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WATER

Systems

VISION ANAM MODEL LAND WATER WATER

Water
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Bioregional Approach Healthy Watershed Water Supply Water System Rainwater Harvesting

SOCIAL

Mmili buka ngosi ma bukwalu ihe isi ike di nime Anam. Imeputa ihe nmmili Anam icho ihe di nime ya mma, nakwa imepe ya na oge, na iru kwa ihe achoro iru nakwa iku ihe ga ano ogo logo oge nebe mmili gas esi na aga nebe mmili ozizo ga esi agasi ike unwata unwa nokiri kiri obodo a hu.
Water is both a blessing and a hardship in Anam. The Anam water system will strategically design water infrastructure, so that the annual flooding and heavy rainfall can be a positive natural force in the cycles of the city.
MOBILITY APPENDIX ENERGY ECONOMY

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WATER

VISION

A Bioregional Approach
Yenisey Yukon

Kolyma Lena

ANAM

1.
Mackenzie

WORLD

Ob

MODEL

Nelson

St. Lawrence

Danube

Amur Volga
LAND

2.
Mississippi
NIGER RIVER WATERSHED

CONTINENT

Euphrates & Tigris

3. BIOREGION 4.
COUNTRY STATE

Ganges

Huang He

WATER

DRINKING & DOMESTIC USE STORMWATER MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION ENERGY GENERATION AGRICULTURAL IRRIGATION RECREATION

5.
ANAMBRA RIVER WATERSHED EZICHI RIVER WATERSHED

Yangtze Nile Indus

6. REGION 7. AGROPOLITAN

SOCIAL

8. ANAM CITY
Amazon

9. COMMUNITY 10. NEIGHBORHOOD 11. ECOSYSTEM 12. BLOCK 13. PARCEL

Lake Chad Basin Congo Zambezi

The NIGER RIVER BASIN is located in western Africa and covers 7.5% of the continent, spanning ten countries, including Nigeria.
Total area of the country (km2) = 923,770 Area of the country within the basin (km2) = 584193 As % of total area of basin (%) = 25.7 As % of total area of country (%) = 63.2 Average annual rainfall in the basin area (mm) = 535 min., 2845 max., 1185 mean
[Source: FAO Land and Water Development Division]

ECONOMY ENERGY

Paran

Orange

Murray Darling

MOBILITY APPENDIX

Major Rivers and Watersheds of the World

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106

WATER

Sahara Desert

VISION

The Niger River Watershed Covers 62% of Nigeria

MALI NIGER

ANAM MODEL

NIGER RIVER BASIN


GUINEA SIERRA LEONE BURKINO FASO BENIN

LAND WATER WATER SOCIAL

NIGERIA

ECONOMY ENERGY MOBILITY

Niger River Delta ATLANTIC OCEAN


Niger River Watershed and Flood Plain spans eight countries.

CAMEROON

APPENDIX

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WATER

VISION

Healthy Watershed
ANAM
EQUITY PRODUCTIVITY QUALITY DIVERSITY MOBILITY VITALITY

>

Living with Flooding


The Niger & Anambra River Basin is home to the Anam people. The eight traditional communities of Anam are currently spread across the region generally known as a river flood plain. For more than three months each year, this area is transformed into pervasive marshlands due to low elevation and flat terrain. During the rainy season, the region can receive up to 200cm of rainfall. At its peak, water levels rise can rise up to 3 meters in some areas and farmers are forced to leave their farms to stay at highland settlements with relatives. Roadways are cut off forcing schools, farming and other activities to be suspended until the floodwaters recede.

MODEL

FEB: lowest water level of Anambra & Ezichi Rivers LAND

The Challenge of Balance


Annual flooding has become a part of life for the Anam people and they travel throughout the region from farm to market on the rivers by canoe to conduct trade. They respond to the natural hydrological systems for their survival and have innovated many solutions for managing their resources during the floods. On farm settlements, farmers build flexible farm storage and construct mounds and hummocks near their housing for protection. The wetland condition resulting from the floods are a critical contributor to regional biodiversity and ecological strength. The seasonal floodwaters serve as natural irrigation and deposits nutrient-rich sediments on to farmlands. However, increasing population and urbanization creates pressure on the hydrologic system in this riverine area. Conventional development causes wetland areas to be reduced, which damages water supply and quality. A depleted flood plain also increases risk of flooding in other areas of the region as water rushes in during the rainy season and as water levels rise in response to global climate change.

WATER WATER SOCIAL ECONOMY

JUN: rainy season starts

A Community Wide Response


While the flooding offers many benefits to agriculture and the ecology, it creates great hardship to the people of Anam, forcing a subsistence lifestyle and cutting them off from social services. The Anam communities are faced with the challenge of balancing environmental protection with an urgent need to improve human quality of life. An ecologically balanced response with integrated watershed management is needed to ensure that both humans and the environment survive. In a rare regional and crosscommunity collaboration, leaders from the eight traditional Anam settlements have joined together to address their development needs in a broader, more cohesive manner. With this approach, the Rebirth Council is embarking on a remarkable community-led process, a model at the forefront of best practices in Regional Planning & Development.
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ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

SEPT: major flooding begins Water levels in the Anam region change drastically over the year

OCT: peak flooding

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WATER

VISION

Causes of Water Pollution


Bottles & Cans Smoke & Exhausts Oil & Petroleum

ANAM

Watermarks
Number of Nigerian impacted by flooding each year in the Niger River Basin: 1,000,000
[African Institute for Applied Economics]

Agricultural Fertilizers Plastic Bags Pesticides Human Body Waste Trash

MODEL

Millimeters (inches) of rainfall annually in Anam: 1400-2200 (55-78)


[Laser Engineering & Resource Consultants]

Toxic Chemicals Plastic & Rubber

Average number of miles walked by women in Africa to collect water: 4


[LivingWaterCanada.Org]

LAND

Current number of Nigerians under danger from erosion and flood disaster: 50 million
[Federal Government of Nigeria]

Percent of Nigerians who depend on purchased satchet water from outside sources: 70

Soaps & Detergents

WATER WATER

Death by Water Illness Death by War


0 1000000 2000000 3000000 4000000 5000000

80% of industries in Nigeria discharge liquids, solids, and gaseous wastes directly into the environment without adequate treatment that meats the basic standards.

SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY

Percent of Nigerians using improved drinking water in 2008:

MOBILITY

58%

APPENDIX

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WATER

VISION

Water Supply
ANAM
EQUITY PRODUCTIVITY QUALITY DIVERSITY MOBILITY VITALITY

=
Strategies

>

MODEL

Outside of agriculture, water is the most significant ecological feature of the city and presents both a unique advantage and a design challenge. The site of Anam city is conveniently sited near the Ezichi River (which feeds into the Anambra and then Niger rivers), and receives abundant rainfall each year and has access to a large regional aquifer. However, due to its low elevation, the region is prone to flooding every rainy season. Therefore, water strategies is concerned with:

75 liters a day per resident for drinking and non-drinking uses [washing, irrigation, toilets]

LAND

Quality urban water provision Flood & storm water management Balance of natural hydrological cycle of water Water conservation and Autonomous small-scale systems.

WATER WATER SOCIAL

WATER WILL BE TRANSPORTED BY HANDCART OR BIKETRAILER TO HOUSES

ECONOMY ENERGY

Each WATER BOREHOLE with a solar pump can supply potable water for approximately 1,600 people per day
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115

MOBILITY APPENDIX

WATER

VISION ANAM

Recommendations
Prioritize recharge of groundwater table and aquifers through percolating pits, recharge wells, sand ponds and porous paving. Require dual piping systems in each unit to allow for potable and grey water delivery. Install shared water boreholes at community utility blocks with on site storage and treatment/filtration (UV units and micron filters) as main potable water provision. Require rainwater catchment systems as a supplemental water source on each unit. Restrict landscaping & fire protection water demands to rainwater (or untreated well water). Maintain on site rainwater treatment systems to deliver potable water to units. Install water-conserving fixtures in all buildings (i.e. low flow faucets & toilets, shower aerators). Utilize shared small- cale water treatment plants to support grey s water recycling for large buildings or institutions. Incorporate creative installation of utilities within landscape (i.e. childrens play pump or landscaped parking lots). Design all buildings and urban spaces to be resilient through annual flooding and 100 year flood levels.

ANAM REGIONAL GROUNDWATER DATA FOR BOREHOLES


Alluvial Plains Borehole level Typical Borehole yield Static water levels Water Table Aquifer Screen position 40 m (average) 4 L/sec 10 m

MODEL LAND

5.5 m 30 m

WATER WATER

Est. Full Day Water Pumping

115,200 L/8-hr day

Each Borehole (1 per superblock)

1536 people served/day (75L/person/day)


SOCIAL ECONOMY

Indicators
Reduced water usage per capita 50% less than international average Increased rainwater catchment and use at least 80% of annual rainfall collectible over catchment area Decreased potable water demand through increased greywater recycling 100% grey water recycle or filtration Decreased commercial & agro-industrial water demand Increased urban storm water infiltration and ground water recharge at least 50% of urban space will be pervious Increased usable land area through decreased flood zones

ONE (1) BOREHOLE PER SUPERBLOCK


50 METERS
WATER BOREHOLE & POTABLE WATER SUPPLY PERMEABLE SURFACE FOR GROUNDWATER RECHARGE

ENERGY MOBILITY APPENDIX

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WATER

VISION

Water System
MAXIMUM WATER CONSUMED PER PERSON 75 LITERS PER DAY MAXIMUM IMPERVIOUS SURFACES NOT TO EXCEED 10-20% ROOF AREA DESIGNED FOR RAINWATER HARVEST MINIMUM 90% SEWAGE TREATMENT ONSITE 100% VIA BIOGAS WITHIN 30 METERS
e rg velop
RU N O FF

t
(p

e et m rg elop a de v

% 4 35 nt

5%

re

P VA E

I AT R

IN 14 FA 00 m LL la -2 nn 00 ua 0 lly

RA

ANAM

3 RAINWATER HARVEST
MODEL

YOUR HOUSE
(pre development 100%)

LAND

target 80-90%

BOREHOLE

WATER WATER

e ed (pr

ta

0 n t 1 me

0% ) -2 t <5%

PERMEABLE
% 45 45 5% )

SURFACES & BIOSWALES

p rg lo TE ta deve IN (p re

5- nt 3 t 3 me e

L RF

GROUNDWATER RECHARGE

4 RECYCLE & CONSERVE

SOCIAL

2
ECONOMY

RIVER 1
GROUNDWATER RECHARGE: Recharging underground aquifers takes primary importance in securing a sustainable access to safe water. In Anam city, the groundwater table is directly related to the river level. Thus, polluting one effects the other. Soil filtration through permeable surfaces, percolating pits and recharge wells mitigate erosion and allow stormwater to filter through earth medium and refill groundwater sources. BOREHOLES): Distributed boreholes will be the primary source of potable water in Anam city. Due to the easily accessible water table and aquifers, boreholes can be cost-effectively installed at the community utility block of each superblock. With a solar pump, one borehole can supply water to more than 1,600 people per day. . 118

GROUND WATER TABLE


3
RAINWATER HARVEST With over 150cm of rainfall each year, Anam households are able to harvest enough rainwater for more than 80% of their annual demand. Each building in the city will be designed to enable rainwater harvesting. Collecting rainwater also reduces stormwater runoff and erosion while providing a backup water source at the point of use.

ENERGY MOBILITY

4
.

RECYCLE & CONSERVE: The hydrological cycle in nature teaches the importance of recycling the precious resource of water. Thus, at the unit-scale in the city, smart water management is encouraged through dual piping for recycling grey water, installing low-flow fixtures and incentives for reduced use.

119

APPENDIX

WATER

VISION

Rainwater Harvesting
ANAM MODEL LAND WATER WATER

Rooftops can capture 80% of annual household water demand in Anam


70,000 51,920 47,760 52,500 36,000 31,840 35,000 15,920 17,500 4,880 28,400 16,640 40,160

SOCIAL ECONOMY ENERGY

11,760 liters
MOBILITY

-6,880

-18,640

1 square meter
120

1400-2000 L of water (annually)


. .

-17,500

Estimated Rainwater Storage Capacity in excess of Consumption Estimated Monthly Consumption per Household (washing, irrigation, toilet ONLY)
-35,000 January February March April May June July August September October November December

APPENDIX

Calculations of rainwater storage capacity and consumption in Anam City

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