manager: Good evening, can I be of any help? k Customer: Don't tell me I'm talking rubbish. Are you looking for trouble or something? 1 Manager: Hello. m Customer: Well, it's about these spare ribs. There doesn't seem to be very much meat on them, I'm afraid.

18

UNIT 3

n Customer: Good evening. Sorry to bother you, but are you the manager? o Manager: Hmm. Well, sir, I must say they seem very similar to the spare ribs we usually serve, but... p Manager: Yeah, what do you want? q Customer: You see, I do actually eat here regularly, and they definitely don't seem to be the same quality as usual. Not quite as meaty. r Manager: Look, just keep your voice down, will you? OK, I'll take them back. What do you want instead? s Customer: Give me a steak, and hurry it up, I haven't got all day. t Manager: Rubbish. Let's have a look at them. u Customer: Certainly. I don't like to complain, but as you can see... v Manager: I'm sorry to hear that, sir. May I see them? Polite dialogue Rude Dialogue 6 By reference to the dialogues, convert the impolite expressions below to their polite equivalents. Fhe first one has been done for you. a What do you want?
What can I do for you ?

Writing an evaluation: guided writing 7 Study the information about flats in London on page 157 ofyourCoursebook. a Note the way connecting expressions are used in the following evaluation of the first flat. It's true that it's got some advantages. It's selfcontained, to start with, and there's quite a bit of space, considering there are two bedrooms, a sitting room even if it is a small one - a kitchen and a bathroom. You've also got the use of a big garden. So it would be a comfortable place to live,
compared with some places. On top of that, it's got a

TV, which is good if you're going to spend time indoors. On the other hand, it's a long way from the centre - in fact it's even a long way from the tube station - and it hasn't got a telephone. So you'd tend to be a bit isolated, and probably wouldn't have much of a social life. What's more, at 100 a week, it's not cheap.' This is basically a negative evaluation, because the problems are mentioned last. The speaker is not recommending the flat. b Rewrite the evaluation, putting the information in a different order so that the final judgement is more positive. The following skeleton will help, but you must provide the connecting expressions. some problems tube station long way centre isolated social life

telephone

b There's no meat on them.

100

self-contained kitchen

space

two bedrooms

sitting room c You're the manager, I suppose. garden TV

bathroom some places

comfortable

Check against the possible answer on page 80. d OK, I'll take them back. c Choose one of the other flats, and write two balanced evaluations, one in favour of it and one against.

e Just look at them!

f What do you want instead?

19

Organising Your Learning: Speaking (1)


How do you s a y . . . ?
You probably still find that in certain situations or at certain points in conversations you just don't know the English way of saying what you want to express. In these situations, do you: I give up trying to say it? express your meaning in another way, by using a greater number of simpler words, or a structure which doesn't say exactly what you mean? translate from your own language word-forword, (producing some very peculiar English)? Whatever your reaction, you would probably like to find yourself in fewer of these situations, and find the exact structure, word, or expression when you need it. One way of setting about this positively is to carry a small notebook with you whenever you can, and quickly note down the problem when you meet it, or shortly afterwards. Alternatively, some learners, especially those studying in their own countries, find it fun to imagine conversations, and identify potential problems in this way. If you do this regularly, you will quickly build up a list of things you want to know. The list can be in the form of: situations (e.g. 'What do I say when . . . ? ' ) questions in English (e.g. 'What's a polite way of saying...?') words, structures or expressions written in your own language, in clear contexts, to be reformulated in English. Ask your teacher or fellow learners to help you. If you are studying in Britain, perhaps your host family can help. When you have found answers to your questions, write example sentences or mini-dialogues in your file, and have these checked as well.

Exercises 1 An advanced learner of English has noted down the following situations and wants to know what is usually said. Any ideas? a I've been chatting politely to someone I don't know, say in a bus, and now it's my stop. What do I say as I leave? b Someone I know has failed an important exam. I meet them in a public place and want to sympathise. After saying 'hello' and so on, how do I start? c I'm annoyed because I've come to a terrible party. 'I regret having come' is too formal, so what do I say to the person I'm with? d I keep meeting the same acquaintance in a shopping centre - it's now the third time in twenty minutes. What can I say in a light-hearted way, because it's almost getting embarrassing? e How do I recommend a film, for example, very enthusiastically? Check on page 80. 2 A student studying in Britain asked the following questions. Can you answer them? a 'I wish I knew,' means I'm sorry that I don't know, now, in the present. What do I say if it was something I wished yesterday? 'I wished I knew' or 'I wished I had known.' b I was invited to dinner and took some flowers for the hostess. She seemed pleased, but she said 'Oh, you shouldn't have.' I didn't understand. Did she mean I'd done something wrong? c 'It didn't live up to expectations,' means that something wasn't as good as expected. Could I say 'English weather didn't live up to my fears', because it wasn't as bad as I'd feared? Check on page 80.

20

UNIT

Entertainment, going out

Gerunds and infinitives 1 Convert the verbs in brackets to gerunds or infinitives with to. The infinitives may be
continuous (to be doing) or perfect {to have done).

in this outmoded way will find that modern women do not permit (5 do) (6 be) thanked (7 be) so. Far from considerate,

Add prepositions or pronouns where necessary. a Before (1 leave). , Simpkins advised (2 be)

male persons guilty of such flagrant sexism will be severely criticised (8 patronise) women.

careful with Benson. He told me Benson meant (3 have) my job and he was a man his . them behind a little

c 'The company cannot afford (1 continue) with its present policies. My proposal would succeed (2 save) {4 increase) it, by {3 enable) our efficiency. We would . our labour our production.

who wouldn't hesitate (4 betray) colleagues by (5 undermine) their backs. This seemed (6 be)

finally manage (5 decrease) costs, without (6 reduce) I regret (7 say) (8 make)

hypocritical, since that was exactly what Simpkins appeared (7 do) b Women resent (I be) Benson. treated as if they

that this would entail half our workforce redundant, strong

were any different from men, and naturally refuse (2 accept) sexist behaviour on public

but the situation obliges (9 take) measures.' d 'He promised faithfully (I give)

transport, such as that of men who attempt (3 offer) their seats. Men who insist (4 act)

a lift, and

never showed up. And then, when I saw him the

21

UNIT 4

next day and accused (2 let down) pretended not (3 offer) {4 give)

, he

as plus gerund or infinitive 3 Some phrases ending in as can be followed only by the gerund, and some only by the infinitive. Some must be followed by a finite verb (with a subject). Convert the verbs in brackets to gerunds, infinitives, or finite verb-phrases. a He keeps healthy by taking sensible decisions, such as (refuse) b As soon as (arrive) to overeat or drink alcohol. in Rome, I'm going out

me the lift in the first place! He simply denied ever (5 say) anything about it. And even

when I proved that he had done, he tried to get out of it (6 claim) _ _ _ _ not (7 remember) (8 do) Check on page 81. as being + adjective 2 We can express our opinions and impressions using as, followed by being and an adjective after certain verbs. Being can also be omitted. For example:
1 remember him as (being) a very considerate man.

it!'

for a big meal and a bottle of wine, c I think smoking cigarettes is the same as (burn) your money. d But to bum my money wouldn't give me as much pleasure as (smoke) e She left early 50 as (arrive) in plenty of time. f To me, watching sport on TV is as good as (watch) it live. does. at the airport

Convert the following sentences, using as and the appropriate fonn of the verb in brackets. a I think he's essential to the success of the deal. (see) b She said he was unworthy of serious consideration, (dismiss) c He gives the impression of being rather arrogant, (come)

g Much as (admire)

his courage, I really

think he should give up boxing. h As far as (know) anything this Saturday. i The coffee was so sweet as (be) d I think he's the best in his field, (regard) undrinkable. j As well as (windsurf) e He seemed rather nervous, (strike) Check on page 81. The infinitive: other uses 4 The infinitive can be used: to give instructions, to speak formally of arrangements, with nothing and nowhere (passive infinitive), to speak of impossibility, and (usually with see or find) to speak of discoveries. For example: You are to say nothing, (instruction) , he likes to waterski. , we're not doing

f I've never had the opinion that he was mean, (think) g Witnesses say the man is tall and heavily-built, (describe)

Check on page 81. 22

UNIT 4

Parliament is to open tomorrow, (arrangements) The key was nowhere to be found, (impossibility) She woke to find that the sun had almost set. (discovery) Rewrite the sentences below, completing the sentence stems and using the infinitive. In the brackets, write the function which the infinitive is performing. The first one is done for you. a Stay here until you're called.
You (instruction)

g h i j

a person who speaks in a polite way a decision which is destined to bring trouble a vague, imprecise feeling which you can't identify an office or flat which has good equipment or furniture

6 Use expressions from exercise 5 to fill the gaps. a I was shown into a 1 desk sat a 2 office. Behind a large

young man: impeccable

haircut, tie perfectly in place, neatly-clipped moustache, you know the look. I'll never achieve ) it, I know. Such elegance is only for the 3 it just costs too much. I sat there, feeling 4 ;

b There's a royal visit to Canada next month. The Queen c Don't leave this room for any reason. You_ _ ( ) (

in my shabby suit. He looked up: 'allo, siddown, I'll be wiv yer in a sec, OK?' I was surprised. By his appearance, I'd expected him to be 5 ) .

d No action is possible to change the situation. There's ( )

e She turned and saw her car disappearing into the distance. She turned to f His execution is tomorrow. He ( ) (

b She didn't know why, but she had a pessimistic feeling about the expedition. It was certainly 1 enough: the desire to save an endangered

species was something everybody supported. She just felt it was somehow 2 she knew in her )

g We couldn't see him anywhere. He was (

bones that something was going to go wrong. And as we now know, these 3______ fears proved to be ) 4 , in the end. There had been no

h When she arrived, the city was in turmoil. She arrived Hyphenated expressions: ill/well 5 Use your dictionaries to find expressions using ill or well which could describe the following; a an opinion or judgement which has a solid foundation in facts b a rich person c someone who feels uncomfortable, not relaxed d an unwise action which it was a mistake to do e a person who has a smart, neat appearance in general f an action which was supposed to do good, but perhaps didn't (

planning, no thinking through. It was a crazy, 5 venture from start to tragic finish.

Check on page 81. Language register in invitations 7 The language in the following dialogues is often either too polite and careful or too familiar and direct. Underline the parts that are too direct with a continuous line, and the parts that are too polite with a dotted line.

23

UNIT 4

Jonathan, Robin and I were wondering if you and Helen would like to come round for dinner sometime. Jonathan: OK, why not, no problem. When? Jenny: We were thinking of Friday. Jonathan: I should imagine there would be no objection to that. Naturally I shall have to ask for confirmation from my wife, but to my knowledge we have no concrete plans at this time. Jenny: Excellent. I wonder if you could possibly give me an answer tomorrow? Jonathan: Yeah, maybe. I'll see what I can do, but I'm not promising anything, OK?

1 Jenny:

8 Rewrite the following extracts from the dialogue in a more appropriate style. a OK, why not, no problem. When?

b I should imagine there would be no objection to that. Naturally I shall have to ask for confirmation from my wife, but to my knowledge we have no concrete plans at this time.

2
Alan: Hello, Ken? Ken: Yes. Alan. Alan: Hi. Sorry to bother you, but I was wondering if there was any chance of you coming for a drink? Ken: I can't really. Dinner will be served in a matter of minutes. There is a possibility that I will be free a little later. Would that be convenient? Alan: All right. About 9 o'clock? Ken: Fine. Shall I just see you in the pub? Alan: No, I'll pop round and pick you up. Ken: OK see you then. About 9. Alan: Right you are. See you. c Excellent. I wonder if you could possibly give me an answer tomorrow?

d Hi. Sorry to bother you, but I was wondering if there was any chance of your coming for a drink?

3
Francis: Hello, Liz? Liz: Good evening, Francis: It's Francis. Francis Blake. Liz: Ah, good evening, Mr Blake. What can I do for you? Francis: Do you want to come out with me tonight? Liz: What? Francis: For dinner, I'll pay. Liz: No way. Why on earth should I want to go out with you? Francis: Some other time then? When would suit you? Are you free tomorrow? Liz: I'm terribly sorry, Mr Blake, but I'm afraid I have a previous engagement. I do apologise. Francis: Oh, that's a shame. How about Thursday? Liz: Look, I've had enough of this. The answer is no, OK? Goodbye. 24

e Dinner will be served in a matter of minutes. There is a possibility that I will be free a little later. Might that be convenient?

f Do you want to come out with me tonight?

g For dinner. I'll pay. h Look, I've had enough of this. The answer is no, OK? Goodbye.

Check on page 81.

UNIT 4

Positive and negative connotations 9 It often happens that two words have very similar basic meanings, but have different connotations. For example, both slim and skinny mean not fat, but slim sounds positive and skinny sounds negative. In the two paragraphs below, there are twenty places with a choice of two similar words. One word in each pair is positive-sounding, the other negative-sounding. Using your dictionary, first decide which words are positive and which negative. Then rewrite passage a twice, first using the words which give a positive impression of Jones and his flat, and secondly those which give a negative impression. Rewrite passage b twice, first giving a positive impression of the new president and a negative one of the ex-president, and secondly giving a negative impression of the new president and a positive impression of the ex-president. We looked round Jones' 1 cosy/cramped apartment, with its 2 cheap/inexpensive furnishings and 3 gaudy I cheerful colours. He was a 4 skinny/ slim, 5 pale/pasty-faced man with 6 a proud/an arrogant, 7 cocksure/'self'-confident air. a i

devious man, and in order to achieve the high position he now holds, he must have shown
greater 13 flexibility /lack of principle in private than was usually expected from his more 14 principled/ rigid predecessor. At home, I think we can expect a more 15 frugal/penny-pinching style of government, and probably 16 firmer/more repressive law-and-order policies. In foreign policy, expect a greater willingness to 17 intervene/mediae militarily in the affairs of smaller states, compared with the 18 hesitant/cautious former president, who, when he did act, preferred 19 discreet/ surreptitious diplomatic 20 blackmail/pressure to the use of armed force. b i

ii

ii

He is more likely to make 8 bold/rash decisions that the previous president. His staff will find him 9 an abrasive/a forthright and 10 strong~wiUed/ domineering person to work with, and his views more 11 simplistic/straightforward than those of his predecessor. However, he is a very 12 shrewd/

Check on page 82.

25

Organising Your Learning: Writing


What do you need to write? Unlike speaking and listening, writing is something you may never need to do very much in English. Which of the following would you like to be able to write in English? business letters other formal letters informal letters postcards faxes/telexes essays as part of your studies at school or university instructions study notes or lecture notes messages stories essays in EFL examinations Your Coursebook will help you with formal letters, with story-telling, and with the organised writing needed for studying. This will also help you prepare for writing as part of an EFL examination. If other types of writing are important to you, special books are available on the market, particularly for business and commercial writing. Also, try to get hold of examples from real life, and build up a store of models. You can learn special vocabulary and stylistic points from these, which you can use when you write. How can you improve? The more you write, the better you will get, as long as you understand what you need to improve. Your teacher can help you here by: correcting your mistakes rewriting parts of what you have written helping you to correct your own mistakes and to rewrite giving advice about how to improve Which of these do you think are most useful, and why? Self-correction 1 If your teacher gives you clues, telling you the type of mistake you have made, it will help you with self-correction. Below are some examples of correction clues.
26

P . . . punctuation T . .. tense G . . . grammar (not tense) S . . . spelling W . . . wrong word WO .. . word-order Exp . .. wrong expression A . . . put a word in here V. .. take a word out of this line Study the two extracts below, (which were written by real students), and the correction clues. Rewrite each extract, correcting the errors. a I went up the path to the door it was open V so I entered into the gloomy old house as GP quietly that I could, there wasn't a sound Exp, P, T as far as the ear could hear, I was A, G listening the silence during a short W period . .. P

WO G, G W, W, G T, WO WO

I always had wanted to go in the Spring to Paris, therefore I was delighted for getting your gentle invitation, that this morning has arrived. I would like very much to come . ..

Check on page 82. 2 For each extract, recommend the most important ONE of the following areas for the writer to do some remedial work on. Formal and informal vocabulary as (adverb) as past tenses where to end a sentence and start a new one vocabulary expansion how connectors like so, therefore are used prepositions the order of adverbs and adverbial phrases in sentences. Check on page 82.

The Third World

^ 5 * 1 \ . .. ' ]. , \ . .. ' ' . ] 1, 1\ 5 . ; . . The Jones family moved to France two years ago. The situation now is: Ken doesn't smoke any more but he's very fat. He eats a lot. He's studying French without much success. Sue is thinner because she's on a diet now. She does more exercise. She's looking better. Ken and Sue go out instead of watching TV. The children go out more, and have friends now. They speak French fluently. a Ken (give up) smoking (move) France
Ken has given up smoking since he moved to France.

(get) fat (give up) smoking

(eat) lot (live) France

(not learn) much French (start) studying

(lose) weight (start) diet

(look) better (start) doing exercises

(go) out more (move) France

relationship (improve) (stop) TV all the time

The children (learn) French (move) France

(make) friends (go) out more

Check on page 82. 27

UNIT 5

2 Study the following sentences. A: It's a long time since I've eaten a hamburger. B: It's ten years since I last ate a hamburger. C: It's ten years since I gave up junk food. In A, since + present perfect simple refers to something that used to happen regularly, then stopped happening (eating hamburgers). It could still happen again. In B, since + last + past simple refers to the last {most recent) time such a thing happened. If it can't happen again, we use for the last time. In C, since plus past simple refers to an event that only happened once (giving up junk food). For each sentence below, write another type A, B or C with the same meaning.

Rises, falls and prepositions 3 Read the following editorial carefully. To make sure you have understood it, find answers to the questions at the end. The glossary will help you with words and expressions. Yesterday' s figures detail ing Britain' s gross domestic product in the fourth quarter make it painfully clear not only that we 're now officially in recession (defined as two successive quarters of negative growth), but that the pattern is looking ominously like a re-run of 1980/81. In 1980 the economy suffered four consecutive quarters where the output of the whole economy contracted by one per cent or more, with manufacturing industry taking the hardest knocks.

I started studying English a long time ago.

10 Yesterday's statistics show that, in the third and fourth quarters of 1990, output as a whole declined by 1.3 per cent and one per cent respectively, with manufacturing output falling by one per cent and three per cent. If the redundancies currently recorded 15 are anything to go by, there will be a third successive contraction of about one per cent in the first quarter of 1991. It is important to be clear why this is happening and why we are having to endure an unnecessarily severe 20 recession for the second time in a decade. It is because ministers will brook no other way of bringing inflation down to the levels prevailing in Europe's Exchange Rate Mechanism: they continue doggedly to rely on high interest rates and rising unemployment alone. 25 Although it is likely that there will be a substantial reduction of 2 to 3 percentage points in the annual rate of price inflation in April... there will be no lasting reduction in price inflation until Britain's propensity to pay wage increases comes down to European 30 levels. And what progress is being made there? None. The problem is actually getting worse. Last week's figures showed no increase in the overall annual rise of earnings, which remained at 9.75 per cent in December. But, within this overall stagnation, 35 average earnings in manufacturing went up from 9.5 to 9.75 per cent, while other sectors remained the same. In other words, in spite of sharply rising ; unemployment and high interest rates, companies are still doling out wage and salary increases at nearly twice the rate of our competitors in Europe.

I haven't seen him for twenty years.

c d

I used to go riding a lot, but that was ages ago. The last time the city saw such celebrations was thirty years ago.

He only left ten minutes ago.

The war ended eighteen years ago.

I haven't seen such a beautiful girl for years.

h The last time I spoke to him was a year ago, just before he died.

Check on page 82. 40

28

UNIT 5

Glossary a quarter - three months taking the hardest knocks - suffering most brook - permit doggedly - with stubborn determination propensity to pay - habit of paying doling out - giving away for nothing Are these statements about the text true or false? a From July to September 1990, UK output (production) rose by 1.3% b From October to December 1990, UK manufacturing output fell by more than UK output as a whole, c More reduction in manufacturing output is expected for the current quarter (at the time of writing, February 1991). d The real cause of the recession is the way Ministers are fighting inflation. e Ministers refuse to use high interest rates in the fight against inflation. f There is certain to be a fall of 2 to 3 per cent in inflation in April. g The real cause of inflation is the fact that British companies keep giving wage increases. Check on page 82. 4 Study the following extracts from the article, output.. . contracted by one per cent or more (line 7) earnings went up from 9.5 to 9.75 per cent (line 35) there will be a . . . contraction of about one per cent (line 15) there will be no . . . reduction in price inflation (line 27) With verbs (e.g. contracted, went up), by refers to the size of the rise or fall, while from and to refer to the former level and the new level. With nouns (e.g. contraction, reduction), of refers to the size of the rise or fall, while in refers to the thing which is being measured. To and from can also be used with nouns to refer to the new and old levels. 5 Study the graphs, and write sentences about them. Each sentence should be based on one of the prompts below. The first has been done for you.
29

UNITS

the sales, in increase notwithstanding the bad. looks future company's stilt Notwithstanding

such should I extraordinary it that a happened, have find thing absolutely

I
d value of exports (substantial) (sharply) (5bn) Check on page 83,
Sentence construction: word jumble

Check on page 83. Nouns derived from . . . ed adjectives 7 Adjectives ending . . . ed often form nouns with . . . merit, but not always. For each sentence below, use your dictionary to help you write another with the same meaning, converting the adjectives to nouns and making any other necessary changes. The first one has been done for you. a The bonus system has brought about an improved service, The cause of the improvement in the service has been the bonue eystem. b I was rather disappointed by the result. The result was

6 The words in the following sentences have been jumbled up. Unjumhle them and write the sentences in the spaces provided. The beginning of each sentence is given. Punctuation marks follow the words which they follow in the sentence. a looking we long we for. which we sign driving were saw been when hadn't the We hadn't

The look he gave me was more astonished than pleased. He looked at me

misunderstanding, no should explained so I

carefully, I there be

that d

If you take part-time work you won't be entitled to unemployment benefit. If you take part-time work you'll lose

severe revolution, war turn attempted led to the caused an in which poverty, The war

30

UNIT 5

The children danced around, they were so excited and delighted. The children danced around in

Cause and effect

8 Fill the gaps with cause and effect connectors. The first letter of each word is given. a Describing effects A drop in consumers' spending power 1 r in a corresponding drop in demand throughout the economy. 2 A a r _______ , industrial

We stared at the scene, horrified and fascinated. We stared at the scene in

Ordinary people became progressively more impoverished as a result of the adjustment policies. The adjustment policies led to the

production had to he reduced, and 3 o c _____ of this was that many workers were made redundant- 4 O to this rising

unemployment, consumers' incomes and h He pushed at the locked door, surprised and annoyed. He pushed at the locked door in 5c 6t their spending power fell further. For r , demand continued to fall a fall in

throughout the economy, 7 c i I was more amused than frightened by their behaviour. Their behaviour caused me b ') 1 gaped at him, utterly stupefied by what he had told me. I gaped at him in

industrial production, and in turn, more redundancies. . . Explaining causes The recent redundancies are 1 t_ .r

o______ a reduction in industrial production, which was in turn 2 c b falling

They lived there contented for many years. They lived there in

demand throughout the economy. This contraction in demand was 3 d to a drop

in consumers' spending power, which fell partly Check on page 83. 4b of redundancies, when people lost __ industrial production was a r _____ o_ falling

their jobs 5 b reduced 6 a

demand throughout the economy . . . Check on page 83.

5 1

Organising Your Learning: Reading (1)


Improving your reading 1 Why do you want to read in English? Below are some reasons for reading in English. Are any of them true for you? to get information or ideas unavailable in your own language, perhaps for study to read literature in the original, rather than in translation because you need to read English at work to pick up new vocabulary Do you have another reason, not mentioned here I 2 What are you going to read? It is better only to read the sort of thing which you would enjoy reading in your own language. You and your fellow learners can get hold of things to read by: finding a shop which sells English-language newspapers or books finding an English language library you can join recommending, lending and exchanging books or magazines photocopying short texts like articles, poems and short stories for each other. Build up a stock of these to keep in your classroom. Can you think of any other ideas? 3 What do you want to improve in your reading? Below are some activities which you may find useful. Reading quickly a If you are in Britain, watch foreign films with English subtitles. Don't read word for word, but glance at each subtitle briefly as a whole, including words you don't know. Your reading will soon become more efficient, and you will be able to get all the meaning while the subtitle is on the screen. If you are in your own country, skim a newspaper for an article which interests you, then give yourself a short time limit to read it all. Write down what you think the article says, then go over it more slowly and check your first impression.

Predicting

Without reading it, photocopy a short article on a topic you know something about. Cut it up into pieces of four or five lines each, keeping the pieces in the right order. Turn each piece over in turn, read it and try to predict what will be said on the next piece. d Read a short story until two or three pages from the end, then try to predict what will happen by the end. Write you predictions down, and check by completing the story. There are other ideas for reading activities in the Projects and Assignments in your Coursebook. Have you got any of your own?
Using your reading to teach yourself phrases

One way of widening your range of expression, particularly in your writing, is through consciously learning phrases in what you read. For example, read the text below, paying attention to the phrases in bold. 'Brazil has changed a lot over the past half-decade almost entirely for the worse. In these five years Brazil has had ten finance ministers, ten central-bank governors, five doses of economic shock therapy, and four currencies... Each of the cruzeiros in circulation today equals one million of the cruzeiros in circulation at the beginning of 1986. The currency's external value fluctuates madly; in the month of October alone, you needed anything from 550 to 1,050 cruzeiros to buy $1. Real GDP in 1991 is likely to be less than it was in 1986 . . . It is likelier than not that the economy will shrink again in 1992. If so, that will make for the third straight year of economic contraction.' If you want to practise the phrases in bold for active use, copy them into your file, and invent other sentences on the same pattern. Example: anything from April temperatures in London can be anything from 0C to l5C.

32

UNIT

Health and medicine

Making comparative structures more informative 1 Convert each sentence to another with the same meaning, using the sentence stem given. a This is far easier than I thought it would be, This is nowhere

Going by car isn't nearly as expensive as flying. It's

But flying is a lot quicker, and a great deal more comfortable. But going by car isn't

b My salary is only a quarter as high as his. He earns four h I think the weather is a bit cooler today. I don't think c The tree was four times as high as a man. The tree was i Keeping fit is much easier if you can do it in a group. It isn't d It's not nearly as simple as people think. It is a great j I don't find travelling alone nearly as enjoyable as travelling with friends, I find it a

This car is three times the price of that one. This car costs

Check on page 83. 33

UNIT 6

2 Fill the gaps in the following text.

Wiser Welsh still hanker for chips


Vivek Chaudhary finds a region's health drive making inroads on workers' traditional fare
Wide-ranging health targets have been adopted in Wales 1 the beginning of last year in a programme 2 community groups and companies 3 the healthconscious catering manager at the Driver Vehicle Licensing Authority at Swansea conceded yesterday: 'We could sell chip butties all day long.' 4 the emphasis on healthier eating, chips are 5 as traditional as rugby in this part of South Wales. Douglas Manning has been using different oils, wholegrain rice 6 reducing sugar and salt used in cooking in the DVLA canteen. He offers vegetarian dishes and salads to workers 7 agrees: 'Twenty fiveper centof food cooked here is chips.' The Health For All In Wales scheme was first formulated as a heart disease prevention programme, Heartbeat Wales, in 1985 and expanded in January 1990 to tackle smoking stress and other problems. 'We have blazed a trail and the fact that both political parties are devoting attention to a health programme is a tribute to our success,' said Dr Simon Smarl of the Health Promotion Authority for Wales, a government-backed body leading the initiative. 8 its launch the percentage of smokers in Wales has fallen 9 4 per cent for men and 3 per cent 10 women. Surveys show those eating green vegetables and salads increasing 11 25 per cent to 45 per cent. Professor John Catford, executive director of the Health Promotion Authority for Wales admits that there is room for improvement. 'Areas like the valleys still suffer enormous health problems 12 to middle class areas. Health is 13 to many other factors and we need a strategy to tackle 14 adequately.' The DVLA canteen choice yesterday included six different salads, as well as pie and chips. Receptionist Jill Davis, tucking into a plate of chips, agreed it was a 'bad habit' 15 only has them once a week. The health promotion has made me more conscious of 16 I eat. I don't 17 have a chip pan at home' she added. Jan Morgan eating salad, boiled potatoes and cottagecheese said 'I have salad every 18 day. Since the health programme at work people vary more 19 they eat, but my family 20 love egg and chips.!

Glossary hanker for (headline) - want, desire catering manager {para 1) - person responsible for the provision of meals to employees chip butties (para 1) - sandwiches containing chips blazed a trail (para 4 ) - done something never done before, making it easier for others to follow the valleys (para 6) - the industrial, mostly workingclass part of Wales Check on page 83. 3 Colestera and Hypochondra are two small countries where eating habits have been changing. Using the graphs and the prompt words, write sentences comparing consumption ten years ago with consumption today. Be as informative as possible. The first one has been done for you.

KEY green vegetable white sugar alcohol dairy produce fish wholemeal bread and cereals

34

UNIT 6

a people/many/green vegetables
People don't eat quite as

h people/near/white sugar/as
many green vegetables as

they b people/more/white sugar i people/about a quarter/alcohol

usedto.

c consumption/wholemeal bread and cereals/than

j consumption/dairy produce/than

d consumption/dairy produce/deal

k consumption/fish/than

e people/seven/alcohol

1 people/three/quantity/wholemeal bread and cereals/than

f people/about half/fish Check on page 83. 4 Write sentences comparing the two countries regarding the aspects of health listed below. You will have to be slightly more imaginative this time. a fibre b vitamins c cholesterol d likelihood of heart disease e alcohol-related injuries f dental care

g consumption/green vegetables/than

35

UNIT 6

17 to rest with your feet supported and your legs extended 18 He can't justify his action or opinion. 19 to be in such a bad condition that... 20 to begin walking more quickly Check on page 84.

Check on page 84. Parts of the body idioms

6 Complete the sentences below, using some of the above expressions, a Don't worry about the trial, the prosecution

5 Use your dictionary to help you match the following expressions with the meanings below. Ten of the meanings are false. a to put your foot in it b to put your feet up c to put your heads together d on your own head be it e to take something to heart f I'll be glad to see the back of him g to shut your eyes to something h he doesn't have a leg to stand on i it's on its last legs j I told him to his face that 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 36 It's nearing the final stages (e.g. a film or a race), to consult and solve a problem together to say something which causes embarrassment He is so poor he can't support himself. You must make this decision for yourself. I told him that... (but I meant something else). to be strongly affected or upset by something It'll be nice to see him again. to reserve a table, hotel room etc If anything bad happens to you, it'll be your own fault. I told him honestly and openly that... I'm fed up with having him around here. to refuse to do something which is wrong It's in such a bad state that it will soon stop working. to reach an agreement in a negotiation to pretend you can't see something bad happening

We'll soon break their case down. b Gosh I'm exhausted. When I get home I'm going to for an hoar.

c He was so rude to everyone at the party that we

d I'm afraid I rather when I asked how her husband was, but I didn't know they were separated. e Come on, if you've got something to say to me,

f OK, now

and see

if you agree on the answers to the exercise. g In mid 1989, communism in Eastern Europe was already h He didn't mean to upset you, don't .

i We can't go on the way they treat their children, we've got to do something about it. j 'Look I'm going to do it my way, OK?' 'OK, OK!

UNIT6

Advice and suggestions

7 Below is the dialogue from Section F of your Coursebook, except that now it contains thirty errors. Underline the errors and write the correct word or phrase in the space provided below. Jack: Good heavens, Gladys, you're getting really fat, you know. You'd better to do something about it. Gladys: Yes, perhaps I would. Do you really think it's too bad? Jack: Do you mind if I asked how much you weigh in these days? Gladys: Oh, you know, Jack, a bit more that last year. Jack: Seriously, Gladys, I didn't laugh about it, if I were you. How much do you weigh, in fact? Gladys: About 14 stone. Jack: That's a horrible lot, Gladys. I mean, I hope you let me say so, you are dangerously fat. How old are you, if you don't care about my asking? Gladys: 34. What do you mean, dangerously? Jack: Well, heart attacks of course. I hate to say that, but that's a lot of fat for one heart to carry. I really think you do ought to lose weight. Gladys: Yes, well, I know your point, and I have tried a few diets, but nothing seems to work. What do you think I should to do? Jack: Well, if you asked my opinion, complicated diets don't work. How many times a day do you eat? Gladys: Well, I hardly don't stop, really. Jack: Well, have you tried just eating less often? Why don't you just eat twice a day? Gladys: I've tried that, but it's not good; I just can't resist the temptation. Jack: Well, the manner I see it, you've simply got to resist it. Gladys: Well, it's easier saying than doing, isn't it? I mean it's alright for you, you're thin anyway. For you it's easy to talk. The thing is, I've got enough weight to lose that it hardly seems worth starting. Jack: Well, you've got to statt, if you want to know what 1 think.

Gladys: I agree entirely. Perhaps I'd better. Jack: Have you tried doing exercises? Gladys: Oh yes, I tried keep-fit classes, but they didn't work any good. Jack: How many times did you go, if you don't bother my asking? Gladys: Oh, you know, a few. Well, three or four. Jack: Well, what are you expecting? You've got to keep it up! Gladys: Oh, I'm sure you're right, but what's the point? Jack: Look, Gladys, if you don't mind my saying so, I think you're being fairly negative. It's simple. If you don't lose weight you're going to pass through problems. Gladys: All right, you've got a point I agree. I try again.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Check on page 84.

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

37

Organising Your Learning: Speaking (2)


Improving your oral fluency Even as an advanced learner, you probably still have problems when you speak in English. Language problems If you are fluent, but lack vocabulary, or speak ungrammatically, or can't find the right language for the right situation, the advice in the Cyrganising Your Learning sections: Vocabulary, Grammar and
Speaking (1) will help you to solve your problems for yourself.

Pronunciation problems Problems of pronunciation can probably be dealt with most effectively in class, or, if your school has one, a language laboratory or self-access centre with mini-labs. Lack of oral fluency and confidence This may be caused by a simple lack of English. If this is the case, follow the advice in the Organising Your Learning sections: Vocabulary, Grammar and Speaking (1) and you should find that your fluency improves as you become more confident with your English. If your English is good, but you are still not a confident, fluent speaker, try not to worry about speaking completely accurately all the time. Perhaps practice in communicating is more important! Below are some suggestions for out-of-class activities to provide communication practice and help you improve your fluency and communicative ability. a Just a minute Write some topics on pieces of card, and mix them up. Pick a card and record yourself speaking for a minute on the topic. Listen to yourself. You'll probably sound better than you expected! If not, try the same topic again a little later.

Can I say something? With fellow learners, choose a topic-card to speak about. Only one person speaks at a time. When you want to say something, speak into the cassette recorder, then press 'pause'. The next speaker, perhaps replying, does the same. After a while, listen to the recording. This is also a good basis for language research. c Acting out a scene With fellow learners, watch an English-language video, and choose a scene that is not too difficult. Write out the script as accurately as you can, act it out together, and record yourselves. Compare your version with the original, and do it again until you are satisfied. d I haven't finished! If you find it hard to have your say in conversations, learn language for interrupting and resisting interruption, and use it. You can pick such expressions up from other speakers. Later in your Coursebook they are practised. e Speak up! Pay attention to how loudly you speak, If you tend to speak quietly, make an effort to speak a little louder. f A cassette-friend Instead of a penfriend, try to find a cassette-friend, and correspond by cassette rather than letters. g Get out and about If you are in Britain, try to meet British people. Why not join an evening class run by your local education authority? You are sure to find an interesting course, and can set up social contacts as well. h An English club In your own country, find out if there is an English Club you can join, where members meet in each other's houses, and only English is spoken.

38

UNIT

Crime and law enforcement

Crime vocabulary

g She said she hadn't committed the crime. She p h People gave important information in court. W gave e i Her lawyer asked questions of the prosecution witnesses. The C D the prosecution witnesses. j The jury decided she was guilty. She was the crime. k The judge decided she had to spend five years in prison. She was Check on page 85. five years1 i .

1 The ten sentences below tell a story. Rewrite them without changing the meaning, using the prompt words given- The first letters of some words are given. a She broke the law, and the police caught her. She ______ an o_______ , and was a .

b The police formally accused her of the crime. She c . the crime

c She had to go to a Magistrate's Court. She a b a magistrate. d The magistrate decided that she had to wait for her trial in a cell. e She was r magistrate. f She was tried in London. She s_ t in London. by the

39

UNIT 7

Synonyms and antonyms 2 Synonyms are words which are the same or very similar in meaning. Antonyms are words with opposite meanings. For each word in the left-hand column, find an antonym or a synonym on the right. Use your dictionary. spiteful sporadic miserly fearless oppose hinder grasp misunderstanding misapprehension kindly first-hand parsimonious intrepid understand incessant vicarious help support Check on page 85. Synonyms: the importance of context 3 Two words very similar in meaning may not be interchangeable in every context because of factors such as slight differences in meaning, formality, grammatical considerations, and the other words which they must be used with. Use your dictionary to pair the following words up according to similar meaning. dangerous hard up hold -with shout sensible approve of impoverished prejudiced wise bawl pale wan harmful biased Decide which of the words can go in the gaps below, and write your answer. If you think more than one word fits, write both. a 'Hello, darling!', she _ _ _ , waving from across the street. b The people here are so _____ against foreigners! c He looked a little tired and. ill. d The villagers lived miserable lives, trying as if he'd been

e I don't think it would be very after all I've drunk. f Smoking is a dirty and g I vote for them because I h The referee was accused of being decisions. i I don't habit.

to drive,

their ideas. in his

young people drinking so much. .

j 'Come here, soldier!' the sergeant k I wish I could help you out, but I'm a bit myself. I I think it might be the trouble's over. m I bought a n He's a nice, school, I'm sure. Check on page 85. blue sweater.

to go now. Wait till

little boy. He'll do well at

Ellipsis and substitution: rewriting dialogues 4 Some of the sentences in the following dialogue sound strange because everything is said in full. Rewrite them, shottening them where possible through ellipsis and substitution. A: Do you suppose they got home safely? B: I expect they got home safely. Well of course they got home safely. Why shouldn't they have got home safely? Don't you think they got home safely? A: I certainly hope they got home safely. But Paul was drinking so much. B: I was drinking a lot, too. A: Yes, but you didn't have to drive home. B: Paul didn't have to drive home. Rose had to drive home. A: Well, if they are home, why haven't they rung to say they are home? They would have rung to say they were home, if they were home, you know. B: They don't always ring to say they are home.

desperately to make a living.

40

UNIT 7

A: They said they would ring to say they are home. B: They might have forgotten to ring. A: No, they wouldn't have forgotten to ring. I know them. B: I also know them. Oh, all right. Do you want me to call them? A: Would you call them? B: Of course, dear . . . Ah. No reply, dear. A B A B A B A B A B A B A B

c It wasn't necessary to go, so I didn't bother to go. d I'd love to come but I can't afford to come. e I can't be sure that he touched the other car, but he appeared to touch it, f 'Will you visit them again?' 'We hope to visit them again.' g I tried to get through, but failed to get through. h It wasn't easy to persuade her, but I finally managed to persuade her. i She didn't hit him, but she threatened to hit him. j She thinks I don't want to see her, but I'm longing to see her. k She didn't like him, she only pretended to like him. 1 He doesn't want me to go, but I've decided to go. Check on page 85.
Primary and secondary stress

6 Sort the words below into the columns according to stress. Use a dictionary. a
forthcoming

Check page 85.


b underwear

Ellipsis with the infinitive

5 After some verbs, it is usual to omit the entire infinitive in short answers. After other verbs, only the root verb can be omitted. Examples:
'Can you play the piano?' - 'Well, I'm learning.' 'We don't always eat meat for dinner, but we tend to.'

Shorten the following sentences by deleting the root verb and wherever possible the to of the infinitive. a 'Will you succeed?' 'Well I certainly intend to succeed!1 b They wanted me to resign, but I refused to resign.

substandard outspoken breathtaking fanciful foolhardy outrageous foreknowledge repulsive disgusting overdraft fraternal interesting uprising outpouring substructure lightheaded exhausted disfigured constructive outbuilding implement sensible
41

UNIT 7

Say the words substandard and exhausted to yourself. In both, the second syllable carries the main stress, but the first syllable in exhausted is much more reduced than the first syllable in substandard. Say the words breathtaking and sensible to yourself. The first syllable carries the main stress in both, but the second syllable in sensible is much more reduced than the second syllable in breathtaking. Sort the words in columns a and b into the four new columns below. 1 2
substandard exhausted

has a Rolls Royce and a chauffeur. In refusing political asylum, the Government has treated the refugees absolutely 3 .

His daughters jane, Jacky and Jill are aged eight, six and three 4 His attitude towards the boss was so 5 he ended up losing his job. The flat is unfurnished except for one or two kitchen 6 The police are utterly 7 bribes; they do it openly. You can't always expect 8 your children. obedience from about accepting . that

3
breathtaking

4
sensible

shame

respect

fit

question : we didn't find a thing. is a better word, 1

b The search was 1

1 wouldn't say he's shy. 2 think.

I'm new to the job, so could you give me a few 3 Check on page 85. When you have checked, practise saying the words to yourself. To emphasise the contrast in pronunciation, reduce the unstressed syllables in columns 2 and 4 until they almost disappear.
Derivatives

about how to set about it? line of inquiry.

I don't think this is a very 4 It's not going to get us anywhere.

The Minister was asked some rather 5 questions, which he answered badly. She expressed serious 6 policy. about the new

7 Use your dictionary to fill the gaps in the following groups of sentences with derivatives of the words given below each group. There are two derivatives for each word. The first is done for you. a That was a very 1 questionable decision by the referee, which is sure to cause some debate. As 2 42 a woman in her high position, she

I start to feel 7 long. Feeling 8 their journey. rest fruit point

if I stay in the same job too

after their sleep, they continued

reserve

UNIT 7

Guided writing: sentence combination 8 The following text has fourteen sentences. Sentences 1, 7, 8, and 13 are missing. Combine the short sentences below to produce the missing sentences, and write them in the spaces provided. Use the clue words in the order in which they are given.

CUCUMBER THIEF PUT IN COOLER


G A R E T H P A R R Y

2 Carl Lancaster, aged 30, had successfully held up a garage brandishing a plastic bag 3 with a 'long object in it'. Two days later he tried to rob the same garage with the cucumber. 4 He chose a London taxi as his getaway vehicle, but this was blocked in the forecourt by angry customers. 5 He escaped down a subway, flinging away the bag with the cucumber in it. 6 Police later found him hiding in bushes where he claimed he was relieving himself.

approached thecashier with thecucumber 10 held inside a plastic bag. Mr Lancaster told him:'If you don't give me a lot of 11 money, I will shoot and kill you.' The terrified man gave him 60. 12 Judge Patricia Coles QC said: 'It undoubtedly was not a joke... I accept it was not a real gun, but that really in the final analysis is not the point. 13

said prosecuting counsel Miss Tracy Ayling. 9 Mr Lancaster and the unwitting taxi driver then drove to the Shell petrol station in nearby Old Street where he got out and

14 The least sentence she could pass was concurrent terms of Vk years for each robbery.

Sentence 1 A robber held up a petrol station He used a cucumber He was given 3.5 years yesterday to think about the crime The judge said the crime was 'at the lower end of the robbery scale' The judge said the crime was no joke A . . . who . - . with . .. crime, which the . . . but - . . Sentence 7 His trial was at Knightsbridge Crown Court In his trial he was convicted of the two robberies During his trial, the jury heard how Mr Lancaster first hailed the taxi and then drove to a greengrocer's shop His purpose was to buy the cucumber and a bunch of bananas Mr Lancaster lives in Mora Street, Shoreditch,

East London During . . . , i n which . . . , the jury . . . M r Lancaster, o f . . . , first Sentence 8 He offered the taxi driver a banana He was driven to his flat He changed his clothes He put on a pair of dark glasses After . . . , h e . . . , where . . . Sentence 13 I accept this is at the lower end of the robbery scale This is a serious matter These courts are required to comply with sentencing policy While I . . . , and . . . Check on page 86. 43

Organising Your Learning: Listening


1 Listening skills The skill of listening can be broken down into subskills, according to what we are listening to and to our reasons for listening. The two most-used skills are those of extensive listening (listening for the general idea, not details or individual words) and intensive listening (listening hard because individual words are important, or for some other reason). In your own language, would you listen extensively or intensively to each of the following? Why, in each case? a an airport announcement b a boring talkative neighbour whom you meet at a bus-stop c the news on TV d someone who speaks your language with an extremely strong foreign accent e a passer-by giving you street directions f someone reading an important address to you over the telephone
2 Exposure

3 Intensive listening activities

The following are some activities you can do outside the classroom to improve your intensive listening. a Record the radio news, and choose an item which interests you. Write down in your own words what you understand of it after one listening. Listen again, sentence by sentence, pausing each time to write out the sentence as well as you can remember it. Listen a third time, pausing every few words, and try to write down exactly what is said. Compare the final version with your original understanding of the item. b Try to write down all the words of one of your favourite songs in English, listening as many times as necessary, c Record English language TV programmes which interest you, so that you can listen to them again, replaying parts when necessary. d If you watch an English language video with subtitles, cover the subtitles and see how long you can go on listening and understanding without them. If you start to get lost, uncover the subtitles again for a while. e Listen to a short piece of a video with the TV screen covered. Try to guess where the characters are and what they are doing. You may even be able to guess what their expressions and postures are. Check by playing the piece with both sound and vision. f Watch a short piece of video with the volume turned down. Try to work out what the charactets are saying, by lip-reading and by paying attention to their expressions and postures. Cover the subtitles if there are any! g Record a real conversation involving at least one native speaker of English and yourself. Listen to it again. Were there any points where you had listening problems? What was the reason? Try to write down exactly what was said at that point.
Activities suggested in Projects and Assignments

Your extensive listening skills will improve naturally with exposure to English. This is no problem if you are studying in Britain. If you are studying in your own country, you have to make more effort to ensure this exposure. Which of the following could you personally do? a See English language films at the cinema as often as possible. b Hire English language videos with or without subtitles. c Listen to songs in English. d Arrange to have English language satellite TV at home. e Listen to BBC World Service radio. f Ask colleagues or friends who are native speakers of English to speak only English to you. g Join an English Club. (See Organising Your
Learning: Speaking (2).

Do you have any other ideas for increasing your exposure to English?

throughout your Coursebook provide more listening practice. Do you have any other ideas? Share them with your fellow learners and find out theirs.

44

Relative clauses

These

people come

1 Combine each group of sentences to form one sentence, using relative clauses- Some words and commas are given, but you must put more commas where necessary. a The work of some people doesn't involve much driving. Even these people are often provided with company cars. The value of the cars is considered as part of their income for tax purposes. Even people cars, the

'The United Nations resolutions must and will be enforced. This unacceptable military occupation continues in defiance of these resolutions.' The resolutions, in

enforced. e However, other UN resolutions show no sign of being enforced. Dozens of them have been passed in recent years condemning similar acts by more acceptable governments.

b I don't see the point of our discussing it. You know even less than I do about it. I discussing something

do. c These new regulations will not affect some people. The annual income of these people is lower than 12,000. The regulations come into force next year.

However, other Check on page 86.

45

UNIT 8

Ellipsis in passive voice relative clauses

2 Expand the sentences below by writing in full the elliptical passive forms. Be careful with tenses! The first one has been done for you. a His latest film, shot in the Sahara, is his most expensive so far.
His latest film, which was shot in the Sahara, is his

most expensive so far.

b Until now, his last one was the most expensive film ever made.

c Children brought up in poverty are prone to disease.

Language register: matching exercise

3 Complete Column A and Column B with the words and expressions below. Put formal items in Column A and informal items of similar meaning in Column B. Some spaces have been filled for you. it took everyone by surprise lose your life no longer talk about discover occur all over the world not any more edifice conceal take pride in people are worried express an interest in gun I'm afraid be told about die say you're interested in someone who works for me worldwide item runoff a victory building amazing a great many discuss in search of firearm do

A more formal
to place your complete trust in there was widespread amazement at it

B less formal
to really trust a win

happen find/find out a lot of one of my employees be informed about

46

UNIT 8

hide sorry, but


perform

be proud of
there is concern extraordinary

looking for thing


abscond

Check on page 86. Language register in relative clauses

4 The sentences below, containing relative clauses, are informal in style. Using the more formal words and expressions from exercise 3, make the sentences more formal without changing the meaning. All the words and expressions must be used. Remember that formality determines the position of prepositions in relative clauses. a They talked about the situation in Zimbola, which people all over the world are worried about.

e I've just found out that someone who works for me, who I really trusted, has run off with 10,000.

f He spends every weekend in his garden, which he's really proud of.

g The outcome of the election, which took everyone by surprise, was a win for the socialists.

b That's the bag the gun was hidden in, h Here is the diamond, which a lot of men have died looking for. c The expedition found this amazing building, which people used to do human sacrifices in. {use the passive voice in your answer)

i This meeting, which the President was told about by his staff, happened in New York.

d Sorry, but the thing you said you were interested in isn't for sale any more.

Check on page 87.

47

UNIT 8

Gap-filling exercise 5 Fill the gaps in the following article. Sometimes the first tetter or letters are given.

Albania Tanks Roil to Quell Protests


A week of disturbances in towns 1 th Albania has exposed the danger 2 fa Europe's last communist regime as it tries to liberalise 3 w losing control. Troubles that began a week ago with student demonstrations in the capital Tirana spread as 4 th along a trail of gunpowder to Shkoder in the north and the comfortless resort town of Sarande in the south. Violence was particularly marked in Shkoder and the dreary steel town 5 Elbasan near Tirana, though 6 yesterday the situation appeared calmer. Government forces were 7 rep to be in control with tanks patrolling the streets of Elbasan. President Ramiz Alia has been trying to move Albaniaout of backwardness and isolation since he 8 over as communist boss after the death of the post war revolutionary and tyrant Enver Hoxha in 1985. At talks with student leaders last week Alia 9 p to allow independent political parties to take part in elections to the national assembly already 10pl_ for February. Ramiz Alia 11 a told the students that he 1 2 _ sacking seven 13 m of the ruling politburo. It is improbable, 14 , that gestures of this kind will have much 15 ef . The regime's dilemma was brought into 16 sh focus in October when the 17 greatest writer, Ismael Kadare, defected while 18 a visit to Paris. Kadare said then that he had 19 to the conclusion that Albania's 20 reg could not be reformed. 21 would come only by getting 22 of it. Last week's events 23 sug change may come violently. Albanians were encouraged by the 24 of Ceausescu in Romania into25 they could get rid of their 26 o harsh regime. Last week both Kadare and intellectuals in Albania 27 exp apprehension at the 28 pr of violent change. The country has an old29tr____ of feuds to the death between tribes and families, and many scores are waiting to be settled 30_ almost half a century of unremitting repression.

Check on page 87. Compound nouns derived from phrasal verbs 6 In compound nouns derived directly from phrasal verbs the adverbial particle goes last. (e.g. to knock out - a knock-out; to fight back - a fight-back). Stress is always on the first word in the compound. For each group of definitions, six verbs are given below. Using your dictionary, combine each verb with an adverbial particle (e.g. out, up, down, over) to produce a compound noun which matches with one of the definitions. The first has been done for you. a something which causes delay hold up b end of a romantic relationship c taking of control over a company etc

f drastic reorganisation of personnel

crack

take

hold

break

shake

turn

g undignified retreat from previous claims, admitting you were wrong h large-scale concealment of scandalous facts

i a problem stopping you from continuing with your plans j a newspaper review k multiple road crash 1 disappointment write pile climb set let cover

m arrangement of objects, material etc d value of business done by a company n sudden significant success in war, research etc e sudden, severe repression 48

UNIT 8

0 the way an organisation is arranged p someone who likes to appear clever or impressive q the act of mistaking one thing or person for another r a very successful show, for which all tickets are sold lay sell mix break set show

j Security checks at airports take time and cause , but they're necessary. k Fog has caused a catastrophic motorway, involving 142 vehicles. 1 The advertisement looked much more attractive after they had changed the m I thought that film was quite good, but it got a terrible in the newspaper. on the Ml

Check on page 87. 7 Use one of the compound nouns to fill in the gaps in the following sentences. a I'm afraid there's been a not DJ. Smith. b The group's US tour was a huge success; every concert was a . . I'm D.H. Smith,

Comparison and contrast 8 Fill the gaps to complete the sentences below comparing and contrasting dolphins and humans. Sometimes, the first letter of a word is given. 1 dolphins, humans communicate by

making noises to each other. However, dolphins, 2u humans, seem to have no interest in

c There are rumours that a multinational company is to attempt a has an annual __ of British Copper, which . of over 10bn. , which

investigating the languages of other species. 3 humans nor dolphins can breathe water.

Strangely, however, although dolphins breathe air, they soon die if they are out of the water. Humans, 4 either medium. 5 humans and dolphins are believed by , are fairly happy in

d The discovery of the new drug is a _

will revolutionise treatment of heart disease, e In a humiliating , the administration has

admitted the previously denied involvement of the President in the scandal, which had been hidden in a massive operation.

humans to be highly intelligent. Humans are social creatures, tending to live in societies. 6 S , dolphins live in groups. dolphins 8 dolphins, humans can

f The ____^ of their marriage was unexpected. They had seemed to be getting on fairly well. g Police have launched a vigorous __ dealing. h What a better! 1 In the Cabinet , many Ministers have ! I expected something much on drug

Being mammals, 7 n humans lay eggs. 9

be trained to play skilful games with balls. 10 U humans, however, dolphins are not

paid for displaying their skills. Check on page 87.

changed jobs, and three have been sacked.


49

Organising Your Learning: Reading (2)


Reading for vocabulary consolidation and expansion 1 Reading consolidates vocabulary you have studied or picked up elsewhere. Read the following text and underline words or expressions you have studied in your Coursebook. How many did you remember?

Evidence in robbery case 'was planted by police'


AWINDOWCLEANERyesterdayaccused three police officers in the High Court of fabricating forensic evidence to support a charge of attempted armed robbery. Milton Morris, 41, who spentnine months in custody before being acquitted, said the officers took part in a 'wicked conspiracy' to implicate him in a raid on a sub-post office in west London. They planted fibres from his clothing on a mask and pair of overalls abandoned by the robbers as they fled after the abortive raid, it was claimed. Mr Morris, who has no previous Check on page 87. 2 Reading will also show you new ways to use familiar vocabulary. You have already studied the expressions: to be charged with (a crime) to be remanded in custody to be convicted But the text demonstrates that we can also say: a charge of (crime) to spend (time) in custody to have (previous) convictions 3 Use your reading to consciously acquire new vocabulary. Set yourself a target of, say, five new words from every newspaper article or every page of a novel which you read. These words can be recorded as discussed in Organising Your Learning: Vocabulary. Exercises 4 Reread the text, and find five new words or expressions to add to your own list of Crime and Law Enforcement vocabulary. Use your dictionary to help you. Check on page 87. 5 Study the four lists below. Decide what is the common characteristic of the items on each list, and find at least one word or expression in the text which could be added to each. a evil, immoral, naughty b to falsify (information, accounts etc), a forgery, to take someone in c cap, bow-tie, waistcoat d catastrophic, destructive, disastrous 6 Sometimes you may want to start a new list because of vocabulary items you come across. In the text there are two expressions using part: .. .the officers took part in a wicked conspiracy... (para2) ...Mr Morris... had played no part in the raid... (para 7) Find three other uses of part in your dictionary and add them to your list with example sentences of your own. convictions, is seeking damages for malicious prosecution from the MetropoKtanPoliceCommissionerandPCs Desmond Cooke, Stephen Deacon and Leif Bailey. The police deny fabricating evidence and claim they had an honestbelief in Mr Morris's guilt. The forensic evidence - fibres from Mr Morris's clothing on the overalls, his hair on the mask and glass from the scene of the crime on his shoes - appeared damning. Itlinked himto the raid, Colin Challenger, his counsel, told the court. But Mr Morris, of Chiswick, west London, had played no part in the raid and the fibres must have been put there by the police, he said. His arrest in November 1983 and his prosecution and months in custody had had a 'profound and devastating' effect on him, Mr Challenger added. Mr Morris was charged with attempted armed robbery on 15 December and remanded in custody. He was tried and acquitted at Acton Crown Court in September 1984, after spending nine months in custody. The trial continues today.

Language register and the passive voice 1 Rewrite the sentences below from the active voice to the passive voice, beginning with the words given. Make any other changes which make the passive voice sentence sound more formal. a 'It says you can't take pictures in the museum.' Cameras are b 'Look, it says you've got to leave it at the desk.' Cameras c 'Someone's doing his house up for him.' He d 'They've talked her into changing her mind.' She e 'People are searching for the kid who's gone missing.' The f 'It was crazy ever to close this window.' This g 'You'd better finish writing the book by January.' The book h 'OK, no problem with January.' I assure Check on page 87.

The passive voice with prepositions

2 The sentences below contain prepositional phrases and verbs. Most are possible in the passive voice, but two are not. Decide which these are, then convert the others, beginning with the words given. Pay careful attention to the position of prepositions, and mention the agent only when necessary. There is no rule about when prepositional phrases and verbs can be used in the passive voice (even native speakers may disagree!), but you will gradually pick up a feeling for this. a I can't stand it when people stare at me. I can't stand b He's fallen in love with his teacher. His c The whole town is talking about us. We d Don't worry, someone will take care of them. Don't worry, they e We're not going to stand for it! It
51

UNIT 9

f Children hate it when adults don't listen to them. Children hate g A team of special investigators ought to look into this whole takeover. This whole takeover needs

d to flog a dead horse e to feel like a fish out of water f to smell a rat 1 to waste your efforts for no return 2 to sense that something suspicious is going on

Check on page 87. Verbs of movement and posture 3 Below are anagrams of some of the movement and posture verbs in your Coursebook. Solve the anagrams and write in the middle column. a ttsur b fuselhf c gloneu d plotep e creph ______ , f pale g trowe h sadh i direst j redawn _______ _

3 to eat too much of something 4 to lose your courage 5 to be uneasy, in a place which doesn't suit you 6 to decide to ignore some problem which is not causing trouble at the moment 6 Complete each sentence with one of the expressions in exercise 5. a Some people enjoy living abroad, and feel they belong in the new country, but British footballers usually b His wife in Italy. when he started coming

4 Match the words below to the verbs in exercise 3 above, bearing in mind the special meaning of each verb. The first has been done for you. a lazy lounge f crash g slippers ______ ______

home late from work every night. He had a lover, she was sure, c Don't start that old argument again. OK, she shouldn't have done it, but it was a long time ago. Just why don't you? trying to

b directionless __ c tall d bird e arrogant _______ ______

h kangaroo ______ i hurry ______

j sudden ______ ,

d Pm beginning to feel I'm

Check on page 87. Idiomatic expressions with names of animals 5 Using your dictionary, match the following animal-based idiomatic expressions with their meanings below. a to chicken out b to make a pig of yourself c to let sleeping dogs lie

teach that student anything. Do you think she really wants to learn ? e Oh dear, I don't feel too good this morning. I'm afraid I with the curry last night.

f He intended to ask her out, but at the last minute he lost his nerve and Check on page 87. .

52

UNIT 9

Gap-filling exercise

7 Fill the gaps in the following advertisement with one word.

HOW TO TALK TO YOUR CAT


Your cat is talking to you. 1_______ ! - your cat is telling you how much she loves you. Watch! - the spcxial friend who 2 your life has so much to say to you about his feelings and 3 . . . if only you know how to listen and what to look for. If you're a cat lover like me, and wish to better communicate with your pet for a deeper, more loving 4______ , then you'll want to find out HOW TO TALK TO YOUR CAT. Remember- there's a lot more cat talk than 'meow1. In fact. . . There are nineteen different ways cats say ' meow1. And each has its own special 5 ! Cats also talk in body language - with their ears, whiskers, eyes and 6 ... with their poses and movements! YOUR TALKING CAT shows you how to talk to your cat, how to 7 your cat's meows, facial expressions and often intricate body 8 , and answers at last fascinating mysteries of feline behaviour such as: Why your cat rubs you to show affection ... and how best to show her 9 . Why your cat circles in your lap before settling 10 . Why your cat always seems to come over when you're reading or doing paperwork . . . and the ultimate toy to distract him. Why your cat doesn't like to be stared at. What kinds of toys and games your cat likes best. And there is also a 'Cat Talk' Chart 11__ your cat's language, so you'll know when your pet is happiest . . . and illustrated charts of feline facial 12_ and tail positions that reveal the 13 of your cat's moods and feelings. You may be surprised to discover the warmth and strength of the 14 of affection between you and your cat 15 __ you understand her unique language of communication . . . when you learn the secret of HOW TO TALK TO YOUR CAT. Order your copy of YOUR TALKING CAT today - now, using the handy coupon below:

1991 Carnell Ltd, 27 Salisbury House, London Wall, London EC2M 5PJ Registered in England No.2470149

53

UNIT 9

Verbs of facial expression 8 Read the following and find verbs of facial expression which have the meanings given below. Underline the verbs, then write them in the spaces provided. 1 'It's not fair, I won't go, and you can't make me,' pouted the little girl. Her mother glared at her furiously, but said nothing. The headmistress frowned slightly with irritation, and tried again. 2 'Don't gape like that; shut your mouth at least. Haven't you ever been to a topless beach before? And please stop staring at that girl, she'll notice, if you're not careful!' 3 We gazed in silence as the sun slowly went down over the sea. 4 'Hello everyone/ he beamed. 'I've got some good news for you all.' 5 I peered into the darkened room, but couldn't see anybody. 6 'I can't say I'm surprised that you enjoy hot dogs,' he sneered. 'After all, you're British, which says something about your taste in food.' a to look intently, because something is hard to see b to look at something in a steady, relaxed way

9 What expression(s) might be associated with the following? a looking into the eyes of someone you love

b trying to read a bus timetable which is old and dirty c passing your exams d seeing a polar bear walk down your road

e concentrating on a crossword puzzle f a snob g a childish person not being allowed to do something he wants to h someone being hypnotised i being unable to speak, but showing your boyfriend you are very displeased with something he has just said Requests and permission: gap-fill dialogue 10 Fill the gaps in the following dialogues. The first letters of some words are given. A dialogue between two friends at work Colin; John, c 1 ._ f_______? ?

c to push your lips forward, showing that you feel you're being treated badly d to smile broadly and happily e to contract your forehead in annoyance or concentration f to be so amazed that your mouth falls open

John: S_______ , what

Colin: Well, I've got to go into the centre at lunchtime, and it's raining. I' d s_______' w ? , but it's a 1I me your car,

g to show in your expression that you feel yourself to be superior h to give a very intense, angry look i to watch in a fixed way, with eyes wide open

John: Ah, well, normally I w b______ d

today, because I'll be using .

it myself. S_______ a______ t Colin: OK, no problem.

54

UNIT 9

A telephone conversation between two business acquaintances Derek: Derek Reynolds. John: Hello, Derek, Derek: Hello, John, n a .W
?

Guided writing: sentence combination


11 Join each of the following groups of sentences to form one or two long sentences, as indicated, using the clues given below. a Many people find the presence of so many dogs in Britain a nuisance. They often provide uncomplaining companionship to people. These people have no other friends. This is because of age or other circumstances. This cannot be denied. Although .. . , it. .. denied . . . friends

John Carling. to speak to y c Id_

John: Hi. Listen, Derek, I'm s__. p y o , but that meeting

we arranged. W ________ to change the time? Derek: It d m John: When d I y .

Sometime during the afternoon, if possible. S 2pm? b Most people would support a moderate movement. Its aim would be to end the use of animals in nonmedical experiments. It would pursue peaceful means. Some animal rights activists use wildly inappropriate terrorist methods. These activists only alienate the majority of the population. The majority of the population ask themselves if these people are quite right in the head. They ask themselves this with some justification. M o s t . . . a movement. . . aim was to . . . long . . . pursued . .. activists who . . . methods only . . . population, justification.. . head. (Two sentences).

Derek: Let me see. Well, I'm supposed to be busy then, but I could try to rearrange that, I s John: W . _I'd g if

. As I say, I'm s_________ to o________ like this, but there's no w_______ I c Derek: Don't w w I a________ make the morning. it. I'll s about rearranging

the other thing, and g_______ back to you, all right? Check on page 88.

55

Conditionals with but for, if not for 1 Write sentences based on. the paragraph, beginning!/ it hadn't been for..., If it weren t for..., or But for... Use the prompt words given. We moved to this house a few months ago. It's an old wooden house in a small town in New England. It was my wife's idea, not mine. I hated the idea of leaving New York, but I'd lost my job, so it was a question of improving our financial situation. Hie price was really low, that's how come we managed to buy it. I've often wondered why it was so low. But I don't worry really, it's just the strange stories I've heard about the place which . . . well, I suppose it's nothing. I quite like the place really. Apart from these noises at night. And the other day, when that wardrobe nearly fell on my baby daughter for no reason, and my little boy just pulled her out of the way in time. Well, accidents will happen. Haunted? No, no! It's just those stupid Hollywood films that make people believe in ghosts.

a wifc/move/house

b financial situation/New York

c low price/buy

d strange stories/worry

e noises/like

f my little boy/daughter/killed

g films/nobody/believe

Check on page 88.

56

UNIT 10

Tenses in long second conditional sentences

2 In long second conditional sentences, verbs in the main clause, non-identifying relative clauses and coordinate clauses are conditional. Otherwise, verbs are in the past tense. Examples: If I lost my job, I would work for whoever offered me employment, and I would do as 1 was told.

If I lost my job, I would do any kind of work that was offered to me and wasn't illegal, which would be an interesting life, in a way. If I lost my job, I would sell antiques, which I would buy in auctions and sell in a market. In the monologues below, choose whether to use the past tense or the conditional tense. Underline your choices.

I a 'If I were offered a job in another country, which was probably one where they wouldn't speak would be offered would probably be ' didn't speak English, I. would take ' it like a shot unless the salary I would he really low. In which case the conditions of took i was employment had to be really good, or I wouldn't take it.' would have didn't b 'If I would have so much money that I was I in a position to stop working for good, even supposing that I had would be would go on spending money as fast as I do now, I think I would buy a yacht, and my wife and I would go went on I bought went sailing whenever we would want . And it wouldn't matter that we wouldn't know how to sail, because we wanted didn't matter didn't know would have a professional crew to sail it for us, if we still had enough money left. Otherwise, we had would still have
1

would send our children on a training course (whether they would like i it or not), and they crcwed sent liked would crew

the yacht for us!'

Check on page 88. Noun-preposition collocations 3 Complete the noun-preposition collocations by filling the gaps below. Each line represents a word. a 1 whole, I'm 2 of
b It is simply 1 ___________ belief rhat important decisions taken by the most powerful man in the world, a US president who was 2 _____ office for eight years, were taken on 3 astrologer. Though, 4 . of an thoughts,

fringe religions and cults. They do less harm than religions usually do, to my 3 4 .Devotees are

obligation to join, after all, and if

perhaps nothing in politics should surprise us any more. Check on page 88.

they do give up their freedom or possessions, 5 they receive peace of mind. It

seems a fair bargain, to me.


57

UNIT 10

Prepositions

4 Fill the gaps in the article with prepositions. You may use each word more than once-

Krishna leaders face criminal charges


by Mark Hnsenbali, Washington THE GENTLE image of Hare Krishna disciples chanting their way 1 American streets hides a sinister world of murder, drug running and prostitution, according 2 investigators hunting 3 the crooked leaders of the sect. They say they have been acting more 4 associates of Al Capone than children of a benevolent eastern deity. A federal grand jury in West Virginia is expected to order a nationwide probe 5 charges that some Krishna leaders have engaged in brutal violence to silence rivals and 6 largescale racketeering to line their own pockets. There's a kind of holy war going on 7 the Krishna movement,' said Donald Bordenkircher, sheriff of Marshall county, West Virginia, where the Hare Krishna cult has a large settlement. Trouble has been brewing in the sect 8_ the death in 1977 9 Swami Prabhupada, the 82-year-old Indian holy man who is credited 10_______ importing the religion to North America. Several of his saffron-robed leading disciples then carved the United States 11 independent fiefdoms which competed with each other 12 money and converts. Two years later, evidence surfaced that some factions of the movement had adopted highly unorthodox fund-raising activities. Alexander Kulik, a temple leader in California and a close associate of the late guru, was convicted 13_ charges of distributing heroin. The authorities said a financial firm set 14_ under the auspices of the Krishna movement, Prasadam Distributors International, was used to launder drug dealing profits. Two of the company's officials pleaded guilty 15 charges of kidnapping a business associate whom they suspected 16 embezzling cash. The business associate was eventually murdered. Violence 17 rival cult members has intensified 18 the last year. Kirtanananda Swami Bhaktipada, settlement leader, was beaten unconscious 19 a disgruntled devotee who attacked him 20 a steel pipe. The swami, who was known as Keith Ham while a student 20 years ago at Columbia University, New York, claimed that the incidentresulted21. aclash 22 materialism and the Krishna's religious devotion. In May, Steven Bryant, a former devotee who had launched a campaign to expose what he claimed were corrupt Krishna leaders, was shot dead while driving his van near the sect's Los Angeles temple. Before his death, Bryant gave lengthy interviews to police in which he charged some Krishna leaders 23 condoning child abuse and immorality, and organising prostitution and burglary rings. Although at first authorities did not take Bryant seriously, 24 his death they began to investigate his charges and discovered evidence to support many of them. Thomas Dresher, a Krishna devotee, was recently charged with murdering Bryant. Police believe a high-ranking sect memberpaid25 the murder to silence Bryant. Dresher had already pleaded guilty to murdering a second Krishna disciple who disappeared in 1983.

Glossary
racketeering: making money from illegal business fiefdoms: areas of influence factions: competing groups within a movement, political party etc. launder: convert illegally-earned money into apparently legal money condoning: approving of, allowing to happen auspices: approval and support Check on page 88.

5 Having checked your answers to exercise 4, fill the following gaps with prepositions. a He was convicted explosions. b Under the auspices of UNESCO, an international agency has been set c He is credited campaign. d In the nineteenth century, Africa was carved European colonies. . the success of the charges of causing

58

UNIT 10

e The accident resulted procedures. f MPs are calling for a probe

a failure of safety

7 Fill the gaps below with collocations from exercise 6. Each line represents a word. The first letters of some words have been given. a 'The latest trade figures are a 1 s in favour of lowering interest rates,' she said. 'Should the Government not have the 2_ s_ to do this, it will be making a 3 , and losing a 4 g o to

the

Government's role in the scandal, g The bank is suspected __ drug money, h In competing with each other customers, having laundered

the two supermarkets engaged_____a price war. Check on page 88.


Adjective/noun collocations

resuscitate the economy. b He had 1 took him a 2 d in writing the essay. It half-hour just to understand p of

6 Match the nouns on the left with the adjectives on the right which can combine with them to strengthen them. Sometimes, more than one adjective could he used. a unemployment b the majority c wishes big d sense e winds f the part great g rain h an opinion of i a blow heavy j an opportunity k a while/an hour/ten minutes 1 speeds (s) good m a possibility n views o a smell/taste strong p quality q business r profits high s finance t industry u difficulty best v a mistake w a quantity x an accent large y losses z an influence Check on page 88,

the question, and then the 3 b the evening to answer it.

c Good evening, here is the weather. 1_ w and 2 h hit most of the p of

country today. There is a 3

heavy snow tonight, so don't drive unless it is absolutely necessary. d A1 quantity of 2 h q sound

equipment was stolen today from a disco in the West End of London. A man with a 3_ Scottish accent forced staff at gunpoint to load the equipment into a van, and drove off at 4 . Police say there is 5 c that the man will be caught, since he was

recognised by one of the staff as an ex-employee. Check on page 89.

UNIT 10

Go and get with adjectives


8 Go and get are commonly used with adjectives to mean become {e.g. to go pale, to get angry). Put each adjective below into one of the columns. Your dictionary should help, if you look carefully at the example sentence(s) it gives for each adjective. Some adjectives can go in either column, usually with a change in meaning,

a On seeing us, he embarrassment. b Come on, c He

bright red with

ready, we're going. bald since you last saw him. a bit too thin, you know.

d I think you're

e I'm _____ tired, can we have a break? f At this rate we're going to few months. g Younger students quickly there is a charge of activity. h Everything _____ wrong. I knew it would. i Dear Mum, everything's very well here. bored unless bankrupt in a

go
pale angry

get

j The kids are _____ too exited, and it's bedtime in half an hour. k He had two hit records and
bald angry blind pale old deaf bad cold mad wild bored drunk crazy violent white (and other colours) thin fat nasty bankrupt wrong insane ready tired unfriendly cloudy difficult windy famous rich well impossible excited wet dry broke lost

famous

overnight. 1 The weather was beginning to so we came home. m I believe the nights are n His hair colder. a bit wet,

ever so grey, hasn't it?

Language register: go, get, turn and become with adjectives


9 In more formal style, become can be used with most adjectives from the get list, but not usually with go adjectives. Turn is also more formal and is used especially with changes of colour, behaviour, and weather. Put a correct form of go, get, turn or become in each gap below. You must use become or turn if you think it is both possible and stylistically appropriate.

o I hate it when my dad ______ mad at me and shouts. p Turn that walkman down, you'll you're not careful. q The crowd. wild when she appeared on deaf if

stage in a blaze of light. r In autumn, the leaves fall. Check on page 89. brown and begin to

60

1 Use the prompts to produce sentences expressing a change of mind. The first has been done for you. previous intention a inform police b buy dollars c walk d they offer him job e Luis party World Cup Final TV f call doctor g take mortgage buy flat h take job El Pagador i write you j they baby Check on page 89. 61 new fact damage paid for exchange rate up weather clouded over found out prison Brazil out her fever down interest rate up civil war you phoned he lost job new intention/prediction forget about it wait a while in after all think twice call off wait see how tomorrow have keep renting stay Britain not bother wait

/ was going to Inform the police, but now that the damage has been paid for, I guess/think/suppose Hi forget about it.

UNIT 11

The future, arrangements, intentions and predictions

2 The following conversation has been split into questions (in the correct order) and jumbled answers. Decide which order the answers go in, number them accordingly and complete them by converting the verbs in brackets into the present continuous, the future continuous, or future simple with to be.
Questions 1 I heard you were going to move abroad. Is that right? 6 What 2 Got a job? 3 That's all fixed up, is it? 4 Great. Nice place to work, is it, Lisbon? Answers a b c d e f g h l Yes, we (move) straight in as soon as we arrive. Well, I (work) . outside the centre, so it (not be). all that picturesque, but yes, Lisbon's nice. Not especially, no. We (not live) ______ as close to the beach as we would like, but at least it's not too expensive. Yes, I (teach) English in a small school in Lisbon. They (go) ______ to school in the afternoons, so I (can) spend some time with them in the mornings. And we (live) _ _ _ in a house, so there (be) ______ a garden to play in. Yes, I (start) at the beginning of September. Well I (not earn) very much but enough to live on quite comfortably. We (be) ________ OK. Yes, that's right, next month actually. We (move) to Portugal on the twentieth. Apparently, yes, but I (work) in the evenings, so I (go) ______ to work in the late afternoons. And that's when everybody else (come) back. So I (not sit) in a traffic jam every day, I hope. about 5 I've heard the traffic's bad. the kids? 7 That's fixed up, the house, is it? 8 Is it a nice area? 9 What about money, by the way?

Check on page 89. 3 In the following utterances, the future forms used are either incorrect or stylistically inappropriate (too formal or informal). Rewrite the utterances correctly. a Newsreader: 'The Prime Minister is attending a special session of the UN Security Council later this week.' d 'I would ask her, but I forgot.1

e 'You won't go out in this rain just to get a newspaper, will you? Look, I'll go to the town centre myself a bit later on, so I'm walking past the newsagents anyway. I'm going to get you one then if you like.'

b Hotel receptionist: 'Do you want breakfast in your room?'

c Child: 'I am to spend the weekend at my Grannie's.'

Check on page 89. 62

UNIT 11

Sound-words

c There was 1

polite

on the door. , irritably,

4 Fill each gap with one of the sound-words given below (noun, gerund, or the correct tense of the verb). Use each word once only. Where necessary, put the definite or indefinite article. The first one has been done for you. a The house was quiet. 1 The creaking of the old stairs as Chalmers walked up was startlingly loud. Inside the bedroom he turned the light on with

'Yes, come in, come in!' he 2

His butler stood before him, a man so old and thin that he looked as if his bones 3 shook him. bark howl tinkle screech creak thud roar tap hiss rattle crunch crack click Check on page 89. if you

. The window was closed and the wooden


Sentence stress and sounds: vowels 5 Say the dialogues below to yourself, and decide which vowel in each utterance carries the main stress. Pair each utterance with another which stresses the same vowel. Beside each utterance write the letter of the other one in the pair, and the stressed sound in phonemic script. The first has been done for you. a Shall I call round about seven? b No, a bit after, please. o / / /___/

shutters were fastened, but he could still hear 3 4 5 of the gale outside. Suddenly he heard of a powerful engine outside, and of tyres as a car was driven away at top

speed. His car! He whirled round, just as the small masked figure behind him brought the heavy walking stick down with all her strength. The stick struck Chalmers on the forehead with 6 7. sharp . heavy and he fell to the carpet. his body made as it hit the

c How much is she earning these days?

floor told his attacker that he was already unconscious. As she turned away, she stepped on his glasses, and the broken lenses 8 her foot. Well, what of it, she thought, he wouldn't be needing glasses where he was going. b He reached inside the lampshade, and drew in his breath with 1 sharp of pain as he under

d A fortune, apparently.

e You don't absolutely have to do it, you know. -

f I'll let you know soon, Jenny. g Do I say, 'between' in that situation?

h No, 'among' is better. i We'll send out search parties.

/ / /

touched the hot light bulb. He got a cloth, and took the light bulb out. Holding it to his ear he shook it and heard 2 faint . Thank

j But he could be anywhere in the country.

goodness, it was nice and simple; all that was needed was a new light bulb!

63

UNIT 11

k Where shall we sir? 1 I'm not that bothered, really. m Now how shall I put this? n Oh, get on with it!

/ / / / / / / /

d There appeared to have been a fight, (looked) e I've always liked walking in the countryside, (something) f She was far less interested in football than I was. (as) g Please don't do that, (didn't)

o And were you upset when that happened?

p Wouldn't you have been? q Where have you been all day?

/ / / / h You mustn't forget how young he is. (account) i I suddenly realised I hadn't seen John all day. (to) j People resented his behaviour, (rise)

r It's none of your business where I've been.

s Can I have a chat for a moment?

t Of course you can.

/ / / / / /

Check on page 89.

Words describing light


u Why don't we go by car, then? v Well we could, I suppose. Check on page 89. When you have checked your answers, say the dialogues aloud, making sure you stress the right syllable and pronounce the vowel correctly. Mixed structures: sentence rewriting 6 For each sentence below, write another with the same meaning, including the word in brackets in the form in which it is given. a Originally, I intended to leave early, (my)
My original intention wae to leave early.

7 Fill each gap below with one of the 'light' words listed at the end of the exercise. Use your dictionary to check the meanings of the words, paying special attention to the example sentences. a There was a of lightning and almost

immediately afterwards a deafening crack of thunder overhead. b She lit a cigarette. I saw her face for a moment as the match ______ . .. c . . . then the match went out, to be replaced by the quiet red of her cigarette in the darkness.

b The reason they failed wasn't lack of planning, (it) c He believed in his own ability and this gave him confidence, (what)

d I find night driving very tiring because of the of the car headlights coming in the other direction.

64

UNIT 11

e Sometimes, when you are driving on hot days, there seems to be water on the road ahead, as the hot air makes a mirage. f He gazed across the valley at the lights of the distant town _ _ _ in the soft darkness, like diamonds in the effect. I think it's called a

c earth beyond did thing utterly why she such me. is a on

d companies, offered return helping refused, in one I for was of which him, a his job I in reluctantly In

g I love to see the sea sunlight. h The newly polished car ___ sunlight,

e glad if touch get number, you, him I'd you'll me his for with in to let have be in the bright I'd

i Seen from the garden, the great ballroom was with the light of many chandeliers. j My candle _____ as a slight breeze blew in through the window. glow flash gleam glare sparkle flicker twinkle blaze flare Check on page 90.
Sentence construction: word-jumble

f sorted shortly, calm, everything as everyone long stays should out as be As g Government, was he of cause downfall of attempting to the accused the He

shimmer

h largest said built, it to ship be the ever by is far

8 The words in the following sentences have been jumbled up. Unjumble them, and write the sentences in the spaces provided. Sometimes, the beginning of the sentence is given. Punctuation marks follow the same word that they follow in the sentence. a say, no be let matter persuaded, what don't they yourself

i it what there? how long difference make get does to it takes

j as a this which Mr Smith by conditions, was caused unsafe accident, result arm, of an directly lost working This

b whole deforestation, consequence from as area soil a uncontrolled of the erosion, suffers As

Check on page 90.

65

UNIT

Motoring, cars

Register: formal expressions to talk of probability


1 Study the following list of formal it is . . . and there is . . . constructions. Which ones have a basically affirmative meaning (i.e. that something happened or will happen), and which have a negative meaning? Which ones express strong probability {or certainty), and which ones weaker probability!1 It is impossible t h a t . .. It is possible that. .. It is inconceivable t h a t . . . There is no doubt whatsoever t h a t . . . There is very little likelihood that - . . It seems beyond doubt that. . . There is a strong possibility t h a t . . . It's unlikely that. . . It is not beyond the bounds of possibility t h a t . . . It's quite possible that. . . Check on page 90.

2 Use the expressions in exercise 1 to form answers to the questions below. Each time, you are given a Yes or No as your basic answer, and a number of stars (from six to one) to indicate the degree of probability. You need not use all the expressions above, and may use any more than once. The first two are done for you. a Were they going too fast? (yes **) It is possible that they were going too faet b Will the climate change dramatically in the near future? (No ****). There is very little likelihood that the climate will change dramatically in the near future. c Will the government fall this month? (No ******)

d Will the government fall this year? (Yes *)

UNIT 12

e Will Japanese car manufacturers take over the luxury car market in the next few years? (Yes *****)

Language register: seems + infinitive or sounds/ looks as though


3 In interpreting situations, we can use seems with an infinitive (more formal) or it looks/sounds as if/ though (less formal). Examples: type A There seems to have been a mistake. From what I hear, he seems to be very happy in his new job. OR type B It looks as if there's been a mistake. It sounds as if he's happy in his new job.

f Have the hostages been taken to another location? (Yes ****)

g Will there be another global conflict in the near future? (N

Below, convert type A sentences to type B sentences, and vice versa. a Everything was going well, by the sound of it. It _____

h Will cars be banned from all cities in the future?


(Yes *)

b It looked to me as if everything had been prepared correctly. i Are women drivers safer than men? (Yes ******) Every th ing _______

j Has he left the country already? (Yes ***)

c It looks as if the situation has been brought back under control. The situation d Judging by appearances, everything seems to be getting back to normal. It

k Has he left the country already? (No **)

Check on page 90.

e Judging from what he said, they seem to be heading for a divorce. It f It sounds to me as if they made a mistake getting married so young. They __

67

UNIT 12

g In conversation, he seemed to me to have no intention of changing his mind. It

f It's strange that he Normally he stays quite late, (leave) g It is quite unacceptable that prisoners

so early.

h It sounded as if we'd been wasting our time trying to persuade him. We

in such conditions, (keep) h I wonder if I _ (make) i No, don't call then. I


the

a suggestion?

i It looked to us as if they were arguing about something. They

house by that time, (leave) j It's interesting that you that, (say)

j Judging by appearances, they seemed to have come to blows already that evening. It

Check on page 90.


US and GB vocabulary

5 Complete the columns with words from section C of your Coursebook. Check on page 90.
Modal verbs: sentence completion

GB a ground floor b take-away food c d mates e a crossroads f g the pavement h l mean j rubbish Check on page 90.

US

4 Complete the following sentences, using a modal verb phrase including the correct form of the verb in brackets. a Isn't this ready yet? It ago. (finish) b You'd already done it? You mean I ? (bother) c We'll need to stop for a break around lunchtime. By then we hours, (drive) d So you left the club three hours later, you say. That (be) e Didn't you see that car coming? You , you silly child (kill) _______ after midnight, then? for four or five _____ hours

liquor store

a flashlight

mean

UNIT 12

Words borrowed from French


6 Words borrowed from French are very common in English, some having become truly English words (e.g. garage) while newer entrants still seem quite foreign (e.g. duvet). US speakers invariably stress the second syllable of these words. Use your dictionary to match the following words and phrases with their meanings below, and write them in the spaces provided. nouns decor debut duvet melee fiance faux pas carte blanche genre farce adjectives grotesque gauche blase naive brusque a exaggerated to the point of being ugly or ridiculous b a performer's first public performance c a lot of people struggling or fighting in a confused way d a particular style in literature, music or art e uncomfortable and awkward in social situations

7 Fill each gap below with one of the words or phrases from exercise 6. a The police made straight for the centre of the in an attempt to stop the fighting. b We'd better buy a new comes on. c He seems very about his exam tomorrow, before winter

but it might be tougher than he thinks. d He made his professional against Benfica

in Lisbon. What a way for a footballer to start! e I knew very little about the social rules of their culture, so the occasional was inevitable.

f Rooms in our hotels have the same anywhere in the world. g It was rather of him to trust her,

considering he hardly knew her. h The new manager is going to put people's backs up with his way of dealing with colleagues.

i The police must have freedom to act as they think f a free hand, permission to act freely g a thick, warm bed cover h casual and dismissive, instead of nervous or excited i an indiscreet act, socially embarrassing j having an over-simple or a too innocent view of the world k something which is absurdly disorganised 1 style of furnishing and decoration m abrupt in manner, not considering people's feelings n the man a woman is going to marry Check on page 91. Check on page 91. right, but a democracy cannot give them a complete .

Words borrowed from other languages


9 The commonly-used words and expressions below come from a variety of languages, though some have taken on slightly different meanings in English. Use your dictionary to help you match them to the meanings on the right. scenario a smooth, convincing speech aimed at persuading someone fiasco a respected adviser or expert (slightly ironic expression) bravado a long story or narration prima donna something getting louder or more intense
69

UNIT 12

guru crescendo saga spiel taboo forte

detailed prediction of the way a situation could develop considered by society to be too 'bad' or offensive even to talk about failure so complete as to be ridiculous a reckless, courageous attitude, intended to impress something you are especially good at someone temperamental and difficult to work with.

Guided writing: rewriting a text


11 Rewrite the story below. Keep as closely to the original as possible, but incorporate all the word and punctuation prompts provided below, making whatever grammatical and lexical changes are necessary.

Check on page 91. 10 Fit one of the words from exercise 9 into each gap. a Ugh, that's disgusting! Sorry, but mixing cocktails isn't my . of his

b Once again we had to listen to the failed job application. c The election campaign was such a the organisers were sacked.

that

d The college has invited a number of linguistics to speak at the conference. e What a ! How can you put up with

I had only been driving a few minutes when I noticed that the car wasn't right. It was making a strange noise and every now and then it would shake so alarmingly that it seemed to be about to disintegrate. This sort of thing ha d happened before of course - the car was fifteen years old and was no longer the car it had been when it was new, but it was the first time I had felt so concerned. I decided to pull over to have a look at the engine. As I lifted the bonnet I thought I could smell burning. I looked carefully, and sure enough there were wisps of acrid smoke coming from the engine. Not being by any means an expert on cars, particularly on an old wreck like mine, I backed off to the other side of the road so that I could think things over from a safe distance. By the look of it, this might be serious trouble. I had to do something, plainly enough, but it was a bit harder to see what that something should be. On the other hand, perhaps if I waited a minute or two, the engine would cool down. I concluded that this was the most sensible thing I could do, and sat down on a rock. Just then, I saw the first small flame above the engine.
1 . . . hadn't. .. more . . . few minutes. . . when . . . struck . . . matter . . . car. . . . c o m i n g . . . engine,... time .. . time . .. alarming shaking . . . car . . . point . . . disintegration. . . . means. . . first time . .. behaved . . . this way . . . . . . . fifteen years,. . . n o t . . . more . . . never caused . . . concern before. . . . seemed . . . me . . . wise . . . off... road . .. could . . . bonnet. Lifting . . . . . . . noticed . . . f a i n t . . . burning.... carefully, . . . thought, . . . engine . . . off... smoke. . . . I am . . . no m e a n s . . . e x p e r t . . . c a r s , . . . alone . . . wreck . . . o w n , . . . retreated . . . order . . . the situation . . . safety . . . side .. . road- . . . looked . . . I . . . trouble.... be done, . . . plain . . . see, . .. quite . . . should be. . . . hand, . . . possible . . . cool down . .. few minutes. .. waited. . . . come . . . conclusion . .. wisest. . . action . . . adopt,.. . rock, w a s . . . this point. . . flame . . . itself. .. engine.

behaviour like that? f Coursebook writers must take care in choosing themes and texts, since some topics are many countries. g The President's promises to resist the invasion to the end turned out to be pure h In response to the . in

of public criticism, the

national coach had no option but to resign. i A number of of the revolution. j Every time he meets a girl he fancies he uses the same old _____ to get her interested in him. Check on page 91.
70

can be envisaged as a result

Check on page 91.

UNIT

Travel, holidays

Phrasal verbs

e I studied ail the information I could find on the

1 Replace the words in italics with phrasal verbs from Section E of your Coursebook, and rewrite the sentences. a He tried to allay their suspicions about his absence
with a false explanation.

company before I took the job.

f Don't worry. He'll threaten you, but he hasn't got


the nerve to really do what he threatens.

b Come on, into the kitchen, you're not going to escape doing the washing up this time!

g Don't take out insurance with the first company you speak to, be patient and find out all the
alternatives first.

c Unfortunately, your theory is not supported by the facts.

h It was only when the lesson began that 1 suddenly realised I was in the wrong classroom.

d It's not fair, you always support her when we argue. Check on page 91.

71

UNIT 13

2 Fill the gaps with phrasal verbs from Section E of your Coursebook. Each line represents a word. a Don't it , do it today! g come h i take their j

persuade someone not to do something obtain, get possession of happen admit that something you said was unfair or wrong write down exactly what someone is saying k 1 Check on page 91. 4 Put one of the phrasal verbs you discovered in exercise 3 into each of the gaps below. Each line represents a word. a Can you you? b We've got to try and resigning. We need her! c How do States? d Don't them as your equals. e They persuaded him to secretary of the committee. i Look, I'll this offer with my wife, the job of your students, treat I getting a visa for the
her

b What it all___________________is that they don't really like each other any more: that's the real problem. c Sports stars often _____ popularity by doing advertisements. d I was rather he was in Australia. e As soon as the kids get back from school, they straight _____ the television. f Take your flowers and go! Nothing can all those horrible things you said! g She's incredibly creative; she's always . interesting ideas. h I didn't want to do it, really! The others me _ it. to see Jack. I thought

deceive, trick someone accept a task, responsibility etc.

the address if I read it to

Check on page 91. 3 Below are five root-verbs commonly used in phrasal verbs, with meanings beside them. Look up each root-verb in your dictionary and find a phrasal verb for each of the meanings. Write the particle or particles on the correct line. The first has been done for you. a set b out begin consider as counterbalancing another fact c read see more in a book, attitude etc. than is really there d talk speak to someone in a superior, patronising way
e

then talk to you again. g Yes, it's bigger and faster, but that's got to be the fuel consumption, which is huge. h Nowadays, genuine antiques are very hard to unless you pay a fortune.

discuss

72

UNIT 13

i Some people try to _____ all sorts of significant meanings j OK, I'm sorry, I to upset you. 1 He was a very popular President abroad, but his own people weren't _____ words. m Reformers try to make social change _____ through political action. Check on page 91.
Dialogue completion exercise

B
A: Ah, yes, the scenery is fantastic, isn't it? So that was all right in the end, then.

their dreams. it , I didn't mean

B A: Back to Crete, actually, at least that's the plan. How about you? B A: You don't seem very sure. Hmm. Scotland, eh? B A: Wrong? Nothing as far as I know! Lovely place, apparently. B: A: I'm sure there is. Beautiful place, they say. B A: Have you? Ah, well I've heard just the opposite, actually. B A: My brother. He was there last summer. Apparently it poured with rain for the whole week. Check on page 91.
Mixed structures: sentence completion

by his fine

5 Fill in speaker B's part of the dialogue. A: Have you ever been to Greece? B A: 1976? So was I! B A: July. How about you? B A: Oh, I don't mind a lot of people around, and the hot weather is the reason I go! Anyway, April is a month I like to spend in England. B A: Crete. I love it. The people are so friendly. B A: Oh, did you? Perhaps you met the wrong ones. B A: I found it delicious. How about you? B A: Oh come on, don't exaggerate. Anyway I like plenty of oil on my food, personally. B: A: Well, they say it is, but I'm perfectly healthy. Anyway, did you have a nice time there ?

6 Complete the following sentences. Each line represents a word. Contractions count as one word. Sometimes the first letter of a word is given. The first one has been done for you.
a I wonder if you'd mind turning that radio down.

It's giving me a headache. b I haven't the f talking about. c I refused to have anything
d

you're

him. I didn't like the look of him. d I wouldn't t t be a very

good idea, if you want my opinion. e The truth o don't really care, do you? 73 m is that you

UNIT 13

f No m marry him. g In s

says, I'm going to

Words borrowed from French 7 Use your dictionary to help you fill each gap in the following sentences with one of the French words or expressions below. All are commonly used in English. a She certainly seems to have a wonderful with the students. What a relaxed, sympathetic atmosphere!

___ w

which he'd been treated, he didn't stop loving her. h Contrary w I'd b 1

to suppose, the food at the restaurant was rather good, i Had there b o p

b Don't be deceived by his very dangerous man! c Some of his jokes are a bit

manner; he's a

reaching the summit, we would have

continued, but it was clear that there wasn't. j Not being in for going out, they

, considering

his programme is on when children might be watching. d The whole Soviet Union. of NATO was to oppose the

decided to spend the evening watching television. k As f scheduled for 3 pm, 1 Well, it's. __t you, I know, the meeting is still

e Her article is a well-argued

of current

but I must be going now, m It'll be a long job, but regardless 1 n Much a takes, it's got to be done. r__ h

policy, which she finds totally inadequate. f There is a certain . about working on TV,

but it's just another job, really. g He doesn't do much else on the field, but he is a goalscorer ! between the warring

. so, I'm afraid I must turn your offer down. o I must s I'd r he hadn't told them,

h In bringing about a

but I suppose he thought he was acting for the best. p I'm afraid there seems s q In no k s of accident in the street outside, this be taken as an

wings of his party, he enabled it to present a more united image. i Even the children's rooms have bathrooms. j All the guests seemed to arrive , and the

admission of guilt. Check on page 92.

party suddenly livened up. rapprochement rapport raison d'etre en suite en masse critique par excellence suave risque mystique Check on page 92.

74

UNIT 13

Sentence stress and sounds: diphthongs

o The car was completely destroyed, apparently.

8 Say the dialogues below to yourself, and decide which diphthong in each utterance carries the main stress. Pair each utterance with another which stresses the same diphthong. Beside each utterance write the letter of the other one in the pair, and the stressed sound in phonemic script. One has been done for you. a How much do I owe you? b That'll be forty-five pounds, sir. c So I should take better care of myself, doctor?

p Just as well it was insured, then Check on page 92. When you have checked your answers, say the dialogues aloud, making sure you stress the right diphthong and pronounce it correctly.
Mixed structures: sentence rewriting

d Starting right away, Mr Robinson!

9 For each sentence below, write anothet with the same meaning, including the word in brackets in the form in which it is given. The first is done for you. a I need to know if he was telling the truth, (true)

e You said the girl ran away today?. f No, it was the boy that ran away. g There's been a big drop in output.

b Recently, crime has been increasing, (on)

c Don't say it's my fault, (put) h Which has meant less overtime, of course. d It's impossible to know for sure, (way) i Why did you steal such a thing? j I'm not sure any more, really. k Let's try and find a timetable. 1 There's one over there, by the look of it. e If Henry hadn't helped, we would never have managed. (Henry's)

f I made the most honest reply that I could, (as) m What's a more formal way of saying 'hide'.

n 'Conceal' is more formal, I think I'm right in saying.

g That's what we should do. (course)

75

UNIT 13

h I assure you I don't normally ask strangers for money, (habit)

i In the eighties, Britain's industrial base contracted, (saw)

j Not enough information is provided, (provision)

k Soon afterwards, they left, (wasn't)

1 Considering the recent troubles, I have decided to cancel my visit, (light)

Check on page 92.

76

Answer Key
Organising Your Learning: Introduction 4 The following are some ideas, though you may have others which are equally valid, in class lots of speaking opportunities you have company there is a teacher to organise activities, to guide and advise you, and to monitor your English outside you can work only on what you need you work when and for as long as you want you work at your own speed you follow your own interests you can use language in 'real-life' situations Unit 1 2 1m 2k 9h l0j a b c d e f g h i 31 4f 5d 6c 7n 11i 12b 13a 14 e 8g

8 a as light as a feather c as old as the hills e as quiet as a mouse g to sleep like a log i as blind as a bat

b to eat like a horse d to smoke like a chimney f as clean as a whistle h as pretty as a picture j to drink like a fish

9 h wrench c grabbed d loath e hurled f shattered g scoured h begged i shoved j soared k burst 1 rushed m hammering n swear o despair p stare q demanded r ruined 10 asothat b (in order) to give them c forworkingon d so that e (in order) to f for showing g so that students can h (in order) to show i so that j (in order) to k for students to 1 so that 11 b A good language student will not only participate in classroom work, but also work independently outside class time, in order to achieve her own learning objectives. c Apart from supporting its teachers with efficient teaching materials, a good language school will pay them for preparation time, so that they can present an organised programme of work. d A good language teacher will not only work hard in the classroom, but also spend time on lesson preparation, in order to be able to present an organised programme of work. Organising Your Learning: Dictionaries 4 a longingly /lorjirjli/ /p:nrrj/ b yawning /fleimQreoa/ c flame-thrower /d3Ambald/ d jumbled /foujan/ e lotion f chocolate /tfokalat/ /fisbs/ fearless S /fraitful/ h frightful 6 a irksome b encroach c roughage d phial e curtail f autopsy g chaotic h psalm i knoll j earl Unit 2 1 1 could tell 2 had known 3 would never have started 4 were 5 you'd never met 6 couldn't go 7 wouldn't go 8 you'd never been born 9 could keep up with 10 would have been 11 hadn't laughed 12 I'd never bought 13 would take 14 had never mentioned

Alice no longer resides at this address. He no longer has any respect for his parents' beliefs. We no longer have any objection to their presence, I no longer have any interest in that matter. or That matter no longer holds any interest for me, He no longer has any desire to continue living. There is no longer any reason for him to take such an attitude. I no longer have any intention of accepting the position. There is no longer any hope that the crisis can be resolved peacefully. This structure no longer presents any difficulties for me.

I OK 2 absolutely/utterly amazing 3 OK 4 absolutely infuriating 5 absolutely incredible 6 OK 7 absolutely terrified 8 rather pleased 9 absolutely delighted 10 OK II absolutely hideous 12 utterly ridiculous 5 a absolutely delicious rather/quite tasty b absolutely hilarious quite funny c absolutely essential quite important 6 dead tired fast asleep bored stiff dead right wide awake dead slow stone cold filthy rich raving mad stone deaf blind drunk 7 a stone cold b dead tired, fast asleep, wide awake c filthy rich, raving mad d dead right e bored stiff

77

ANSWER KEY

2 b I wish you'd take more care, so you wouldn't always make such a mess, c I wish you would be quiet/wouldn't make so much noise, so we could get some sleep, d I wish they would go home, so we could go to bed. e I wish you'd stop talking all the time, so I could get some work done. f I wish you would make up your mind, so I could book the tickets. g I wish he would fix the car, so I wouldn't have to take the bus to work. h 1 wish you kids would behave yourselves, so I could hear the television. 3 b I wish we hadn't spent such a lot; we could have taken a taxi home if we hadn't. c I wish you'd told me you were coming; I would have cooked something nice for dinner if you had, d I wish I'd studied harder at school; I could have gone to university if I had. e I wish I'd gone to university; I could have got a good job if I had. f I wish we'd known she could babysit; we wouldn't have had to stay in if we had. 4 a It's high time the government did something about inflation! b It's high time you started doing some homework! e It's high time you children went to bed! f It's high time they put a stop to all these strikes! h It's high time you started being a bit more punctual! i It's high time you grew up and acted responsibly! 5 a If he wasn't rich, he wouldn't (couldn't) have bought that new car. b If I weren't such a fool, I would have left him long ago. c If I hadn't lost my address book, I could ring them up. d If this government knew what it was doing, it wouldn't have raised interest rates. e Things would be better for business if interest rates hadn't gone up. f My marriage wouldn't have broken up if I hadn't lost my job. g Perhaps somebody would give him a job if he had a fixed address. h If he had a job, he could save some money. i If he had some money, he could rent a place to live. j He wouldn't be in this mess if he hadn't come to London. 78

1 figurative formidable saturated satisfying

2 fortuitous impractical preservative impossible disorderly extravagant insensitive subsidiary

3
outmanoeuvre schizophrenia unrestricted sentimental notwithstanding hesitation disenchantment polytechnic

4
oversubscribed nevertheless underexposed

5
secondary secretary literary reasonable

7 a get on with b put forward c let me down d takes after e gone off f get away with g tell her off h to go round 8 a fell behind b caught up with c stand for d got over e go without f longing for g work out h frown on 9 a grow on, grow out of fall out with, fall for, fall about get it across, get round, get on catch on, catch out

10 a get on b fallen out c catch (them) out d grows on e caught on to f grown out of g fell about h fell for i get (it) across j get round 11 Possible answers: b Developing countries have the capacity to create wealth, but are crippled by debt, Brazil, for example, has one of the largest economies in the world, but its huge export earnings are used to pay the interest on its foreign debt. c It is apparently difficult to find reasonably-priced accommodation in London at short notice. Take the case of the German students mentioned in the letter about London in Unit 1. Having arrived at Euston Station at 1 lpm, they still hadn't found a place to stay after half-an-hour's working through the Yellow Pages. d European young people are tending to stay at home and have an easy life instead of living on their own. The German law student in The stay at home kids is a case in point. He has a four-room apartment, yet he doesn't have to cook, and his mother washes his clothes for him.

ANSWER KEY

Organising Your Learning: Vocabulary Bubble puzzle a A 1 to owe 2 to pay off 3 rate of interest 4 budget deficit 5 overdraft B 1 overdraft 2 to overthrow 3 to overtake 4 to overturn 5 overcoat C 1 to overthrow 2 to throw out 3 a throwback D 1 an MP 2 a poll 3 constituency 4 overthrow 5 coup d'etat E 1 coup d'etat 2 fiasco 3 bizarre 4 fiance F 1 fiance 2 to break up 3 to fall for 4 to fancy someone G 1 to fall for 2 to fall to pieces 3 to fall ill 4 fall-out H 1 fall-out 2 power station 3 nuclear waste 4 H-bomb b Possible answers: MP: acronyms (e.g. BBC, UNESCO) to fall ill: sickness and health H-bomb: weapons and war overtake: driving vocabulary overcoat: clothes and accessories Organising Your Learning: Grammar 1 a There are far too many qualified lawyers, so it's hard to find work. b I went to an Italian-speaking school, so that my mother could help me with my work jf I needed it. c I'm glad to hear that some of what I said was of interest. d I'd rather you corrected my errors, please, and mightn't it be a good idea to do a dictation every week? e Certificates prove you're really good at something. f It sometimes seems almost impossible to keep pace with the others, g It's the first time I have had to correct my own writing, h I don't see any reason to go to the computer room with the class again. i That is easy to understand. j When I'm back in Switzerland I'm going to have a holiday, and after that I'm going to enter university to study law. k I'm not used to writing either in English or in Italian. 1 After this, 1 could have gone to university, but I did a secretarial course instead.

m After graduating, I spent 3 months in Paris to perfect my French, which I had studied for the previous 6 years, n Over the next few weekends I hope to see as much as possible of England. o I have just finished my studies in Germany. p In case I need advice, can I ask you after lessons? q Whatever we do, I'm sure it will be useful. r I would rather talk than always study grammar, s I arrived back in Spain and began working for a multinational company, whose head office was in my home town. t I had never seen such a beautiful place as that. 2 word order: f, h, o, r, t future tenses: j sequences and time expressions: j, 1, n logical connectors: 1, a, b prepositions: e, n, s in case: b, p too, enough, so, such: a, t relative clauses and what clauses: c, m, s punctuation: c, q first time: g adjective + infinitive: i present tenses in future subordinate clauses: j, q modals: I, d rather: d, r neither/nor: k present perfect/past simple/past perfect: m Unit 3 1 1 couldn't afford 2 couldn't see 3 had managed to sleep 4 would have been able to/ could have 5 could make/would be able to make 6 could see 7 were able to run 8 managed to make/ were able to make 9 couldn't understand 10 were able to/managed to get 11 couldn't believe 12 could speak 13 could make out 14 could have offered 15 could feel 16 had been able to/had managed to achieve 17 having been able to make 18 could have wept 19 was able to understand 20 hadn't been able to continue 21 to be able to offer 22 could give 23 had been able to/had managed to arrange 24 was able to help 25 could hardly find 26 to have been able to offer 2 a outmoded b outfit c outgoings d outlandish e outline f out-of-the-way g upgrade h upheaval 1 upkeep j uprising k uptight 1 upturn 3 a outgoings b uptight c upheaval d outmoded e outfit f upgrading g upturn h outlandish i uprising j upkeep k out-of-the-way 1 outline

79

ANSWER KEY

4 1 of 2 through (during would also be possible here) 3 without 4 of 5 on 6 for 7 at 8 on 9 in 10 of 11 under 12 under 13 to 14 for 15 of 16 on 17 of 18 in 19 on 20 from 21 against 22 of 23 with 24 in 25 until 5 Polite dialogue j Manager: Good evening, can I be of any help? n Customer: Good evening. Sorry to bother you, but are you the manager? f Manager: I am, sir. What can I do for you? m Customer: Well, it's about these spare ribs. There doesn't seem to be very much meat on them, I'm afraid. v Manager: I'm sorry to hear that, sir. May I see them? u Customer: Certainly. I don't like to complain, but as you can see . . . o Manager: Hmm. Well, sir, I must say they seem very similar to the spare ribs we usually serve, b u t . . . q Customer: You see, I do actually eat here regularly, and they definitely don't seem to be the same quality as usual. Not quite as meaty. e Manager: Well, sir, I'm sorry you feel that way. Naturally, I'll be glad to return them to our kitchen. Can I offer to bring you the menu again? d Customer: Yes, please. Thank you very much, and I'm sorry to cause any inconvenience. a Manager: Not at all, sir. One moment, sir, and I'll bring the menu. Rude dialogue 1 Manager: Hello. c Customer: You're the manager, I suppose. p Manager: Yeah, what do you want? g Customer: These spare ribs are no good, there's no meat on them. t Manager: Rubbish. Let's have a look at them, k Customer: Don't tell me I'm talking rubbish. Are you looking for trouble or something? b Manager: Just let me look at the ribs, all right? It's you who's making the trouble. Wei!, they look all right to me. What's wrong with them? i Customer; What's wrong with them? Look, I eat here a lot, and I'm telling you they're

rubbish. Just look at them! There's no way I'm paying for that! r Manager: Look, just keep your voice down, will you? OK, I'll take them back. What do you want instead? s Customer: Give me a steak, and hurry it up, I haven't got all day. h Manager: One steak. It'll take as long as it takes. We're very busy. 6 b There doesn't seem to be very much meat on them, I'm afraid. c Good evening. Sorry to bother you, but are you the manager? d Naturally, I'll be glad to return them to our kitchen. e . . . but as you see . . . f Can I offer to bring you the menu again? 7 b Possible answer: Of course it's got some problems. To start off with, it's a long way from the centre - even from the tube station, in fact - and you'd be even more isolated because it hasn't got a telephone. So your social life would probably suffer. And that's not to mention the rent, which is a bit high at 100 a week. On the other hand, it is self-contained, which is important, and there's a lot of space, considering it's got two bedrooms and a sitting room, plus kitchen and bathroom. The garden and TV are also a plus, especially if you would be spending quite a lot of time about the place. Organising Your Learning: Speaking (1) 1 Possible answers a 'Well, it's been nice talking to you. Bye!' b 'By the way, I was sorry to hear you failed your exam. You must be really disappointed.' c 'I'm beginning to wish we'd never come here, you know.' d 'We must stop meeting like this!' or 'Hi, we meet again e 'Have you seen (the film)? You must try and see it, it's really good!' a You would say I wished I had known (but in fact, you didn't know). b No, that's a polite thing some people say when a person does something nice for them without being asked to. c No, you only use didn't live up to when something isn't as good as expected.

80

ANSWER KEY

Unit 4
1 a 1 leaving 2 me to be 3 to have 4 to betray 5 undermining 6 to me to be 7 to be doing to b 1 being 2 to accept 3 to offer 4 on acting 5 them to do 6 being 7 for being 8 for patronising c 1 to continue 2 in saving 3 enabling us 4 to increase 5 to decrease 6 reducing 7 to say 8 making 9 us to take d 1 to give me 2 him of letting me down 3 to have offered 4 to give 5 saying (or having said) 6 by claiming 7 to remember 8 doing (or having done) 2 a I see him as (being) essential to the success of the deal. b She dismissed him as (being) unworthy of serious consideration. c He comes over as (being) rather arrogant. d I regard him as (being) the best in his field. e He struck me as (being) rather nervous. f I've never thought of him as (being) mean, g Witnesses describe the man as (being) tall and heavily-built. 3 a refusing b I arrive c burning d smoking e to arrive f watching g I admire h I know i to be j windsurfing 4 a You are to stay here until (you are) called. (instruction) b The Queen is to visit Canada next month. (arrangement) c You are not to leave this room for any reason. (instruction) d There's nothing to be done, (impossibility) e She turned to see her car disappearing into the distance, (discovery) f He is to be executed tomorrow, (arrangement) g He was nowhere to be seen, (impossibility) h She arrived to find the city in turmoil, (discovery) 5 a well-founded b well-to-do, well-heeled c ill-at-ease d ill-advised e well-groomed f well-intentioned g well-spoken h ill-fated i ill-defined j well-appointed 6 a 1 well-appointed 2 well-groomed 3 well-to-do 4 ill-at-ease 5 well-spoken b 1 well-intentioned 2 ill-fated 3 ill-defined 4 well-founded 5 ill-advised

81

ANSWER KEY

b That should be OK. I'll have to check, but I think we're free. c Good. Let me know tomorrow, then, if you can. d Hi, want to come for a drink? e We're having dinner in a few minutes, but later should be OK. Will that be all right for you? f I was wondering if you'd like to come out with me tonight. g I was thinking of going out for dinner together. h I'm sorry, but I don't really think so. Thanks anyway. Look, I must go now. Bye. 9 a i We looked around Jones' cosy apartment, with its inexpensive furnishings and cheerful colours. He was a slim, pale man with a proud, self-confident air. ii We looked around Jones' cramped apartment, with its cheap furnishings and gaudy colours. He was a skinny, pasty-faced man with an arrogant, cocksure air. b i He is more likely to make bold decisions than the previous president, his staff will find him a forthright and strong-willed person to work with, and his views more straightforward than those of his predecessor. However, he is a very shrewd man, and in order to achieve the high position he now holds, he must have shown greater flexibility in private than was usually expected from his more rigid predecessor. At home, I think we expect a more frugal style of government, and probably firmer law-and-order policies. In foreign policy, expect a greater willingness to intervene militarily in the affairs of smaller states compared with the hesitant former president, who, when he did act, preferred surreptitious diplomatic blackmail to the use of armed force. ii He is more likely to make rash decisions than the previous president. His staff will find him an abrasive and domineering person to work with, and his views more simplistic than those of his predecessor. However, he is a very devious man, and in order to achieve the high position he now holds, he must have shown greater lack of principle in private than was usually expected from his more principled predecessor. At home, I think we can expect a more penny'pinching style of government, and probably more repressive law-and-order policies. In foreign policy, expect a greater

willingness to meddle militarily in the affairs of smaller states, compared with the cautious former president, who, when he did act, preferred discreet diplomatic pressure to the use of armed force. Organising Your Learning: Writing 1 a . . . I went up the path to the door. It was open, so I entered the gloomy old house as quietly as I could. There wasn't a sound to be heard. I listened to the silence for a short time - -. b . . . I had always wanted to go to Paris in the spring, so I was delighted to receive your kind invitation, which arrived this morning. I would very much like to come... 2 It looks as if Student a should concentrate mostly on where to end sentences, and Student b on the order of adverbials in sentences. Unit 5 1 b Ken has got fat since he gave up smoking. c He's been eating a lot since he's been living in Franced He hasn't learnt much French since he started studying. e She's lost weight since she started her diet. f She's been looking better since she started doing exercises. g They've been going out more since they moved to France. h Their relationship has improved since they stopped watching TV all the time. i The children have learnt French since they moved to France. j They've made friends since they've been going out more. 2 a b c d It's a long time since I started learning English. It's twenty years since I've seen him. It's ages since I've been riding. It's thirty years since the city has seen such celebrations/since the last time the city saw such celebrations. It's only ten minutes since he leftIt's eighteen years since the war ended, It's years since I've seen such a beautiful girl, I spoke to him for the last time a year ago.

e f g h

3 a False. It fell by 1.3% (line 12) b True, {lines 10-13) cTrue. (lines 14-17) d True {lines 20-24) e False. They insist on doing so (lines 23-24) f False. It is likely (lines 25-27) g True, (lines 27-29)

ANSWER KEY

5 a There has been a slight fall in output. Output has fallen from 21 million tons to 20.9 million tons. There has been a contraction of " % in A output. or Output has suffered a contraction of/2%, b Unemployment has risen by 250,000, There has been an increase of 10% in unemployment, c The rate of inflation has risen by 3%. There has been an increase of 3% in the rate of inflation. d There has been a substantial rise in the value of exports. The value of exports has risen sharply, The value of exports has risen by 7 billion. 6 a We hadn't been driving long when we saw the sign which we were looking for. b I explained carefully, so that there should be no misunderstanding, c The war caused severe poverty, which in turn led to an attempted revolution. d Notwithstanding the increase in sales, the company's future still looks bad. e 1 find it absolutely extraordinary that such a thing should have happened, 7 b The result was a disappointment to me. c He looked at me more in astonishment than pleasure. d If you take part-time work you'll lose your entitlement to unemployment benefit. e The children danced around in excitement and delight. f We stared at the scene in horror and fascination, g The adjustment policies led to the progressive impoverishment of ordinary people. h He pushed at the locked door in surprise and annoyance. i Their behaviour caused me more amusement than fear. j I gaped at him in utter stupefaction at what he had told me. k They lived there in contentment for many years. 8 a 1 resulted 2 As a result 3 one consequence 4 Owing 5 consequently 6 this reason 7 causing b 1 the result of 2 caused by 3 due 4 because 5 because 6 as a result of

Unit 6 1 a This is nowhere near as hard as I thought it would be. b He earns four times as much as I do. c The tree was four times the height of the man, d It is a great deal more complicated than people think. e This car costs three times as much as that one. f It's far cheaper to go by car than to fly. or It's far more expensive to fly than to go by car. g But going by car isn't anywhere near as quick or as comfortable. h I don't think the weather's quite as hot today. i It isn't nearly as hard to keep fit if you can do it in a group. j I find it a lot more enjoyable to travel with friends than to travel alone. 2 The following are the words which appeared in the original text, though in some cases other words would not be incorrect. 1 since 2 involving 3 although 4 despite 5 still 6 and 7 but 8 since 9 by 10 for 11 from 12 compared 13 linked 14 these 15 but 16 what 17 even 18 single 19 what 20 still 3 b People consume/use slightly more white sugar than they used to. c Consumption of wholemeal bread and cereals is slightly lower than it used to be. d Consumption of dairy produce is a great deal higher than it used to be. c People drink seven times as much alcohol as they used to. f People only eat about half as much fish as they used to. g Consumption of green vegetables is far higher than it used to be. h People don't use/consume anywhere near as much white sugar as they used to. i People only drink about a quarter as much alcohol as they used to. j Consumption of dairy produce is far lower than it used to be. k Consumption offish is slightly higher than it used to be. 1 People eat three times the quantity of wholemeal bread and cereals that they used to eat.

83

ANSWER KEY

4 Possible answers: a People in Hypochondra eat much more fibre (than people in Colestera), b The diet in Hypochondra contains far more vitamins (than that in Colestera). c People in Colestera consume far more cholesterol (than people in Hypochondra). d There is a far greater likelihood of suffering from heart disease in Colestera (than in Hypochondra), e Alcohol-related injuries are probably much more common in Colestera (than in Hypochondra). f People in Colestera probably need a lot more dental care (than people in Hypochondra). a 3 b 17 c2 i 14 j l l 6 a b c d e f g h i j dl0 e7 f 12 g16 h 18

hasn't got a leg to stand on put my feet up were glad to see the back of him put my foot in it say it to my face put your heads together on its last legs take it to heart closing our eyes to on your own head be it

7 Jack:

Good heavens, Gladys, you're getting really fat, you know. You'd 1 better to do something about it. Gladys: Yes, perhaps I 2 would. Do you really think it's 3 too bad? Jack: Do you mind if I 4 asked how much you weigh 5 m_these days? Gladys: Oh, you know, Jack, a bit 6 more that last year. Jack: Seriously, Gladys, I 7 didn't laugh about it, if I were you. How much do you weigh, in fact? Gladys: About 14 stone. Jack: That's a 8 horrible lot, Gladys. 1 mean, I hope 9 you let me say so, 10 you are dangerously fat. How old are you, if you 11 don't care about my asking? Gladys: 34. What do you mean dangerously? Jack: Well, heart attacks of course. 1 hate to say 12 that, but that's a lot of fat for one heart to carry. I really think 13 you do ought to lose weight.

Gladys: Yes, well, 1 14 know your point, and I have tried a few diets, but nothing seems to work. What do you think I 15 should to do? Jack: Well, if you 16 asked my opinion, complicated diets don't work. How many times a day do you eat? Gladys: Well, I 17 hardly don't stop, really. Jack: Well, have you tried just eating less often? Why don't you just eat twice a day? Gladys: I've tried that, but it's 18 not good; 1 just can't resist the temptation. Jack: Well, the 19 manner I see it, you've simplygot to resist it, Gladys: Well, it's 20 easier saying than doing, isn't it? 1 mean it's all right for you, you're thin anyway. 21 For you it's easy to talk. The thing is, I've got 22 enough weight to lose that it hardly seems worth starting. Jack: Well, you've got to start, if you want to know what I think. Gladys: I 23 agree entirely. Perhaps I'd better. Jack: Have you tried doing exercises? Gladys: Oh yes, I tried keep-fit classes, but they didn't 24 work any good. Jack: How many times did you go, if you don't 25 bother my asking? Gladys: Oh, you know, a few. Well, three or four. Jack: Well, what 26 are you expecting? You've got to keep it up! Gladys: Oh, I'm sure you're right, but what's the point? Jack: Look, Gladys, if you don't mind my saying so, I think you're being 27 fairly negative. It's simple. If you don't lose weight you're going to 28 pass through problems. Gladys: All right, you've got a point I 29 agree. I 30 try again. 1 better do 2 should 3 that 4 ask 5 these days 6 more than last year 7 I wouldn't laugh 8 an awful lot 9 you don't mind me saying 10 but you 11 if you don't mind 12 it 13 you ought to 14 see 15 ought to 16 want 17 I hardly stop 18 no good 19 way 20 easier said than done 21 It's easy for you to talk 22 so much 23 I suppose you're right 24 do 25 mind 26 do you expect 27 rather 28 have 29 suppose 30 I'll try

84

ANSWER KEY

Unit 7 1 a b c d e f g h

She committed an. offence, and was arrested. She was charged with the crime. She appeared before a magistrate. She was remanded in custody by the magistrate. She stood trial in London. She pleaded not guilty. Witnesses gave evidence. The Counsel for the Defence cross-examined the prosecution witnesses. i She was convicted of the crime. j She was sentenced to five years' imprisonment.

B: Neither did Paul. Rose did. A: Look, if they're home why haven't they rung to say so? They would have, if they were, you know. B: They don't always. A: They said they would. They promised to. B: They might have forgotten, A: No, they wouldn't have. I know them. B: So do I. Oh, all right, you win. Do you want me to call them? A: Would you? B: Of course, dear . . . Ah. No reply, dear. 5 a b c d e f g h i j k 1 'Will you succeed? 'Well, I certainly intend to!' They wanted me to resign, but I refused. It wasn't necessary to go, so I didn't bother, I'd love to come but I can't afford to. I can't be sure that he touched the other car, but he appeared to. 'Will you visit them again?' 'We hope to.' I tried to get through, but failed. It wasn't easy to persuade her, but I finally managed. She didn't hit him, but she threatened to. She thinks I don't want to see her, but I'm longing to. She didn't like him, she only pretended to. He doesn't want me to go, but I've decided,

2 Synonyms miserly - parsimonious grasp - understand misapprehension - misunderstanding intrepid - fearless Antonyms spiteful - kindly oppose - support first-hand - vicarious incessant - sporadic help - hinder 3 dangerous - harmful hard up - impoverished hold with - approve of shout - bawl sensible - wise prejudice - biased pale - wan a shouted (bawled sounds too rough and vulgar) b prejudiced (biased is to do with a particular situation, not a general attitude) c pale, wan d impoverished (hard-up is too informal) e wise, sensible f harmful {dangerous suggests that something bad might happen, whereas we know that smoking causes harm) g approve of (hold with must be in the negative) h biased (see above) i approve of, hold with j bawled, shouted k hard-up (see above) 1 dangerous (see above) m pale (if people are wan they look pale and not well) n sensible (for people, wise implies age and experience) 4 A:Do you suppose they got home safely? B: I expect so. Well, of course they did. Why shouldn't they have? Don't you think they did? A: I certainly hope so. But Paul was drinking so much. B: So was I. A:Yes, but you didn't have to drive home.

6 a forthcoming, substandard outspoken, outrageous foreknowledge, repulsive disgusting, fraternal lightheaded, exhausted disfigured, constructive b underwear, breathtaking fanciful, foolhardy overdraft, interesting uprising, outpouring substructure, outbuilding implement, sensible 1 substandard forthcoming outspoken outrageous foreknowledge lightheaded 2 exhausted repulsive disgusting fraternal disfigured constructive

85

ANSWER KEY

3 breathtaking foolhardy uprising outpouring substructure outbuilding

4 sensible underwear fanciful interesting implement sensible

f Intensive. You have no visual help, and must hear every word. Unit 8 1 a Even people whose work doesn't involve much driving are often provided with company cars, the value of which is considered as part of their income for tax purposes. b I don't see the point of our discussing something you know even less about/about which you know even less/than I do. c These new regulations, which will not affect people whose annual income is lower than 12,000, come into force next year. d 'These United Nations resolutions, in defiance of which rhis unacceptable military occupation continues, must and will be enforced.' e However, other UN resolutions, dozens of which have been passed in recent years condemning similar acts by more acceptable governments, show no sign of being enforced. 2 b Until now, hts last one was the most expensive film that had ever been made, c Children who are brought up in poverty are prone to disease. d In the 1950s, many countries, which had been ruled by colonial administrations for years, achieved independence. e However, nations which have been denied political expression for years often take time to achieve genuine democracy. f Civil rights which are considered to be basic in rich countries have to be fought for elsewhere.
a more formal

7 a 2 befits 3 shamefully 4 respectively 5 disrespectful 6 fittings 7 shameless 8 unquestioning b 1 fruitless 2 reserved 3 pointers 4 fruitful 5 pointed 6 reservations 7 restless 8 rested 8 Sentence 1 A robber who held up a petrol station with a cucumber was given 3% years yesterday to think about the crime, which the judge said was 'at the lower end of the robbery scale' - but still no joke. Sentence 7 During his trial at Knightsbridge Crown Court, in which he was convicted of the two robberies, the jury heard how Mr Lancaster, of Mora Street, Shoreditch, east London, first hailed the taxi and then drove to a greengrocer's shop to buy the cucumber and a bunch of bananas. Sentence 8 After offering the taxi driver a banana he was driven to his flat, where he changed his clothes and put on a pair of dark glasses. Sentence 13 While I accept this is at the lower end of the robbery scale, this is a serious matter, and these courts are required to comply with sentencing policy, Organising Your Learning: Listening 1 a Intensive. First, to hear if it is relevant to you. Then, if it is relevant, to hear all the information. All this, with no visual clues to help you. b Extensive. All you need is to follow approximately in order to 'make polite noises' from time to time, c Extensive, unless you heard something of urgent interest. In any case, visual information would help you, so the listening itself wouldn't need to be so intensive. d Intensive, because of the difficulty of recognising the words. e Intensive. You have visual help, probably, but the information may be complex, and all the details are important.

b less formal to really trust a win it took everyone by surprise die happen talk about find/find out a lot of someone who works for me all over the world be told about building

to place your complete trust in a victory there was a widespread amazement at it lose your life occur discuss discover a great many one of my employees worldwide be informed about edifice

86

ANSWER KEY

conceal I'm afraid perform take pride in express an interest in there is concern extraordinary in search of item abscond firearm no longer

hide sorry, but do he proud of say you're interested in people are worried amazing looking for thing run off gun not any more

8 1 Like 2 unlike 3 Neither 4 in contrast 5 Both 6 Similarly 7 neither 8 nor 9 Like 10 Unlike Organising Your Learning: Reading (2) 1 You should recognise: accused, evidence, in custody, acquitted, prosecution, charged with, remanded in custody, tried, trial. 4 Possible additions are: fabricating evidence, armed robbery, to plant (evidence), raid, {to seek) damages, PC, forensic evidence, the scene of the crime 5 a (bad) wicked b (deception, untruth) to fabricate, planted c (clothes) overalls d (damage, disaster) devastating Unit 9 1 a Cameras are not to be taken into the museum. b Cameras must be left at the desk. c He is having his house redecorated. d She has been persuaded to change her mind. e The missing child is being searched for. f This window should never have been closed. g The book must be finished by January. h I assure you that the book will be finished by January. 2 a b c d e i g I can't stand being stared at. No passive We are being talked about by the whole town. Don't worry, they will be taken care of. No passive Children hate not being listened to by adults, This whole takeover needs to be looked into by a team of special investigators.

4 a They discussed the situation in Zimbola, about which there is worldwide concern. b That is the bag in which the firearm was concealed, c The expedition discovered this extraordinary edifice, in which human sacrifices used to be performed. d I'm afraid the item in which you expressed interest is no longer for sale, e I've just discovered that one of my employees, in whom I placed complete trust, has absconded with 10,000. f He spends every weekend in his garden, in which he takes great pride, g The outcome of the election, at which there was widespread amazement, was a socialist victory. h Here is the diamond, in search of which a great many men have lost their lives. i This meeting, about which the President was informed by his staff, occurred in New York. 5 1 throughout 2 facing 3 without 4 though 5 of 6 by 7 reported 8 took 9 promised 10 planned 11 also 12 was 13 members 14 though 15 effect 16 sharp 17 country's 18 on 19 come 20 regime 21 change 22 rid 23 suggest 24 overthrow 25 hoping 26 own 27 expressed 28 prospect 29 tradition 30 after 6 b break-up c takeover d turnover e crackdown f shake up g climb-down h cover-up i set-back j write-up k pile-up 1 let-down m layout n breakthrough o set-up p show-off q mix-up r sell-out 7 a mix-up b sell-out c takeover, turnover d breakthrough e climb-down, cover-up t break up g crackdown h let down i shake up j hold-ups k pile-up 1 layout m write-up

3 a strut b shuffle c lounge d topple e perch f leap g tower h dash i stride j wander 4 b wander c tower d perch e strut g shuffle h leap i stride j dash 5 a4 b3 c6 dl e5 (2 f topple

6 a feel like fish out of water b smelt a rat c let sleeping dogs lie d flogging a dead horse e made a pig of myself f chickened out 7 The following words appeared in the original advertisement, though in some cases other words would not be incorrect. 1 Listen 2 shares 3 needs 4 relationship 5 meaning 6 tail 7 interpret 8 language 87

ANSWER KEY

9 yours 10 down 11 translating 12 expressions 13 range 14 bonds 15 once 16 understanding 17 delighted 18 refund 19 enclose 20 charge 8 a peer b gaze c pout d beam e frown f gape g sneer h glare i stare 9 a gazing b peering c beaming d gaping/staring e frowning f sneering g pouting h gazing i glaring 10 Colin: John, can I ask a favour? John: Sure, what is it? Colin: Well, I've got to go into the city centre at lunch time, and it's raining. I don't suppose you'd lend me your car, would you? John: Ah, well, normally I would, but it's a bit difficult today, because I'll be using it myself. Sorry about that. Colin: OK, no problem. Derek: Derek Reynolds. John: Hello, Derek, this is John Carling. Derek: Hello, John, nice to speak to you again. What can I do for you? John: Hi. Listen, Derek, I'm sorry to put you out, but that meeting we arranged. Would it be possible to change the time? Derek: It depends. When did you have in mind? John: Sometime during the afternoon, if possible, Say 2 pm? Derek: Let me see. Well, I'm supposed to be busy then, but I could try to rearrange that, I suppose. John: Would you? I'd be grateful if you would As I say, I'm sorry to put you out like this, but there's no way I can make the morning. Derek: Don't worry about it. I'll see what 1 can do about rearranging the other thing, and get back to you, all right? 11 a Although many people find the presence of so many dogs in Britain a nuisance, it cannot be denied that they often provide uncomplaining companionship to people who, because of age or other circumstances, have no other friends. b Most people would support a moderate movement whose aim was to end the use of animals in nonmedical experiments, as long as it pursued peaceful means. However, animal rights activists who use wildly inappropriate terrorist methods only alienate

the majority of the population, who ask themselves with some justification if these people are quite right in the head. Unit 10 1 a If it hadn't been (But) for my wife, we wouldn't have moved house. b If it hadn't been (But) for my financial situation, we wouldn't have left New York, c If it hadn't been (But) for the low price, we wouldn't have been able to buy our house. d If it weren't (But) for the strange stories I've heard, wouldn't worry, e If it weren't (But) for the noises at night, I would quite like the place. f If it hadn't been (But) for my little boy, my baby daughter would have been killed. g If it weren't (But) for all those stupid Hollywood films, nobody would believe in ghosts. 2 a were offered, would probably be, didn't speak, wouk take, was, would have, wouldn't b had, was, went on, would buy, would go, wanted, wouldn't matter, didn't know, would have, still had. would send, liked, would crew 3 a 1 On the 2 in favour 3 mind 4 under no 5 in return b 1 beyond 2 in 3 the advice 4 on second 4 The following are the prepositions which appeared in the original article, though in some cases other prepositions would not be incorrect. 1 along 2 to 3 for 4 like 5 into 6 in 7 within 8 since 9 of 10 with 11 into 12 for 13 on 14 up 15 to 16 of 17 among 18 during 19 by 20 with 21 from 22 between 23 with 24 after 25 for 5 a on b up c with h for, in d into e from f into g of

6 Where more than one adjective is possible, the most common is given first. The stronger adjective is written in italics. a high unemployment b the great majority c best, good wishes d good sense e high, strong winds f the best part g heavy rain h a high opinion of i a heavy blow j a great, good opportunity k a good ten minutes/a good while/a good hour 1 high speeds m a strong possibility n strong views

88

ANSWER KEY

o a strong smell/taste p high, good quality q big business r high profits s high finance t heavy industry u great difficulty v a big mistake w a large quantity x a strong, heavy accent y heavy losses a z strong influence 7 a 1 strong argument 2 good sense 3 big mistake 4 great opportunity b 1 great difficulty 2 good 3 best part c 1 High winds 2 heavy rain 3 strong possibility d 1 large 2 high quality 3 strong 4 high speed 5 a good chance 8 go cold, bald, pale, mad, crazy, white, (and other colours) wrong, bad, blind, deaf, broke, wild, insane, bankrupt, well get angry, old, cold, drunk, violent, thin, fat, ready, tired, unfriendly, cloudy, windy, bored, excited, lost, wet, well, nasty, mad, difficult, dry, impossible, famous, rich, 9 a turned b get c has gone d getting e getting f go g become h has gone/is going i going j getting k became 1 get m turning n has gone 0 gets p go q went r turn
Unit 11

2 1 h Yes, that's right, next month actually. We're moving to Portugal on the twentieth. 2 d Yes, I'll be teaching English in a small school in Lisbon. 3 f Yes, I'm starting at the beginning of September. 4 b Well, I'll be working outside the centre, so it won't be all that picturesque, but yes, Lisbon's nice. 5 i Apparently, yes, but I'll be working in the evenings, so I'll be going to work in the late afternoon. And that's when everybody else will be coming back. So I won't be sitting in a traffic jam every day, I hope. 6 e They'll be going to school in the afternoons, so I'll be able to spend some time with them in the mornings. And we'll be living in a house, so there'll be a garden to play in, 7 a Yes, we're moving straight in as soon as we arrive. 8 c Not especially, no. We won't be living as close to the beach as we would like, but at least it's not too expensive. 9 g Weli, I won't be earning very much, but enough to live on quite comfortably. We'll be OK. 3 a 'The Prime Minister is to attend a special session of the UN Security Council later this week.' b 'Will you be wanting breakfast in your room?' c i'm spending the weekend at my Grannie's.' d 'I was going to ask her but I forgot.' e 'You're not going to go out/not going out in this rain just to get a newspaper, are you? Look, I'm going to the town centre myself a bit later on, so I'll be walking past the newsagents anyway. I'll get you one then if you like.' 4 a 2 a click 3 the howling 4 the roar 5 a screech 6 a sharp crack 7 The heavy thud 8 crunched b 1 a sharp hiss 2 a faint tinkle c 1 a polite tap 2 barked 3 would rattle

1 b I was going to buy dollars, but now the exchange rate has gone up, 1 think I'll wait a while. c 1 was going to go for a walk, but now the weather has clouded over, I suppose I'll stay in after all. d They were going to offer him a job, but now they've found out he's been in prison, I guess they'll think twice about it. e Luis was going to have a party to watch the World Cup Final on TV, but now Brazil have been knocked out, I guess he'll call it off, f I was going to call the doctor, but now her fever has come down, I think I'll wait and see how she is tomorrow. g I was going to take out a mortgage to buy a flat, but now the interest rate has gone up, I suppose I'll have to keep renting. h I was going to take a job in El Pagador, but now civil war has broken out, I suppose I'll stay in Britain. 1 I was going to write to you, but now you've phoned, I guess I won't bother. j They were going to have a baby, but now he's lost his job, I suppose they'll wait.

6 b It wasn't because of lack of planning that they failed/It wasn't lack of planning that caused them to fail/their failure. c What gave him confidence was his belief in his own ability/It was his belief in his own ability that gave him confidence. d It looked as if there had been a fight.
89

ANSWER KEY

e Walking in the countryside is something I've always liked. f She wasn't nearly as interested in football as I was. g I'd rather you didn't do that. h You must take his age into account/take into account how young he is. i It suddenly occurred to me that I hadn't seen John all day. j His behaviour gave rise to resentment. 7 a flash b flared c glow d glare e shimmering f twinkling g sparkling h gleamed i blazing j flickered 8 a No matter what they say, don't let yourself by persuaded, b As a consequence of uncontrolled deforestation, the whole area suffers from soil erosion, c Why on earth she did such a thing is utterly beyond me. d In return for helping him, 1 was offered a job in one of his companies, which I reluctantly refused, e I'd be glad to get in touch with him for you, if you'll let me have his number. f As long as everyone stays calm, everything should be sorted out shortly, g He was accused of attempting to cause the downfall of the Government. h It is said to be by far the largest ship ever built. i What difference does it make how long it takes to get there? j This accident, as a result of which Mr Smith lost an arm, was directly caused by unsafe working conditions.
Unit 12

2 c It is inconceivable that the government will fall this month. d It is not beyond the bounds of possibility that the government will fall this year. e It seems beyond doubt that Japanese car manufacturers will take over the luxury car market in the next few years. f There is a strong possibility that the hostages have been taken to another location. g There is very little likelihood that there will be another global conflict in the near future, (or There is very little likelihood of another global conflict in the near future.) h It is not beyond the bounds of possibility that cars will be banned from all cities in the future. i There is no doubt that women drivers are safer than men. j It's quite possible that he has left the country already. k It is unlikely that he has left the country already, 3 a It sounded as if/though everything was going well. b Everything seemed to have been prepared correctly. c The situation seems to have been brought back under control. d It looks as if/though everything is getting back to normal. e It sounds as if/though they're heading for a divorce. f They seem to me to have made a mistake getting married so young, g It sounded to me as if/though he had no intention of changing his mind. h We seemed to have been wasting our time trying to persuade him. i They seemed to us to be arguing about something. j It looked as if/though they had come to blows already that evening. 4 a ought to/should have been finished b needn't have bothered c will have been driving d would have been e might/could have been killed f should have left g should be kept h might make i will have left j should say

1 Affirmative, in order of strength There is no doubt whatsoever t h a t . . . It seems beyond doubt t h a t . . . There is a strong possibility t h a t . . . It's quite possible t h a t . . . It is possible t h a t . . . It is not impossible t h a t . . . It is not beyond the bounds of possibility t h a t . . . Negative, in order of strength It is inconceivable t h a t . . . There is very little likelihood t h a t . . . It's unlikely t h a t . . .

5
a b c d e

GB
ground floor take-away food off-licence mates a crossroads

US
first floor take-out food liquor store buddies an intersection

90

ANSWER KEY

f g h i j

a torch the pavement tough, vicious mean rubbish

a flashlight the sidewalk mean stingy garbage

6 a grotesque b debut c melee d genre e gauche f carte blanche g duvet h blase i faux pas j naive k farce 1 decor m brusque n fiance Note: naive is used for both men and women, while a female fiance is spelt fiancee. 8 a melee b duvet c blase d debut e faux pas f decor g naive h brusque i carte blanche 9 scenario fiasco bravado prima donna guru crescendo saga spiel taboo forte detailed prediction of the way a situation could develop failure so complete as to be ridiculous a reckless, courageous attitude, intended to impress someone temperamental and difficult to work with. a respected adviser or expert (slightly ironic expression) something getting louder or more intense a long story or narration a smooth, convincing speech aimed at persuading someone considered by society to be too 'bad' or offensive even to talk about something you are especially good at

side of the road. It looked as if I might be in serious trouble. Something had to be done, that was plain to see, but it wasn't quite as easy to see what that something should be. On the other hand, it was possible that the engine could cool down in a few minutes if I waited. Having come to the conclusion that this was the wisest course of action to adopt, I sat down on a rock. It was at this point that the first flame showed itself above the engine.

Unit 13
1 a He tried to explain away his absence. b Come on, into the kitchen, you're not going to get out of the washing-up this time! c Unfortunately, your theory is not borne out by the facts. d It's not fair, you always side with her when we argue. e I read up on the company before I took the job. f Don't worry. He'll threaten you, but he hasn't got the nerve to go through with it. g Don't take out insurance with the first company you speak to, be patient and shop around first. h It was only when the lesson began that it dawned on me that I was in the wrong classroom. 2 a put it off b boils down to c cash in on d taken aback e head straight for f make up for g coming up with h talked me into 3 b set against c read into d talk down to e talk over f talk out off g come by h come about i take back j take down k take in 1 take on 4 a take down b talk . . . out of c set about d talk down to e take on f talk . . . over g set against h come by i read . .. into j take . . . back I taken in m come about 5 The following are only suggestions, but the main ideas should be as here. B: Yes, I was there in 1976. B: Really, what month? B: April. Greece gets so crowded in summer, and the weather's too hot for me. B: Which part of Greece did you go to? B: You think so? I found them rather unfriendly, actually. B: Maybe I did. How did you like the food? B: I thought it was absolutely disgusting, to tell you the truth. So oily. I don't think I've ever eaten worse in my life. 91

1 0 a forte b saga c fiasco d gurus e prima donna f taboo g bravado h crescendo i scenarios j spiel 11 I hadn't been driving more than a few minutes when it struck me that something was the matter with the car. A strange noise was coming out of the engine, and from time to time there would be such an alarming shaking that the car seemed to be on the point of disintegration. It was by no means the first time the car had behaved in this way I'd had it for fifteen years, and it wasn't a new car any more. However, it had never caused me such concern before. It seemed to me that it would be wise to pull off the road so that I could look under the bonnet. Lifting the bonnet, I noticed a faint smell of burning. I looked carefully, and as I thought, the engine was giving off wisps of acrid smoke. Since I am by no means an expert on cars, let alone on an old wreck like my own, I retreated in order to consider the situation from the safety of the other

B: Fair enough, but it's very bad for the health, you know. B: Overall, I did, yes. Mostly because it's such a beautiful place. B: Where are you going this year? B: Well, we were thinking of perhaps going to Scotland, but nothing's fixed. B: What's wrong with Scotland? B: There's some lovely scenery there, I've heard. B: I've heard the weather's good in summer, B: Who from? 6 b 1 haven't the faintest idea what you're talking about. c I refused to have anything to do with him. I didn't like the look of him. d I wouldn't think that would be a very good idea, if you want my opinion, e The truth of the matter is that you don't really care do you? f No matter what anybody says, I'm going to marry him. g In spite of the way in which he'd been treated, he didn't stop loving her. h Contrary to what I'd been led to suppose, the food at the restaurant was rather good. i Had there been any possibility of our reaching the summit, we would have continued, but it was clear that there wasn't. j Not being in the mood for going out, they decided to spend the evening watching television. k As far as I know, the meeting is still scheduled for 3pm. 1 Well, it's been nice talking to you, but I must be going now. m It'll be a long job, but regardless of how long it takes, it's got to be done. n Much as I regret having to do so, I'm afraid I must turn your offer down, o I must say I'd rather he hadn't told them, but I suppose he thought he was acting for the best. p I'm afraid there seems to have been some kind of accident in the street outside. q In no way should this be taken as an admission of guilt. 7 a rapport b suave c risque d raison d'etre e critique f mystique g par excellence h rapprochement i en suite j en masse

9 b c d e f g h i j k 1

Recently, crime has been on the increase, Don't put the blame on me. There's no way of knowing for sure. But for Henry's help we would never have managed. I made as honest a reply as I could, That's the course {of action) that we should follow. I assure you (that) I am not in the habit of asking strangers for money, The eighties saw a contraction in Britain's industrial base. There is insufficient provision of information. It wasn't long before they left./It wasn't Song after that that they left. In the light of the recent troubles, 1 have decided to cancel my visit.

92