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hygiene

Hygiene: Personaly Hair must be tied back

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To insure it does not infect food with any symptoms you might have are not clean hands so as not contaminate food it is also important to thoroughly dry your hands (soapy soup isnt good) Appropriate cloths must be warn so as to insure you dont trip dangl e in the dinner or spoil your favourate top appropriate cloths include a hair net/hat an apron is also advised or some other counter part. You may wish to (infact it is advisable to )do a head to toe check this is where you simply do a check of your body before beginning work starting at either your head or toes and going up or down accordingly. Things to check for are your shoes ok grippy etc easy to walk in, comfortable trousers are they excessively baggy or to tight either can be problematic and as suc h should not be warn in the kitchen top are the sleeves of a dangly nature or are they restrictive note sleeves should go to the elbow only so as to avoid contamination Food hygiene Food types should not be mixed before added to the pot this means different chopping boards for different things (fish, meat, veg(&fruit) dairy products and grain based (eg bread pastries etc)products) If the food should in anyway be contaminated then the entire saucepan frying-pan or whatever container it might happen to be in should be disposed of for example a frying -pan full of onions gets some spices spilt on half the pan dispose of the entire contents not just the spiced half.

preparatory work
preparatory work such as:

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If you are hosting an event it is incredibly important to do enough

What is the event for example if a wedding decorative rich food is probably best if however its a caf quick filling food is preferable How many you are feeding 10 or is it perhaps 10000 it is also important to note how much and of what foods and any that are present with allergies what are they and do you need to exclude stuff or do you simply find them alone an alternative an example of this could be if you have someone allergic to dairy and the dinner is pizza then you may leave off the cheese and give them a dairy free cheese or simply not add the cheese however if someone is highly allergic to nuts and you were going to prepare chicken satay simply having nuts so close to the exception is a life hazard which needs to be reconsidered and changed what sort of facilities a proper kitchen or a tent in a field and with that a risk assessment of the area of work one must also include a list of the necessary equipment needed this is including first aid knives pots pans aprons hats everything that will be used in the kitchen and last but one of the most important time management (ironically last as this will in fact be the first thing that will be needed to be done)this will include how long to spend on all above and how long to spend doing the actual cooking of the food of the event

high risk foods


develope

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keep foods safe ie refrigerated so as not too let the pathogenic bacteria

laws and legislations are enforced on the product so that the risk of harm being done is lowered such as use by dates and storing instructions an illness causing pathogenic bacteria carried by food is usually caused by poor hygiene and handling and or reheating it is usually caused by high risk products such as raw/undercooked meat fish eggs shellfish and some more third world country grains especially rice as it is grown in muddy damp and warm climate the exact requirements of pathogenic bacteria (time warmth nourishment and moisture ) pathogenic bacteria grow by the process of binary fission this means that at a particular point in their development they simply split in two and start to develop again so next time there will be two that are capable to split giving four then eight, 16 etc and it is in this way that bacteria quickly spread so if freshly cooked you are less likely to get food poisoning

food poisoning
name salmonella effect headache aching limbs fever very rarely fatal chlostridiumbotulinum double vision voice change food 24-72

26/08/2011 09:52:00 from what how long rice raw meat poultry

abdominal pain diarea vomiting eggs and lasts for 12 -36 poorly canned

doodingeylids constipation

death in the time or if like normal you just get ill months of recovery E.coli 0157diarea kidney failure death possible 5 -7 days aprox meat and dairy products Clostridium perfingeansabdom pain diaria nausea 8 48 meat and poultry Listeria monocytogenes flu like symptoms

food preservation principles of


method Chilling and freezing principle Retards emo growth inhibits enzyme activity(browning) Uhtheat Preserving (placing in sugary solution) Pickling (place in acidic solution Keep in vacuum Moisture reduction Kills emos Dehydrates to death any emos manifesting on the food fermentation Acid and alchohol produced in this processto preserve Inhibits emo growth Kills emo prevents enzyme activity Dehydrates emos

26/08/2011 09:52:00 example Peas veg sauces etc

Milk etc Fruit(jam) nuts etc. Gerkins Peach and pringles Salted substances such as meat etc Tamari brandy etc

Preservation facts

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Used for millennia to store food through the winter months In the last two centuries far more sophisticated (if ruthless) methods have been established Smoking foods has been used since fire was discovered Preserving as far back as the romans and probably further peo ple have candied things in honey Freezing believe it or not was first known to be used in 1800 bc in china Canning was developed in 1795 when Nicolas Appert started selling stuff in bottles which he put in hot water just before sealing to decrease the amount of oxygen in the container to extend shelf life Salting is another example that has been used for millennia it is the process of coating the desired substance in salt or brine(salty solution) Fermentation developed in India around 2000bc Pickling dates back as far as the earliest part of the ancient Egyptians civilisation they used to pickle fish amongst other things people have bottled their food in glass or clay as far back as they chad the capacity

preservation methods

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09:52:007 A form of heat processing which improves the products shelf life pasteurisation kills most manifesting emos that are to blame for food spoilage it is a process that relies on raising the product to a specific temperature and for a specific time eg 1:62-63c for 30-35 mins or 2: 172 for 15 secs pasteurisation only gets rid of pathogenic bacteria as opposed to other heat treatment which will often get rid of all bacteria in a rather ruthless fashion. The time temp and method differ depending on what the product is Sterilisation is a more sever form of heat treatment that destroys emos and alters taste appearance sterilisatio n in terms of heat exceeds 100c in temp the high temp is high enough to kill the emos and their spores which pasteurisation wont necessarily kill the emos spores if the correct temp is not reached spores can survive potentially resulting in food poisoning. Especially clostridium botulinum. The temp of the processes depends on the Ph. of the product in question the product must then be packaged in a contamination free high heat facilities to make sure the emos can not re enter the product. The process in which a product is vacuum is sealed in a can (normally metal(tin aluminium))temp of canning 121c+ and is quicker under pressure thisis called pressure canning but there is another way this is to submerse the can in boiling water up to the rim and then aply the lid so as the inside air is hot so takig up less room Dehydration the removal of the subjects water to prevent emo growth. Spray drying is spraying the product with hot gas in order to evaporate the moisture reducing a liquid to a powder in minutes

additives

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New additives passed by EU food administration before they are allowed into commercial use these additives include colou rs preservatives antioxidants emulsifiers and stabilizers. These make up the basis for additives in food in Europe today in America however there are no such regulations so you end up with some very dodgy stuff in your food.

100199 Colours 100109 110119 120129 130139 140149 150159 160199 200299 Preservatives Full list [edit]E100E199 (colours) Code Name(s) Color Status Yellow-orange Approved in the EU[5] Yellow-orange E100 Curcumin, turmeric Approved in the US.[6] E101 Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), formerly called lactoflavin Approved in the EU[5] Approved in the US.[6] E101a EU[5] E102 Tartrazine (FD&C Yellow 5) EU[5] Approved in the US.[6] E103 Alkannin[7] Red-brown E104 Quinoline Yellow WS E105 Fast Yellow AB Dull or greenish yellow Approved in the EU[5] Undergoing a voluntary phase-out in the UK.[citation needed] Yellow Lemon yellow Approved in the Riboflavin-5'-Phosphate Yellow-orange Approved in the yellows (see the full list) orange reds blues & violets greens browns & blacks gold and others

E106 Riboflavin-5-Sodium Phosphate E107 Yellow 2G Yellow

Yellow

E110 Sunset Yellow FCF (Orange Yellow S, FD&C Yellow 6) Yellow-orange Approved in the EU.[5] Banned in and Norway.[citation needed] Products in the EU require warnings and its use is being phasedout.[citation needed] Approved in the US.[6] E111 Orange GGN Orange Crimson E120 Cochineal, Carminic acid, Carmine (Natural Red 4) Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the US.[6] E121 Citrus Red 2 Dark red Approved in the United States only for Approved in the EU.[5] use in coloring the skin of oranges.[8] E122 Carmoisine, Azorubine Red to maroon Undergoing a voluntary phase-out in the UK. Currently banned in Canada, Japan, Norway, USA .[citation needed] EU currently evaluating health risks.[citation needed] E123 Amaranth (FD&C Red 2) Approved in the EU.[5] E125 Ponceau SX, Scarlet GNRed E126 Ponceau 6R Red E127 Erythrosine (FD&C Red 3) Approved in the US.[6] E128 Red 2G Red Forbidden Approved in the EU.[5] Banned E129 Allura Red AC (FD&C Red 40) Red UK. Approved in the US.[6] E130 Indanthrene blue RS E131 Patent Blue V Blue Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in Approved in Dark blue Red Approved in the EU.[5] Dark red Approved in the EU.[5] Red E124 Ponceau 4R (Cochineal Red A, Brilliant Scarlet 4R)

in Switzerland[citation needed]. Undergoing a voluntary phase out in the

E132 Indigo carmine (indigotine, FD&C Blue 2) Indigo the EU.[5] Approved in the US.[6] E133 Brilliant Blue FCF (FD&C Blue 1) the EU.[5] Approved in the US.[6] Reddish blue

E140 Chlorophylls and Chlorophyllins: (i) Chlorophylls (ii) Chlorophyllins Green Approved in the EU.[5] E141 Copper complexes of chlorophylls and chlorophyllins (i) Copper complexes of chlorophylls (ii) Copper complexes of chlorophyllins Green Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the US.[6] E142 Green S Green Approved in the EU.[5]

E143 Fast Green FCF (FD&C Green 3) E150a E150b E150c E150d US.[6] E151 Black PN, Brilliant Black BN E152 Black 7984 food colouring E154 Brown FK (kipper brown) EU.[5] E160a E160b E160c E160d E160e Plain caramel Brown Approved in the US.[6] Caustic sulphite caramel Ammonia caramel

Sea green Approved in the EU.[5] Brown Approved in the

EU.[5] Approved in the US.[6] Brown Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the Approved in the US.[6] Sulphite ammonia caramel Brown

Black Approved in the EU.[5] Black Black Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the YellowBrown Brown

E153 Carbon black, Vegetable carbon E155 Brown HT (chocolate brown HT)

Alpha-carotene, Beta-carotene, Gamma-carotene Annatto, bixin, norbixin Orange

orange to brown Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the EU.[5] Red Approved in the US.[6] Paprika oleoresin, Capsanthin, capsorubin Lycopene Bright to deep red Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the US.[6] Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the US.[6] Beta-apo-8'-carotenal (C 30) Orange-red to yellow Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the US.[6] E160f Ethyl ester of beta-apo-8'-carotenic acid (C 30) Orange-red to yellow E161a E161b E161c E161d E161e E161g the US.[6] E161h Zeaxanthin Orange-red Deep violet E161i Citranaxanthin E161j Astaxanthin Red Approved in the EU.[5] Flavoxanthin Lutein Cryptoxanthin Violaxanthin Canthaxanthin Golden-yellow Approved in the EU.[5] Orange-red Orange Violet Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in Orange-red to yellow

Rubixanthin Orange-red Purple

E161f Rhodoxanthin

E162 Beetroot Red, Betanin Red the US.[6] E163 Anthocyanins E164 Saffron

Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in

pH dependent(Red, green and purple ranges) Approved in the US.[6]

Approved in the EU.[5] Orange-red[color?] E170 Calcium carbonate, Chalk US.[6] E172 Iron oxides and iron hydroxides E173 Aluminium Silver to grey Brown Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the US for sausage casings.[6] Approved in the EU.[5] E174 Silver Silver Approved in the EU.[5] E175 Gold Gold Approved in the EU.[5] E180 Pigment Rubine, LitholRubine BK E181 Tannin Brown Purple Status Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the EU.[5] E182 Orcein, Orchil Code Name(s) Red Approved in the EU.[5] White Approved in the EU.[5]

E171 Titanium dioxide White Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the

[edit]E200E299 (preservatives) Purpose E200 Sorbic acid preservative E201 Sodium sorbate E202 Potassium sorbate

preservative preservative Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the EU.[5] preservative Approved in the EU.[5]

E203 Calcium sorbate preservative E209 Heptyl p-hydroxybenzoate E210 Benzoic acid preservative

preservative

E211 Sodium benzoate preservative E212 Potassium benzoate E213 Calcium benzoate preservative Approved in the EU.[5]

preservative

E214 Ethylparaben (ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate) E215 Sodium ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate Approved in the EU.[5]

preservative

E216 Propylparaben (propyl para-hydroxybenzoate) preservative E217 Sodium propyl para-hydroxybenzoate Approved in the EU.[5] E219 Sodium methyl para-hydroxybenzoate Approved in the EU.[5] E220 Sulphur dioxide preservative Approved in the EU.[5] preservative preservative E218 Methylparaben (methyl para-hydroxybenzoate) preservative

E221 Sodium sulphite preservative Approved in the EU.[5]

Approved in the EU.[5]

E222 Sodium bisulphite (sodium hydrogen sulphite) preservative E223 Sodium metabisulphite preservative E224 Potassium metabisulphite EU.[5] E225 Potassium sulphite preservative Approved in the EU.[5] E226 Calcium sulphite preservative Approved in the EU.[5] E228 Potassium hydrogen sulph ite preservative EU.[5] E230 Biphenyl, diphenyl E231 Orthophenyl phenol EU.[5] E233 Thiabendazole preservative Approved in the EU.[5] preservative Approved in the EU.[5] E234 Nisin preservative E235 Natamycin, Pimaracin preservative preservative Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the Approved in the Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the

preservative

E227 Calcium hydrogen sulphite (preservative) firming agent

E232 Sodium orthophenyl phenol

preservative

E236 Formic acid preservative E237 Sodium formate preservative E238 Calcium formate preservative E239 Hexamine (hexamethylenetetramine) Approved in the EU.[5] E240 Formaldehyde preservative Forbidden[citation needed] Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the EU.[5] preservative Approved in E242 Dimethyl dicarbonate E250 Sodium nitrite the EU.[5] E252 Potassium nitrate (Saltpetre) preservative EU.[5] E260 Acetic acid (preservative) EU.[9] E261 Potassium acetate (preservative) the EU.[9] acidity regulator Approved in acidity regulator Approved in the Approved in the preservative preservative

E249 Potassium nitrite preservative preservative E251 Sodium nitrate (Chile saltpeter)

E262 Sodium acetates (i) Sodium acetate (ii) Sodium diacetate (sodium hydrogen acetate) the EU.[9] E263 Calcium acetate (preservative) the EU.[9] E264 Ammonium acetate E265 Dehydroacetic acid preservative preservative antioxidant Approved in the Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the EU.[5] Approved in the acidity regulator Approved in preservative, acidity regulator Approved in

E266 Sodium dehydroacetate preservative E270 Lactic acid (preservative) (acid) EU.[9] E280 Propionic acid preservative E281 Sodium propionate E282 Calcium propionate E283 Potassium propionate E284 Boric acid EU.[5] E290 Carbon dioxide E297 Fumaric acid Code Name(s) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] Status antioxidant Approved in the EU.[10] antioxidant Approved in the EU.[10] antioxidant Approved in the EU.[10] antioxidant E296 Malic acid (acid) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] [edit]E300E399 (antioxidants, acidity regulators) Purpose E300 Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) E301 Sodium ascorbate E302 Calcium ascorbate E303 Potassium ascorbate preservative preservative preservative

preservative

Approved in the EU.[5] preservative

E285 Sodium tetraborate (borax)

E304 Fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid (Ascorbylpalmitate) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[10] E305 Ascorbyl stearate antioxidant E306 Tocopherols (natural) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[10] antioxidant Approved in the E307 Alpha-tocopherol (synthetic) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[10] E308 Gamma-tocopherol (synthetic) EU.[10] E309 Delta-tocopherol (synthetic) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[10] E310 Propyl gallate E312 Dodecyl gallate E313 Ethyl gallate antioxidant Approved in the EU.[10] antioxidant Approved in the EU.[10] antioxidant E311 Octylgallate antioxidant Approved in the EU.[10]

E314 Guaiac resin E315 Erythorbic acid E317 Erythorbin acid

antioxidant antioxidant Approved in the EU.[10] antioxidant Approved in the EU.[10] antioxidant antioxidant Approved in the antioxidant Approved in the antioxidant Approved in the antioxidant

E316 Sodium erythorbate E318 Sodium erythorbin EU.[10]

E319 tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) E320 Butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) EU.[10] E321 Butylatedhydroxytoluene (BHT) EU.[10] E322 Lecithin emulsifier

Approved in the EU.[11]

E323 Anoxomer antioxidant E324 Ethoxyquin antioxidant E325 Sodium lactate the EU.[9] E327 Calcium lactate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] acidity regulator acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] E328 Ammonium lactate E329 Magnesium lactate E330 Citric acid acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] acidity regulator Approved in E326 Potassium lactate (antioxidant)

acid, acidity regulator

E331 Sodium citrates (i) Monosodium citrate (ii) Disodium citrate (iii) Sodium citrate (trisodium citrate) EU.[9] E332 Potassium citrates (i) Monopotassium citrate (ii) Potassium citrate (tripotassium citrate) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] E333 Calcium citrates (i) Monocalcium citrate (ii) Dicalcium citrate (iii) Calcium citrate (tricalcium citrate) acidity regulator, firming agent, sequestrant Approved in the EU.[9] E334 Tartaric acid (L(+)-) (acid) Approved in the EU.[9] E335 Sodium tartrates (i) Monosodium tartrate (ii), Disodium tartrate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] E336 Potassium tartrates (i) Monopotassium tartrate (cream of tartar) (ii) Dipotassium tartrate EU.[9] E338 Orthophosphoric acid acid Approved in the EU.[9] acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] acidity regulator Approved in the E337 Sodium potassium tartrate acidity regulator Approved in the

E339 Sodium phosphates (i) Monosodium phosphate (ii) Disodium phosphate (iii) Trisodium phosphate EU.[9] E340 Potassium phosphates (i) Monopotassium phosphate (ii) Dipotassium phosphate (iii) Tripotassium phosphate antioxidant Approved in the EU.[9] E341 Calcium phosphates (i) Monocalcium phosphate (ii) Dicalcium phosphate (iii) Tricalcium phosphate Approved in the EU.[9] E342 Ammonium phosphates: (i) monoammonium phosphate (ii) diammonium phosphate E343 Magnesium phosphates (i) monomagnesium phosphate (ii) Dimagnesium phosphate anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[9] This additive is under discussion and may be included in a future amendment to the Directive on miscellaneous additives. E344 Lecitin citrate acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator E345 Magnesium citrate E349 Ammonium malate anti-caking agent, firming agent antioxidant Approved in the

E350 Sodium malates (i) Sodium malate (ii) Sodium hydrogen malate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] E351 Potassium malate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] E352 Calcium malates (i) Calcium malate (ii) Calcium hydrogen malate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] E353 Metatartaric acid emulsifier E354 Calcium tartrate emulsifier E356 Sodium adipate Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the EU.[9]

E355 Adipic acid acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] acidity regulator E357 Potassium adipate E359 Ammonium adipate E363 Succinic acid

acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] acidity regulator acidity regulator acidity regulator colour retention agent acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] acidity regulator

E365 Sodium fumarate acidity regulator E366 Potassium fumarate E368 Ammonium fumarate E370 1,4-Heptonolactone E380 Triammonium citrate E367 Calcium fumarate acidity regulator

E375 Niacin (nicotinic acid), Nicotinamide E381 Ammonium ferric citrate

E383 Calcium glycerylphosphate

acidity regulator

E384 Isopropyl citrate acidity regulator E385 Calcium disodium ethylene diaminetetraacetate, (Calcium disodium EDTA) sequestrant Approved in the EU.[9] E386 Disodium ethylene diaminetetraacetate (Disodium EDTA) sequestrant E387 Oxystearin stabiliser E388 Thiodipropionic acid E389 Dilaurylthiodipropionate E390 Distearylthiodipropionate E391 Phytic acid E392 Extracts of rosemary E399 Calcium lactobionate [edit]E400E499 (thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers) Code Name(s) Purpose Status emulsifier E400 Alginic acid (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) Approved in the EU.[11] E401 Sodium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier emulsifier Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the EU.[11] emulsifier E402 Potassium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) E403 Ammonium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) Approved in the EU.[11] E404 Calcium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the EU.[11] stabiliser Approved in the emulsifier E405 Propane-1,2-diol alginate (Propylene glycol alginate) (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier EU.[11] E407 Carrageenan (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) Approved in the EU.[11] E407a agent) Processed eucheuma seaweed (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling emulsifier Approved in the EU.[11] E406 Agar (thickener) (gelling agent) Approved in 2010[12]

E408 Bakers yeast glycan E409 Arabinogalactan E410 Locust bean gum (Carob gum) (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[11] stabiliser E411 Oat gum (thickener)

E412 Guar gum (thickener) EU.[11]

stabiliser

Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the emulsifier

E413 Tragacanth (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier

E414 Acacia gum (gum arabic) (thickener) (stabiliser) Approved in the EU.[11] E415 Xanthan gum (thickener) EU.[11] E417 Tara gum (thickener) EU.[11] E419 Gum ghatti (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier stabiliser stabiliser

Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the

E416 Karaya gum (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier

Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the

E418 Gellan gum (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier

E420 Sorbitol (i) Sorbitol (ii) Sorbitol syrup (emulsifier) (sweetener) humectant Approved in the EU.[13] E421 Mannitol (anti-caking agent) sweetener Approved in the EU.[13] E422 Glycerol (emulsifier) E424 Curdlan E425 Konjac (i) Konjac gum (ii) Konjacglucomannane choking risk.[citation needed] E426 Soybean hemicellulose E427 Cassia gum E429 Peptones E430 Polyoxyethene (8) stearate (emulsifier) E431 Polyoxyethene (40) stearate emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier the EU.[11] E441 Gelatine (emulsifier) gelling agent Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the EU.[11] emulsifier Approved in stabiliser Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in 2010[12] emulsifier Approved in the EU.[11] May not be used in confectionery owing to sweetener Approved in the EU.[9]

E432 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitanmonolaurate (polysorbate 20) E433 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitanmonooleate (polysorbate 80) E434 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitanmonopalmitate (polysorbate 40) E435 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitanmonostearate (polysorbate 60) E436 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitantristearate (polysorbate 65) E440 Pectins (i) pectin (ii) amidated pectin

E442 Ammonium phosphatides E443 Brominated vegetable oil

emulsifier

Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the

E444 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate emulsifier E445 Glycerol esters of wood rosins EU.[11] E446 Succistearin

emulsifier

E450 Diphosphates (i) Disodium diphosphate (ii) Trisodiumdiphosphate (iii) Tetrasodiumdiphosphate (iv) Dipotassiumdiphospha te (v) Tetrapotassiumdiphosphate (vi) Dicalciumdiphosphate (vii) Calcium dihydrogendiphosphate emulsifier (ii) Pentapotassium triphosphate Approved in the EU.[9] emulsifier Approved in the EU.[9] E451 Triphosphates (i) Sodium triphosphate (pentasodium triphosphate) E452 Polyphosphates (i) Sodium polyphosphates (ii) Potassium polyphosphates (iii) Sodium calcium polyphosphate (iv) Calcium polyphosphates (v) Ammonium Polyphosphate emulsifier the EU.[9] E459 Beta-cyclodextrin emulsifier emulsifier Approved in the EU.[9] E460 Cellulose (i) Microcrystalline cellulose (ii) Powdered cellulose Approved in the EU.[11] emulsifier emulsifier Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the EU.[11] emulsifier E461 Methyl cellulose E462 Ethyl cellulose Approved in

E463 Hydroxypropyl cellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU.[11] E465 Ethyl methyl cellulose emulsifier emulsifier

E464 Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, = hypromellose

Approved in the EU.[11]

E466 Carboxymethyl cellulose, Sodium carboxy methyl cellulo se Approved in the EU.[11] E467 Ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose E468 Crosslinked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Croscarmellose) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[11] This additive is under discussion and may be included in a future amendment to the Directive on miscellaneous additives E469 Enzymically hydrolysed carboxymethylcellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU.[11] E470a E470b Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids Magnesium salts of fatty acids (emulsifier) anti-caking (emulsifier) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[11] agent Approved in the EU.[11]

E471 Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (glycerylmonostearate, glyceryldistearate) E472a E472b E472c E472d E472e emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier Approved in the EU.[11] Acetic acid esters of mono - and diglycerides of fatty acids Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the EU.[11] emulsifier Approved in the EU.[11] Lactic acid esters of mono - and diglycerides of fatty acids Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids Mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono - and

diglycerides of fatty acids fatty acids emulsifier E472g

E472f Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the Succinylatedmonoglycerides emulsifier emulsifier Approved in the EU.[11] emulsifier

E473 Sucrose esters of fatty acids emulsifier E474 Sucroglycerides EU.[11] E476 Polyglycerolpolyricinoleate fatty acids emulsifier E479b emulsifier E475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids

Approved in the EU.[11]

E477 Propane-1,2-diol esters of fatty acids, propylene glycol esters of Approved in the EU.[11] E478 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propane-1 emulsifier Thermally oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono - and emulsifier Approved in the EU.[11] emulsifier Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the EU.[11] diglycerides of fatty acids

E480 Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate E481 Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate E483 Stearyl tartrate E484 Stearyl citrate emulsifier emulsifier

emulsifier

E482 Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate emulsifier

Approved in the EU.[11] emulsifier emulsifier emulsifier

E485 Sodium stearoylfumarate E486 Calcium stearoylfumarate

E487 Sodium laurylsulphate emulsifier E488 Ethoxylated Mono- and Di-Glycerides E490 Propane-1,2-diol E491 Sorbitanmonostearate emulsifier E492 Sorbitantristearate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the EU.[11] E489 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester emulsifier

E493 Sorbitanmonolaurate E494 Sorbitanmonooleate

emulsifier emulsifier

Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the EU.[11] Approved in the EU.[11]

E495 Sorbitanmonopalmitate emulsifier E496 Sorbitantrioleate emulsifier

E497 Polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene polymers E498 Partial polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids of castor oil [edit]E500E599 (acidity regulators, anti-caking agents) Code Name(s) Purpose Status E500 Sodium carbonates (i) Sodium carbonate (ii) Sodium bicarbonate (Sodium hydrogen carbonate) (iii) Sodium sesquicarbonate (acidity regulator) raising agent Approved in the EU.[9] acidity regulator E501 Potassium carbonates (i) Potassium carbonate (ii) Potassium bicarbonate (Potassium hydrogen carbonate) Approved in the EU.[9] E503 Ammonium carbonates (i) Ammonium carbonate (ii) Ammonium bicarbonate (Ammonium hydrogen carbonate) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] E504 Magnesium carbonates (i) Magnesium carbonate (ii) Magnesium bicarbonate Magnesium hydrogen carbonate caking agent Approved in the EU.[9] acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the Approved in E505 Ferrous carbonate E507 Hydrochloric acid acid EU.[9] E509 Calcium chloride (sequestrant) the EU.[9] E510 Ammonium chloride, ammonia solution (acidity regulator) improving agent E511 Magnesium chloride E512 Stannous chloride E513 Sulphuric acid the EU.[9] E515 Potassium Sulphates (i) Potassium Sulphate (ii) Approved in the EU.[9] E516 Calcium sulphate E517 Ammonium sulphate Approved in the EU.[9] improving agent Approved in the EU.[9] acid firming agent Approved in the EU.[9] antioxidant Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the EU.[9] acid Approved in firming agent acidity regulator, anti-

E508 Potassium chloride (gelling agent) seasoning

E514 Sodium sulphates (i) Sodium sulphate (ii)

E518 Magnesium sulphate (Epsom salts), (acidity regulator) agent E519 Copper(II) sulphate E520 Aluminium sulphate EU.[9] E522 Aluminium potassium sulphate the EU.[9] E523 Aluminium ammonium sulphate the EU.[9] E524 Sodium hydroxide E525 Potassium hydroxide Approved in the EU.[9] E527 Ammonium hydroxide E528 Magnesium hydroxide the EU.[9] E530 Magnesium oxide (acidity regulator) Approved in the EU.[9] E535 Sodium ferrocyanide (acidity regulator) Approved in the EU.[9] anti-caking agent anti-caking agent preservative firming agent

firming

Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the

E521 Aluminium sodium sulphate

firming agent

acidity regulator Approved in acidity regulator Approved in

acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] firming agent

E526 Calcium hydroxide (acidity regulator)

acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] improving agent Approved in

E529 Calcium oxide (acidity regulator)

E536 Potassium ferrocyanide anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[9] E537 Ferrous hexacyanomanganate E538 Calcium ferrocyanide E539 Sodium thiosulphate antioxidant emulsifier antianti-caking agent anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[9]

E540 Dicalciumdiphosphate (acidity regulator) emulsifier E541 Sodium aluminium phosphate (i) Acidic (ii) Basic Approved in the EU.[9] E542 Bone phosphate (Essentiale Calcium Phosphate, Tribasic) caking agent E543 Calcium sodium polyphosphate E544 Calcium polyphosphate emulsifier E545 Ammonium polyphosphate anti-caking agent E551 Silicon dioxide (Silica) E552 Calcium silicate anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[9] anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[9] emulsifier E550 Sodium Silicates (i) Sodium silicate (ii) Sodium metasilicate emulsifier

E553a E553b

(i) Magnesium silicate (ii) Magnesium trisilicate anti-caking Talc anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[9] anti-caking

agent Approved in the EU.[9] E554 Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium aluminium silicate) agent Approved in the EU.[9] E555 Potassium aluminium silicate anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[9] E556 Calcium aluminosilicate (calcium aluminium silicate) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[9] E557 Zinc silicate anti-caking agent E558 Bentonite EU.[9] E560 Potassium silicate anti-caking agent E561 Vermiculite E562 Sepiolite E563 Sepiolitic clay E565 4-Hexylresorcinol E566 Natrolite-phonolite E570 Stearic acid (Fatty acid) EU.[9] E572 Magnesium stearate, calcium stearate (emulsifier) agent E574 Gluconic acid the EU.[9] E576 Sodium gluconate E577 Potassium gluconate E578 Calcium gluconate E579 Ferrous gluconate E580 Magnesium gluconate E585 Ferrous lactate food colouring Approved in the EU.[9] E586 4-Hexylresorcinol antioxidant E598 Synthetic calcium aluminates E599 Perlite [edit]E600E699 (flavour enhancers) Code Name(s) Purpose Status E620 Glutamic acid flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[9] sequestrant Approved in the EU.[9] sequestrant Approved in the EU.[9] firming agent food colouring Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the EU.[9] acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[9] E575 Glucono delta-lactone (acidity regulator) sequestrant Approved in anti-caking anti-caking agent Approved in the Approved in the EU.[10] anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[9] anti-caking agent Approved in the E559 Aluminium silicate (Kaolin)

E621 Monosodium glutamate(MSG) flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[9] E622 Monopotassium glutamate EU.[9] E623 Calcium diglutamate EU.[9] E625 Magnesium diglutamate EU.[9] E626 Guanylic acid flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[9] flavour enhancer E627 Disodium guanylate, sodium guanylate Approved in the EU.[9] E628 Dipotassiumguanylate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[9] E629 Calcium guanylate E630 Inosinic acid E631 Disodium inosinate E632 Dipotassiuminosinate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[9] flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[9] flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[9] flavour enhancer Approved in the flavour enhancer Approved in the flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[9] flavour enhancer Approved in the flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[9] flavour enhancer Approved in the E624 Monoammonium glutamate flavour enhancer Approved in the

E633 Calcium inosinate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[9] E634 Calcium 5'-ribonucleotides EU.[9] E635 Disodium 5'-ribonucleotides EU.[9] E636 Maltolflavour enhancer E637 Ethyl maltol EU.[9] E641 L-leucine flavour enhancer flavour enhancer flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[9] Status E642 Lysine hydrochloride E650 Zinc acetate Code Name(s) E700 Bacitracin E701 Tetracyclines E702 Chlortetracycline E703 Oxytetracycline E704 Oleandomycin E705 Penicillin-G-potassium E706 Penicillin-G-sodium [edit]E700E799 (antibiotics) Purpose flavour enhancer flavour enhancer Approved in the E640 Glycine and its sodium salt

E707 Penicillin-G-procaine E708 Penicillin-G-benzathyne E710 Spiramycins E711 Virginiamicins E712 Flavophospholipol E713 Tylosin E714 Monensin E715 Avoparcin E716 Salinomycin E717 Avilamycin [edit]E900E999 (miscellaneous) Code Name(s) Purpose Status anti-caking agent Approved in the E900 Dimethyl polysiloxane (anti-foaming agent) Approved in the EU.[9] E901 Beeswax , white and yellow EU.[9] E902 Candelilla wax E903 Carnauba wax E904 Shellac E905 Paraffins E905a E905b E905c Petrolatum Petroleum wax (i)Microcrystalline wax (ii) Paraffin wax flavour enhancer glazing agent glazing agent glazing agent glazing agent Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the glazing agent glazing agent glazing agent glazing agent Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the EU.[9] glazing agent

glazing agent

Approved in the EU.[9]

Approved in the EU.[9]

Mineral oil anti-foaming agent

glazing agent E906 Gum benzoic E907 Crystalline wax E908 Rice bran wax E909 Spermaceti wax

E910 Wax esters glazing agent E911 Methyl esters of fatty acids E912 Montan acid esters E913 Lanolin, sheep wool grease E914 Oxidized polyethylene wax EU.[9] E915 Esters of colophony E916 Calcium iodate E917 Potassium iodate E918 Nitrogen oxides glazing agent glazing agent

E919 Nitrosyl chloride E920 L-cysteine improving agent Approved in the EU.[9] E921 L-cystine improving agent improving agent improving agent E922 Potassium persulphate improving agent E923 Ammonium persulphate E924 Potassium bromate E924b E925 Chlorine E927a E927b

Calcium bromate improving agent preservative, bleach, improving agent bleach improving agent bleach bleach

E926 Chlorine dioxide (preservative) Azodicarbonamide

Carbamide (urea) improving agent Approved in the EU.[9]

E928 Benzoyl peroxide (improving agent) E929 Acetone peroxide E930 Calcium peroxide (improving agent) E938 Argon packaging gas E939 Helium packaging gas

Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the EU.[9] packaging gas Rarely used propellant Approved in the EU.[9]

E940 Dichlorodifluoromethane E941 Nitrogen (packaging gas) E942 Nitrous oxide E943a E943b Butane Isobutane

propellant Approved in the EU.[9] propellant Approved in the EU.[9] propellant Approved in the EU.[9] propellant Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the EU.[9]

E944 Propane

propellant Approved in the EU.[9]

E945 Chloropentafluoroethane E948 Oxygen E949 Hydrogen packaging gas packaging gas

E946 Octafluorocyclobutane propellant

E950 Acesulfame potassium sweetener Approved in the EU.[13] E951 Aspartame sweetener Approved in the EU.[13] E952 Cyclamic acid and its sodium and calcium salts, also known as Cyclamate sweetener Approved in the EU.[13] E953 Isomalt, Isomaltitol sweetener Approved in the EU.[13] E954 Saccharin and its sodium, potassium and calcium salts sweetener Approved in the EU.[13] E955 Sucralose (Trichlorogalactosucrose) sweetener Approved in the EU.[13] E956 Alitame sweetener flavour enhancer E957 Thaumatin (sweetener) flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[13] E958 Glycyrrhizin (sweetener)

E959 Neohesperidinedihydrochalcone (sweetener) Approved in the EU.[13] E960 Stevioside sweetener E961 Neotame the EU.[13] sweetener Approved in 2010[12]

flavour enhancer

E962 Aspartame-acesulfame salt (sweetener) stabiliser

Approved in

E965 Maltitol (i) Maltitol (ii) Maltitol syrup (sweetener) (stabiliser) humectant Approved in the EU.[13] E966 Lactitol E967 Xylitol E968 Erythritol sweetener Approved in the EU.[13] sweetener Approved in the EU.[13] humectant Approved in the EU.[13] foaming agent Status emulsifier Approved in the EU.[9]

E999 Quillaia extract Code Name(s) E1000 E1001 E1100 E1101 E1102 E1103 E1104 E1105 E1200 carrier E1201 E1202 the EU.[9] E1203 E1204 E1400 E1401 E1402 E1403 E1404 the EU.[9]

[edit]E1000E1599 (additional chemicals) Purpose Cholic acid emulsifier Choline salts Amylase stabiliser, flavour enhancer

Proteases ((i)Protease, (ii)Papain, (iii)Bromelain, (iv)Ficin) Glucose oxidase antioxidant Invertase Lipases Lysozyme preservative stabiliser, thickening agent, humectant, stabiliser Approved in the EU.[9] stabiliser Approved in Polydextrose stabiliser Approved in the EU.[11]

stabiliser, flavour enhancer

Approved in the EU.[9] Polyvinylpyrrolidone Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (carrier) Polyvinyl alcohol Pullulan

Approved in 2010[12] Approved in the EU.[9]

Dextrin (Dextrins, roasted starch white and yellow) Modified starch ((Acid-treated starch) stabiliser) Alkaline modified starch (stabiliser) thickening agent Bleached starch (stabiliser) Oxidized starch (emulsifier) thickening agent thickening agent Approved in

(stabiliser) thickening agent thickening agent

E1405 E1410 E1411 E1412

Enzyme treated starch Monostarch phosphate (stabiliser) thickening agent Distarch glycerol (thickening agent) emulsifier thickening agent thickening thickening

Approved in the EU.[9] Distarch phosphate esterified with sodium trimetasphosphate;

esterified with phosphorus oxychloride (stabiliser) Approved in the EU.[9] E1413 E1414 E1420 E1421 E1422 E1423 E1430 E1440 E1441 agent E1442 E1443 E1450 E1451 E1452 EU.[9] E1501 E1502 E1503 E1504 E1505 E1510 Benzylated hydrocarbons Butane-1, 3-diol Castor oil resolving agent flavour solvent foam stabiliser Ethyl acetate Triethyl citrate Ethanol

Phosphateddistarch phosphate (stabiliser) Acetylated distarch phosphate (emulsifier)

agent Approved in the EU.[9] agent Approved in the EU.[9] Starch acetate esterified with acetic anhydride (stabiliser) Starch acetate esterified with vinyl acetate (stabiliser) Acetylated DistarchAdipate (stabiliser) Acetylated distarch glycerol thickening agent thickening agent Approved in the EU.[9] thickening agent Approved in the EU.[9] thickening agent Distarch glycerine (stabiliser) thickening agent Hydroxy propyl starch (emulsifier) thickening agent Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerine (stabiliser) thickening

Approved in the EU.[9]

Hydroxy propyl distarch phosphate (stabiliser) thickening Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerol Starch sodium octenyl succinate (emulsifier) (stabiliser) Acetylated oxidised starch (emulsifier) Starch aluminium octenyl succinate thickening agent Approved in the

agent Approved in the EU.[9]

thickening agent Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the EU.[9]

Approved in the EU.[9]

E1516 E1517 E1518 the EU.[9] E1519 E1520 E1521 2010[12] E1525 200209 210219 220229 230239 240259 260269 270279 280289 290299 300399

Glycerylmonoacetate

flavour solvent humectant Approved in

Glyceryldiacetate or diacetin flavour solvent Glyceryl triacetate or triacetin Benzyl alcohol Propylene glycol humectant Approved in the EU.[9] Polyethylene glycol 8000 [14] Hydroxyethyl cellulose thickening agent sorbates benzoates sulphites phenols &formates (methanoates) nitrates acetates (ethanoates) lactates propionates (propanoates) others Approved in

Antioxidants & acidity regulators 300305 306309 310319 320329 330339 340349 350359 360369 370399 400499 Thickeners, stabilisers & emulsifiers 400409 410419 420429 430439 440449 450459 460469 alginates natural gums other natural agents polyoxyethene compounds natural emulsifiers phosphates cellulose compounds ascorbates (vitamin C) Tocopherol (vitamin E) gallates&erythorbates lactates citrates & tartrates phosphates malates&adipates succinates &fumarates others

470489 490499 500599

fatty acids & compounds others

pH regulators & anti-caking agents 500509 510519 520529 530549 550559 570579 580599 600699 Flavour enhancers 620629 630639 640649 700799 Antibiotics 700713 900999 Miscellaneous 900909 910919 920929 930949 950969 990999 11001599 Additional chemicals classification schemes New chemicals that do not fall into standard waxes synthetic glazes improving agents packaging gases sweeteners foaming agents glutamates inosinates others mineral acids & bases chlorides & sulphates sulphates & hydroxides alkali metal compounds silicates stearates &gluconates others

labelling
Labels must contain: Name and description : Ingredients in weight descending order Date code (sell by use by) Special conditions of storage and use Place of origin Mass Name address of the manufacture packer and or seller Particular preparatory advice on the product Allergy advice

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Sell by date is normally on long shelf life products such as biscuits or sweets and states a date that the company think it should be consumed it is unlikely to cause you any serious harm but its not advisable to eat it to far past sell by date Use by is put on perishable products such as cream cold meats fruit and veg It is also fashionable at the present to put nutritional info on a product (calories fat salt sugar etc)this is not necessary but consumers seem to find it comforting

Packaging
Types of packaging: Plastic foil tetra packs paper cans glass etc.

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M.A.P. (modified atmospheric packaging) and septic packaging are packing methods designed to improve shelf life. M.A.P. packaging is done by changing the environment eg it is done in an airtight environment in which oxygen is replaced with CO 2 and N and the lowering of temperatures reduces the need for less popular methods of preservation such as chemical additives t hese methods are most commonly used on fresh products eg salads veg dread fresh pasta and prepared meat Aseptic packaging is simply packing previously sterilised food in a sterilised environment (airtight) and instantly sealed preventing any oxygen from spoiling the product

cereals

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cereals. all cereals are members of the grass family they are also known as the staple foods due to the fact they make up the bulk of most foods in our diet. Cereals are relatively cheap to produce and all are used for a variety of different things. Cereals are very versatile and as such require drastically different conditions for growth eg rice relies on a much wetter climate than say wheat. The production of cereals has in recent times dramatically changed due to the advances in technology rye: rye has a low gluten content so comes in low volume, dense products (mainly breads) primary processing gives grains & flour Barley: Barley is sold as pearl barley the whole grain with the exception of its husk. Primary processing give pb& malt Maize: may be milled like wheat maize germ is unrefined corn primary processes give oil and flour Oats: are rolled not crushed , into coarse medium and fine grades of oatmeal primary processes gram flour rolled oats & oatmeal Rice husk is removed to give brown rice whit rice is usually milled and ground further