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September-22-10 10:24 PM

Grade 9 Chemistry Review Matter Has mass and Volume Divided into 3 groups Solids have definite shape, constant volume, have equidistance dense molecules, and slow molecule vibration Liquids take shape of their container, have a constant volume, their distance between molecules is close, the speed is moderate and they flow. Gases take shape and expand to fill container, change volume depending on container, molecules are far apart and they move fast and randomly Change of state is possible with addition or removal of energy Solid to Gas or Vice Versa is called Sublimation Physical vs Chemical Change Physical Change has no new substance formed and their is no change to the molecular structure. Ex Ripping Paper Chemical changes produce new substances and their is a change in the molecular structure. Proofs of Chemical change are: Formation of Gas Colour Temperature (transfer of energy) Precipitate Not Reversible Classifying matter

Laboratory Techniques to Separate Mixtures Gravity Filtration Best for mechanical/heterogeneous mixtures. Filter over flask and the liquid is poured over the filter to remove the solid Filter filters out the large particles (solids)

Laboratory Techniques to Separate Mixtures Cont. Centrifugation Best for small amounts of heterogeneous mixtures Spins Mixture in a centrifuge Pushes particles to the side using Gravity It is important to balance the mixture on the opposite side or the liquid will fly out Decant- to pour off the liquid Supernatant- the liquid of the mixture

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Vacuum Filtration Clamp a side arm flask securely to a ring stand Place the rubber adapter in the side arm flask Place the Buchner funnel on the adapter Place Filter Paper on funnel Connect the side arm flask to a vacuum sources (sink)

Flocculation/Coagulation Add coagulate in order to remove the negative charge of solid particles. (clumps particles together) Floc -is the product formed after inserting the chemicals (white flakes) Coagulation- is clumping together Used in Water Treatment plants

Separation Funnel Used for immiscible liquids (see components) Place flask under funnel Add extractor Solvent Open Stopper Close stopper once one liquid has run into the flask

The Atom Almost the entire mass of protons (1u) and neutrons(1u). The mass of the electron is so small that it is considered 0. Atom's charge is neutral, therefore there are an equal amount of protons and electrons The number of protons determines the atomic number (in the nucleus) The total number of protons and neutrons is known as the mass number Mass Number is always on the top left of the symbol and atomic number is bottom left.

Distillation Used for separating solvents and solutes or 2 liquids. Heat 2 liquids to the boiling point of one of the liquids. The liquid will than evaporate and run down the condenser tube, cooled by water and collect at the bottom. The condensor tube has 2 rings. The outer one is for water inorder to cool the vapour, and the interior one is meant for the vapour to travel through. Boiling Chips are often used to stop bubbles from colliding. The condensate is the vapour in liquid form.

Isotopes Isotopes are atoms with the same atomic number, but have variable amount of neutrons. Same chemical properties but different physical properties.

Paper Chromatography Separate substances in a mixture on different motilities' of the components The stationary phase is the porous paper, such as filter paper The mobile phase is the developing solution e.x water, acetone Samples are dotted on the stationary phase Chromatogram is placed in developing solution and the solution will move up As it moves it will pull the components based on the affinity. Rf(representative fraction) is how much a certain part of the solution advanced compared to the overall advance.

Periodic Table Noble Gases are stable Groups share chemical properties Moving down the periodic table increase number of electron shells Moving Right increases the number of electrons in valence shell Elements closest to 1 or 7 electrons in valence shell will bond easiest. Gases are more reactive further up and metals are more reactive further down. Most Reactive Elements are Francium and Fluorine. The closer elements are to these two the more reactive.

Lewis Dot Diagrams Represent the number of valence electrons Number of Valence Electrons determines Chemical Properties Members with the same number of Valence electrons bond similarly

When bonded place square brackets around the element and mark the electrons gained with a different mark, other than a dot such as an x.

Valence Electrons and Oxidation Numbers Nobles gases are not reactive because of full Valence Shell During Chemical reactions elements lose or gain electrons Some elements have multiple valence shells hence numbers Oxidation number is the charge after it has formed a stable octet Positive Oxidation numbers lose electrons and negative gain electrons Ionic bonds are between a metal and non metal Metal gives electrons while Non metal takes electrons The bond is electrostatic High melting point, non conductive as solids highly conductive as liquids, brittle

Writing Chemical Equations Represent what is happening in a chemical equation Word Equation: Represent what is occurring in words Covalent Bonding and Naming Covalent Bonding is between two non-metals The two elements share electrons e.x. H20/ Water Always write H20 as water and NH4 as Ammonia Hydrogen bonds with itself to be stable so do Oxygen, Fluoride, Bromide, Iodine, Nitrogen, Chlorine HOFBrINCl Covalent Bonds are named by the elements adopting a prefix depending on how many atoms of that element are in the

Naming Ionic Compounds If there is a sole valence, place the metal first and than add the gas after, remove the ending and add -ide e.x Sodium Choloride NaCl You can determine how much of each atom you need by the oxidation number. Take the oxidation number of one element is how many of the other element is required. Then reduce. Variable valences can be named using the Stock system and the ic-ous system Choose one of the 2 valences to fill. Choose that oxidation number. Than write it in Roman numerals e.x. Iron (III) Chloride Written in symbols the same as above. The other way is the ic-ous system Using the Latin name of the element. If you use the Valence with the higher oxidation number you add the suffix -ic if you use the Valence with the lower

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depending on how many atoms of that element are in the compound Water would be called Dihyrdogen monoxide NH3 or Nitrogen Trihydride is always ammonia The prefixes are Mono-1 Di-2 Tri-3 Tetra-4 Penta-5 Hexa-6 Hepta-7Octa-8 Nona-9 Deca-10 If the first element in the name only has one atom, no prefix is needed If the element begins in a vowel and the prefix ends in an a remove the "a"

oxidation number you add the suffix -ic if you use the Valence with the lower oxidation number you add the suffix -ous Latin names needed to be known Copper:Cuprum, Iron: Ferrum, Lead: Plumbum Tim Stannum, Gold: aurum EX Cupric Oxide or Ferrous Oxide Treat Polyatomic Ions like elements, use oxidation number. However when writing with Symbols, if multiple Polyatomic Ions are needed, place the base in brackets and the number of ions needed outside the brackets. Binary Acids are bonded elements with hydrogen. They are dissolved in water. Therefore the are written as one word with the suffix -ic with the word acid right after. Hydrogen Bromide becomes Hydrobromic acid and in symbols it is written the same except their is (aq) at the bottom, meaning aqueous. Peroxides are elements that are bonded with oxygen, that have an extra oxygen atom. The easiest way to detect them is if the equation isn't reduced. Such as H2O2 is a peroxide cause it has an extra oxygen. The prefix per- is added in front of the oxygen. You do not reduce after the oxygen has been added.

EX NO2 is Nitrogen Dioxide

Balancing Equations Balancing equations is to obey the Law of Conservation of Mass, which states matter cannot be destroyed or created. Assure that there are equal amounts of each element on both sides by adding coefficients.

Look at the equation and see which elements are not balanced. In this case, there are two oxygen atoms on the lefthand side o f the equation and only one on the righthand side. Correct this by putting a coefficient of 2 in front of water: SnO2 + H2 Sn + 2 H2O This puts the hydrogen atoms out of balance. Now there are two hydrogen atoms on the left and four hydrogen atoms on the righ t. To get four hydrogen atoms on the right, add a coefficient of 2 for the hydrogen gas. Remember, coefficients are multipliers, so if we write 2 H2O it denotes 2x2=4 hy drogen atoms and 2x1=2 oxygen atoms. SnO2 + 2 H2 Sn + 2 H2O The equation is now balanced. Be sure to double-check your math! Each side of the equation has 1 atom of Sn, 2 atoms of O, and 4 atoms of H.

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Redox reactions are when elements gain or lose electrons during the chemical change Determine the oxidation numbers with the help of a few rules Elements alone always have a charge of 0 In a compound Fluorine is always -1 In a compound, Oxygen is always -2 except if combined with Fluroine that is it is +2 or in peroxide for it is -1 In a compound H is always +1 when combined with a non metal and -1 combined with a metal In compounds consisting of 1 METAL and 1 NON-METAL The non metal have their normal oxidation numbers In compounds Alkali Metals are always +1 and earth metals are always +2 After find that, find which element has changed from the left side to the right in terms of oxidation numbers There should be one that has gained and one that has lost, equate the number of electrons gained and lost Balance the rest of the equation HNO3(aq) + H3AsO3(aq) --> NO(g) + H3AsO4(aq) + H2O(l) Solution: Step #1: Try to balance the atoms by inspection. The H and O atoms are difficult to balance in this equation. You might arrive at the correct balanced equation using a trial and error technique, but if you do not discover the correct coefficients fairly quickly, proceed to Step #3. Step #3: Is the reaction redox? The N atoms change from +5 to +2, so they are reduced. This information is enough to tell us that the reaction is redox. (The As atoms, which change from +3 to +5, are oxidized.) Step #4: Determine the net increase in oxidation number for the element that is oxidized and the net decrease in oxidation number for the element that is reduced. As +3 to +5 Net Change = +2 N +5 to +2 Net Change = -3 Step #5: Determine a ratio of oxidized to reduced atoms that would yield a net increase in oxidation number equal to the net decrease in oxidation number. As atoms would yield a net increase in oxidation number of +6. (Six electrons would be lost by three arsenic atoms.) 2 N atoms would yield a net decrease of -6. (Two nitrogen atoms would gain six electrons.) Thus the ratio of As atoms to N atoms is 3:2. Step #6: To get the ratio identified in Step 5, add coefficients to the formulas which contain the elements whose oxidation number is changing. 2HNO3(aq) + 3H3AsO3(aq) --> NO(g) + H3AsO4(aq) + H2O(l) Step #7: Balance the rest of the equation by inspection. 2HNO3(aq) + 3H3AsO3(aq) --> 2NO(g) + 3H3AsO4(aq) + H2O(l)
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Types of Reaction All chemical reactions can be placed into one of six categories. Here they are, in no particular order: 1) Combustion: A combustion reaction is when oxygen combines with another compound to form water and carbon dioxide. These reactions are exothermic, meaning they produce heat. An example of this kind of reaction is the burning of napthalene: There is always heat in added in a combustion reaction, also there must be an ample supply of oxygen as well as a Hydrocarbon (Hydrogen+Carbon) If there is not enough oxygen Carbon Monoxide is created instead. CO C10H8 + 12 O2 ---> 10 CO2 + 4 H2O 2) Synthesis: A synthesis reaction is when two or elements combine to form a more complicated one. These reactions come in the general form of: A + B ---> AB One example of a synthesis reaction is the combination of iron and sulfur to form iron (II) sulfide: 8 Fe + S8 ---> 8 FeS Note: These reactions can occur with Polyatomic Ions AND Water and Carbon Dioxide acting as 1 element. HINTS: 2 Reactants= 1 Product Reactants are not mixtures Reactants are NOT 2 metals.
3) Decomposition: A decomposition reaction is the opposite of a synthesis reaction - a complex molecule breaks down to make simpler ones. These reactions come in the general form: AB ---> A + B Special Forms: Metal Carbonate ---> Metal Oxide and Carbon Dioxide Metal Hydrogen Carbonate/Bicarbonate--->Water +Carbon Dioxide + Metal Carbonate Metal Chlorates---> Metal Chloride + Oxygen Gas One example of a decomposition reaction is the electrolysis of water to make oxygen and hydrogen gas: 2 H2O ---> 2 H2 + O2 4) Single displacement: This is when one element trades places with another element in a compound. These reactions come in the g eneral form of: A + BC ---> AC + B HINTS: 2 Reactants 2 Products 1 Reactant and 1 Product are Elements In order to switch places or kick out an element from the compound, The element doing the kicking out must be higher on the activity series or closer to Fluorine. Compound is always (aq) One example of a single displacement reaction is when magnesium replaces hydrogen in water to make magnesium hydroxide and hy drogen gas: Mg + 2 H2O ---> Mg(OH)2 + H2

5) Double displacement: This is when the anions and cations of two different molecules switch places, forming two entirely diffe rent compounds. These reactions are in the general form: AB + CD ---> AD + CB HINTS: 2 Reactants 2 Products Both Reactants must be (aq)

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Both Reactants must be (aq) 1 Product is (aq) the other is a precipitate. Check table of solubilities to see if it is precipitate or not. One example of a double displacement reaction is the reaction of lead (II) nitrate with potassium iodide to form lead (II) io dide and potassium nitrate: Pb(NO3)2 + 2 KI ---> PbI2 + 2 KNO3 6) Acid-base: This is a special kind of double displacement reaction that takes place when an acid and base react with each other. Th e H+ ion in the acid reacts with the OH-ion in the base, causing the formation of water. Generally, the product of this reaction is some ionic salt and water: HA + BOH ---> H2O + BA NOTES: Always Dissolved in Water: Acid+Base---> Water +Ionic Compound Hydroxide Ions form Base combine with Hydrogen atom from Acid and for water leaving metal +Non Metal. If Carbonate is present in the base CO2 will be formed EX HCl +NaHCO3 ---> H20 + NaCl + CO2 One example of an acid-base reaction is the reaction of hydrobromic acid (HBr) with sodium hydroxide: HBr + NaOH ---> NaBr + H2O
Practical uses of Acid-Base Reaction are Cleaning up acids or base spills Neutralize Fish Oil Helping Baked goods rise ---> due to CO2 Antacids Neutralize stomach acids.
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Acids vs Bases Acids Taste Sour Soluble in Water Reacts with anything higher than hydrogen on Activity Series Reacts with Carbonates Good Conductor of electricity Releases Hydrogen Ions when in water Corrosive Bases Taste bitter Soluble in Water Reacts with anything higher than hydrogen on Activity Series Reacts with Protein Good conductor of electricity Release Hydroxide atoms when in water Corrosive

Ph Symbolizes the concentration of Hydrogen ions It is by a logarithmic scale Meaning every 1 unit on the scale is 10x more than the one before The scale is from 0-14 7 is Neutral Lower on the scale means more acidic Higher on the Scale means more basic

Writing Chemical Equations Always write the state of the element or compound, if known. (S)-Solid (L)-Liquid (G)-Gas (aq) Dissolved in Water Remember Diatomic Molecules must have a subscript of 2.

Acids and Bases in Water Water Hydrogen is slightly Posoitive Oxygen is negative This polarity allows the parts of a compound to be attracted to different parts of water These forces can tear compounds apart. Acids Hydrogen end is posotive Oxygen attracts the hydrogen and the gas is attracted to the hydrogen in water Non Metal Part is negative Ionization occurs and the acid is separated in the solution. Bases Ionic Compounds Metallic End is Positive and attracted to oxygen Hydroxide is pulled by hydrogen because it is negative.

Counting Atoms The Symbol of an element represents one atom of the element A subscript can indicate the number of atoms Subscript outside of brackets multiplies the number of atoms in the brackets Coefficients in front of the element represent the number of atoms in that element or Formula Animal Cell Plant Cell

Cell Parts
Nucleus- Controls the cell. Is like the brain. Directs the activities of the cell. Endoplasmic reticulum- Transports things throughout the cell. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum- synthesises proteins; transports protein; large Surface Area for reactions. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum- Transfers phospholipids (Fat) and macro mloecules Mitochondria- Produces ATP (a chemical energy store) for the cell. Is often called the "powerhouse" of the cell. Vacuoles- Store things for the cell like water and waste. Golgi bodies/apparatus- sorts proteins, processes them, synthesizes carbohydrates for plant cell walls. Vesicle-part of the Golgi Apparatus; Store Protein Cell membrane- Protects the cell and gives it shape and structure. Also controls what passes into the cell and what stays out, and recognizes signal molecules such as growth factors and hormones. Consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins. Lysosome- Filled with enzymes that destroy waste in a cell. Chloroplasts (plant cells only)- Contain chlorophyll, which converts light energy into chemical energy, which it uses to synthesize glucose from the simple, inorganic substances carbon dioxide and water. Ribosomes- synthesize (make) protiens that are used to make amino acids.

Chromatin-The Combination of DNA in a cell Cytoplasm-Holds organelles in place; environment for chemical reactions to occur; nutrients

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Cytoplasm-Holds organelles in place; environment for chemical reactions to occur; nutrients Cell Wall-tough rigid structure supporting the plant cell Nucleolus- Creates ribosomes (protein) Nuclear Membrane-Protects Nucleus controls movement of material in and out (micromolecules) Nuclear Pores- Allows macromolecules in and out of the cell Chromatin- Contains the genetic information Cytoskeleton-filaments and tubes which provide framework for the cell. Centrioles-Involved in Cell Division Cilia and Flagella(Animal)-Move cell through the environment.
Pasted from <http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Organelles_and_their_functions>


DNA Contains genes which create proteins Genes create protein Different combinations of 4 genes leads to thousands of possibilites DNA testing is possible at an early age thanks to blood tests Genetic flaws could occur with an extra or missing gene, thus creating over or under growth of protein. Universal Gene code allows different organisms to read gene code Beneficial to help humans cure diseases such as heart, liver etc.

Mitosis Mitosis is useful for Reproduction of single celled organisms Replacing damaged cells Growth Cytokenesis is the division of cytoplasm and other organelles

The Cell Cycle Continuous sequence of growth and division Life Cycle is divided into Interphase Cell Division Mitosis Cytokenesis Interphase G1: the Cell grows and prepares for division S:Cell duplicates genetic information Single stranded --> Double Stranded G2: Cell continues to grow and prepare for cell division. Checkpoints before cell division in order to prevent defects are: Chromosomes have attacked to spindle fibres DNA is damaged or not replicated Not Enough nutrients or DNA is damaged Cell Division will not occur if: DNA is not duplicated DNA is damaged Not enough nutrients Not being in the Cell Cycle is the Non-dividing stage Stop Dividing due to damage Some cells are naturally like this Nerve Cells These cells commit suicide

Cancer Cells Grow much faster than normal cells The more cells that usually reproduce the faster cancer grows. Several Layers and different types of tumour and cancers Cancer cells can enter the bloodstream and spread around the body.

Cell Specialization and Types of Cell Cell Specialization is the process by which cells develop into cells with specific functions, within multicellular organisms (organs/tissue) Cell Differentiation is the stage when living organisms create specialized cells Groups of specialized cells are called tissue. Groups of tissue form organs, which are working together Multicelleular organisms start on of a single cell(zygote) Animal Cells that an differentiate are stem cells. The most diverse are Totipotent, than Pluipotent and finally Adult Stem Ce lls Plants Cells which differentiate are called Meristematic cells, which can divide into Dermal/Vascular and Ground Tissue

Plant Organs The Leaf Photosynthesis Large surface area allows it absorb more sunlight Stores product of photosynthesis (glucose) as starch Stored in root

The Stem Physical Support for the plant Transportation of water and other nutrients Xylem Hollow to allow the transport of water(pipe) Dead cells Phloem Live cells which is porous Transports Nutrients and waste (sugars) Xylem is in the middle Phloem surrounds it

The Root Anchors the plant to the soil Takes water and nutrients from the soil into the plant Root hairs are where water and nutrients are absorbed Cotex Cells stores starch Endodermis controls the transport of materials Tap Root anchors the plant and reaches down

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Xylem Hollow to allow the transport of water(pipe) Dead cells Phloem Live cells which is porous Transports Nutrients and waste (sugars) Xylem is in the middle Phloem surrounds it

Note: Epidermal cells are found on upper and lower and are classified by upper epidermal cells and lower epidermal cells. Epidermis is a sheet of dermal tissue Creates the cuticle(waxy) Reduces Water loss because it prevents evaporation Water evaporation =Transpiration Mesophyll Tissue Pallisade Performs photosynthesis Long poles used to meet sun head on Lots of chloroplast Spongy Contains water and gases Vascular Tissue Delivers water and sugar Connects plant organs Guard Cells Open and close stoma to allow the exchange of water Photosynthesis Light Energy, Carbon Dioxide and Water are required to create Glucose C6H12O6 and Oxygen gas Occurs in the Chloroplast Stacks called grana made of thylakoid Liquid within is called stroma

The Root Anchors the plant to the soil Takes water and nutrients from the soil into the plant Root hairs are where water and nutrients are absorbed Cotex Cells stores starch Endodermis controls the transport of materials Tap Root anchors the plant and reaches down Fibrous roots provide large surface area Stabilizes soil

The Flower Reproductive organ of the flower Not all plants have flowers The flower creates pollen/eggs Flowering Animals (Bees) spread the pollen and help plants reproduce

Plant Tissue Dermal Tissue Covers plant Controls exchange of water and gas Protection Ground Photosynthesis Supports plant Vascular Transports water and nutrients Xylem Phloem

Types of Animal Tissue Epithelial Tissue Lines the surface of the body (covering) Made of strongly connected cells forms a barrier Cell membrane is connected Skin Epithelia Made of thin, flat cells that form sheet Semi permeable Barrier between inside and outside Fits tightly

Columnar Made of columns of cells that line glands, stomach, intestines May secrete mucus Cilia projected to absorb nutrients

Muscle Tissue Designed to change shape Shortening and lengthening in order to move Skeletal Muscle Made of cells that line up in same direction Attaches to bone allowing body to move

Plant Organ System Root System Below Ground(All Organs) Takes water and mineals in Anchors plant Stores nutrients Constantly growing Shoot System Above Ground Photosynthesis Transport Reproduction Maintain a constant flow of fluid (water) Movement of Water Water, absorbed by the root needs to be distributed. Root Pressure When the concentration of minerals in the xylem is high water flows in by osmosis As water flows in water pressure pushes water upward Only works for a few metres Transpiration When stoma opens up water vapour is lost This pulls up water This relies on 2 properties of water Cohesive Water molecules stick to one another Adhesive Stick to other cells Food is also moved through the system in a similar manner Photosynthesis produces glucose, which is either used or used to make sucrose to store Sucrose can later be dissolved in water and redistributed through the plant.
Replacing and Repairing Specialized Cells Leaves need to be replaced Photosynthesis Roots need to grow Find more Nutrients Plants grow quickly due to rapidly dividing meristetmatic (stem cells) In rapidly growing areas auxin(hormone) hormone is released from the terminal bud Auxin controls the growth of the cells below them Slows down lateral growth Terminal buds are located at the end of branches Therefore cutting off terminal buds removes the auxin (temporarily) and allows plants to branch out

Smooth Muscle Made of cells which are tapered at each end Blood Vessels Contracts Slowly and by itself

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(temporarily) and allows plants to branch out

Movement of Molecules Diffusion Area of high concentration to low concentration Spreading out of a liquid evenly Osmosis Special type of diffusion which is through a semi permeable membrane Low concentration of solute results in a high concentration of water and in order to fix it water is ejected from the cell, same vice versa Human Body Organs Outline of the Body and its Major organs

Cardiac Muscle Found in heart Nuclei appears near the edge of the cells Contracts as one unit (heart)

Nervous Tissue Send relay signals from brain to the muscles and organs

Connective Tissue Bone Cells Surrounded by hard calcium Movement Supports and protects body

Fat Large tightly packed cells for storage

Blood RBC, WBC and Platlets Transports Oxygen and other nutrients Helps defend the body Helps clot to prevent major blood loss

Organ Systems Intredependence Nervous: Excretory, Immune, Endocrine, Respiratory, Integumentary, Muscular, Circulatory, Digestive, Skeletal, Reproductive. Excretory: Nervous, Digestive Immune: Circulatory, Skeletal, Nervous Endocrine: Nervous, Circulatory, Reproductive Respiratory: Circulatory Integumentary: Muscular, Nervous Muscular: Nervous, Skeletal, Integumentary Circulatory: Digestive, Endocrine, Nervous, Respiratory, Immune Digestive: Circulatory, Excretory, Nervous Skeletal: Muscular, Nervous, Immune Reproductive: Endocrine, Nervous

Human Body Systems Circulatory Transports Blood Nutrients Gases and Wastes Heart, Blood Vessels and Blood Digestive Takes in food, breaks it down absorbs the nutrients and excretes solid waste Mouth, Esophogus, stomach, pancreas, gall bladder, liver, intestines. Respirtory Controls breathing and the exchange of gas Nose, Mouth, Trachea, Bronchi, Bronchioles, Aveoli, Diagphram Excretory Removes liquid waste from the body Skin Kidney, bladder, urethra, ureter Immune Defends body against infection WBC, Thymus, Spleen, Lymph Nodes, Lymph Vessels Muscular Works with bones to move parts of the body Skeletal, Smooth and Cardiac Muscle, Tendons, Ligaments Endocrine Manufactures and releases hormones that act, along with the nervous system to keep various body systems in balance Reproductive Includes reproductive organs used to produce offspring Ovaries, fallopian tubes, vagina, uterus, testes, epididymis, vas deferens, penis, urethra Integumentary Creates a waterproof barrier around the body Skin, hair nails and glands Nervous Detects changes in the environment and signals these changes to the body for a response and help control body temperature Brain Nerves, Spinal Cord Skeletal Supports, protects and works with muscles to move parts of the body Bone, Cartilage

Dissection: Frog
Types of Respiratory System Diffusion Examples: Protists, algae, fungi, bacteria Environment: moist, aquatic, in host O2 diffuses through cell membrane and CO2 diffuses out the system is also moist and larger SA (cell membrane) Skin Examples: Earthworm, leeches Environment: water, deep earth
O2 diffuses into and out of circulatory vessels near the surface of the skin

Gills Example: Mollusks, Crayfish, Tadpoles, Fish Environment: Water

gills that are feathery tissue structure with many branches (increase S.A.) gases are exchanged across the membranes water flows one way over the gills as blood is pumped in the opposite direction picking

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is pumped in the opposite direction picking up O2 and dropping off CO2 (countercurrent exchange)

Tracheal Example: Insects, Non-vertebrate Environment: Terrestrial

internals respiratory system with external spiracles that lead to tracheae abdomen expands drawing in air through anterior spiracles abdomen contracts push air out through posterior spiracles tracheal tubes deliver O2 to cells

Dissection: Worm

Lungs Example: Vertebrates Environment: Terrestrial, Aquatic

one or two lungs method of bringing in the air circulatory system

Dissection: Bean

Digestive System Filter Feeding Blue Whale, Clams, Scale, Oysters, Mussels Engulfs strains of water by pushing up its tongue, Krill is captured and swallowed Fluid Feeding Insects Bites and uses anticoagulants to keep blood flowing, digestive enzymes break down the blood Tube Arrangement Large Multicellular organisms Digestion occurs in a small isolated area, Closed Tube have one opening Open tube has two (mouth, anus) Intracellular Digestion Amoeba Engulfs food particles using phagocytes and dissolve it using enzymes
Dissection: Flower

Circulatory System NO Organization Unicellular Materials are transported across the cell membrane and distributed via cytoplasm Waste is released through membrane Multi Cellular Fluid is taken through the mouth to the body and then materials are exchanged to the cavity Open Grasshopper Aorta carries blood to the body; materials are exchanged; muscles help move the blood around the cavity and back to aorta No vessels, goes directly to muscles Closed Annelids 5 aortic hearts pump into ventral vessels ; oxygen is exchanged via the skin. Oxygen is carried around by a pigment Fish 1-2 chambered heart Blood flows through the heart and is pumped out into capillaries to gill where gas exchange takes place. Then travels to muscles Amphibians 1-3 chambered heart Blood is pumped to the lungs and mixes with deoxygenated blood, then is pumped out to body and back to heart Birds and Mammals 1-4 chambered heart Heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs where gas is exchanged and pumped to the rest of the body, distributing oxygen

Dissection: Grammar

Public Health Strategies A coordinated effort to track, research and reduce the incidence of a specific health problem in a population Vaccinations Prevent the virus from occuring in the population Containing the spread of disease Make it harder for people to get it Educated people on how to protect themselves

Medical Imaging Technology X Ray Produced by transmitting a wavelength of radiation through the body Meant for hard tissue such as bone CAT Scan Very thin slices of X Ray to create 3D image Ultrasound Produced by high frequency sound waves Picked up by microphone Shows real time movements Used to see organs function MRI Scan Produced radio signals in magnetic field to create images Brain

Dissection: Grasshopper Mouth

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
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Levels of Biological Organization From Smallest to Largest Sub Atomic Particles: Protons, Neutrons and Electrons Atoms: Basic Building blocks Small Molecules: Amino Acids, Glucose, Fatty Acid Macro Molecules:: Large molecules (carbohydrates) Molecular Assemblies: Groups of molecules that distribute molecules (cell membrane) Organelle: Parts of the cell which perform specific function Cell: Basic form of life of biological organization with a specific job. Bacteria Tissue: groups of cells with the same specialized job Organs: group of tissues grouped together; the grouping allows the organ to performs specific jobs Organ System: groups of organ with one broad job Organism: Any form of life, a group of cells; functioning as one

Color Mixing Additive Process Also called the RGB color model All light receptors in the eye rely on this process This applies to light Primary Colours are Red Green and Blue Red+Green= Yellow Green+Blue = Cyan Blue + Red = Magenta Black is made by the absence of light in the area. White is made by the combination of the three primary colours. Pigments absorb and reflect these rays of light, allowing us to see colour Colours we do not see are not reflected by the surface, but absorbed. Subtractice Process Also called the CMYK model This model applies for pigments and the mixing of pigments to make new colours. Primary Colours are Magenta, Yellow and Cyan Magenta+ Yellow= red Yellow + Cyan = Green Cyan + magenta = blue Black is made of pure black pigment White is made by absence of pigment. Used for printers

Significant Digits, Rounding Scientific Notation Significant Digits Used to represent uncertainty in measurement. Estimates Used to show that the numbers are only precise to a certain degree. Rules Non-zero digits are always significant. Thus, 22 has two significant digits, and 22.3 has three significant digits. With zeroes, the situation is more complicated: a. Zeroes placed before other digits are not significant; 0.046 has two significant digits. b. Zeroes placed between other digits are always significant; 4009 kg has four significant digits. c. Zeroes placed after other digits but behind a decimal point are significant; 7.90 has three significant digits. d. Zeroes at the end of a number are significant only if they are behind a decimal point as in (c). Otherwise, it is impossible to tell if they are significant. For example, in the number 8200, it is not clear if the zeroes are significant or not. The number of significant digits in 8200 is at least two, but could be three or four. To avoid uncertainty, use scientific notation to place significant zeroes behind a decimal point:
Pasted from <http://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/tutorials/sig_fig/SIG_dig.htm>

When Adding or subtracting , round the answer to the value having the fewest decimal places in the calculation. When multiplying or dividing round the answer to the least number of significant digits in the calculation. Rounding One looks at the trailing digit of the string If the number is great than 5 round up If the number is less than 5 round down. If the number is 5 There are digits after it, round up If there are no digits after it, round up if the next digit is odd Round down if it is even Scientific Notation Numbers are broken down into decimals multiplied by 10 1.23 x 1011
Pasted from <http://www.nyu.edu/pages/mathmol/textbook/scinot.html>

The leading number must be between 1-10 Negative exponents are possible

Electromagnetic Spectrum Different waves have different frequencies and wavelengths As frequency rises wavelength drops and vice versa. In a vacuum all of the waves travel at the speed of light Different colours have varying frequencies allowing us to distinguish them. Frequency is measured in Hz while Wavelength is measured in meters.

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The Nature of Light Light Travels as a wave through a vacuum Moves in a wave form similar to water Movement of energy from one point to another Light waves are invisible 3.00 x 10^8 m/s

Where c is the speed of light and f is the frequency and

is the wavelength

Reflection Law of reflection states the angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reflection. The normal and the mirror intersect at 90 degrees The angle of incidence and reflection are measured from the normal.

Ray Diagrams Draw an incident ray to the mirror at 90 degrees. Since it impacts the mirror at 90 degrees it bounces back Draw another incident ray from A to any angle. Reflect the ray at an equal angle. Extend the dashed line from the 90 degree line and the reflected ray. The point of intersection is where the image of the point is located.

Concave Mirror Principal Axis: On a concave mirror the line that passes through the centre of curvature and is normal to the centre of the mirror.

Convex Mirror

Types of Light Emission Light from the Sun Fusion reaction (Hydrogen fuses to become helium) Releases huge amount of energy which excites atoms which form light Light from Incandescence (Light Bulbs) Running an electric charge through a thin metal wire. Resistance causes heat to increase creating light Only 95% of energy is for light Light from Electric Discharge (neon signs) Producing light by passing an electric charge through a gas Releases energy as light, colour depends on metal Excited atoms release energy Fluorescence (Fluorescent Lights) Visible light that is emitted as a result of the absorption of ultraviolet light. Fluorite glows when exposed to UV light (produces light) Luminescence Phosphoerescence (Glow in the dark objects) Visible light that is emitted due to exposeure to UV light and continues to be emitted even without UV light. Glow in the dark Store the UV light and releases it later Bioluminescence (Firefly) The production of light by a biological organisim because of a chemical reaction going on Chemiluminescence(Light Stick) Light is produced by a chemical reaction No heat is produced

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to the centre of the mirror. Focal Point: The point on the principal axis through which reflected rays pass when the incident rays are parallel to and near the principal axis Focal length: distance between the mirrors and focal point Imaging Rule: A ray parallel to the principal axis is reflect through focal point A ray through Centre of Curvature reflects back on itself A ray through the focal point is reflected parallel to the normal.

Convex Mirror Mirror whose reflecting surface is curved outward Focal point behind mirror Imaging Rules: Any incident ray travelling parallel to normal will reflect so that the extended ray will pass through the normal. Any incident ray whose extension will pass through the focal point will reflect parallel to the normal

No heat is produced Triboluminescence Light produced by friction as a result of scartching, curshing or rubbing certain crystals Hammering a sugar cube

Ray Diagrams for Concave Mirrors Draw a ray parallel to the normal draw the reflected ray back through the focal point Draw a ray from the top of the object through the focal point in the mirror reflect the ray parallel to the normal Draw a ray towards C. This ray is reflected on the same line The point where all lines meet is where the top of the object is. The bottom of the object rests on the normal. If the object is between F and C the ray reflected from the centre of curvature goes behind the object. If the object is on the focal point no clear image can be produced. If the object is between the focal point and the mirror then the object is virtual and is on the other side of the mirror and the rays must be extended.

Ray Diagrams for Convex Mirrors Draw a line parallel to the normal, the reflected ray should be able to extend to reach the focal point. Draw a line to centre of curvature extend the line past the mirror. Draw a line towards the focal point and reflect it parallel to the normal. Extend it past the mirror Where it intersects past the mirror is the virtual image.

Mirror and Magnification Equations Mirror Equation: Where f= Focal Length Di=distance of image Do=Distance of object

If the image distance is negative , the image is behind the mirror If the focal point is negative it is behind the mirror
Magnification Equation: Where M= Magnification (_x) Hi= Height of image Ho=Height of object Di= Distance of Image Do= Distance of Object

If hi is negative or magnification is negative the image is inverted relative to the object.

Refraction Is a property of light Travels through different material at different speeds Change in angle is called refraction The refracted ray is the ray upon entering the new median Angle of refraction is between the reflected ray and the normal. If light is moving faster in the second median then the light bends away from the normal, however if it is moving slower it bends towards the normal. The amount light bends depends on the difference in the index of refraction This leads to objects having distorted positions in water. (fish) Index of refraction is the speed of a light in a vacuum divided by the speed of light in a material N=c/v Snell's Law is the formula that uses values for the index of refraction to calculate the new angle that ray will take as a beam of light strikes the interface between the two medians where O is the angle and N is the index of refraction

Ray Diagrams for Diverging Lens Draw a line vertically through the middle of the lens (all rays move through there then change) Draw a first ray parallel to the normal, This line refracts so that it can extend and touch the first focal point. Extend the line by a dotted line Draw a second ray through the intersection of the normal and the principal axis. This line refracts horizontally, there is no change in angle. Draw a third ray towards the Ray Diagrams for Converging Lenses second focal point and refract it Draw the principal axis in the middle of the lens parallel to the normal Draw the first ray parallel to the normal, the line refracts through the second focal point Draw the second line through the intersection of the normal and the (axis of symmetry) This line continues at the same angle of refraction The third ray moves through the first focal point, once it reaches the axis of symmetry it refracts parallel to the normal

Characteristic of Lenses A lens is a transparent object with at least one curved side that causes light to refract Lenses have surfaces that can be defines as concave or convex There are 2 classes of lenses, converging and diverging Converging Lenses Bring Parallel light ray toward a common point Have one or two convex surfaces that are THICKED IN THE CENTRE than on the edge Diverging lenses Spread parallel light rays away from a common point Have one or two concave surfaces and are THINNER IN THE CENTRE than on the edges Focal Point and Focal Length of Lenses When ray that are parallel to the principal axis pass through a converging lens, the rays intersect at the focal point. When rays that are parallel to the principal axis pass through a diverging lens the rays diverge and by tracing the rays backwards to the point of intersection is the focal point Lenses have two focal points because light can pass through both ways. Thick and Thin Lenses Lenses produce spherical aberration-which are irregularities that result when rays on the outer edges don't travel through the focal point In thin lenses the effect is not noticeable In thick lenses only rays near the principal axis produce a clear image because they meet at the focal point. Edges of think lenses can act like prism and separate light into colour It is partially corrected by using multiple lenses and materials with different refractive indices

Converging lens

Diverging Lens

Changing the Direction of a Light Ray Impacting a normal at 45 degrees will result in light turning 180 degrees. Optical Phenomena in Nature Sun Dogs Same as rainbows except with ice Rainbows When light is behind you and in front of you is a cloud of water then light refracts in different colours. Creates a rainbow

Practical Uses of Reflection/Refraction Optical fibres are line with mirrors which allow light to bend and move forward through a wire. The more light refracts(the more a medium slows it down) results in more refraction More faces result in more refraction Car mirrors change angle at night in order to divert different amounts of light into the drivers eyes. At nights light is not directly reflected (contrast) towards the driver, however during the day light goes directly into the drivers eyes.

Total Internal Reflection/Critical Angle/Partial Reflection and Refraction Partial Reflection and refraction is when some light is reflected and some refracted At the critical angle(produces refracted ray of 90) all light is reflect rather than reflection. This is called Total internal reflection( where things reflect within the object) Total Internal Reflection only occurs when light moves faster from one medium to another and the angle of is greater than the critical angle. Dispersion Since white light is composed of all colours when it is dispersed after leaving a prism. The colour on top is the fastest speed. (Red)

Apparent Depth In water since light travels slower, objects appear shallower than they are.

Detecting Light Once light reaches the retina it is absorbed by photoreceptors Cells that are sensetive to light Rods: Low Light (don't sense colour) Cones: Regular ones sense colour) One spot on retina where there are no photoreceptors.(location of optical nerve) Brain fills in the image

Human Vision Parts of the Eye Cornea Transparent layer where light enters and is directed into the eye Light is refracted by the cornea Pupil Dark circle (hole) when you look at the eye Light enters but does not leave Iris Circular band of muscle Determines colour of eye Controls size of pupil Retina Back lining of eye Acts as projector screen All things are projected upside down. Lens Converging Lens Can change shape/Change focal length

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Shimmer When hot air is caught between cold air, since they have different indices of refraction it causes a different range of refraction. This creates shimmering Mirage Large scale shimmer. (hot highway or desert) Brain interprets light travels in a straight line, but mirages cause light to bend. Depending on temperature images can appear inverted.(due to a temperature inversion) Hot air above cold air.
Problems in Eyesight Myopia (Near Sighted Vision): Eye is too long. This eye cannot focus on far things. Use a diverging lens to correct it Hyperopia (Far Sighted Vision): Eye is too short; This eye cannot focus on nearby objects. Use a converging lens to fix it. Prebyopia: Cant focus on nearby objects; Eye muscles are too stiff. Use a bifocal lens (Top is diverging; bottom is converging Astigmatism: Cornea is incorrectly shaped; no solution

Acts as projector screen All things are projected upside down. Lens Converging Lens Can change shape/Change focal length Attached to cillary muscles which hold and change the lens Muscles contract for closer objects (vice versa)

Parts of A Camera (Eye) Aperture: Pupil Lens: Retina Rim : Cillary Muscles Film: Lens

Atmosphere Composed of Nitrogen, Oxygen, Water Vapour and other gases/solids Uneven heating of the earth(sun) causes warm air to move to cooler areas (wind) Winds create ocean currents by blowing them, oceans also absorb and transfer heat. When two air masses meet one rises, cools and condenses to form precipitation. Jet streams (fast moving winds) carry air greater distances; Polar Jet stream affects Canada

Factors that Affect Climate Change Atmosphere is a layer of gases covering the earth Climate is the patterns in weather conditions in an area Climates have changed many times Earth and Sun Energy from the sun is the largest factor in our climate The amount of energy produced from the sun changes over time Earth rotates once every 24 hours around the axis (day) In 365 days the earth rotates once around the sun (year) Axis of the earth is 23.5 Orbit+Tilt make seasons Eccentricity is the orbit pattern Earth orbits in either a circular or elliptical pattern(More energy, intense seasons) Tilt is the change in the axis, the greater the tilt the greater difference between summer and winter Wobble(precision) affects amount of energy received and difference in the temperature during the seasons Sun strikes earth perpendicular to the equator and poles at different angles causing poles to be cooler Hydrosphere Mass of Water on the earth Water has a high heat capacity (lot of heat to change temperature) allows it to hold more heat then air, thus becoming a reservoir. Ice and Snow reflect solar radiation due to light colour (fraction of energy reflected is called albedo; affects global temperature Natural Disasters Natural Disasters and Climate change affect many things affecting humans Food Supply would be affected due to loss of fisheries and crops. Greater Disease Risk in areas which are tropical. Deforestation will also come into affect due to dry climate leading to fires. Seal levels rising will cause a loss of land and water conflicts will be in effect everywhere currently lacking freshwater. Also the amount and intensity of Tropical storms will increase, killing more people

Moving Continents Tectonics are massive pieces of solid rock which move a bit every year. Cause changes in circulation and shape of continents and wind Volcanoes release particles which reflect solar radiation, decreasing the amount of heat; however some may release greenhouse gases increasing temperature

Human Activity Burning of Fossil Fuels releases gases (greenhouse) and pollutants.

Heating the Planet Radiation is the transfer of energy via a wave from the sun, factors affecting it are latitude, tilt, albedo, heat capacity Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy, through particle collision (similar to a stove) Convection is the transfer of energy by the mass movement of liquids or bases (warm air rising)

Energy Transfer in the Ocean As Water moves towards the poles it gets colder and saltier, this is due to when salt water freezes at the the poles the salt is ejected from the ice and sent to the bottom. Cold salty Water is dense and sinks, allowing warmer water to take its place This is called Thermohaline circulation. Other factors include other currents, surface winds, shapes of coast, rotation, convection, heat capacity of water. Greenhouse Effect Natural process where gases and clouds absorbed infrared radiation emitted from the earth. Nitrogen and Oxygen are not greenhouse gases( do not absorb radiation) Greenhouse Gases Carbon Dioxide makes up 0.36% of the atmosphere and contributes to 1/4 of the natural greenhouse gases. It is produced by burning fossil fuels, volcanoes, burning material, and cellular respiration. Risen after Industrial Water Vapour makes up 2/3 of the greenhouse effect and is 1-4% of the atmosphere. Water evaporates regularly in warm climates causing heat to increase causing more water to evaporate. (Positive Feedback Loop) Methane (CH4) is 23 times more potent then CO2 and has risen since industrial revolution. Natural sources are swamps, digestion, decomposition Ozone varies frequently in atmosphere. Traps in thermal heat Nitrous Oxide exists scarcer then even CH4 however is 300 times more potent. More after industrial age; natural sources include bacteria and soil

Indicators of Climate Change Largest indicator of change is global warming. Some areas are experiencing cooling, however there is an overall warming of the earth, which has accelerated in the past 5 years Polar and Glacial Ice has been melting in Greenland and Antarctica, which is in turn causing rising sea levels. This destroys the habitat of aquatic animals, ruining food supply and the Inuit lifestyle. Rising Seal level has occured due to melting glacial ice and thermal expansion( water molecules are more excited in warmer climates and take up more space. Land is being covered in water and most major cities are costal, proving to be a large problem. The oceans are becoming more acidic because it is absorbing more CO2 producing carbonic acid. This threatens the neutralization reaction of coral (acid-base reaction) and shelled animals. Destroying habitats and

Climate and Health Risks Increased chance of disease and infection, particularly of waterborne diseases during flooding. Increased temperature also causes an increase in dust , which can cause respiratory problems Changing wind patterns causes changing in heating distribution, which mostly causes glacial ice to melt Higher temperatures has increased evaporation, causing more precipitation, causing

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threatens the neutralization reaction of coral (acid-base reaction) and shelled animals. Destroying habitats and the lives of animals

Higher temperatures has increased evaporation, causing more precipitation, causing flooding. However in some areas this can lead to desertification, which can cause famines Biomes are being changed due to deforestation and rapidly changing environment and habitat changes

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