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# .!/W_ %

d~
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dt

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~
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#|.!/a %
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# .!/a %
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#|.!/ .oD %
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rot F~ d~n

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#|.!/ .o_ %
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# .!/1. %
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# .!/1., %

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# .!/EDt` %

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X
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# .!/ED0_ %

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mi vi2 =
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2 i

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=
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X
i

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# .!/ED0 %


 %&# "  * )+sr "   "#pq  N PQb]3IK67c!=1I ;]=?3nbK5>=1):I5>805>R0N?IIKZT5NR Z78!JmJmI9I
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A = {~r , . . . , ~r , ~v , . . . , ~v } B = {~r , . . . , ~r , ~v , . . . , ~v }
I]3h5767I A IK5 B I]ZT5i9!b S3=LSR\6
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A
1

A
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A
1

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B
1

B
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1

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WAB =

X :LL-8!ZT8!3Zi:nI

XZ

F~i d~si

d~vi
~vi dt
dt
A
i
Z
1X B
d
=
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=

WAB

mi

#|.0/ED0e %
#|.0/ED0 %

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F~ji =

NR{p8!6T;]IOI]Z|5y9n=?67=1c!b]IyZ7:= 0R\3)5
Z

F~ji d~si +

R0=1ZZ7=8!39b 3=15


B
A

~ri ~rj

~rij = ~ri ~rj

IK5

9 PQ8@P
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X
i

B
A

XZ

F~ji d~si +

j6=i A

8!3I]39b]9:n=15

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F~ij d~sj =

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B
A

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F~ij d~sj =

1 X
F~ji d~si =
2
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B
A

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X
i

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B
A

~ j Vij d~sj .

Vi +

1 X
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2
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#|.0/WVhD %
#|.0/WV!V %

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ij
ij

F~ji d~si +

WAB = VA VB

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~ i Vij =
~ ij Vij =
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d~si d~sj = d~ri d~rj = d~rij

B
A

Vij = Vij (|~ri ~rj |).


F~ij d~sj ,

#|.0/WV0` %
#|.0/WVh_ %
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1





fi (~r1 , . . . , ~rN , ~v1 , . . . , ~vN , t) = ci ,


~r = gi (c1 , . . . , c6N , t)
i
~vi = hi (c1 , . . . , c6N , t)

i = 1, . . . , 6N

i = 1, . . . , N.

#|.!/aV! %

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(~ri ~rj )2 = d2ij =




y = f (x)

; % R\6T5>=1;]:N1IO):=Z7IC9bKLNR0;KICZ7:6d:3IAZ7Ln[]6TI


r 2 a2

9 % X Ln[]67IA):=6780:N?IOZ7R03Zdc!N?=1Z7ZTI]6Z7:n6i:n3LN?R03

 ~
VI = ~0

/
O
I

n3 IC57I]N1N?IO;]803)576>R0=13h5>IwR0= 5=?3h5>IK6T0I]3=16iN?R=15>IKZ7ZTI0/
F3c0b]3bK6>R0N !:3IO;K8!3h5>6>R\=?3h5>IOZKPabK;]67= 5d;]8!JmJmIw:3IObKchR0N?= 5>b8!: :3IO=?3nb]chR0N1=157by):= R0= 5=13)57I]6
!IK3=?6N1I]ZL-8!Z7= 5>=?803*Z !N?IKZ = 5>IKZ7Z7IKZdIK5dN?I5>I]JmLZK/ wR03ZdN?Iy; R096TIO9IONRBJMbK; R03=1):IO3I54578!3=
I]33nI"!=1N&R\:n5R\=?67IA=?3h57I]6T0I]3=16y9IKZyp8!6T;]I]ZyI<G5>bK67=?IK:67IKZw):=3I{Z7803)5yLSR0Zw;K8!33):IKZ Q9SVUW?7DFUW?
IK5i):=98!= !IK3)5iZKPWR09R0Ln5>IK6dL 8!:n6i):ICN1I]Zd;]8!3h576>R0=13)57I]ZdZ780=?I]3h5dZ7R\5>=1ZTR0= 5>I]ZK/

+ "-*,ro S# "-*, &+-+-" - 


3IC;K8!3h5>6>R\=?3h5>IC8!N18!3!JmIwIKZT5i:3IC;]803)576>R0=13h5>IC):=L IK:n5iZ7ICJmIK575767IOZT8!:ZiNRp8!6TJMI


f (~r1 , . . . , ~rN , t) = 0.

# .!/a`! %

FchR0N1=157b
vI]Z=157I]ZTZ7I]Zi3PaR0LLSR\6>R0=1Z7Z7IK3h5yLSR\Z]/

X :LL-8!ZT8!3Z ):Pa:n3Z|YZT5>[KJMI ZT8!=159n b S3=LSR06 k ;K8!3h5>6>R\=?3h5>IKZ8!N?803!JmI]Z]/ vI Z|Y Z|5>[KJMI


9PQb]):SR\57=?8!3Z
#|.!/Q`. %
f (~r , . . . , ~r , t) = 0,
i = 1, . . . , k

,.

     !#"%$ &!' )( +*,!- !!'
98!= 5L-I]67JmIK5T5>6TI9PQI<G L67=1JMIK6N?IKZHL 80Z7=157=?8!3nZ ~r IK3mp8!3n;K5>=18!3{9I 3N k  D DFU+8DFO O : X <O<U+Q
C ?EX  : X q 
# .!/a`hD %
~r = ~r (q , . . . , q
, t) .
 *O ? L ?7DFO 5>80:n5HZ|Y Z|5>[KJMI 9Ig;K8 8!6T98!33nb]I]Z !
!0):=L IK67JmIK59I 9b];K67=?6TI
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57I]Zgn8!N?8!3n!JMIKZgR\: G :nI]N?N1I]Z
=?N I]ZT5iZT8!:Jm=?ZZ]PaR0LL-I]N1N?Iw:n3Z|Y Z|5>[KJMIA9IC;]88!679n8!33bKI]Zic!b]3bK6>R0N1=?ZTb]I]ZK/
 :<BQ U  ;4: Z]PQ=?N3P YRR0:n;]:3IB;]8!3h576>R0=13)57"I !S5>80:ZyN1I]ZiZTYZT57[]JmI]Zy9nI;]88!6T98!33bKI]ZZ78!3h59I]Z
ZTYZ|5>[]JmI]Zi9IC;]88!6T98!33bKI]Zic!b]3nb]6>R\N?=?ZTb]IKZ ,
. = :<B SVCE: LR06T57=?;]:nN?IOR0Z|5>6TI]=?3h57IBZTIB9bKLNR\;]I]6ZT:6d:3IAZ7Ln[]67I 
/
r=a
F3;K8 806798!3n3b]IKZZTLb]6T=?):IKZ*!
i

3N k

z
M

r
y

x = r sin cos
y = r sin sin

z = r cos

TZ 8!3h5iN?I]Zd;K8 8!6T98!33nb]I]Zdc!bK3b]67R0N?=1Z7bKI]Z]/
X =N1IL6T8!zN?[KJMIgI]ZT5ZT=?JmLN?IKJMIK3)5 9I5>6T8!:n0I]6lN?IKZHb]):SR\57=?8!3nZ9:JM8!: !I]JmI]3h5Z>Rt5>=?Z|R0=157I]ZLSR06
N?IKZ;K8 806798!3n3b]IKZyc!bK3b]67R0N?=1Z7b]IKZ*! R0:n5767I]JmI]3h59=15Z7=&N Pa8!33PaRLSR0Ziz-I]Z780=?3 9nI9b<5>I]6TJM=13I]6dN1I]Z
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R\6yR0=1N?N1I]:6TZ*!n9R03Zi:357I]N&; R0Z !sN PQb]3IK67c!=1IAL-8057I]3h5>=1I]N?N1IwI]Z|5yZT8!:n0I]3h5OLN1:ZR0;]=1N?ICI<G L67=1JMIK6
I]3 p8!3;<5>=18!3 9I]Zm;]88!679n8!33bKI]Zc!b]3nb]6>R\N?=?ZTb]IKZm):I9IKZM;K8 8!6T98!33nb]I]Z;]R06T57b]Z7=1I]33nI]Z]/ R0N
IK:67IK:Z7IKJMIK3)5iN?RBp8!67J:NR\57=?8!3m3#I 45>8!3=1I]33nIO9IwNRBJMbK; R03=1):IyR0= 5=?3h57I]6T0I]3=16N?IKZgp8!6T;]I]Z !
;0PQI]Z|5 4 49=167IiN?IKZ 9bK67= !b]IKZ9IiN PQb]3IK67c!=1IL-8057I]3h5>=1I]N?N1ILSR066>R0LnL 8!6|5R\: GM;]88!6798033b]IKZg;]R06T57b]Z7=
I]3n3I]ZK/
 *O ? L ?7DFO &Z7=:3{Z|YZT5>[KJMIg9I LSR06|5>=?;K:N?IKZIKZT5 9b];K67=15LSR069IKZH;]88!679n8!33bKI]Z c0b]3bK6>R0N1=?Z7bKI]Z
N

!
1
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I
Z  DFU  :

X
<
O
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X
 : XZ78!3h5i9!b S3=?IKZLR06
{q }

Qj =

X
i

rt+s+- # *o#p+ " Z7=N1I]Zp8!6T;]I]Z F~ 9nb]67= !IK3)59PQ:3L 8057I]3h5>=1I]N V ! Q


<BDFO0X<L U+Q L ?7DFO 
i

~ri
F~i
.
qj

Qj =

X
i

X
~ri
~ i V ~ri = V .
F~i

=
qj
qj
qj
i

V
qj

!. .
vPa:3m9IKZ 8!z TI];K57=1pZl9:M; SR0L= 5>67IZT:=1\R03h5Z7IK6>RA9Ip8!67J{:nN?I]6 NROJMbK; R03n=?):IiAN PWR\=?9I9 PabK:R
5>=18!3Z:n= Z780=?I]3h5 0R\NR0zN1I]Zl9SR03nZ3PQ=?JmL 8!6|5>Id):I]N ZTYZT57[]JmIw9I;]88!6798033b]IKZ*!I<5):=sR0Z7ZTI]3h5
=?3h5>IK6T0I]3=16i9n=?67IK;K57I]JmI]3h5dN?IKZi;K8 806798!3n3b]IKZic0b]3bK6>R0N1=?Z7bKI]ZdIK5iN1I]Zp8!6T;]I]Zdc!bK3b]67R0N?=1Z7bKI]Z]/
. = :<B SVCE: L-I]39:nN?I Z7Lnb]6T=?):I 6 L 8!=13h5JRt5>b]6T=?IKN ):=L-I]: 5c!N?=1Z7ZTI]6{Z7R03Z{p678\575>IKJMIK3h5
N PQ=?3h5>bK67=1I]:69 Pa:3nIBZTL[]6TI0/
   ,*,!% '-!  ' ,* *,  *,!!'  !' '    




gf 8!JmJMI =1N3P Y R LR0Z9I p67805T5>I]JmI]3h5*! N?R


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1K5767IL-I]67L-I]3n9=?;K:NR0=167IBNRM= 5>I]ZTZ7I/!;0PQI]ZT5
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z
0

~
R
M
m~g

~
z

M
~

v I]Zy9I]: G 9IKc!67bKZw9I{N1=?z-I]6T57bCZ78!3h5 IK5 /


24NwR0: 59n8!3; 9I]: G bK):SR\5>=18!3Z 9: JM80:
0I]JmI]3h5 / fg80JMJmI =?N3 PQY R LSR0Z9I p67805
57I]JmI]3h)5 ! N PQb]3nI]67c0=?IJmb];]R03=?):I
I]ZT5 ;K8!3
ZTI]6T0b]I\/

~k

r
y

w6*!





~r

r sin cos
r sin sin
r cos





~v

r cos cos r sin sin


r cos sin + r sin cos
r sin


1 
T = m r 2 2 + r 2 sin2 2 .
2
mgz = mgr cos

vPabK3I]6Tc!=?ICL-805>IK3)57=?IKN?N?IyI]ZT5ibKchR0N?IC

#|.0/a`hV %

#|.0/a`!` %
fg8!JmJMIC=?N YRm9IK: G9I]c067b]Zi9IAN?=1z IK6T5>b/!S=?N R\:n5i=?JmL bK6>R\57=1!IKJMIK3h5d:3IBR0:n5>6TIBbK):SR\5>=18!30S! N1I

1 
m r 2 2 + r 2 sin2 2 + mgr cos = E0 .
2

z:n5ibK5>R03h5i9PaIK357678!: !I]6i:3IC):=3IOR0ZTZ7ICLSR0Zd=13)57I]6|!I]3n=?6dNRp8!6T;]IC9IC67b]R0;K57=?8!3 /
B <L D 8:  m~a = F~ = R~ + m~g /fg8!JMJmI R~ + m~g 3PWRLSR0Zi9IA;]8!JmL-8!Z>R03h57IBZT:=1\R03h5
1
~k !S8!3R




m~a ~k = ~0.

o. D

     !#"%$ &!' )( +*,!- !!'
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B <L D 8: 8!3; IK67; IBZ]PQ=?N3P Y RLSR0Zd:3nIR0: 5>67IO=13h5>b]c06>R0N1IOL67IKJM=1[]67I\/
2




~
dL
~ F~ = OM
~ P~ (Oz)
= OM
dt

d
Lz = 0
dt
Lz =

;]8!3nZT5 R\3)57I

# .!/Q`)_ %

Lz = m(xvy yvx )

= mr 2 (sin
cos cos sin sin sin cos cos )
2

+mr 2 (sin
cos2 + sin2 sin2 )
= mr 2 sin2 = L0z .

FD O<C ;&X<?7DFO H8!3MZ]PQI]3 ZT8!6T5gR0Z7ZTI*<wzn=?I]3Z7=-N PQ8!3ML-I]3nZ7IOA;]IK5T5>IZ7I];K8!39IO=13h5>b]c06>R0N1IiLn67I]Jm=?[K67I/!


JMR0=?ZA;]I3 PaIKZT5LSR\Z{:3IR0LL6T8 ; IZTYZT57b]JMR\5>=1:nI0/ w3 \R 9b<!I]N18!LL-I]6{9R03Z{N1IM; SR\L=15767I
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 ' '! $&#    
 
6

)+(    3    1 1 ;    0-

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5>6TI]=?c03I]3h5 N?I]Z L 80Z7=157=?8!3nZ9I]ZL-8!=13)57ZlJR\57b]6T=?I]N1ZBZ>Rt5>=?Z|R0=?6TI k ;K8!3h5>6>R\=?3h5>IKZg8!N18!3!JmI]ZlZ7R03Z
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b]):SRt5>=?803Z wN1I]Z b]):SR\57=?8!3Z
9:Jm8!:n!IKJMIK3h5 p~ = F~ !I<5wN?IKZ k ;K8!3h5>67R0=?3h5>IKZ]/C3N8!:6w+L-8!k:n08!=?667b]ZT8!:96TI{N?IB3NL6780zN?[KJM/I ! =1N
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5 R03nc!I]3h5>IKZyN?RZTL[K67IAZ78!3h5i3):N?N1I]Z]/
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X =8!3 38057I {~r } :357I]N9bKLNR\;]I]JmI]3h*5 !S=?NZ7R\5>=1ZTR0= 5N?IKZ;]8!39n=15>=18!3Z
f
#D /. %
~r = 0,
j = 1, . . . , k.
~r
.,V
i

X
i

.`
'

F3I  I<5)!S;KI]NR9bK;]8!:nN?IC9ICNR{;K8!39= 5>=?803


  "%$' #*,! &   ! 




fj (~r1 + ~r1 , ..., ~rN + ~rN , t) = fj (~r1 , ..., ~rN , t) +

X
i

fj
~ri + ... = 0
~ri

F3 p803;K57=?8!39IKZ
;]88!6798033b]IKZCc!b]3bK6>R0N1=?ZTb]I]ZO;K8!676TI]ZTL 8!3n9SR03h5BR0: G k ;K8!3h5>6>R\=?3h5>IKZ
8!N18!3!JmI]Z !nN1I]Zd9b]3NLnNR0;KI]Jmk I]3h5>Z=?6|5>:IKN?ZZ7803)5i9ICN?Rp8067JmI
8@P

~ri =

I]Z|5i:nI]N?;K8!3):I\/gF3I  IK5)!SLR069b 3=157=?8!3 9IKZi;K8 806798!3n3b]IKZc!bK3b]67R0N?=1Z7bKI]Z*!


j

qj

~ri
qj
qj

fj (~r1 (q1 , ..., qN , t), ..., ~rN (q1 , ..., qN , t), t) = 0



qk

;]IC):= !SI]39b]6T=1\R03h5dLSR0667R0LL-8!6T5i !S;]8!3n9:=15i


X

fj ~ri

qk = 0
~ri qk

 8!:n5A9b]LnNR0;KI]JmI]3h5C9INRp8!6TJMI q IKZT5A98!3;:3 9bKLNR0;KI]JmI]3h5C=?6T57:I]N /fg8!JmJMINR


;]8039=157=?8!3 # D / . % I]Z|5N1=?3b]R0=?6TI"! 8!3 I]39b]9:n=15iNR{L6T8!L6T=?bK57bO; I]6T; b]I\/
vIL6T=?3;K=?L-IB9nI9PQxyN1I]J{z-I]6|5y;K8!3Z7=1ZT57Im576>R09:n=?67IAN PQ=?9nb]IA:nI{N?IKZip8!6T;]IKZw9I;K8!3h5>67R0=?3h5>IB3I
5>67R 0R\=?N?N1I]3h5LR0ZdLSR06dNR{;K8!39= 5>=?803 
# D /WD %
~ ~r = 0.
R
fgIK5T5>Im;]8!3n9=157=?8!3980=15 1K5767I\R0NR\zN?I{L-8!:6O578!:n5C9bKLNR0;KI]JmI]3h5C=?6T57:I]N / PWR\L67[KZBN?Rp8!67JmI
9IKZ9bKLNR\;]I]JmI]3h57Zd=16T5>:nI]N?Z !;]IKNR;]8039:= 5i
~r
# D /aV %
~
q = 0.
R
q
8@PN1I]Z q ZT8!3h5):I]N1;]8!3):IKZ]/ vIy; 8!= G q = 0 Z7= k 6= j ! q 6= 0 ;]8!3n9:=15N PQb]):SRt5>=?803 
i

~ri
qk

X
i

~ i ~ri = 0
R
qj

gf 8!JmJMIB;]I<575>Ib]):SR\57=?8!3IKZT5w\R0N?R0zN?IAL-8!:6 j = 1, ...., 3N k !803'8!zn57=?I]3h5yz=?IK3


b]):SRt5>=?803ZdZ7:LLnN?b]JmI]3h5>R0=?6TI]Z]/
=13SR0N?IKJMIK3h)5 !nZT=N PQ8!3 b];K67= 5N1I]ZbK:R\5>=18!3Zd9:JM8!: !I]JmI]3h5dZT8!:ZiNRp8!6TJMI 
i

d~
pi
(a)
~i
= F~i + R
dt

3N k

# D /Q` %

o. _
8@P R~ I]ZT5iN?Rp8067;]IC9IC;K8!3h5>6>R\=?3h5>ICIK5 F~ NR{6Tb]ZT:N15>R03h5>IC9IAN PQI]3ZTI]J{zN1IO9I]ZR0:n5767IKZdp8067;]IKZ
R0LLN1=?):bKI]ZN?RBLSR\6T5>=1;]:N1I i !n8!3L IK:n5b]N1=?Jm=?3IK6lN?I]Zp8!67;KI]Z9nIw;]8!3h576>R0=13)57I]Z !n;]Iy:n= ;]8039:= 5
N PQI<G L67IKZ7ZT=?8!3:Z7:nI]N?N1IC9:Ln67=?3n;]=?L-Iw9IC9PQxyN1I]J{z-I]6|5 
/ rt#"h#p   p )r,* lL 8!:n65>8!:n5d9nb]LN?R0;]IKJMIK3)5d=?6|5>:IKN !8!3R 
~r
# D /W_ %
F~ p~ ~r = 0.


- &     

    -!



(a)
i

X

(a)
i

H  yN?I]Zy;]8!3h5>67R0=?3h57I]ZO=?3h57I]6T=1I]33IK3h5C9SR03ZO;KIK5757Ib]):SR\57=?8!3LSR\6wN?IR\=15w):I {~r } 3 PaIKZT5


LSR0Z :3 9nb]LN?R0;]IKJMIK3)5:nI]N?;K8!3):IJMR0=?ZM:3 9bKLNR0;KI]JmI]3h5 Z7R\5>=1ZTR0=1Z>R03h5N1I]Z;K8!3h5>67R0=?3h5>IKZ
8!N18!3!JmI]ZK/ X = {~r } L 80:n\R0=15<1K5>6TI:3 9bKLNR\;]I]JmI]3h5R\zZ78!N1:JmI]3h5{):IKN?;]803):I"!l8!3 9nb!
9:=16>R0= 59IC;]IKZbK:R\5>=18!3Z):I
# D /a %
F~ p~ = 0,
;]IB:n=;K8!676TI]ZTL 8!3n9R0: Z|YZT5>[KJMIBZ>R03nZy;]803)576>R0=13h5>I0/gxy:n5767I]JmI]3h5y9=15*!SN?I]Zi9bKLNR0;KI]JmI]3h5>Z ~r
3ICZ78!3h5iLN1:Zd9I]Z\R067=?R0zN1I]Z=?3n9b]L-I]39R03h5>I]ZK/
PaR0L67[KZdNRBp8!6TJMI9I]Z9nb]LN?R0;]IKJMIK3)57Z=?6T57:I]N1Z*! ;]IOL6T=?3;K=?L-Iy;]8039:= 5d
bK):SR\5>=18!3Z
9:JM8!: !I]JmI]3h5]/gFZ7Z7R Y!8!3Z9ICN?IKZiI G L67=1JMIK6I]3 p8!3;K57=?8!3 9IKZ;K8 806798!3n3N
3b]IKZic0kb]3bK6>R0N1=?Z7bKI]ZK/
8!:n6i;KI]N?R
!67IKL 806T5>803ZdN?I]ZdI GnLn67I]ZTZ7=18!3Z 
i

(a)
i

~ri =

~ri
qj
qj

~vi

X ~
ri
~ri
d~ri
=
qj +
=
dt
t
j qj

mi~ri ~ri =

# D /E %

9SR03ZdN1IOL67=13;]=1L IO9IC9PQxyN1I]J{z-I]6|5 /24N=?IK3h5 


X
i

p~ i ~ri =
~ri
~r i
qj

d ~ri
~ri
dt
qj
|{z}

X
i,j

p~ i ~ri

~ri
qj
qj

d ~ri
~r i
dt qj
| {z }

~
vi
qj

mi~r i

~
vi
qj

~vi
~vi
d
~vi
~vi
=
dt
qj
qj
!



1 2
d
1 2
v

v
=
dt qj 2 i
qj 2 i
(
!
)


X d
1
1
2
2
=
mi v i

mi v i
qj
dt qj 2
qj 2
i,j
=

X
j

d
dt

qj

X
i

1
mi vi2
2

!!

qj

X
i

1
mi vi2
2

!)

qj

.,

'

X

X
i

(a)
F~i ~ri =

i,j

d
dt

T
qj

  "%$' #*,! &   ! 




qj

qj

X
ri
(a) ~
F~i
Qj qj
qj
qj
j

8@P Q F~ ~r IKZT5iNRp8067;]ICc!bK3b]67R0N?=1Z7bKI0/
q
vICL67=13;]=1L Iw9nIA9 PaxN?I]Jz IK6T5d;]8039:= 59n8!3;AN PQb]):SR\57=?8!3
j

X
i

(a)
i

"(

T
qj

d
dt

qj

# D /ae %

Qj qj = 0.

gf 8!JmJMId;KIK5757IybK:R\5>=18!3980=151K5767IiZ>R\57=?ZTR\=15>IdL-8!:6l:3Ii\R067=?R\5>=18!3:nI]N?;K8!3):I9I]Z q )! 8!3
I]39bK9:=15
T
d T
# D /a %

=Q .
j

dt

qj

qj

X :LnL 8!ZT8!3ZLSR06wR\=?N?N1I]:6TZ):IN?Rp8!6T;]IR0LLN1=?):b]IA9bK67=10I9PQ:3L 8057I]3h5>=1I]Nc!N?80zSR0N V /  !8 :Z


R !8!3nZi::nIAN1I]Zp8!6T;]I]Zdc!bK3b]67R0N?=1Z7bKI]ZdZ78!3h5i98!3n3b]IKZLSR\6
~r
# D /1. %
~ V ~r = V .
Q =
F~
=

q
q
q
vPabK):SR\5>=18!3 Z]PQb];K67=15i9803; 
j

Z78!= 5

(a)
i

d
dt

T
V
d T

=
dt qj
qj
qj
!
T
(T V )
= 0

qj
qj

0R =1Z;]8!JmJmI V 3I 9b]L-I]3n9 ):I 9IKZ ~r !l98!3; ):I 9IKZ q !


S3SR\N?I]JmI]3h5dbK;]67=167I 


d
dt

L
qj

L
=0
qj

V
= 0
qj

# D / .!. %

/ w3 L-I]: 598!3;
# D / .oD %

R !IK; L = T V = NR0c!67R03c!=1I]3/
fgI]Zib]):SRt5>=?803ZZ]PaR0LL-I]N1N?I]3h5dN1I]Z  ; Q L ?7DFO0XJ8: Q U+Q O :</FN?N1I]Z8!3h5iN?IKZL6780L67=1bK5>bKZd67I]JMR06
):SR0zN1I]ZdZ7:n=1\R03h5>IK Z 
FN1N?I]Zd;K8!39:=1Z7IK3)5w9=?6TI];K57I]JmI]3h5yR0: Gb]):SR\57=?8!3nZ9: JM8!: !I]JmI]3h5L 80:6N1I]Zi;]88!679n8!3

3bKI]Zic!b]3nb]6>R\N?=?ZTb]IKZ]/

       #"%$  ' *    ,*,!   ' #*,!


.o
FN?N1I]Z3IOp8!3h5dLSR\Zi=13h5>I]6|!IK3=?6dN?IKZp8!67;KI]Zi9IC;]8!3h576>R0=13)57I0/

yIC"
R .K8!3 LN1:Zdc!b]3nb]6>R\N?"I !s;KI]ZybK):SR\5>=18!3Zi67IKZT5>IK3h5y\R0NR\zN?IKZ5 R03h5:nIBN1I]Zdp8!67;KI]ZiZ78!3h5

67IKN?=1b]I]ZdR\:L-805>IK3h5>=?IKNLSR06 
V
d V
# D/1.,V %
Q =
.
+
q
dt q
. = :<B SVCE: LR06T57=?;]:nN?Iw9SR\3Zd:3; R0JMLb]N1I];<5>6780JR0c03bK57=?):I # !8!=16I<G I]6T;]=?;KI /
%
R06yR\=?N?N1I]:6T*Z !N1ICNR0c!67R03c!=1I]3 3PQI]Z|5wLSR0Zi9!b S3=9IA/R .]8!3:3=1:nI0/dN?:ZiL6Tb];]=1Z7bKJMIK3)*5 !

Z7=
IKZT5:3nIp8!3;<5>=?803 9IKZ;]88!6798033b]IKZ{c!bK3b]67R0N?=1Z7b]IKZI<59: 57I]JmLZ
JMR0F=?.Z (qS0QF,Xg. .9.IK,Ziq,=157t)I]ZTZ7I]Zic!bK3b]67R0N?=1Z7b]IK*Z !SN?Rp8!3;K57=?8!3

 


L0 (q1 , . . . , qn , q1 , . . . , qn , t) = L(q1 , . . . , qn , q1 , . . . , qn , t) +

;]8039:= 5iR0: G J 1]JmI]ZbK:R\5>=18!3Z]/


 <BDFO0X<L U+Q L ?7DFO 

d
F
dt

d
F X F
F =
+
qi
dt
t
qi
i
L F
L0
=
+
qi
qi qi
!
L0
L

d
=
+
F
qi
qi qi dt

d
dt

L0
qi

L0
d

=
qi
dt

L
qi

L
d

+
qi
dt

F
qi

qi

dF
dt

   

   

F3 S3'!nN?IKZ bK):SR\5>=18!3Z 9Iwv&R0c!67R03c!Ii8!3h5 NRBJ 1]JmIp8!67JmIi9SR03Z5>8!:Z N?IKZ Z|Y Z|5>[KJMIKZ9I

;]88!6T98!33bKI]ZK/
|

L=

{z

=0

{z

=0

  9!3 3'   - 5/ 1  3 / 0 M-  /

6 7) 6

X = = 0 !S= /aI\/SZ7=&N?ICNR\c!6>R03nc!=?IK33nIB9bKL IK39 L R0Z9 Pa:3nI;]88!6T98!33bKI"!sNR):SR03h5>= 5>b ]I Z|5


;]8!3nZ7I]6|!bKI0/fyPQI]Z|5B:n3I=?3h5>bKc!6>R\N?ILn67I]Jm=?[K67I\/ y0R 3ZO;]I;]R0Z*! 8!3 9=15y:nINRM\R06T=R0zN1I q ]I Z|5

 <C ?  ; :</lv&Rm):SR\3)57=157b
L
# D/1. ` %
p
L
qj

L
qj

qj

,. e
'
   "%$' #*,! &   ! 
Z]PaR0LL-I]N1N?IAN P ? B SV; C X<?7DFO < O<U Q C ?EX :LSR06R03SR0N18!c!=1ICR,0I];{N?RmLR06T57=?;]:nN?IAN?=?zn67I0/Fl3 I  IK5)! L 80:6
:3ICLSR\6T5>=1;]:N1ION?=1z67/I !
1
IK5 L = mx = p .
# D /1.,_ %
L = T = m(x + y + z )
2
x
. = :<B SVCE: gfg803Z7=19b]6T8!3Zd:3ICLSR06|5>=1;]:N1ION?=?zn67I #
/
V = 0%


fg88!6T98!33bKI]Zd; R\6T5>bKZ7=1I]33IKZ  L = 1 m(x + y


I<5 p ZT8!3h5i;]8!3ZTI]6|!b]ZK/ 2
p ,p
fg88!6T98!33bKI]Zd;KYN1=?396T=?):IKZ

+ z 2 )

I]Z|5i=?39bKL IK39SR03h5i9I

x, y, z

x = r cos
y = r sin

z=z

x = r cos r sin
y = r sin + r cos

z = z

1
1
L = T = mv 2 = m(r 2 + r 2 2 + z 2 )
2
2

;K8!3ZT5>R03h5>I\/

I]Z|5i=?39bKL IK39SR03h5i9I

L
=


L
= mr 2 = Lz

Lz = m(xy y x)
= mr 2

\R =?Z
;K8!JmL 8!Z7R03h5>IC9:JM8!JmI]3h5i;]=13bK57=?):ICZ7:n=1\R03h5 z /F3 I  IK5*!
/ w3 67I<5>6T8!:n!I N?R N18!=g9nI;K8!3ZTI]6T\R\57=?8!3 9: Jm8!JmI]3h5
;K=?3b<5>=?):I\/vlPQ=?JmL:N1Z7=18!3 c0b]3bK6>R0N1=?Z7bKI';]806767IKZ7L-8!39SR\3)5:3 R03c!N1I I]Z|5 b]c!R0N?INR
L6T8 TI];<5>=18!3 9:Jm8!JmI]3h5d;]=13bK57=?):IOZT:6dN PaRtG IO9IC67805>R\5>=18!3/
&K*#" #]+-p  H:3 Z|Y Z|5>[KJMIwIKZT59n=15 =?Z780N?bdZ7= N?IiNR0c!67R03c!=1I]3m3Iy9nb]L-I]39 LSR0Z I<G LN1=?;]= 5>I
JmI]3h5i9: 5>I]JmLZK/x:n5>6TI]JmI]3h5i9=1*5 !


L
= 0.
t

R0=1Z

X L
X L
L
d
L =
qi +
qi +
dt
t
i qi
i qi
|{z}
=0

X
i

d
dt

qi

d
dt

qi

h(q1 , . . . , qn , q1 , . . . , qn ) =

L
qi

L
qi

X
i

qi

X
i

qi

L
qi

L
L=
qi

;]8!3nZT5 R\3)57I0/

# D / ., %

.,

  ' 
 * -  ' #*,!'



Z]PaR0LL-I]N1N?IANR  DFO<L ?7DFO 0Q B ? C LNDFO ?7:<O O :</iXnRM\R0N?IK:6i;]8!6T67I]ZTL 8039


N PQb]3IK67c!=1I0/
. = :<B SVCE: X:LL-8!Z78!3nZy):I 3IA9b]L-I]3n9ILSR\Z9IKZ=157I]ZTZ7I]Z ! I<5y):IBN PQb]3IK67c!=1IA;K=?3b<5>=1:nI
9b]L-I]3n9IB9n:;]R0676TbA9nI]Z=15>IKZ7VZTI]Z]/


h(q1 , . . . , qn , q1 , . . . , qn )

X
i

qi

X T
L
qi
=
= 2T
qi
qi
i
h = 2T L = 2T T + V = T + V.

w36TIK5>6T8!:n0IAN?R;]8!3ZTI]6|0Rt5>=?8039nIAN PabK3I]6Tc!=?IOJmb];]R03=1:nI0/
S&SVC ?  Q L ?7DFO lI]3n9:N?IAZ7Lnb]6T=?):I0/

1
L = T V = m(r 2 2 + r 2 sin2 2 ) mgr cos
2

3nIA9nb]L-I]39LSR0ZdI<G LN1=?;]= 5>IKJMIK3)59:57I]JmLZ


IKZT5i;]8!3nZ7I]6|!b\/
E =T +V
3nIA9nb]L-I]39LSR0ZdI<G LN1=?;]= 5>IKJMIK3)59I
L
IKZT5i;]8!3nZ7I]6|!b\/
L



 -
 - !/ 3  - 5/ 1    &-     

j?u m]h#  *,%r & rt +-"#$%&


fg8!3ZT=?9bK678!3ZyN?IAL678!znN?[]JmIA;]NR\Z7Z7=1):I{9PQ:3I{JMR0ZTZ7I Rt575 R\; b]IM:3'67IKZ7ZT8!6T5w0I]6|5>=?;]R0N9I
6>R0=19I]:n6 k LnN?8!3c0b]I9R03ZwN1IB; SR\JML'9nI{L IKZ>R03h57I]:6K/AmX =N Pa803 9bKZ7=?c03I{LSR06 y N PQ8!6798033b]IB9I
NRmJR0ZTZ7/I ! IK5yLSR06 y N?RML-8!Z7= 5>=?8039IBNRmJR0ZTZ7IBN?8!6TZ7):I{N1IB6TI]Z7ZT8!6T5wI]ZT5wR0:'6TI]L-8!Z*! N PQb]3IK67c!=1I
;]=13bK57=?):ICI]Z|59n8!33bKIALR06 
0

1
T = my 2
2


IK5iN PQb]3nI]67c0=?IOL-805>IK3)57=?IKN?N?II]Z|5y98033b]ICLSR\6

1
V = k(y y0 )2 + mgy
2
!

v&RL 80Z7=157=?8!39PQb]):=1N?=?zn67IA9:'ZTYZ|5>[]JmI{IKZT5O9b S3=1ILSR06NR;]8!3n9=157=?8!3


w*6 !S9PaR0L6T[]ZdN?IKZb]):SR\57=?8!3Zd9IAv&R0c!67R03c!/I ! y(t) IKZT5iZ78!N1:n5>=18!3 9I 
d
dt

L
V
L
= 0 m
y+
=0

y
y
y

y = y = constante

0D
v&RL 8!ZT=157=?8!3 9bK):=?N1=?z6TI

'

y = y

  "%$' #*,! &   ! 




IKZT5i98!3n;A9nb S3=1ICLSR06dNR{;K8!39= 5>=?803 

V
= 0
y
k(y y0 ) + mg = 0

X =N Pa8!3 9nb S3= 5i:3IC38!:n0I]N1N?IO;]88!6T98!33bKI

y = y0

x = y y
1
T = mx 2
2

# D /1., %

mg
k

!=1N =?IK3)5 

1
k(x + y y0 )2 + mg(x + y )
2
1
1
=
k(y y0 )2 + kx(y y0 ) + kx2 + mg(x + y )
2
2
1 mg 2
1
=
k(
) + x[k(y y0 ) + mg] + mgy + kx2
2
k
2
(mg)2 1 2
+ kx
= mgy0
2k
2

# D /1. e %

xNRM;]8!3Z|5 R03h57I mgy L67[KZ*!):PQ8!3L-I]: 5CNR0=1Z7Z7IK6578!J{z-I]6wL:n=?Z7):IN1I]ZwbK:R\5>=18!3Z


9IAv&R0c!67R03c!IO9IOp8!3h5d=13)57I]6|!I]3n=?6d):IBN1I]Z9bK67= !b]IKZ9n:N?R0c!6>R\3c!=?IK30!8!3 R 
0

(mg)2
2k

1
1
L = mx 2 kx2
2
2

9PQ8@PN PQb]):SR\57=?8!3 9:Jm8!:n!IKJMIK3h5


fgIK67; 8!3nZy:3ICZT8!N?:n57=?8!3 ;K8!JmLN?I GnI
24N=?IK3)5 
9PQ8@P

Z78!:nZiN?Rp8!67JmI

m
x + kx = 0
z(t)

z = z0 eit .
(m 2 + k)z0 eit = 0,
=

k
, z0 quelconque.
m

R0=1ZdZ7= C I]ZT5Z780N?:n57=?8!30!nZ>RMLR06T57=?IC67bKI]N?N1ICI]ZT5Z780N?:n57=?8!3 L:=1Z7):IBN?I]Zd;K8 I M;K=?IK3)57Zy9I


N PQb]):SRt5>=?80z(t)
3 9=  b]6TI]3h5>=1I]N?N1IwZ7803)5i6Tb]I]N1Z]/v&RZ78!N1:n5>=18!3 c!b]3nb]6>R\N?IOZ]PQb];K67= 59n8!3;


= Rez cos t Imz sin t


v I]Zw;K8 I m;]=?IK3h5>Zw9I cos t #x(t)
I<5O9I sin t # Imz % Z78!3h5O9IKZw67bKI]N1Zy):= ZT8!3h5w9b<5>IK6
Rez %
Jm=?3bKZLSR06N?IKZd;]8!39n=15>=18!3Z=13=157=R0N1I]Z x(t = 0) I<5 x(t
/
= 0)
 80:ZR0N1N?8!3nZl08!=?6):Iy;KIw; R\N?;]:nN-L-I]: 5 1K5767Ic!b]3bK6>R0N1=?ZTbyR0:ML6780zN?[KJMIi9I]Z 8!Z7;K=?N1NR\57=?8!3Z9R03Z
N?IKZgZ|Y57[]JmI]Zd N 9I]c067b]Zg9IwN?=1z IK6T57"b !IK5):IO9nIy5>IKN?ZgZ|YZT5>[KJMIKZL IK:n!IK3h5dZ7Iw67R0JMIK3I]6g{:3I
;]80N?N?IK;K57=?8!39 Pa8!ZT;]=1N?NRt5>I]:n67ZSR06TJM803=?):IKZ9b];K8!:LN1b]Z]/
0

D.

  ' 
 * -  ' #*,!'


j ?u1j
&K*#"   %]#%&r\&)qsrtm' # )ro* 
yIy3n8!J{z6TI]: GmZ|Y Z|5>[KJMIKZL IK:n!IK3h5,1K5767Ii9b];K67=157Z ;K8!JmJMId:3MI]3ZTI]J{zN1Iy9IiL-8!=?3h5>ZlJMR\5>bK67=1I]N?Z
I  I];<5>:SR03h59nIL I<5>= 5>I]Z8!Z7;K=?N1NR\57=?8!3Z&R\:n5>8!:n69IgN?I]:n6L-8!Z7= 5>=18!3B9 PabK:n=?N?=1z67I\/ R06HI GnIKJMLnN?I"!\:3
Z78!N1=?9ICIKZT5:3'R06T6>R03nc!I]JmI]3h5i67bKc!:N?=1I]69PaR\578!JMIKZ):=&8;];K:L IK3h5yIK3 Jm8oY0I]33nI:3IAL-8!Z7= 5>=?803
z=?IK3 9bK57I]6TJM=13b]IM9SR03ZN1I;]6T=?Z|5 R0N ! IK5{:n=I  I];<5>:IK3)59nIL I<5>= 5>I]Z8!Z7;K=?N?N?R\5>=18!3ZAR0:n578!:6B9I
;]I<575>IL 80Z7=157=?8!3 /}vI]Z=?3h57I]6>R\;K5>=18!3Z ):=C;]8!3n9:=?ZTI]3h5 ;]I<5757I L-8!Z7= 5>=?803 9PabK):=?N1=?z6TI ZT8!3h5
NR 6Tb]ZT:N15>R03h5>I9I LnN?:ZT=?I]:n67Z{;K8!3h5>67=1z:n57=?8!3Z !HJMR0=?ZBNR 3SRt5>:6TI9I]ZL-IK57=157I]Z{8!ZT;]=1N?NRt5>=?803ZC3I
9b]L-I]3n9 LSR0Z9nI]Z{9b<5 R0=1N?ZA9IN Pa=13h5>I]67R0;K57=?8!3 / Fl3 I  IK)5 !ZT= N Pa803 9bKZ7=?c03ILSR\6
N?IKZ
9I]c067b]Z9nI N?=?z-I]6|5>bM9I ;]I Z|Y Z|5>[KJMI #pLSR06{I GnIKJMLnN?I N?IKZ 3N ;]88!6798033b]IKZ9SR03q Z, .:n.3 . ,;Kq67=1ZT5 R\N
;]8!JmL-8!6T5>R03h5 N R\5>8!JmI]Z % !lNR;K8!39= 5>=?803 9PabK):=?N1=?z6TII]3 q , . . . , q =?JmL 8!ZTI):I =
IK3 ;]ICL 80=?3h5 /vIO9b<!IKN?8!LL-I]JmI]3h5i9I V R0:n578!:69nIAN?RL-8!Z7= 5>=?803 9PabK):=?N1=?z6TI
... =
=0
Z]PQb];K67=15i9803; 
V
1
# D/1., %
(q q )(q q ).
V (~q) = V (~q ) +
2
q q
X =&8!39 b S3n=15 x = q q !sI<5ZT=&8!33n805>I k = V !sN PQb]3nI]67c0=?IOL-805>IK3)57=?IKN?N?IyZ]PQb];]6T=1*5 !
q q
:3IA;]8!3Z|5 R03h57IALn67[]Z !
1
# D/ED0 %
k xx .
V (x , . . . , x ) =
2
R06iR0=1N?N1I]:6T*Z !nN PabK3I]6Tc!=?Iy;]=?3nbK5>=1):ICL IK:n5iI]3c!b]3bK6>R0NZKPabK;]6T=?67I
1
# D/ED . %
T (x , . . . , x ) =
m x x .
2
wR03ZN?I;]R0Z9nILSR06|5>=?;K:N?IKZB9nIJR\Z7Z7IKZ
!H8!3 R z=?IK3 Z 6 m = m !HJMR0=?Z
m ,...,m
N PQbK57:9Iy9 Pa8!ZT;]=1N?NRt5>=?803ZH9SR03nZg9PaR0:n5767I]Z ZTYZT57[]JmI]ZL-I]: 5g;K8!39:=167IB:3nIp8!6TJMId):SR0967R\5>=1):I
):Pa803ZT:LL-8!Z7IAZTYJmbK5>6T=?):I # m = m % /
vI]ZdL I<5>= 5>I]Zd8!ZT;]=1N?NRt5>=?803ZgZT8!3h59n8!3;C9b];K67= 5>I]ZdLSR\6N?IONR\c!6>R03nc!=?IK3
# D/ED!D %
L (x , . . . , x ; x , . . . , x ) = T (x , . . . , x ) V (x , . . . , x ).
8!:n6 9bK57I]67Jm=?3nI]6N1I]ZbK):SR\5>=18!3Z9nI vR\c!6>R03nc!"I !d67IKc!6780:L 803ZN?IKZ5>IK67JmI]Z;K8!3h5>IK3SR03h5 :3
=?39n=?;]I l 98!33b 
1
1
1
# D/ED0V %
T :
m x x +
m x x + m x
2
2
2
1
1
1
# D/ED\` %
V :
k xx +
k xx + k x
1

V
q1

V
qn

i,j

ij

q~

ij i j

i,j

ij i j

i,j

ij

ij

lj l j

j6=l

i6=l

lj l j

j6=l

X
j

2
ll l

il i l

il i l

i6=l

L
1X
1X
mlj x j +
mil x i + mll x l
=
x l
2 j6=l
2 i6=l
=

i ij

ji

mjl x j

(mij = mji )

ll l

# D/ED!_ %

D!D

'



  "%$' #*,! &   ! 




yIiJ 1KJMI/! L = k x # k = k ; R06;0PQI]Z|5gN?RA9nb]67= !bKIZTI];]8039Iy9n:L-805>IK3)57=?IKN % / vI]Z


b]):SRt5>=?803Zd9xIAvR\c!6>R03nc!IOZ]PQb];K67=10I]3h598!3; 
# D /WD0 %
k x = 0 (l = 1, . . . , n).
m x +
fgIK67; 8!3nZyZ]PQ=?N I<G =?Z|5>IC9I]ZiZ780N?:n57=?8!3Zg;]8!JmLN?I G I]Zd9ICNRp8!6TJMI 
67b]IKN .
# D /ED0 %
~z = A e ,

vI]Zdb]):SRt5>=?803Zd9IAvR\c!6>R03nc!IO;]8!3n9:=?ZTI]3h5R0:ZTYZT57[]JmI


jl j

ij

ji

jl j

jl j

mjl Aj 2 +

it

kjl Aj = 0 (l = 1, . . . , n),

7Z 8!= 5
# D /WD0e %
m + k A = 0 (l = 1, . . . , n).
~l: ):IMN?IJmI]J{z6TIM9nIM96T8!=157IMIKZT5B3):N !;]ImZTYZT57[]JmIN?=13b R\=?67I3 PWR9IZT8!N?:n57=?8!3 3803 3):N?N1I
):IAZ7=Z78039b<5>IK67Jm=?3SR03h5IKZT53):N !ZT8!=15 
# D /WD0 %
det( M + K) = 0,
8@P M IK5 K ZT8!3h5d9I]ZJMR\5>6T=?;KI]Z (n n) 9 b 3=?IKZLSR06 M = m , K = k /lR06R0=1N?N1I]:6TZ
Z7I]67Rm6Tb]IKNZ7= I]Z|5y6Tb]I]NI<5iL 8!ZT=157=1 /

/ rt+s+- # *o#p+ " j  


: X<L U  :<C :<L S D X<? L ?  

 <BDFO0X<L U+Q L ?7DFO  JM=13=?JMR0N


I]Z|5:3I p8!67JmI ):SR\96>R\57=?):I 9 b S3n=?IgL-8!ZT=15>= !I\/
q~

k aa
yICJ 1]Jm"I !N PabK3I]6Tc!=?IO;K=?3b<5>=?):IOIKZT5:3IOp8!6TJMIw):SR\96>R\57=?):IC9!b S3=?ICL-8!Z7= 5>= !I0/
R0=?Z
j

X

jl

jl

ij

ij

ij

ij

ij i j

i,j

X
j

X

Al

X

mjl 2 + kjl Aj = 0,

j,l

mjl 2 + kjl Aj = 0


mjl 2 + kjl Al Aj = 0
P

kjl Al Aj
.

j,l mjl Al Aj

= P j,l
2

R0=1ZZ7=:3nICp8067JmIO:R096>Rt5>=?):ICIKZT5i9b 3=?ICL-8!Z7= 5>=10I:<LZTYJmbK5>6T=?):I/!sR0N?8!6TZ


X
i,j

kij Ai Aj 0.

D0V

  ' 
 * -  ' #*,!'



F3I  I<5)!sR !IK;


X

Ai = ai + ibi Aj = aj + ibj
X

kij Ai Aj =

i,j

i,j

kij (ai ibi )(aj + ibj )


kij ai aj +

i,j

yIAJ K1 JMI/!


mij Ai Aj > 0

kij bi bj + i

i,j

{z

X
i,j

{z

kij ai bj i
=0,



   
{z

kij aj bi

i,j

kij =kji

fy/{/ / /

i,j

X 8!=1I]3h5 , . . . , N?I]ZZ78!N1:n5>=18!3Z{9I det(M + K) = 0 !lIK59bKZ7=1c!38!3ZLR06 A :n3I


Z78!N1:n5>=18!3 67bKI]N1N?I R0ZTZ78;]=?bKI / A L-I]:n5 1<5>67I ; 80=?Z7=g67b]IKNd; R06{578!:ZN?IKZm;K8 I m;]=?IK3h5>Z9:
ZTYZT57[]JmIBZT8!3h5i67b]IKN?ZK/ v&RZ780N?:n57=?8!3 c!bK3b]67R0N?IO9R03Z C L-I]: 59n8!3; 1K5767ICb];K67=157I
# D/WV! %
c A e .
~z =
8!:n6i80zn5>IK3=?6:3nIAZT8!N?: 5>=?803 67b]IKN?N1"I !=1NZ7: 5i9ICL6TI]396TIBN?R{LSR06|5>=?IO6Tb]IKN?N?I/
# D/WVn. %
~x = (Re (c ) cos t Im (c ) sin t) A .
2
1

2
n

2
i

ii t



+ +sr\&+-""&)"&+-rt 
w3{0RJR0=13h5>I]3R03h5 9bKJM803)5767IK6H):I"!hZT=nN?IKZp6Tb]):I]3n;]I]ZlZT8!3h5H5>8!: 5>I]Z 9=  b]6TI]3h5>IKZ*!!N1IgZTYZ|5>[]JmI
I]Z|5lb]):=1\R0N1I]3h5lw:3nI;]8!N1N?I];<5>=18!39PQ8!ZT;]=?N1NR\57I]:6TZ SR\67Jm8!3=?):IKZH=?3n9b]L-I]39R03h5>Z9Ip6Tb]):I]3n;]I
/ PaR0L67[KZdN?I]ZdbK:R\5>=18!3Z9:JM80:n!IKJMIK3)*5 !S8!3R 

8!ZT8!3Z

X
j



ij = Aj

mjl i2 + kjl

 

Ai

= 0,

l = 1, ..., n

/8!:6d9I]:G p67bK:nI]3;KI]Z IK5 # p 6= q % !S803L-I]: 59n8!3;Cb];K67=?6TI


p

X

p2 mij

i 
X

q2 mji

+ kij ip = 0,


+ kji jq = 0,

F 3 J{:N 5>=1LN?=?R03h5yN?R Ln67I]Jm=?[K67I #6TI]ZTL/N?R ZTI];K8!39I % LSR\6


Z78!JmJmIOZ7:6 j #p67IKZ7L/ i% !S=?N =1I]3h5 
j

X
j

X
i

jq
ip

X

i = 1, ..., n.
jq

#p67IKZ7L/

p2 mij + kij ip = 0

X
j

j = 1, ..., n

q2 mji + kji jq = 0.

ip

# D/WVhD %
% I<5IK3 R\=?Z>R\3)5AN?R
# D /WV0V %

D\`

'


  "%$' #*,! &   ! 




X =8!3 R0= 5NR9=1 bK67IK3;]IC9IKZibK):SR\5>=18!3Zd8!3 5>6T8!:n0I"!sL:=1Z7):I


(q2 p2 )

I<5 K Z7803)5iZ|Y JmbK5767=1:nI]Z

mij ip jq = 0

# D /aV0` %

i,j

mij ip jq = 0,

i,j

L:=1Z7):IiN?IKZp6Tb]):I]3n;]I]ZgZ78!3h5 LSR06lhY L-8057[]ZTIy5>8!: 5>I]Z9=1 bK67I]3h57I]Z]/X8!:Zlp8!67JmIdJR\5767=1;]=?IKN?N1I"!


;]I<5757IAbK):SR\5>=18!3Z]PQb];]6T=15 
# D /aVh_ %
M
= 0 (p 6= q).
R\6yR0=1N?N1I]:6T*Z !S8!3L IK:n5wIK3;]8!6TI; 80=?Z7=16d:3I;K8!39= 5>=18!3 9I38067JMR0N?=1Z>R\57=?8!3ZT:6yN1I]Zd!IK;K5>IK:67Z
~ /OX = 8!3 =?JmL 8!ZTIBN?R;]8039=157=?8!39I{3n8!67JMR0N?=1Z>R\57=?8!3
~ m A
~ = 1 ! ;KI]NRM;]8!39n:=15wNR
A
A
;]8039=157=?8!3 m = 1 ZT:6dNRJMR\5>6T=?;]I !S):=ZKPabK;]6T=15iZ78!:nZdp8067JmIOJR\5767=1;]=?IKN?N1I
# D /aV! %
M
= 1.
xy: 5>67IKJMIK3h59n=1)5 !nNR{JMR\5>6T=?;]I Z>R\57=?Z|R0=15N?R{67IKNR\57=?8!3 
# D /aVh %
M = 1l.
vPabK):SR\5>=18!3 (m + k ) = 0 ;]8039:= 5y
t

pq

p
i

ij

p
j

i,j

i,j

ip

ij

jp

pp

jq

ij

2
p

ij

ip

i,j

jq kij ip = p2

i,j

jq mij ip

i,j

Z780=15)!nZ78!:Zp8!6TJMIOJMR\5767=?;K=?IKN?N?I/!

8!: I]3n;]8!6TI

pq

# D /WV0 %

= p2 pq

# D /Q`h %

K =

8@P N PQ8!3R=?3h5>6T8 9n:=15N?RJR\5767=1;]I 9b S3n=?IOLSR06

///

12
0

X =8!3 9b!S3= 59nIA3n8!:n!IKN?N1I]Z;]88!6T98!33bKI]Z Q LSR\6


ZT8!=15
Q
x =

0
n2

X
j

ij

# D /WV0e %

~x = Q

# D /a`n. %

  -! )*, $+ #*,!  $ ' )$  





D!_

  ' #*,!

N?ION?R0c!6>R\3c!=?IK3 Z]PQb];K67=15d9n8!3;

1  t t
~xM ~x ~xK~x
2
!

t
t t
1 t
Q M Q Q K Q
=
2
!
t

1 t
Q Q Q Q
=
2

1 X 2
L =
Qi i2 Q2i
2 i

L =

vINR0c!67R03c!=1I]3IKZT5NRZ78!JmJMI 9INR03nc!6>R03nc!=?IK3Z=?3n9b]L-I]39R03h5>Z]/v&IKZ
 D DFU+8DFO 
O  : X O DFUWBQ CE: X</
6

# D/a`)D %

Qi

ZT8!3h5R0LL-I]N?bKZ

, .-0/21 34- 5/  3' 3'  1   


 -  / 

v I]Zmb]):SR\57=?8!3Z9nIv&R0c06>R03c0I 8!3h5MN?R'J 1KJMIp8067JmI :nIN1I]Zb]):SRt5>=?803Z9PWF:N1I]6b<5 R0zN1=?IKZ


LSR06iF:N?IK6d9SR03ZdN?IC;]R0967ICLN1:Zdc!b]3nb]6>R\N9: ;]R0N?;K:N9IKZi\R06T=R\57=?8!3ZK/fgIK5T5>IA67I]JMR06T:nIAIKZT5y
N PQ8!67=1c!=?3nI9PQ:3Iy3n8!:n!IKN?N1Idp8067J{:N?R\5>=18!39IiNRCJMbK; R03n=?):I0/fg8!JMJmI]3
.]8!3Z98!3n;LSR\6b<5 R0znN?=?6
;]I<575>IAL6T8!L67=1bK57b0/
fg8!3ZT=?9bK678!3ZN?ICL6T8!zN?[KJMICZT:=1\R03h 5 gZT8!=15i:3ICp8!3;<5>=18!33IKN?N?I !S;\PaIKZT5 4 49n=?67IA:3ICp8!3;
5>=18!3 9IN PQI]Z7LR0;]I{9nI]Zyp8!3n;K5>=18!3Z9b]6T=1\R0zN1I]Zy9R03Z IR ! :n=H:3nI[y]
Ip8!3;<5>=?803 y(x) R0Z7ZT8 ;K=?IN1I
38!J{zn67IC67bKI]N
# D/a`hV %
I[y] =
dx F (y, y , x)
8@P x , x ZT8!3h5i9I]Zdz-8!673IKZd9Pa=13h5>b]c06>R\57=?8!3 nG bKI]Zy:n3IOp8!=?ZL-8!:6578!:n5>IK*Z !SI<5 y /
w3; IK67; IBNRp8!3n;K5>=18!3 y(x) ):=&67IK39 I[y] I<G5767b]JMR0NR 0I];AN?I]Zd;K8!3h5>6>R\=?3h5>IKZ
98033b]Z .
# D/a`!` %
y(x ) = y
y ,y
y(x ) = y
w3 9n b S3= 5OLSR06wR0=?N1N?I]:n67Z
9b]6T=10b]ILSR06y6>R0LL-8!6|5CNRL6TI]Jm=?[K67IB\R06T=R0znN?II<5 F =
9b]6T=10b]IALSR066>R\LL 806T5iNR Z7FIK;]8!=3n9I0/
X :LL-8!ZT8!3Zy):I y(x) Z78!= 5dNRZ78!N1:n5>=18!3 9: Ln678!zN1[]Jm"I !SI<5y;K8!3Z7=19b]6T8!3ZiNRR0Jm=?N?N1Iy9ICp8!3;
5>=18!3Z z(x, ) = y(x) + (x) !h8@P (x) IKZT5g:3Idp8!3;K57=?8!3m9bK67=1\R0znN?Id):I]N1;]8!3):I9I x ):=
Z>R\57=?Z|R0=15 (x ) = (x ) = 0 /
y b 3=?ZTZ78!3ZiLSR06iR0=1N?N1I]:6TZ
z
# D/a`)_ %

dx F z(x, ), (x, ), x .
I()
I[z(x, )] =
Z

x2

x1

dy
dx

x2

x1

D0

'


X = I I]ZT5iI G 5767bKJR0NL-8!:6

  "%$' #*,! &   ! 




R0N?8!6TZ

y(x)

# D /Q`h %

dI
= 0.

d =0

w6*!
dI
=
d

67=1ZI]3

x2
x1

=0

"

z
z
z
z
.
dx 1 F z(x, ), (x, ), x
+ 2 F z, (x, ), x
x

x
x

!S8!3 8!z 5>=?IK3h5d98!3;

# D /a`h %

# D /Q`he %

Z x2
dI
=
dx [1 F (y, y 0, x)(x) + 2 F (y, y 0, x) 0 (x)] .


d =0
x1


w3=13h5>[]c067ION?IO9nI]: G =?[KJMIO57I]67JmIOLSR06LR06T57=?I
Z

x2
x1

dx [2 F (y, y , x) (x)] = [2 F (y, y

v Iw5>IK67JmIy5>8!: 5d=?3h5>bKc!67bwIKZT5i3):NL:n=?Z7):I
Z]PQb];K67= 59n8!3; 
Z

x2

"

x
, x)(x)]x21

x2
x1

(x1 ) = (x2 ) = 0
#

d
2 F (y, y 0, x) (x).
dx
dx

IK5dN?R;]8!3n9=157=?8!3

d
dx 1 F (y, y , x)
2 F (y, y 0, x) (x) = 0
dx
d

1 F (y, y 0, x)
[2 F (y, y 0, x)] = 0,
dx
0

"


dI

d

# D /a`! %
=0

=0

(x)

# D /W_0 %
8!:0!R !IK;MN1I]ZO38\5 R\57=?8!3ZO):=Hp803)5AR\LLSR067R ?5767IN?IKZw\R067=?R0zN?IKZwL-8!:6CN?IKZO9b]6T=1!bKI]ZALSR06|5>=?IKN?N1I]Z*!
x1

IK5iIK3; SR\3c!I R\3)5iN1IOZ7=?c03I



lF ):SRt5>=?8039 PWF:N1I]6
# D /W_ . %
X PQ=?N Y RmLN1:Z7=1I]:6TZ\R067=?R0zN?IKZ y , . . . , y !S=?N Z7: 5i9IA;]8!3ZT=?9bK67IK6iZT:;];KI]ZTZ7=10I]JmI]3h5wN1I]Zp8!3;
5>=18!3Z9PQI]ZTZ>R0=
# D /E_0D %
z (x) = y (x) + (x)
7
Z
=
L-8!:6dR06T67=10I]6iR0: Gb]):SR\57=?8!3nZi9 PWF:zN1I](x)
6  = y (x) j 6= i

d F
F
# D /W_0V %
= 0,
i = 1, . . . , n.

"

d F
F

=0
0
dx y
y



"

dx yi0

yi

= :<B SVCE:  FlZTZ>R Y!803Z9I9bK57I]67Jm=?3nI]6N?I ; IKJM=13


N?I LN1:Zm;]8!:6|5L-8!:6MR0N1N?I]69 Pa:3 L 80=?3h5
:3L-8!=?3h5 B(x , y ) 9SR\3ZN1ILnNR03/vR 9=?Z|5 R03n;]IN?IN?8!3c 9PQ:3I;]8!:6Tz I C
A(x , y )
9b!S3=?ICLSR\6 y(x) R !I]; y(x ) = y I<5 y(x ) = y I]Z|5i98!33bKIBLR06
.

   -!

D!

- & & * -!    #*,!




x2
x1

ds =

x2
x1

dx 1 +

y 0 (x)2

ds dy
dx
x

ds =

v&RN18!3c!:nI]:69: ; IKJM=13 N?IwN18!3c9ICNR{;K8!:6Tz I


I[y] =

x2
x1

dx 1 + y 0 (x)2 =

x2
x1

dx2 + dy 2

#HY57SR0c!8067I %

L-I]: 5d98!3;CZ7ICJmIK5T5>67IOZT8!:ZN?Rp8!67JmI
R !IK; F (y, y , x) = 1 + y
dx F (y, y , x)
y(x)
0

02

F
y0

=
y 0
1 + y0 2

F
= 0,
y

vPabK:R\5>=18!3 9PWF:N1I]6d;]8039:= 5imN?R{;]8!39n=15>=18!3

6 ;K8!3Z|5 R03h5>I
6 ;K8!3ZT5>R03h5>I

fyPQI]Z|5y:3nIA9n678!= 5>I ,

F
y0

= c
=
y 0
1 + y0 2
c
=a
y0 =
1 c2
y = ax + b.

   3    1  /$1


 *3V-  / 

v I]ZgbK):SR\5>=18!3Z9I  I54578!380:9Iv&R0c!6>R\3c!IdL IK67JmIK5T5>I]3h5 9Iy9nbK5>IK67Jm=?3IK6lN PQbK!80N?:n57=?8!39PQ:3


ZTYZT57[]JmI{Z7=N PQ8!3 ;K8!33SR\=15yN PQ=?3Z|5 R03h5i=?3n=15>=?R0NN?IKZL-8!ZT=15>=18!3ZiIK5yN?I]Zi=15>IKZ7ZTI]Zw9IKZwLSR06|5>=1;]:N1I]Z]/
wR03ZN PaIKZ7LSR\;]IC
9n=?JmI]3ZT=?8!3Z 9I]ZL-8!ZT=15>=18!3Z 9I]ZLSR\6T5>=1;]:N1I]Z !nN PQbK08!N?: 5>=?8039b 3=159n8!3;
9I]Zd5>67R TI];<5>8!=167IKZ]/ 3N
w3 L IK:n5{9[KZN?8!6TZZTIL 80Z7I]6NR):IKZT57=?8!3 ZT:=1\R03h5>I m;K8!3ZT=?9bK678!3Z9I]: G L 80=?3h5>ZBZ7:6{:n3I
5>67R TI];<5>8!=167Im98!33bKIIK3)5767IMN?I]ZA=?3nZT5 R\3)57Z t IK5 t ; R067R0;K57b]67=1Z7bKZBLSR\6BN?R98033b]I9I {q } IK5
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{q }
Z7=1ZT5>IBN?I]Zd;K8!JMLR067IK6R\: GR0:n5767I]Zd5>67R TI];<5>8!=167IKZ L 80Z7Z7=1zN?IK7Z 6 #8!: =?6|5>:IKN?N?IKZ % 9:ZTYZT57[]JmI
xy:n5767IKJMIK3)59=1*5 ! ZT= 8!3;K8!3ZT=?9[K67IwN PaIK3Z7IKJ{zN?I9I]Zp803;K57=?8!3Z {q (t)} 5>I]N1N?IKZg):I q (t ) = q
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R0: GM5>67R TI];<5>8!=167I]Z LhYZ7=?):IKZZ>R03nZ; R0N1;]:N1I]6N PQbK08!N?:n57=?8!3M9:Z|Y Z|5>[KJMI vRB67b]L-8!3ZTIO;KIK5757I
):I]Z|5>=?803 5767[KZZT=?JmLN?II]Z|5 N Pa8067=?c0=?3I9I NRp8067J{:N?R\5>=18!3
N?R LN?:nZc!b]3nb]6>R\N?IIK5 N?R LN?:nZ
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1

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Z>Rt5>=?Z|p8!3h5dNRN?80= 9 I yIKZ7; R\6T5>IK*Z ! n sin i = n sin i n n

i1

i2

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; IK67; IB;]I]N1N?Iw):=&LSR\Z7Z7ICLSR\6 B


(n1 )

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0D
DFUWB ;C Q L ?7DFO CED Q CE:lw3 ; R\N?;]:nN?IyN1Iw; IKJM=138!Ln57=?):IwN1IyN?803c{9Iy578!:n57I]ZN?IKZ 576>R TIK;K5>80=?67IKZ
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yI]ZT; R06|5>IKZ]/
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NR{"R .K8!3 Z7:= 0R\3)57I0/
 *O ? L ?7DFO lN P Q <L ?7DFOI]ZT5i:3nI  DFO <L ?7DFO O :<C CE: 9I]Zd5>67R TI];<5>8!=167IKZ9 b S3n=?ICLSR06
S[{qi (t)}] =

t2
t1

L(q1 , . . . , qN , q1 , . . . , qN , t)dt.

gf IK5T5>Ip8!3;<5>=18!33IKN?N?IL-I]67JmIK5 9Ip8!6TJ{:N?IK6N1I]ZHN18!=?Z9IN?RyJmb]; R\3=?):IgwN PaR0=?9I9PQ:3L6T=?3;K=?L-I


9:J 1KJMIw54YL-IA):IAN?IOLn67=?3n;]=?L-Iw9I I]6TJRt5dI]38!Ln5>=1):I0/
/ rt#"h#p &
+ #"ro S0*o#p+-" {9SR03ZBN PQI]3ZTI]J{znN?Im9I]ZA5>6>7R TI];K578!=?6TI]ZAL 80Z7Z7=1zN?IKZR\N?NR\3)5
9PQ:3I;]8!3 c!:6>Rt5>=?803 9n8!33bKI {q , . . . , q } N PQ=?3Z|5 R03h5 t :3I ;]803 Sc!:67R\5>=18!3 98!33bKI
mN Pa=13ZT5>R03h5 t !N PaR0;K57=?8!3 IKZT5iI<G5767b]JMR0N1IOL 8!:n6iN?R5>67R TI];<5>8!=167IOLhYZ7=1:nI0/
{q , . . . , q }
 :<BQ U  ; : =?NL-I]: 5I]3 L67=13;]=1L IY R !8!=16LN?:ZT=?IK:67Z{576>R TIK;K5>80=?67IKZ):=67IK39I]3h5mN PaR0;<5>=?803
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I]Z|5IK3 c!bK3b]67R0N:3Jm=?3=1J{:J ! 9PQ8@P N?IO3n8!J 9ICL6T=?3;K=?L-IO9I BDF? OV8 U :gR0;<5>=18!3/
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Z7=N1I]Z{5>67R TI];<5>8!=167IKZ q (t) Z>Rt5>=?Z|p8!3h5N?IKZb]):SR\57=?8!3Z9 PWF:N1I]6;]806767IKZ7L-8!39SR\3)57I]ZK/
w6 !N1INR
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5>67R TI];<5>8!=167I]LZ q (t) ;KI]N1:=9IKZip8!3n;K5>=18!3Z y (x)F/lvI]Zib]):SR\57=?t8!3Z9 PWF:N1I]6dZ]PQb];K67=10I]3h5x98!3; 
2
1

1
1

2
n

1
n

d
dt

L
qi

L
= 0,
qi

i = 1 . . . , n.

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9ICNRJmb]; R\3=?):I\/


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L6T=?3;K=?L-IH9IlJM80=?396TIR0;<5>=?803AZKPaIKZT567b<!b]N1b 1K5>6TIl:3Ip8!67J:NR\57=?8!3i5>6T[]Z&:n5>=1N?IH9nIN?RJMbK; R03n=?):I
9SR03nZw:3';KI]6T5>R0=?338!J{zn67I9nI{;]=167;]803ZT5>R03;]IKZ #;K8!3h5>67R0=?3h5>IK*Z !-5>6>R\3ZTp8!6TJRt5>=?803Zd; R03803=?):IK*Z !
/
. . .%




 /  1   9 -


  

fg8!3ZT=?9bK678!3nZi:n3IOp8!3;K57=?8!3mD\R067=?R0zN?IKZ
9803)5i8!3 ; IK67; IAN?IOJm=?3n=?J{:J ZT8!:ZdNR
;]803)576>R0=13h5>I f (x, y) = 0 / w:IKN?N1I]ZZ7803)5iN1I]ZFb])(x,:SRt5>y)=?803Zd:n=;]8!39n:=?ZTI]3h5wR\:Jm=?3n=?J{:J
 NS DFO0X : 24NZT: 5i9ICJM=13=?Jm=?ZTI]6NR{p8!3;<5>=?803 9IAV\R06T=R0zN1I]Z
# D /E_t` %
H(x, y, ) = F (x, y) + f (x, y).
vI]Z\R0N?IK:67Z x , y Z78!3h5iNR{ZT8!N?: 5>=?803 9: L678!znN?[]Jm"I ! Z]PaR0LL-I]N1N?Iw:3 B ;C L ? SVC ?  Q LN:<; UJ8:
Q U+Q O :</
 <BDFO0X<L U+Q L ?7DFO 
=13=?Jm=?ZTI]6 H 0I]:n59=?6TIO):Pa=1NR0:n5dZ7R\5>=1ZTR0=167IwN1I]Zb]):SRt5>=?803Z




min

min

H
=0
x
H
=0
y
H
=0

F
f
+
=0
x
x
F
f
+
=0
y
y

# D /E_0_ %

f (x, y) = 0.

&v R5>6780=?Z7=1[]JmIbK:R\5>=18!3 3PaIKZT5A67=1I]3 9PaR0:n5767I):INR;]803)576>R0=13h5>I0/24NHR0:n5C98!3n;9b]Jm8!3h5>6TI]6


):PQ=?NI Gn=1ZT57I 57I]N):ICN?IKZDLn67I]Jm=?[K67IKZ;]8!39n=15>=18!3ZZT8!=?IK3)5d0b]67= Sb]IKZ]/
U :<B ?7A<U : B <L D 8: 
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X :L-8!ZT8!3Z):IMNR;]8!3h5>67R0=?3h57"I ! ):=9!b S3=15B:3IM;]8!:n67z-IM9SR\3ZN1IMLN?R03
:3IC;K8!:67z-ICLSR067R0JMb<5>6Tb]I x(z), y(z) / w39n8!=15Jm=?3n=?Jm=?Z7IK6 F (x(z), y(z))(x,/xy)N?8!6TZ
d
F dx F dy
# D /W_0 %
F
+
= 0.
dz
x dz
y dz
R0=1Z f (x(z), y(z)) = 0 /lF39b]6T=1\R03h5dLSR0667R0LL-8!6T5i z !S=1N =?I]3h5 


f dx f dy
+
= 0
x dz
y dz

dx
dy
=
dz
dz

f
x

f
y

!1

# D /E_0 %

  *,  & 




X=



dF
=0
dz

dx
dz

6= 0

Vn.

  $   -

F dx F dx f
+

x dz
y
dz x

f
y

#ZT= x = ;]8!3Z|5 R03h57I"!s;0PQI]Z|5i5767= =?R0N , % !S803IK39nb]9:= 5A/

!1

= 0.

# D /E_\e %

# D/E_0 %

= x
f ,

# D/W! %

F
x
f
x

X =8!3 6>R7T8!:n5>IC:3nIA=13;]8033):I Z>R\57=?ZTR\=?Z>R\3)5

F
y
f
y

N?IwZ|YZT5>[KJMIC;K8!3ZT57=157:bO9IO;]I<5757IAbK):SR\5>=18!3 IK5d9nION PQb]):SR\57=?8!3 L6Tb];Kb]9IK3)57IBIKZT5dbK:n=1\R0N?IK3h5iR0:


ZTYZT57[]JmI
f
F
+
=0
# D/Wn. %
x
x
x

:<;>=@?7A<B: B <L D 8: 


X = F IKZT5iJM=13=?J:J ! R0N18!67Z


f
F
+
= 0.
y
y

fy/{/ / B/

F =

F
F
x +
y = 0,
x
y

8@PN?IO9bKLNR0;KI]JmI]3h5 (x, y) 98!= 5,1K5767ICI]3 R0;];K8!679R !IK;BN?R;K8!3h5>67R0=?3h5>I\/


w*6 !S9PaR0L6T[]ZdNR{;K8!3h5>6>R\=?3h5>I f (x, y) = 0 !8!3R
f
f
x +
y = 0.
x
y

fgIK5T5>IAb]):SR\57=?8!3 9 b!S3=15dN1I]Zd9bKLNR0;KI]JmI]3h5>Z=?6|5>:IKN?ZK/
fgIK5T5>IAb]):SR\57=?8!3 ]I Z|5ib]):=1\R0N1I]3h5>IA

f
f
x + y = 0
x
y

x0I];ANR;]8039=157=?8!3 9nIAJm=?3n=?Jm=?Z>Rt5>=?8030!h8!3 I]39b]9n:=15


!

( ).

F
f
F
f
+
+
x +
y = 0
x
x
y
y

# D /ahD %
# D /a!V %
# D /a0` %
# D /ah_ %

VhD
'

X :LnL 8!ZT8!3Zi):I Z>R\57=?ZTR\Z7Z7ICN PabK:R\5>=18!3
vI9bKLNR0;KI]JmI]3h5
R !8!=16
6

  "%$' #*,! &   ! 




f
F
+
= 0.
x
x

L-I]:n5 <1 5>6TI; 8!=1Z7=;]8!JmJMIm9bKLNR0;KI]JmI]3h5R06Tz=1576>R0=167I\/ w3 980=15B98!3;


f
F
+
= 0.
y
y

fy/{/ / /


$3' ( 1   / 1+ *3V-  /  - 3 /.-.-  /  / 


X :LnL 8!ZT8!3Zi):Pa:n3Z|Y Z|5>[KJMIAZ78!= 5d9b];K67= 5dLSR06 k ;]8!3h576>R0=13)57I]Zd8!N18!3!JmI]Z


8!:0!SIK357I]6TJMIKZ9I

;]88!679n8!33bKI]Z !

fj (~r1 , . . . , ~rN , t) = 0,

3N

j = 1, . . . , k,

xi i = 1, . . . , 3N

fj (x1 , . . . , x3N , t) = 0,

j = 1, . . . , k.

vI]Z{bK):SR\5>=18!3Z{9nI v&R0c!6>R\3c!Im38!:Z{L-I]6TJMI<5757I]3h59PQb];K67=?6TI9=167I];<5>IKJMIK3)5N?IKZb]):SRt5>=?803Z{9:
Jm8!:n!IKJMIK3h5BIK3 57I]6TJMIKZA9nI]ZA;]88!6798033b]IKZBc0b]3bK6>R0N1=?Z7bKI]ZK/ R0=?ZC;]80JMJmI]3h5CZ]P Y L6TI]396TIMZT=
8!3 3I L-I]:n5LR0Z=?3h!IK67ZTI]6I<G LN1=?;]= 5>IKJMIK3)5{N?I]Z;]8!3h5>67R0=?3h57I]Z vlPaR0LLn678; I 0R\67=Rt5>=?8033I]N1N?I
L-I]67JmIK5d9nIC576>R0= 5>IK6;]ICL6780zN?[KJMI\/
80:6d:39nb]LN?R0;]IKJMIK3)5d=?6|5>:IKN ! 8!3 R 
f
# D /a! %
x = 0
j = 1, . . . , k
f =
x
f
# D /W! %

x = 0
( )
x
f
# D /W0e %
x = 0
( )

3N
X

i=1

3N
X

t2

i=1

3N
X
i=1

dt

3N
X

xi

X fj

xi
j

xi

=0

( j (t)) .

# D /a! %

R\6R0=1N?N1I]:6TZ*!9PWR\L67[KZN?I ; R\N?;]:nNi9nI]ZM\R06T=R\57=?8!3nZ*!Z7=iN PQ8!3


R7T8!:n5>I:3L-IK57=15m9bKLNR0;KI]JmI]3h5
57I]N):I x (t ) = x (t ) = 0 :3nIC576>R TIK;K578!=?6TI {x (t)} 98033b]I/!sNR{\R067=?R\5>=18!39I
x (t)
N PaR0;<5>=?803 R0: L67IKJM=1I]68!6T967IOIK3 x IKZT5i98!3n3b]ICLSR06
d L
L
# D /E\ %
S =
x

dt.
i

t1

i=1

3N
t2 X

t1 i=1

xi

dt

x i

!!

!V V
 <BDFO0X<L U Q L ?7DFO ;K8!3ZT=?9bK678!3Z9nI]Z9bKLNR0;KI]JmI]3h5>Z9INR p8!6TJMI
!R,0I];
x (t) = (t)
S
!
K
I
d
5
n
9
S3=1Z7ZT8!3ZiNR{p8!3;<5>=?803
b
(t ) = (t ) = 0
  ,*,!% '-!   *,*,! 

i i

1 , . . . , 3N ) S [{xi (t) + i i (t)}] .


S(

8!:n6 L I<5>= 5)!N1IO9bK0I]N?80LL IKJMIK3h59nIAR YN?8!68!:L6TI]Jm=?I]6g8!6796TICZ]PQb];]6T=15


i

1 , . . . , 3N ) = S(0,
. . . , 0) +
S(

R0=1Z*!S9PaR0L6T[]ZdN?IO;]R0N?;K:N9IKZi\R06T=R\57=?8!3Z !


S
=

i i =0

w3IK39bK9:= 5d:nI

t2
t1

X
i

L
d

xi dt

L
x i

!!

1 , . . . , 3N ) S(0,
. . . , 0)
S S(
S =

S

.
i
i i =0

3N
t2 X

d
L

i i (t)
xi dt
i=1

i (t) dt.

I]Z|59n8!33bCLSR06

L
x i

!!

dt.

yf /{/ / B/
vIgL6T=?3;K=?L-I9nIgJm8!=?39n67IR0;K57=?8!3BZT57=?L:N1Il:nI"!!L-8!:6:3{9bKLNR\;]I]JmI]3h5 L 8!ZTZ7=1zN?Il9:{Z|YZT5>[KJMI/!
/xy:n5767I]JmI]3h5A9= 5)!ZT= x (t) I]ZT5A:3 9bKLNR\;]I]JmI]3h5C=?6|5>:IKNHZ>R\57=?Z|R0=?Z7R03h5 x (t ) =
S = 0
!8!3 98!= 5iR,08!=?6
x (t ) = 0
t1

S =

3N
t2 X

L
d

xi dt

xi

L
x i

!!

dt = 0.

X =C8!3 6>R T8!: 5>I ;]IK5T5>I b]):SR\57=?8!3@ N PQb]):SR\57=?8!3 # D /a! % !\R0N?R0zN?IL-8!:6 578!:n59b]LnNR0;KI]JmI]3h5
=?6T57:I]N !y9803; I]3 LSR06T57=?;K:N?=1I]6L-8!:6578!:n59b]LnNR0;KI]JmI]3h5 =16T57:I]NwZ7R\5>=1ZTR0=1Z>R03h5 x (t ) =
!=?N =1I]3h5
x (t ) = 0
L
d L
f
# D /E. %

dt = 0.
x
+

t1 i=1

3N
t2 X

t1 i=1

xi

dt

x i

X
j

xi

X :LL-8!ZT8!3Zi:nIAN1I]Z k p8!3;<5>=18!3Z Z78!=1I]3h5i; 8!=?ZT=?IKZ9IO5>I]N1N?IwR".K8!3 ):I


j

L
d

xi dt

L
x i

fj
= 0,
xi

vIALn67=?3n;]=?L-IO9ICJm8!=?39n67IOR0;<5>=18!3 Z]PQb];K67=15R0N18!67Z
Z

k
t2 3N
X

t1

i=1

L
d
xi

xi dt

L
x i

i = 3N k + 1, . . . , 3N.

X
j

fj
dt = 0.
j
xi

# D /E0D %
# D /E\V %

V0`

'


  "%$' #*,! &   ! 




R0=1Z ;K8!JmJMIi8!3R k 9IKc!67bKZg9IN?=1z IK6T5>b/!)8!3L-I]:n5 R0=?6TIi\R06T=?IK6N1I]Z


JmI]3h5iN?I]Z:n3Zd9I]ZR03N
:n5767I]ZK/ O3 IK39bK9:= 5


d
L

xi dt

L
x i

fj
= 0,
xi

xi

i = 1, . . . , 3N k.

=139bKL IK39SR0J

# D/E\` %

1= 3SR0N?IKJMIK3h5)!hN?IKZ 3N + k =13;]8!3n3:nI]Z x ! i = 1, . . . , 3N IK5 ! j = 1, . . . , k ! ZT8!3h598!3n3b]IKZ


LSR06N1I]Zdb]):SRt5>=?803Z
j

# D /E0_ %

X fj
d L
L
j
=
, i = 1, . . . , 3N

dt x i
xi
xi
j

f (x , . . . , x , t) = 0,
j = 1, . . . , k.
j
1
3N

vI]Z ZKPWR\LL IKN?N1I]3h5d9I]ZTB ;C L ? SVC ?  Q LN:<; U XJ8: Q U+Q O :</


R\6R\3SR0N?80c!=?I R 0I];
N1I L6780zN?[KJMI 9IKZI G5>67IKJ{:JmZN1=?bKZ*!{;KI 6Tb]Z7:nN15 Rt5 L IK:n5 1K5>6TI 6TIKp8!6
J{:N1b9I NR R".]803@ZT:=1\R03h5>I  :3@Ln678!zN1[]JmI9I JMbK; R03=1):I 3N 9IKc!67bKZ9nIN1=?z-I]6T57b
9bK;]6T=15ALSR06O:3 NR\c!6>R03nc!=?IK3 L IK5 k ;]803)576>R0=13h5>I]Z f (x , . . . , x , t) = 0 ! j =
x ,...,x
! IKZT5bK:n=1\R0N?IK3h5:n3 L678!znN?[]JmImZ>R03Z;]8!3h5>67R0=?3h57I 3N + k 9nI]c!6Tb]Z{9IN?=?z-I]6|5>b
1, . . . , k
9b];K67=15dLR06dN?IONR\c!6>R03nc!=?IK3
x ,...,x , ,...,
i

3N

3N

3N

=L+
L

j f j .

F 3
I  I<5)!g;K8!JmJMI L 3I 9bKL IK39LSR\ZmI G LN?=1;]=157I]JmI]3h59I !N?I]ZbK:R\5>=18!3ZmL 8!:n6 x 67I
98!3n3I]3h5N?I]Z 3N Ln67I]Jm=?[K67IKZ bK):SR\5>=18!3Z !mI<5 N?I]Z bK:R\5>=18!3Z L 80:6 6TI]98!3n3I]3h5N?I]Z k
9IK673=1[]67IKZ]/
 :<BQ U  ;4: X 
vIKZ Z78!3h5d9IKZp8!3;K57=?8!3nZ9I t !I<538!3 9IKZ;]8!3Z|5 R03h57I]Zd;]8!JmJmIy9SR03nZN?IyLn678!zN1[]JmI

9IKZdI<G5>6TI]J{:JmZdN?=1b]Z]/
fgIKZb]):SRt5>=?803ZZ7803)50R\NR0zN1I]Zm9SR03ZM5>8!:n5ZTYZT57[]JmI9I ;K8 806798!3n3b]IK*Z !iIK53n8!3 LSR0Z

ZT=?JmLN?IKJMIK3)5I]3;]88!6798033b]IKZd; R06|5>b]ZT=?IK33I]ZK/
j

M-  /  1    
   - / 3 !1  3 /  - 
 -





xy:9b]z: 59Iy;KIw; SR0Ln=15>6TI"!38!:ZR,08!3Zb<5 R0znN?=sN?IKZgb]):SRt5>=?803Zg9IwvR\c!6>R03nc!IyR 0I];wN Pa8!z TI];K57=1


9IZ7I 9nb]zSR067R0Z7ZTI]69nI]ZMp8067;]IKZ9I;]8!3h576>R0=13)57I]ZK/ 24NiL-I]:n53b R03nJM8!=13%Z 1K5767I 3nb];]IKZ7Z7R0=?6TI'9I
9b<5>I]6TJM=13I]6;]I]Zp8!6T;]IKZm9nI ;]8!3h5>67R0=?3h57I]*Z !LSR06I G I]JmLN?I L-8!:6b<0R\N?:IK6{NR'6Tb]Z7=1ZT5>R03;]I 9PQ:3
9=1Z7L-8!Z7= 5>=1&N18!67Z9n:Jm8!:n0I]JmI]3h5i9Pa:n3Z|Y Z|5>[KJMIA;]8!3h576>R0=13)5]/

hV _
R0=1ZmZT=N PQ8!3 9b];K67= 5MN1I]Z;]803)576>R0=13h5>I]ZLSR\6m:n3 ; SR\JML 9I p8!67;KI ! 8!3 L-I]: 5M6TI]L6T8 9n:=?6TI
N?I6>R\=?Z78033I]JmI]3h5C):=l;]8039:= 5R\: G b]):SRt5>=?803ZC9Iv&R0c06>R03c0I;KR~8!39= 5>=?803 9nImc!R0679IK6 3N
;]88!679n8!33bKI]Z]/ X =-N?IKZ p8!6T;]IKZR0:n5767I]Z ):ION?IKZp8!6T;]IKZ9Iw;K8!3h5>6>R\=?3h5>I9b]6T=1!IK3h59PQ:3 L 8\5>I]3h57=?I]N
!8!3I]39bK9:=15 
V
  "%$' #*,! &   '!   ' *, )   ,*! -!%




d
dt

L
x i

L
= Rix
xi

dt

L
y i

L
= Riy
yi

L
zi

L
= Riz
zi

d
dt

# D/E0 %

w 3L IK:n5 Kb chR0N?IKJMIK3h5R0=167I:3; SR03nc!I]JmI]3h5 9I0R\67=R\zN?IKZM;K8!39:=1Z>R03h5 3N 3n8!:n!IKN?N1I]Z


\R067=?R0zN?IKZ q ! j = 1, . . . , 3N /Mv&IKZ  DFU  : X 8:  DFO L U+Q ? O L : <O<U Q C ?EX : XZT8!3h59b!S3=1I]ZALSR06
~ ~r / vIKZibK):SR\5>=18!3Zd9IAv&R0c!67R03c!IOZKPabK;]67= !IK3)5yR0N18!67Z 
R
R
j

qj

d
dt

L
qj

L
= Rj ,
qj

j = 1, . . . , 3N.

# D /W! %

v&Rm9b<5>IK67Jm=?3SR\57=?8!3 9nI]Zdp8!67;KI]Zi9IC;]8!3h5>67R0=?3h57IAL-I]: 5yZTICR\=?67IO9nIB9IK: G R".K8!3Z*!sZT:=1\R03h5i):I


N PQ8!3 L IK:n5i8!: 38!3=?3h!IK67ZTI]6iN?I]Z k ;K8!3h5>6>R\=?3h5>IKZin8!N?8!3n!JMIKZ]/
l!  Z7:LL-8!ZT8!3Z: Pa8!3mL:=1Z7ZTIi=13h!I]6TZ7IK6 N1I]Z ;]8!3h576>R0=13)57I]Zl8!N18!3!JmI]ZK/ 24NSI Gn=1ZT57Ii9n8!3;
:3; SR03c0I]JmI]3h5l9I\R067=?R0zN1I]Z q ! j = 1, . . . , 3Nk!!5>I]Nn:nI q ! j = 1, . . . , 3N k ZT8!=?IK3)5lN1I]Z
;]88!679n8!33bKI]Zgc0b]3bK6>R0N1=?Z7bKI]ZK/ wR03Z ;]Ii; R0Z ! d L L = 0 L 80:6 j = 1, . . . , 3N k !
IK5N?IKZHZ7IK:N?IKZl;]8!JmL 80Z>R03h5>IKZl38!33):N?N1I]Z9IKZldtp8067;]IKZq9Id;]8!3hq576>R0=13)57Ic!b]3nb]6>R\N?=?ZTb]IKZZ78!3h5N?IKZ R !
/w8!:6y; R0N1;]:N1I]6i;]I]ZO;K8!JmL 8!Z7R03h5>IK*Z ! =1NZT: 5CR0N18!67Zi9I{L6T8 ;Kb]9IK6
j = 3N k + 1, . . . , 3N
9ICNR{"R .K8!3 Z7:= 0R\3)57I 




.!/fR0N1;]:N1I]6gN1IyN?R0c!6>R\3c!=?IK3 L(q , . . . , q , t) I]3p8!3n;K5>=18!39nI]Z;]88!6T98!33bKI]Zc!bK3b]67R0N


=?ZTb]IKZ]/ : bKZ78!:9n67IN1IMLn678!zN1[]JmII]3 57I]67JmI]ZB9I]Z 3N k ;]88!679n8!33bKI]Zc0b]3bK6>R0N1=?Z7bKI]Z
!
/
q (t) j = 1, . . . , 3N k
D / yb<5>I]6TJM=13I]6BN PQI<G L6TI]Z7ZT=?8!3 L(q
, . . . , q , t) 9: N?R0c!6>R\3c!=?IK3IK3 p8!3;<5>=?803 9ILNDF;L : X
N?IKZ0R\67=R\zN?IKZ q ! j = 1, . . . , 3N /
1

3N k

3N

Vn/fR0N1;]:N1I]6

d L
Rj =
dt qj
qj (t) j = 1, . . . , 3N k

L 8!:n6 j = 1, . . . , 3N I]3 :n5>=1N?=1Z>R03h5{N?R'Z78!N1:n5>=18!3


IK5dN?IKZd;]8!3h5>67R0=?3h57I]Z]/

L
qj

V!

'



  "%$' #*,! &   ! 




= :<B SVCE: i;]8!3ZT=?9bK678!3nZw:3L-8!=?3h5wJMR\57b]67=1I]N&):= c0N?=?ZTZ7INR


7Z :n6TR0;KIM9PQ:3;KYN?=13967I\/MX =lN?IJm8!:n!IKJMIK3h5{R N?=1I]: 9SR03nZB:3
LN?R03L IK67L-I]39=1;]:N?R0=?6TICN PaRtG I 9n:M;<Y N1=?39n67I"!hN1I]Zl;]88!6T98!3
3bKI]Z L-8!NR0=167IKZ (r, ) ZT8!3h5 z=1I]0z3 R09SR\Ln5>bKI]Z NR;K8!3h5>67R0=?3h5>I
Z]PQb];K67= 5 r = a !IK5iN?RZTI]:N1IO;]88!679n8!33bKIBc!bK3b]67R0N?=1Z7bKIOI]ZT5 /
.

.!/
D/
Vn/

IKZT5i=?39nb]L-I]39SR\3)5i9: 5>IKJMLnZ
/

1
L = ma2 2 mga cos
2
1
1
L = mr 2 2 + mr 2 mgr cos
2
2

X =&

t=0 =0

IK5

d
Rr =
dt

T +V =

;]8!3nZT5 R\3)57I0/

L
L

= m
r mr 2 + mg cos
r
r
r = 0.
= ma2 + mg cos
= 0

; R06

!8!3R

1 2 2
ma + mga cos = mga,
2

Rr = ma2 + mg cos
= 2mg(cos 1) + mg cos
= mg(3 cos 2)

5 R03h5):I cos > 2 /ix:'9IKNM9nI = x67;];K8!Z 2 N?Rmz=1N?N1IO3PaIKZT5yLN?:ZI]3


3
;K8!3h5 R0;<5yR 0I];ANR{Z7Ln[]6TI0/ 3
j ! S dZ7=N PQ8!3'3nIL-I]:n5OLR0Zy=13)0I]6TZ7I]6yN?I]Z;]8!3h576>R0=13)57I]Zwn8!N?8!3n!JMIKZ*!-=?NR0:n5y=?3h5>6T8 9n:=?6TI
9IKZAJ:N157=?LN1=?; Rt5>I]:n67Zd9Iv&R0c!67R03c!I\/vI]ZCZTI];]8039ZCJMIKJ{z6TI]ZO9IKZOb]):SR\57=?8!3ZO9nIvR\c!6>R03nc!I
b];K67= 5>I]Z{N PaR0=?9Ii9IKZJ{:N157=?LN1=?;]R\5>IK:67Zl9ICv&R0c!67R03c!I;]8!6T67IKZ7L-8!39IK3)5R0:G;K8!JML-8!Z7R03h5>I]Zg9I]Z
p8!6T;]I]Zd9IC;K8!3h5>6>R\=?3h5>I 
 

Rr > 0

Ri =

X
j

6 ) 


fj
.
qi


$3' ( 1   / 1+  34- 5/  -!3 /.-
 .-  9  0


3nIA;K8!3h5>67R0=?3h5>IC80N?8!30JMI
fj (x1 , . . . , x3N , t) = 0

Vh

  ,*,!% '-!  $  !'  




;]8!3n9:=15*!I]39b]6T=1\R03h5dLSR0667R0LL-8!6T5iR\:57I]JmLZ*!S:3IC;K8!3h5>6>R\=?3h5>IO9: 54YL I
# D /E\e %

3N
X

fj
fj
x i +
= 0.
t
i=1 xi

wR03Zy;]I]6|5 R0=13Zy;]R0Z*! N?I]Z;]8!3h576>R0=13)57I]ZZ]PQb];]6T=10I]3h5C9=?6TI];<5>I]JmI]3h5O;K8!JmJMIA9I]Zy67I]N?R\5>=18!3ZiI]3h5>6TI


N?IKZ=157I]ZTZ7I]Z !nJMR0=?ZZ7R03Z :nIyN?IKZ ;K8 I m;]=?IK3h5>ZZ78!=1I]3h5g6TI]N1=?b]ZlIK3)5767II]: GMLSR06lN1IiR0= 5l9P 1K5>6TIy9IKZ
9b]6T=10b]I]ZiLSR06|5>=1I]N?N1I]ZK/
. = :<B SVCE:  3IC678!:IO0I]6T57=?;]R0N?IO6T8!:N?IOZ7R03Zdc!N1=?Z7ZTI]69SR\3ZdN?IOLN?R03 8!67= <]8!3h5>R0N /


&v RO=15>IKZ7ZTIi9n:ML-8!=?3h5l9Id;K8!3h5 R0;<5g980=151<5>67I


3):N1N?I 

x R cos = 0
y R sin = 0

3 57I]NL6780zN?[KJMIA3IL-I]: 5wLSR0ZiZ7I9b];K67=?6TI{mN PaR0=?9IC9IAp8!3;<5>=?803Z /iF3'I  I<5)! ;K8!JmJMIC=?N


3 P YmRCLR0Zl9Ii57I]6TJMIIK3 !N1I]Z f 9IK6>R\=?I]3h51K5767Id=?3n9b]L-I]39R03h5>I]Z9If / R0=?ZlN1I;]8I m;]=1I]3h5
9I 9b]L-I]399I /
yIC5>I]N1N?IKZ;]8!3h576>R0=13)57I]ZdZ7803)5i380380N?8!30JMIKZ]/FN?N1I]ZZKPabK;]67= !IK3)5y9IOR".]803c0b]3bK6>R0N1I
# D /E\ %
a x + a = 0,
8!:I]3;K8!67I

3N
X

j
i i

j
0

i=1

3N
X

Z78!= 5

aji

i=1

3N
X

dxi
+ aj0 = 0,
dt

aji dxi + aj0 dt = 0.

i=1

# D /We0 %

8!:n6 6Tb]Z780:967Ii;]IdL6T8!zN1[]JmI"!h=?NSIKZT5l5>67R09= 5>=?8033I]Nn9Pa=13h5>6789:=167I9nI]Z9b]LN?R0;]IKJMIK3h5>Zl =16T57:I]N1Z


Z>R\57=?Z|R0=?Z7R03h5
# D /We . %
a x = 0,
N PQ=?9bKIb<5 R03h5O):I;KI]ZO9bKLNR0;KI]JmI]3h5>Zw=16T5>:nI]N?ZZ7I{p8!3h5w5>I]JmLZw;K8!3Z|5 R03h5 # dt = 0% !I<5O9I
R0=?6TI C  S DFL A X : ):IdN PaR0;K57=?8!3IKZT5I<G5>6Tb]JMR0N?I=1Z =?ZH9nIi;KI]Zl9bKLNR0;KI]JmI]3h5>Z=?6|5>:IKN?ZK/HvI
3N
X
i=1

 

j
i

V!e
'
   "%$' #*,! &   ! 
; R\N?;]:nN-R0= 5L-8!:6 N?I]Z ;]8!3h576>R0=13)57I]Z80N?8!30JMIKZ ZTIy5>67R03Z7L-8!ZTIOZ>R03ZR0:;]:n3IOJM89= S; R\57=?8!3'!hIK5
8!3 8!zn57=?IK3)5iN1I]Zb]):SRt5>=?803Z


d
dt

L
x i

3N
X

X
L
=
j aji , i = 1, . . . , 3N
xi
j

aji x i + aj0 = 0,

j = 1, . . . , k.

# D /We!D %

fgI]Zib]):SRt5>=?803ZZ78!3h5LSR06|p8!=?ZR\LL IKN?bKI]Zdb]):SR\57=?8!3nZi9nIBv&R0c06>R03c0IO9I SVU :<B ?7A<U :9: XNS A  :</


. = :<B SVCE:  3;<YN?=?3n967IO6T8!:N?IOZ7R03Zdc!N1=?Z7ZTI]6ZT:6d:3LnNR03 =13;]N1=?3b\/
i=1

DFO L U Q ? O LN: 
<: BQ U  ;4: 
r;]I< 57=57I x;]803)576>R0=13h5>I I]Z|5'=?3h57b]c!67R0zN?I
IK5A8!3 L-8!:6T6>R0= 5CR0=?ZTb]JmI]3h5CZ7I9bKzSR067R0Z7ZTI]6A9Pa:n3I
\R067=?R0zN1I0/


1
1
M x 2 + M r 2 2
2
2
= M g(l x) sin ,

T =
V

l=

v&R;]8!3h5>67R0=?3h57IAZTIC67b]bK;]6T=15

r x = 0

a = r, ax = 1

L=T V
d
dt

= M r 2

L
d
= M x
x
dt
L
= +M g sin
x

L
x

= M x

L
= M r 2

L

=0

N18!3c!:IK:69: LN?R03 =?3;KN?=?3nb .

M x M g sin =
M r 2 = r

# D /We0V %
# D /We\` %

V!

  ,*,!% '-!  $  !'  





# D /We0V %
# D /We\` %

Q C <; C 8 ? U : <L

r = x

M x =
g sin
,
x =
2
g sin
=
2r

r + C = x
(

r = x

8!3 b]N1=?Jm=?3I

M g sin
2

T = M x
V = M g(l x) sin

2M x = M g sin

x =

g sin
.
2

:<BQ U ; :  v IKZi9nb]LN?R0;]IKJMIK3)57Z =16T57:I]N1ZL 8!:n6:3IA;]8!3h5>67R0=?3h57IO9:54YL-I


3N
X

Z78!3h5R8 *O ?EXgLSR06

aji x i + aj0

i=1

3N
X

aji xi = 0.

&v RJm=?3=1JM=1Z>R\57=?8!39ImN PaR0;K57=?8!3L-8!:6C;]IKZ9bKLNR\;]I]JmI]3h57ZA=?6|5>:IKN?ZC;]8039:= 5R\: G b]):SRt5>=?803Z


9IAv&R0c!6>R\3c!IO9ICL6TI]Jm=?[]6TIOI]ZTL [K;]I0/
w3{L IK:n5R\:Z7ZT=nR0z-8!6T9I]6N?IL678!znN?[]JmIl9=  b]6TI]JmJMIK3h5 I<5HZ7I L 80Z7I]6NRi:nI]ZT57=?8!3 ):IKN?N1I]Z ZT8!3h5
N?IKZ b]):SRt5>=?803Z Z7R\5>=1ZTR0= 5>I]ZLSR06 Z7= 8!3{Jm=?3=1JM=1Z7IN PWR0;<5>=18!3BIK3Z7I9n8!33SR03h5 Z7=?JmLN1I]JmI]3h5 N?R
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# D /ae! %

+
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x2
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Z

x2
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(y(x1 ) = y1 , y(x2 ) = y2 )

f (x, y, y 0) dx = c.

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; SR 3nIK5757I;6


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dt
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dt |
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# D /ahD %
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ds

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# D /a!V %

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N
d X
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!#

N
X
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"

d
dt

L
qi

qi (s) L qi (s)
+
s
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# D /W\` %

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d
L q (s) L q (s)
# D /ah_ %
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= L=0
+
q s
q s
ds
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# D /W0 %
p~ ~u = ~u P~
(~x + s~u) =
i

N
X
i=1

~x i s

N
X
i=1

xy: 5>67IKJMIK3h5O9=15*!N PQ=?3h\R06T=R03;KIBLR06y5>67R03ZTNR\57=?8!3Z7I]N18!3 ~u 9: v&R0c!67R03c!=1I]3R;K8!JmJMIB;]8!3ZTI!


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v Pa:3B9I]Z8!zTIK;K5>= pZ&L67=13;]=1LSR0: GC9nI N?RiJmb];]R03=?):IR03R0N1Y)5>=1):IlI]ZT5 NR67IK; I]6T; I9PQ=?3h57b]c!67R0N?IKZ


L67IKJM=1[]6TI]Z]/ wR03Z N?I; R096TI9:p8067JMR0N?=1Z7JmI9Iv&R0c!67R03c!I/!0N?R67IK; I]6T; Id9I 57I]N1N?I]Z=?3h57b]c!67R0N?IKZ
L67IKJM=1[]6TI]ZwL-I]:n5CZTI{R0=?6TIIK3 =13h5>6789:=1Z>R03h5y:3 ZTYZT57[]JmIm9nI{;]88!679n8!33bKI]ZCc!b]3nb]6>R\N?=?ZTb]IKZy5>IKN
):I ;]I]6|5 R0=13I]ZB0R\67=R\zN?IKZ{Z78!=1I]3h5;<Y ;KN?=1:nI]Z]/ F3 I  I<)5 !lN?IKZ{b]):SRt5>=?803Z9I v&R0c!67R03c!IZT8!3h5
=?3h\R067=?R03h5>IKZLSR06:3; SR03c0I]JmI]3h5y9nIA;K8 806798!3n3b]IKZ
24NI G =?ZT57I3b]R03Jm8!=?3nZi9nI]Z576>R03nZTp8!Q6TJ=R\57=?Q8!3n(qZiz-,I .R\.:. ;], 8!q:nL', t).LN?:nZc!bK3b]67R0N?IKZ):=Jmb]NR\3c!I]3h5N?IKZ
;]88!679n8!33bKI]Zc!bK3b]67R0N?=1Z7b]IKZ I<5N?IKZ =?JmL:N1Z7=18!3Z&c!b]3nb]6>R\N?=?ZTb]IKZHIK5):= ;]8!3n9:=?ZTI]3h5ly:n3IJmbK5>
8 9nIMc!bK3b]67R0N?Im9Im67IK; I]6T; I9PQ=?3h5>bKc!6>R\N?I]ZAL6TI]Jm=?[]6TI]ZC9: Jm8!:n0I]JmI]3h5 /vlPQbK57:9IM9I;KIK5757I
JMb<5>89IOIKZT5N PQ8!z TIK5d9nIA;KIC; SR0L= 5>67I\/
v&R L6TI]Jm=?[]6TI bK5 R\L I ;]803Z7=1ZT5>I 6Tb]bK;]67=167I N?IKZ N bK:R\5>=18!3Z9: ZTI];]8039 8!6T967I 9PaFl:nN?I]6
v&R0c!6>R\3c!IO;]80JMJmIO:3ZTYZT57[]JmIA9nI 2N b]):SR\57=?8!3Zd9:L6TI]Jm=?I]6g8!6796TI 
i

d
L
(pi ) =
dt
qi
L

.
pi =
qi
p i

fgI]Zdb]):SRt5>=?803Z3ICZ78!3h5dLSR\Zd5767[KZZTYJMb<5>6T=?):I]ZK/ O3 L6TbKpbK67I]67R0=15d):ICN?RZ7IK;]8!39nIBbK:R\5>=18!3
Z78!= 5dZ78!:nZiN?R{p8!67JmI
qi =

F (qi , pi , t)
.
pi

gf I];K=L-I]: 5CZ7IR0=?6TI N PaR0=?9nI{9PQ:3I L U+Q O0X DFUWBQ L ?7DFO!8: : :<OV8 U :</fg8!3ZT=?9bK678!3nZAIK3I  I<5
:3Ip8!3;<5>=18!3 f (x) !IK5CL-8!ZT8!3Z z = df x = g(z) /{I]:n5 48!357678!:n0I]6C:3I{p803;K57=?8!3
dx
df
>
5
K
I
?
N
?
N
y
I


n
:
I
f (z)
= g(z)
dz
`)_

`h
fg8!JmJMI

'

g(z)

I]Z|5iNR{p8!3;<5>=?803 =?3h!IK67Z7IA9I

F3=13h5>b]c06>R03h5)!n=?N =?IK3h5 

  "%$' #*,!   - +*,!

f 0 (z)

!S8!3 R 

f 0 (g(z)) = z
f 0 (g(z)) g 0 (z) = z g 0 (z)

d
d
[f (g(z))] =
[(z g(z))] g(z)
dz
dz

d
[(z g(z)) f (g(z))] = g(z)
dz

f (z) = z g(z) f (g(z)).

H   fgI];]=3PQI]ZT5wL 8!ZTZ7=1zN?IA):IZ7= f IKZT5O=13h!I]6TZ7=1zN?I/! = /QI0/-Z7= d f 6= 0 Z7= f I]Z|5O9IK: Gp8!=?Z


dx
9bK67=1\R0znN?I0/
 *O ? L ?7DFO HX8!=15
:n3Ip8!3;<5>=?803{9b]6T=1\R0zN1I0/HXnRy5>67R03ZTp8067Jmb]I9IdvIKc!I]39n67II]Z|5l9b 3=?I
f (x)
LSR06
# Vn/ . %
f (z) = z g(z) f (g(z))
8@P g = f I]ZT5NRp803;K57=?8!3 =?3h0I]67ZTIB9nI f /
. = :<B SVCE: X 
2

0 1

.!/

f (x) =

mx2
2
f 0 (x) = mx = z

D/

f (z) = zx f (x) =
"

X=

x>0
f (x) =
6= 1

f 0 (x) = x1 ,

!;KIK5757IOp8!3;K57=?8!3 IKZT5i=?3h!IK67ZT=?zN1I0/
x

z2 m z2

m
2 m2

f 00 (x) = ( 1)x2

f (z) = zx f (x) = zx

R !I];

x = z 1

1
1
f (z) = z
z 1 .
z 1 = 1

1
1
1
1
=

=1

+ =1
1


1
1+ 1

8!Z78!3nZ

z
m
z2
=
.
2m

x = g(z) =

f (z) =

z
.

`)

   -! )*, $+ #*,!

+ "0*o#p+-"  %]#%&r\ 2n rt#  p


X = :n3Ip8!3;<5>=18!3 9bKL IK39 9I{LN1:Z7=1I]:6TZ\R06T=R0zN1I]Z ! 8!3L-I]: 5yR0=167I:n3I5>67R03Z|p8!67JMR\5>=18!39I
vI]c!IK3967ILR06w6>R\LL 806T5O;KI]6|5 R0=13I]Zy\R06T=R0znN?I]ZK/Cfg8!3ZT=?9bK678!3nZwLSR06wI G I]JmLN?I{:n3Ip8!3;<5>=18!3
/lvI]Zib]):SRt5>=?803Z
F (x , . . . , x ; u , . . . , u )
F
#Vn/ED %
(x , . . . , x ; u , . . . , u ) = F (x , . . . , x ; u , . . . , u )
z =
x
L IK:n!IK3h5wZ]PQ=?3h0I]67ZTI]6iI]3
#Vn/WV %
x = g (z , . . . , z ; u , . . . , u )
;]8!39n=15>=18!3 ):I
F
#Vn/Q` %
det
6= 0.
x x
v&R576>R03nZTp8!6TJMbKIA9nIBvIKc!I]39n67ICI]Z|59n b S3=1ICLSR06 
#Vn/W_ %
x z F.
F (z , . . . , z ; u , . . . , u ) =
1

F
zi

m
X

k k

k=1

= xi +

m
X

zk

k=1

m
gk X
gk
k F (g1 (z . . .), g2 (z . . .) . . .)

{z
} zi
zi k=1 |
=zk

F
= xi .
zi

R06iR0=1N?N1I]:6TZ*! F = F F x + z x = F L:=1Z7):I z = F /
u
u
x u
u
u
x
: I<!IK38!3ZR0: G{b]):SR\57=?8!3nZ9Idv&R0c!6>R\3c!I"!0IK5HR0=1Z78!3nZH:3I576>R03Z|p8!67JMR\57=?8!3B9IdvI]c!IK3967IdLSR\6
6>R0LnL 8!6|5CR0: G \R067=?R0zN?IKZ /v&R576>R03Z|p8!67Jmb]I9IvI]c!IK3967I;K8!676TI]Z7L-8!39R03h5>II]Z|5C3805>bKI H
IK5iZ]PaR0LL-I]N1N?ION PaSR\JM=1N15>803=?qIK3/fyPaIKZT5:3IOp8!3;<5>=?8039nI]Z q IK5i9IKZ p 9 b S3n=?ICLSR06 
#Vn/W %
H(q , . . . , q ; p , . . . , p ; t) =
p q L(q , . . . , q ; q , . . . , q ; t)
8@P'N1I]Z q ZT8!3h5w;K8!3Z7=19b]6Tb]Zw;K8!JmJMIA9I]Zip8!3;<5>=?803Z9nI]Z p IK5y9I]Z q 9 PWR0Ln67[]ZyN?I]Zib]):SRt5>=?803Z
L /
p =
q
 :<BQ U  ; :  N PQSR0Jm=?N 5>8!3n=?I]3 RAN?RwJ 1KJMI 0R\N?I]:n6:nIN?Ryp8!3;K57=?8!3R0JM=1N1578!3=?IK33I !)JMR0=?Z
;]IZ7803)5C9nI]ZC8!z TI<5>ZCJRt5>bKJHR\57=?):IKZy91=  bK67I]3h57Z]/ h I]ZT5Cp8!3n;K5>=18!39IKZ q R0N?8067Zw):I hH I]Z|5
p8!3;<5>=?8039nI]Z p /

X
k

i i

`he
'
   "%$' #*,!   - +*,!
 PaR0L6T[]ZN1I]Zg6Tb]ZT:N15>R\5>Z L67bK;]b]9nI]3h5>ZZT:6gN?RA5>67R03Z|p8!67JMR\5>=18!3m9IwvI]c0I]396TI"! N?I]Z b]):SR\57=?8!3nZg9:
Jm8!:n!IKJMIK3h5ZKPabK;]6T=1!IK3h5 
q =
 $%& n*o#p+-"! S"&+-"#$%&
#Vn/W %
+-%   S # *,+-"
p =
fgI]Zgb]):SR\57=?8!3ZL-8!6T57I]3h5N1I380J^9 PabK:R\5>=18!3Zg;]R038!3n=?):I]Z L 80:6 ZT8!:N1=?c!3IK6lN?I]:n6 ZT=?JmLN?=1;]=157b0/
FN?N1I]Z;]803ZT57=15>:nI]3h5i:3IOp8!67J:NR\57=?8!3b]):=1\R0N1I]3h5>IO9nI]ZiN?8!=1Z9ICNR{Jmb];]R03=?):I\/
H   3IO5>I]N1N?Iw9nI]Z7;K67=1Ln5>=18!3 3PaIKZT5L 80Z7Z7=1zN?Iy:nIBZT= det L 6= 0 /
q q
QFX9S0Q UWL ? <; C ?7:<U  X:LL-8!Z78!3nZm):IN?I L-8057I]3h5>=1I]N3I 9bKL IK39ILSR0Z9I]Z=157I]Z7ZTI]Z !gIK5m):I
N PQb]3nI]67c0=?IO;]=13bK57=?):IO3IC9bKL IK39IA):IB9n:;]R0676TbO9I]Zd=15>IKZ7ZTI]Z]/xyN18!67Z

H
pi

H
qi

H(q1 , . . . , qN ; p1 , . . . , pN ; t) =

pi qi L(q, q,
t)

T
qi L = 2T L = T + V.
qi

wR03nZA;KI; R0Z !N PaSR\JM=1N15>803=?IK3IKZT5Ab]chR\Nl N PabK3I]6Tc!=?I\/ R0=1ZO=?N R\:n5CN PQI<G L6T=?JmI]6wIK3 p8!3n;K5>=18!3
9IKZ=1JML:nN?Z7=18!3Z c!b]3bK6>R0N1=?ZTb]I]ZK/
F G I]JmLN?I  3nIALR06T57=?;]:nN?IO9SR03nZi:n3L-8057I]3h5>=1I]NI<G57b]67=1I]:6 U (x, y, z) /
++srt+-"")M! nro*  ]#""  T = 1 m x + y + z
i

px = mx,

1
T =
p2x + p2y + p2z
2m

H =T +V

++srt+-"")M #"&rt# $ %


z

py = my,

pz = mz

px
H
=
px
m

H
V

p =
=
= Fx
x
x
x =


1 
T = m r 2 + r 2 2 + z 2
2

pr = mr,

p = mr 2 ,
!

p2
1
T =
p2r + 2 + p2z ,
2m
r

pz = mz
H = T +U (r, , z)

`h

   -! )*, $+ #*,!


++sr\&+-""&)])rt#$%



1 
T = m r 2 + r 2 2 + r 2 sin2 2
2

M
r

pr = mr,

p = mr 2 ,

2
p = mr sin2

p2
p2
1
,
p2r + 2 + 2 2
T =
2m
r
r sin

H = T + U (r, , z)

+S*, n*,#+-"!+  S0*  


vI]ZAb]):SR\57=?8!3ZC9I
R0JM=1N1578!3'Z7803)5AZ|Y JmbK5767=1:nI]ZBR0: Z7=?c03IL67[KZ]/m24NI]ZT5AZT8!:n!IK3h5{:n57=?N?I9I
L67IK396TIB;KIK5757ICZTYJMb<5>6T=?ICI]3;]8!JmLn57IOI]3=?3h5>6T8 9:n=?Z>R\3)5:3IA3805 Rt5>=?803 ;]8!JmLSR0;<5>I 
0

xi
= qi ,
xi+N = pi ,

i = 1, . . . , N
i = 1, . . . , N

;]IC):=&9b 3=15d:3 !IK;K57I]:6i9ICN?8!3nc!:I]:n6 2N /


X =8!3 9!b S3=15iLSR\6dR0=?N1N?I]:n67ZN1Iw!I];<5>IK:6;K8!N?8033IO9IKZ9bK67= !b]IKZ9nI H LSR\6
H
~x

H
xi

N?IKZibK):SR\5>=18!3Z9I
R0JM=1N1578!3Z]PQb];K67= !I]3h5Z78!:nZN?Rp8!67JmI
8@P J I]ZT5:3ICJMR\5>6T=?;KI

(2N 2N )

#Vn/We %

d
H
~x = J
,
dt
~x

!

1lN
(N N )

rt#"h#p Sro+srt#p)*  & J


.!/ J = 1l
24NZ7: m5i9IOR0=167ION1IOL6789:= 5LSR06dzN18 ;KZ]/
D / J = J # J I]Z|5R03h5>=?Z|YJMb<5>67=1):I % /
Vn/ J = J # J IKZT5i:3ICJMR\5>6T=?;KIw8!6T578!c!803SR0N?I %
 <BDFO0X<L U+Q L ?7DFO 
J = J
JJ = J
2

9nb S3=1ICLSR06

0
1lN
1lN 0

J=

1
0

2N

t
t

= 1l

///

0
1

#Vn/W %

_0
I)76


'



  "%$' #*,!   - +*,!

0/23  -  1   /  /




&v R67IKL67bKZ7I]3h5>R\5>=18!3B9nI
yR0Jm=?N 5>8!3;]8!39n:=15&LN1:Z7=1I]:6TZ 5>IK; 3=1:nI]Z9I67IK; I]6T; I 9 Pa=13)57b]c!67R0N?IKZ
L6TI]Jm=?[]6TI]ZK/ wR03nZN?R 67IKL67bKZ7IK3)5>R\5>=18!3 NR0c!67R03c!=1I]33nI 8!3 R : :nI ZT=w:3I\R06T=R0zN1I IKZT5
;KY;KN?=?):I/!y;\PaIKZT5 4 49n=?67IZT= L = 0 !yR0N18!67Z p = ;]803ZT5>R03h5>I0/^fgIKNR 6TI]ZT57I0R\NR0zN1I'L-8!:6
N PQSR0Jm=?N 5>8!3n=?I]3 / F3I  IK)5 ! q
i

L
H
=0
=0
qi
qi

xy=13Z7= p = H = 0 p = ;]8!3nZT5 R\3)57I0/


q
R0=1ZN?Rp8!67JmI5>67[KZZTYJmbK5>6T=?):I9nI]Z{bK:R\5>=18!3Z{9I
yR0Jm=?N 5>8!3 Z7:c0c![]6TI9PQbK5>IK396TI ;]IK5T5>I
67IK; I]6T; I{9IKZ;K8!J{z=13SR0=1Z78!3Zg9I]Zi;]88!679n8!33bKI]Z p IK5 q /
X 8!= 5 9n8!3;
:3nIgp8!3;<5>=?803B9IKZH;]88!6T98!33bKI]ZHc0b]3bK6>R0N1=?Z7bKI]ZIK5 9I]Z
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i

df
dt

X f
f
f
qi +
p i +
t
i pi
i qi
X f H
X f H
f

+
=
t
i pi qi
i qi pi

w39nb S3= 5dN?I < U D :<L.8: DF?EX X DFOm9nIA9nI]: G p8!3n;K5>=18!3Z




{f, g} =

K" *,)qsrt ro # ")rt




f (q, p, t)

#Vn/1.0. %

df
f
=
+ {f, H}.
dt
t


9nI]Z q ! p I<5i9I t LSR06

f g
f g
.

qi pi pi qi

vPabK):SR\5>=18!3 9PQbK!80N?:n57=?8!3 9I f Z]PQb];K67= 59n8!3;


i

f, g

#Vn/1. %

# Vn/ .oD %

IKZT5i:3IC=13)57b]c!67R0N?IOLn67I]Jm=?[K67IOZT=IK5dZ7IK:N?IKJMIK3h5ZT=

f
+ {f, H} = 0.
t

# Vn/ .,V %

F 3 LSR\6T5>=1;]:N1=?IK6*!:3nIp803;K57=?8!3 f (q, p) ):=3Im9b]L-I]39LSR0ZCI<G LN1=?;K=15>IKJMIK3h5C9: 57I]JmLZAI]ZT5


:3IC=13)57b]c!67R0N?IyL67IKJM=1[]67IOZT=IK5iZ7IK:N?IKJMIK3h5ZT=
{f, H} = 0.

_.

   )*     &*    *,!




+S*, n*,#+-"
!+-  S0*,
0

X =S8!3m=?3h5>6T8 9n:=15 NRO9b 3=157=?8!3


8!3L IK:n5ib];]6T=?6TI 

f
xi

fi =

{f, g} =
=

w6*!

! R 0I];d5>8!: T80:67Z

N
X
i=1

N
X
i=1

(f1 . . . f2N )

1lN

1lN

xi = qi xi+N = pi i = 1, . . . , N

f g
f g

xi xi+N
xi+N xi
fi gi+N fi+N gi .

//

g1

g2N
= f1 gN +1 + f2 gN +2 + . . . + fN g2N fN +1 g1 . . . f2N gN

Z78!= 5
/

{f, g} =

{f, g} =

2N
X

f
g
Jjk
xk
j,k=1 xj

ro+sr\#ph*,m!ro+ &h*o / +-#  K+ "


.!/ {f, g} = {g, f } bK=?9nI]3h5
D / {f, c} = 0 ZT= c = ;K8!3Z|5 R03h5>I
Vn/ {f, q } = f , {f , p } = + f
p
q
`/ {q , q } = {p , p } = 0, {q , p } =
_ / {f, g} = f , f + f, g
t
t
t
n/ {f + f , g} = {f , g} + {f , g}
ybK;]8!:N1IC9:R\=15):I
i

g
~x

f
J
~x

ij

(f1 + f2 ) =
x

# V /1. ` %

f1
x

f2
+
x

# V /1.o_ %

_!D

'


  "%$' #*,!   - +*,!

ybK;]8!:nN?IC9: R0=15):I

{f1 f2 , g} = f1 {f2 , g} + f2 {f1 , g}




f2
f1
(f1 f2 ) = f1
+ f2
xi
xi
xi
!
!
!

f2
f1

f2
f1
(f1 f2 ), . . . ,
(f1 f2 ) = f1
,...,
+ f2
,...,
x1
x2N
x1
x2N
x1
x2N

en/ 8:<O L ? L J8:0Q  D ?


w3 38057I

fi =

f
2f
2f
fij =
=
xi
xi xj
xj xi
X

{g, h} =

::nI
y803;"!

#Vn/ ., %

{f, {g, h}} + {g, {h, f }} + {h, {f, g}} = 0.

gk Jkl hl

kl

{f, {g, h}} =

fi Jij [gkj Jkl hl + gk Jkl hlj ]

ijkl

# I]ZT5i:3nIB;K8!3ZT5>R03h5>I , % !SZ780=15

Jkl = 0 Jkl
xj

{f, {g, h}} =

fi Jij Jkl [gkj hl + gk hlj ] .

ijkl

{f, {g, h}} + {g, {h, f }} + {h, {f, g}}


=

(fi Jij Jkl [gkj hl + gk hlj ]

ijkl

+gi Jij Jkl [hkj fl + hk flj ]


+hi Jij Jkl [fkj gl + fk glj ]) .

gf SR\:nIB5>IK67JmIB9nI;]I<5757IZ780JMJmIC;]8!3h5>=1I]3h5w:n3IBI<5w:3nIZ7IK:N?IA9bK67=10b]IBZ7I];K8!39I\/ww3
L-I]:n5i9803;C;]NR\Z7Z7IK6dN?I]Z57I]6TJMIKZi9 PWR0Ln67[]ZdN?R9nb]67= !bKIAZTI];K8!39IA):=Y =?3h5>IK6T=?IK3h5 /
fg8!3nZ7=?9nb]67803Z:n3I 9b]6T=1!bKI ZTI];]8039I"!OLR06 I<G I]JmLN?I g /}X 8!3 ;]8I m;]=1I]3h5 ZKPabK;]6T=15
;K8!JMJmIwN?RZT8!JmJMIw9nIA):SRt5>67IC5>IK67JmI]Z 
.  HZT8!JmJM/I ! k = m, j = n
fJ J h
.   ZT8!JmJM/I ! k = n, j = m f J J h
V 
 ZT8!JmJM/I ! l = m, j = n h J J f
V 
 ZT8!JmJM/I ! l = n, j = m h J J f


mn

il
X

il
X

ik
X
ik

i in ml l

i im nl l

i in km k

i im kn k

0_ V
R0=?ZT8!3ZN1IO; SR03c!IKJMIK3h5y9PQ=?3n9=?;KI # !
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Z7=18!3ZK/ vIO;K8 I M;K=?IK3)5i9I ZKPabK;]6T=1i5  l k i%

   )*     &*    *,!




gmn

fi hl [Jin Jml + Jim Jnl + Jln Jim + Jlm Jin ]

il

f i hl
Jin (Jml + Jlm ) +Jim (Jnl + Jln )

; R\6 J I]Z|5{R03h57=?ZTYJmbK5767=?):I\/ vIM;K8 I m;]=?IK3h59I g I]Z|59n8!3;m3:nN !HR\=?3ZT=:nIM;KI]N?:n=


9IKZyR0: 5>67IKZd9b]6T=1!bKI]ZiZ7IK;]8!39nI]Z]/
fy/{/ / B/
vIALn67=?3n;]=?LR0N =13)57b]6 1K5i9I]Zd;K678; IK57Z9IA8!=?ZTZ78!367bKZ7=?9nIA9R03ZdN?Iw57b]8!6T[]JmICZ7:= 0R\3)5]/
2 &)+-r "   / + # ]+-"   ? :<L X DFO L$8: X ? O L  U Q CE: X$SVU :<B ?7A<U : X Q CEDFU X
: X<L
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 <BDFO0X<L U Q L ?7DFO l=?N R\:n5i9b]Jm8!3h5>6TI]6):I
il

{z

=0

mn

{z

=0

{f, g} = {H, {f, g}}.


t

R0=1Z
(

g
f
{f, g} =
, g + f,
t
t
t
= {{H, f }, g} + {f, {H, g}} (f, g
= {g, {H, f }} {f, {g, H}}

= {H, {f, g}}

=13h5>b]c06>R0N1I]ZL6TI]Jm=?[]6TI]Z )

9 PaR0L67[KZ !R0;]8!zn= /
vI]Z{;K678; IK57Z{9I8!=?ZTZ78!3 ;]8!3Z|5>= 5>:IK3)598!3;M:3IJmbK5789IMZ|YZT5>bKJRt5>=?):I9I6TI]; IK67; I
9PQ=?3h5>bKc!6>R0N1I]ZL6TI]Jm=?[]6TI]ZK/ =?I]3 Z n*6 !gZT= f IK5 g ZT8!3h59IK: G =?3h57b]c!67R0N?IKZL67IKJM=1[]67IK*Z ! {f, g}
L IK:n5)1<5>67I3:nN ! 80:'Z7=1JMLN1I]JmI]3h5:3I{;K8!J{z=13SR0=?ZT8!3N?=?3nb R0=167IA9I f IK5 g ! R0:):I]N ; R0Zw803'3I
c!b]3n[]67IMLSR0ZB9I380:n!IKN?N?I=13)57b]c!67R0N?IL6TI]Jm=?[K67"I !JR\=?ZO=?NY R9I]ZBZ7=157:SR\57=?8!3ZC8@P 8!3 c!bK3[]6TI
I  I];<5>=10I]JmI]3h5i5>8!:n57IO:3IAZ7bK67=?IO9 Pa=13)57b]c!67R0N?IKZL67IKJM=1[]6TI]Z]/
. = :<B SVCE:  .X <? C C Q LN:<; U 0Q UWBDFO ?  ; :
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6>R0LnL IKN bKchR0N?I kx /  8!:Z R0N?N18!3Z&67bKZ78!:n967I ;]IL6T8!zN1[]JmI N PaR0=?9Il9I5>8!: 5>I]ZN?IKZJmbK578 9nI]Z
9:;]8!:6TZ]/
.!/ HT:<KML DFO #N?IyLN?:ZdZT=?JmLN?Iw=1;]= , %




m
x = kx

x + x = 0,

k
m

_\`

'



DFC ;L ?7DFO < O<U Q CE:




=
8!: x(t)
x(t) =
:<C Q L ?7DFO :<O L U :TCE: XJ8:<;>= X DFC ;L ?7DFO0X 

  "%$' #*,!   - +*,!

c1 cos t + c2 sin t
a cos(t + )

a cos t cos a sin t sin = c1 cos t + c2 sin t

O :<U ?7:

m 2 2
m 2 2
 1
mx 2 +
x =E=
a
2
2
2

D / Q U+Q O :

Vn/ Q B ? C L DFO ?7:<O


8!Z78!3nZ

a cos = c1
a sin = c2

~u =

F = kx = m 2 x =

dV
dx

a = c21 + c22
tg = c2
c1

V (x) =

m 2 2
x .
2

1
m 2 2
L = T V = mx 2
x
2
2
L
L
= mx,

= m 2 x
x
x
1
m
x + m 2 x = 0

J KJMIObK:R\5>=18!3 :nI  5I 45>803/

m 2 2
p2
+
q
(q = x, p = mx)

H=
2m
2
( dp
= H
= m 2 q
dt
q
dq
= H
= mp
dt
p

q
p

/w3 R

d~
u
dt

= M~u

M=

0
m 2

1
m

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;]R06>R0;<5>bK67=?Z|5>=1:nI
det

m
2
m

= 0
=

+ = i
= i.

_!_

   )*     &*    *,!




yb<5>I]6TJM=138!3ZdN1I]Z!IK;K57I]:6TZyL6T8!L67IKZiR0Z7ZT8 ;K=?b]ZK/


x+
y+

~u+

M~u+ = +~u+ = i~u+


1
y+ = ix+
m

x
y

~u

1
y = ix
m

~u = + (t)~u+ + (t)~u

y = imx

1
.
~u =
im

1
,
~u+ =
im

80Z78!3Z

y+ = imx+

M~u = ~u = i~u

w3L-I]: 5d98!3;C; 8!=1Z7=16

/vPabK:R\5>=18!3

d~u
= M~u
dt

Z]PQb];K67= 5

+ (t)~u+ + (t)~u = +~u+ + ~u ,

9Pa8 P

ZT8!=15
fg8!JmJMI

+ = i

I<5

= i

+ (t) = +
(t) =
+ (t) = + (0)e+ t
(t) = (0)e t

!nNRZ78!N1:n5>=18!3 c!bK3b]67R0N?IOZKPabK;]67= 5i98!3;




~u(t) = + eit ~u+ + eit ~u .

vICL678!znN?[]JmIO=?3n=15>=?R0NSR0=15=?3h5>IK6T!IK3=?6 p I<5 q !S;0PQI]Z|5 4 49=167IO9IKZd38!J{z6TI]Zd67bKI]N1Z*!S9PQ8@P


q(t) = + eit + eit = (+ + ) cos t + i(+ ) sin t.

80:68!zn5>IK3=?6:n3I Z78!N1:n5>=18!3 76 bKI]N?N1I"!l=?N R0:n5):I


=?JMR0c!=13SR0=167IiL:6 = / 8!ZT8!3Z
+

c1 ic2
2

c + ic2

= 1
2
+ =

+ +

Z780=1567bKI]N !I<5

+ + = c 1
i(+ ) = c2 .

_0

'


  "%$' #*,!   - +*,!

`/ U D :<L.8: DF?EX X DFO 


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IKZT5:3I;]803ZT5>R03h5>I9:BJm8!:n0I]JmI]3h5
u(p, q, t) = ln(p+imq)it
IK3:n57=?N1=?Z>R\3)5gN?IO;K678; IK59IA8!=1Z7ZT8!3/


8!Z78!3nZ
8!Z78!3nZ

u = u0

du
= i + {u, H}
dt
H u H u
{u, H} =

p q
q p
p im
m 2 q
=

m p + imq p + imq
p + imq
= i
= i
p + imq
du
= 0.

dt

e u0
= aei
im

p + imq = imaei(t+)

I)


q = a cos(t + ) .


$3' ( 1   / 1+ *3V-  /




p + imq = eu0 eit .

ln(p + imq) it = u0 ,

vI]Z{bK):SR\5>=18!3Z{9nI
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fg8!3ZT=?9bK678!3nZiIK3I  I<5iN PaR0;K57=?8!3 ;K8!JMJmIwp8!3;<5>=18!3 9I]Zd5>67R TI];<5>8!=167IKZ {q (t), p (t)} 
#Vn/1., %
S [{q (t)}, {p (t)}] =
p q H(q , p , t) dt.
fyPQI]ZT5z=1I]3ON?RJ 1KJMIH):SR\3)57=157b:nI;]I]N1N?IHLn67b];Kb]9IKJMJmI]3h5=?3h576789:=157I L:n=?Z7):I H = p q
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L
9IKZ q ! p ! q ! p IK5i9: 5>I]JmLZ 
#Vn/1. e %
p q H(q , p , t).
G(q , p , q , p , t)
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i i

i i

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d
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d
dt

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G

qi

G
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G
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H
pi
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p i =
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#Vn/1. %

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  /  -  / !3' /    - / $3V-  /   0 - 3 


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P (q , p , t)
=?):IKZ]/
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57I]N?N1Iw):I
K(Q , P , t)
K
K
dP
dQ
# V /ED0 %
=
=
,
.
dt
Q
dt
P
PaR0L67[KZlN?IL6T=?3;K=?L-I \R06T=R\57=?8!33nI]N !t:3I;K8!39= 5>=18!3{Z7: MZ7R03h5>IdI]Z|5l):Pa=1NnI Gn=1ZT57I:3Ip8!3;<5>=18!3
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F (q , Q , p , P , t)
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X
X
dF
# V /ED . %
P Q K(Q , P , t) +
p q H(q , p , t) =
.
  *O
i

i i

dt

F 3 I  IK5)! dF dt = F (2) F (1) 3Iy; SR03c!IyLSR0ZZT= N PQ8!3R\=150R\67=?IK6 N1I]Zg576>R TIK;K578!=?6TI]ZgIK3


NR0=1Z7Z7R03h5 q (t ),dtq (t ), p (t ), p (t ), Q (t ), Q (t ), P (t ), P (t ) nG b]ZK/
fg8!JmJMI
Z
i

X F
X F
X F
X F
F
dF
=
qi +
p i +
,
Q i +
P i +
dt
t
i qi
i pi
i Qi
i Pi

;]IK6T5 R\=?3ZC; 8!= G9IN?Rp8!67JmI{9I F ;K8!39:=1Z7IK3)5 9I]ZCbK:R\5>=18!3ZO=?JmLN1=?;]= 5>IKZ5>6T[]ZCZ7=1JMLnN?I]Z


L 80:6NR{5>67R03Z|p8!67JMR\5>=18!3;]R038!3=1):I0/
.!/

/
vPabK):SR\5>=18!3 9ICzSR0ZTIBIKZT5R0N?8067ZZ7R\5>=1ZTR0= 5>IO9[KZi):I

F (qi , Qi , pi , Pi , t) = F1 (qi , Qi , t)

F1
qi
F1
P
=

Qi

F1

K =H+
.
t
pi =

_0e

'


D/

F (qi , Qi , pi , Pi , t) =

Qi Pi + F2 (qi , Pi , t)

X F2
X
X
X F2
F2
dF
Qi P i +
Pi Q i
P i +
=
qi +
dt
t
i qi
i
i
i Pi

F2
qi
F2
Qi =

Pi

Vn/

`/

  "%$' #*,!   - +*,!

F (qi , Qi , pi , Pi , t) =

F (qi , Qi , pi , Pi , t) =

pi =

K=H+

+ F3 (pi , Qi , t)

i qi p i

i qi p i

F2
.
t

F3
pi
F3
Pi =

Qi

F3

K =H+
.
t

qi =

Pi Qi + F4 (pi , Pi , t)

F4
pi
F4
Qi =
Pi
F4
.
K=H+
t
qi =

F3L67R\5>=1):"I !t=?N!ZT: 5 9n8!3;lL 80:6&I]3c!IK396TI]6:3Il5>6>R\3ZTp8!6TJRt5>=?803O; R03803=?):Il9IZ7I98!33nI]6


:3IMp8!3;K57=?8!39b]L-I]3n9SR03h59I9nI]: G54YL IKZ9I\R067=?R0zN1I]Z # F ! F ! F 8!: F % / v&IKZ{9IK: G
L6TI]Jm=?[]6TI]Zb]):SR\57=?8!3nZL-I]6TJMI<5757I]3h5H9PQI<G L6T=?JmI]6&N?IKZ3n8!:n!IKN?N1I]Z;]88!6798033b]IKZIK3p8!3;<5>=18!3C9I]Z
R03;K=?IK33I]Z ! I<5gN?RC57678!=1Z7=1[]JmIL67bK;]=?ZTIN?Rwp8!67JmId9IN PaR0JM=1N1578!3=?IK3{I]3mp8!3;<5>=?803m9nI]Zg3n8!:n!IKN?N1I]Z
\R067=?R0zN1I]Z]/ X =l:3I5>6>R\3ZTp8!6TJRt5>=?803 ;]R038!3n=?):ImI]ZT5I]3c0I]396Tb]ILR06B:n3Imp803;K57=?8!3 F !8!3
9= 5d:nI F I]ZT5iN?R  DFO <L ?7DFO <O <U+Q L U<?  : 9IC;KIK5757IA576>R03nZTp8!6TJR\57=?8!3 /
 :<BQ U  ;4: X 
.!/ivI]Zc06>R039nI]:6TZ Q IK5 P 3PQ8!3h5LN?:nZN PQ=?3h5>IK67L6TbK5 Rt5>=?803 Z7=1JMLnN?I9nI ;]88!6798033b]IKZIK5
=1JML:nN?Z7=18!3ZC9SR03nZ{NR JmI]ZT:67I8@P N?IKZ q IK5 p Z78!3h5;K8!JmLN?[<5>I]JmI]3h5JMbKNR03c0b]Z9R03Z
N?R 9!b S3= 5>=?803@9IKZ Q IK5 P / vlPQI<G IKJMLN1I N1I LnN?:Zp6>R0LLR03h5 ;K8!3Z7=1ZT57I Ln67I]3n967I


F1 (qi , Qi , t) =

i qi Q i

pi = Q i
Pi = qi

_0
w3'R=?3h5>IK6T0I]6T57=N1I]Zi;]88!679n8!33bKI]ZiIK5N?I]Zi=?JmL:N1Z7=18!3Z9,dw3LSR067N1IC9SR03Z;]IA;]8!3h5>I G5>I
9Idc!67R039IK:67Zl; R\38!3=1:nI]JmI]3h5l;]8!3 T:c!:bKI]ZL 8!:n6bK=157I]6H5>80:n5>I6TbKpb]6TI]3;KIiR\N?NR\;]=?IK:Z7I
R0: G ;]88!6798033b]IKZI<5d=?JmL:N1Z7=?803Z]/
D /ivPa=13h5>b]6 1K5 9I]Z 576>R03nZTp8!6TJR\57=?8!3nZ;]R038!3n=?):I]Z I]ZT5H: PaIKN?N?IKZ L-I]:n0I]3h5lJmI]3IK6Hy:3L678!z
N?[KJMIOLnN?:ZZT=?JmLN?I/! !80=?67IO5767=1=?R0N !Z7:= \R03h5dNRp8!6TJMIO9I K /
. = :<B SVCE: 80Z7;]=1N?N?R\5>IK:6gSR\67Jm8!3=?):I

  !' *  ' #*,!




!<*!#"%$  *,!  #*,! !' ' # 



H=

m 2 2
p2
+
q .
2m
2

FH5>:9n=?8!3ZdN?R5>6>R\3ZTp8!6TJRt5>=?803; R03n8!3=?):IAR0ZTZ78;]=1b]IA

F1 (q, Q, t) =

mq 2

cot Q
2

p = mq cot Q
P =

mq 2
F1
=
Q
2 sin2 Q

q=

p=

Ln:=?ZT:nI

2P
sin Q
m
2P m cos Q

F
= 0)
t
2P m cos2 Q m 2 2P
=
+
sin2 Q = P.
2m
2 m

K = H

fg8!JmJMI Q I]Z|5y;<Y ;KN?=1:nI"!

P = 0 P =

Vn/

Z780=15

a=

i q i Pi

F2 =

H
Q =
= Q = t +
P
s
2E
q=
sin(t + )
m 2

R 0I];
q = a cos(t + )

F2 =

;<5>I

X
i

q i Pi

c!bK3[]6TIBN Pa=19I]3h5>= 5>b\/

2E
=
2
m
2

F2
= Pi
qi

F2

Qi =
= qi
Pi
pi =

'


  "%$' #*,!   - +*,!

`/ivI]Zp8!3;<5>=?803Z F ! F ! F IK5 F R0ZTZ78;]=1b]I]ZgA:n3IyJ 1]JmI5>6>R\3ZTp8!6TJRt5>=?803m;]R038!3n=?):I


ZT8!3h5y6TI]N?=1b]IKZiIK3h5>67IAI]N1N?IKZLSR06i9I]Zd5>67R03ZTp8067JMR\5>=18!3Z9IBvI]c!IK396TI0/F3I  IK5)!s9PaR0L6T[]Z
;KIB):IB38!:ZR !8!3Zi: Z7:n6N?R576>R03Z|p8!67Jmb]IC9IBvI]c!IK396TI"!-Z7= F (q , P ) 9bKZ7=?c03ICNR
576>R03Z|p8!67Jmb]IO9nIBvIKc!I]39n67IA9I F LSR066>R\LL 806T5i Q !SR0N?8067Z
1

=1JMLN1=?):I

F1
qi
F1
Pi =
Qi
pi =

F1
qi

F1

Qi =
Pi
pi =

x=?3ZT= ! F = F / F I]ZT5w98!3;{N Pa80LL 80Z7b9nI{NR5>6>R\3ZTp8!6TJMbKI9I{v&IKc!I]3n967I{9nI


LSR\66>R0LL-8!6|5i Q 
2

F2 = F 1 +

F1

Pi Q i .

y IJ 1]JmI"!o8!3C!b]6T= SI R0=1Z7b]JmI]3h5&):I F I]ZT5N PQ8!LL-8!ZTb9I N?R5>6>R\3ZTp8!6TJMbKIl9Iv&IKc!I]3n967I


9I F LSR\66>R0LL-8!6|5i q 
i

F3 = F 1

q i Pi .

F3 S3'! F IKZT5N Pa80LL 80Z7by9nIwNRC5>6>R\3ZTp8!6TJMbKIy9IyvI]c!IK3967Iy9I F LR06g67R0LL-8!6T5 q IK5


Qi

F4 = F 1 +

Q i Pi

qi p i .

X = ;]IKZ{5>6>R\3ZTp8!6TJRt5>=?803Z9Iv&IKc!I]3n967I I Gn=1ZT57I]3h5)!;]I):=gI]ZT567R0=gIK3 c0b]3bK6>R0N !:3I


576>R03Z|p8!67JMR\57=?8!3';]R038!3n=?):IL-I]:n5AZ7IR0=167I N PWR0=19I{9IN Pa:3nI9I]ZC):SR\5767Ip8!3;<5>=?803Z
c!bK3b]67R\5>6T=?;KI]Z F ! F ! F 8!: F 9I'R/.]8!3 b]):= \R0N?IK3)57I0/ 24NyY R 3b]R03Jm8!=?3Z9I]Z
I Gn;KI]Ln57=?8!3nZ]/ R\6I GnIKJMLnN?"I !CN Pa=19I]3h5>= 5>bIKZT5I]3c!IK396Tb]I LSR\6 F = q P !OJMR0=1Z
/HfgI<575>Ilp8!3;<5>=18!3Oc!b]3nb]6>Rt5>67=1;]Il3PaR98!3;LSR0Z&9I5>67R03Z|p8!67Jmb]I9IvI]c0I]396TI0/
=0
i

2F

2
qi qj

I)


i i


  /M-  /  3' /   -  -
3V- +   9 3V-  


gf 8!3ZT=?9bK678!3nZg:3Ii5>67R03ZTp8067JMR\5>=18!3M;]R038!3n=?):Ii9b];K67=157IyLSR\6 N1I]Z p803;K57=?8!3Zc!bK3b]67R\5>6T=?;]IKZ F !


! I<5 F /vI]Zi38!: !I]N1N?IKZi\R06T=R0zN1I]Z Q I<5 P L IK:n!IK3)5'1K5767IA;]8!3ZT=?9bK67bKI]Zy;K8!JmJMIKZ9I]Z
F F
p8!3;<5>=18!3Z9I q ! p ! t 
1

Qi (q, p, t)
Pi (q, p, t)

(q q1 , . . . , qN ; p p1 , . . . , pN )

n .
yIJ 1]JmI"!I]3 =13h!I]6TZ>R03h5NR576>R03nZTp8!6TJR\57=?8!3'!
<I 5 q L IK:n!IK3h5 1K5767I;K8!3ZT=?9bK67b]Z;]8!JmJMI
p
p8!3;<5>=?8039nI Q, P, t 
   $+ '$     #"%$




qi (Q, P, t)
pi (Q, P, t)

v PaI Gn=1ZT57I]3;KIm9nI{p8!3;K57=?8!3nZwc!b]3nb]6>Rt5>67=1;]IKZO=?JmL 8!ZTI{9IKZO67I]N?R\5>=18!3Zy;]I]ZOp8!3n;K5>=18!3ZK/{fg8!3nZ7=?9


b]6T8!3ZdLSR06dI<G IKJMLN1I F /w3R 
1

R0=1Z


F1
qi
F1
Pi =
Qi
pi =

2 F1
2 F1
=
qi Qj
Qj qi

yIAJ K1 JMI/!


pi
Pj
=
.
Qj
qi

F2 =

pi
Qj
=
Pj
qi

F3 =

qi
Pj
=
Qj
pi

F4 =

qi
Qj
=
.
Pj
pi

: I<5>8!:n6738!3nZR\: G 3805>R\5>=18!3Z;K8!JMLR0;K57I]Z

~x = (q1 , . . . , qN ; p1 , . . . , pN )
~y = (Q1 , . . . , QN ; P1 , . . . , PN ).

w39b!S3= 5dNRJRt5>67=1;]I M LSR06

yi
.
Mij =
xj
 

fgIK5T5>IOJMR\5>6T=?;]IiZ]PaR0LL-I]N1N?IiNRBQ L UW?  : Q D ?7:<O O :9IyN?RB5>67R03ZTp8067JMR\5>=18!3/v&IKZb]N1b]JmI]3h5>Zg9I


JRt5>67=1;]Iw9nI M Z7803)5i98033b]ZiLSR06 
1

M 1

xi
.
yj

F 3'I  IK5*! ZT=8!3;]8!3nZ7=?9n[]67I ~x ;]80JMJmIOp8!3;K57=?8!39I ~y IK5 ~y ;]8!JmJMIOp8!3n;K5>=18!39I ~x !s8!3'980=15


8!zn57I]3=16N PQ=?9IK3)57=157b
ij

xi (~y (~x)) = xi

:
xj

2N
X

k=1

xi yk
yk xj

| {z } | {z }

(M 1 )ik Mkj

= ij .

hD

'


  "%$' #*,!   - +*,!

rt+s+- # *o#p+ " u  : X'U :<C Q L ?7DFO0X'8  8 ;? L : X 8:'C :+=@?EX<LN:<O : 8: X  FD O<L ?7DFO0X
X  <U<?
:<O L
F
/



F1 F2 F3

M JM = J.

 <BDFO0X<L U+Q L ?7DFO A


 w30R 9bKJM803)5767IK6O:nI
zN18 ; 
M=

M=

MJ =

Q
q
P
q

Q
q
!
Q
p

P
q
!
P
p

M J = JM 1 .

Q
q
!
Q
p

vPabKchR0N1=15>by9IC;]I]Zi9IK: G JMR\5>6T=?;]IKZ;]8!3n9:=15i

P
q
!
P
p

Q
p
P
p

p
F1
Q

Q
q

p
P

P
p

q
F3
Q

q
P

q
Q
p
Q

0 1l
1l 0

J=

JM

P
q

Q
p

x98!L 5>8!3ZC:3nIm3n805 R\57=?8!3 LSR06

q
P
p
P

p
p
Q
P
q
q

Q
P

F2

F4

fgIZT8!3h5{L6Tb];]=1Z7bKJMIK3)5{N?I]ZA67IKNR\57=?8!3nZB):=8!3h5{b<5>b9bK9:= 5>I]ZB9IN PaI G =?ZT57I]3;KI9IKZp8!3;<5>=?803Z


c!bK3b]67R\5>6T=?;]IKZ F ! F ! F IK5 F /
 *O ? L ?7DF
O Cw3 R0LL-I]N1N?IJMR\5767=?;KI]ZwZ|YJMLN1I];<5>=?):IKZO67bKI]N?N1I]ZwN1I]ZwJMR\5767=?;KI]Zw):= Z>R\57=?ZTp803)5wNR
;]8039=157=?8!3
1

w3IK39nb]9:= 5dNR{L6T8!L6T=?bK57bCZ7:= 0R\3)57I

M JM = J

!V

   $+ '$     #"%$






ro+s+- # *o#+-" u 1j  O : L U+Q O0X DFUWBQ L ?7DFO : X<L  Q O DFO ?  ; : X<?*:<L X :<; CE:<B:<O L X<? X Q BQ L UW?  :
Q  D ?7:<O O :R: X<LMX
>B SVCE: <L ?  ; : 
2 &)+-r " 'u 
:<O0X :<B CE: 8: X BQ L U<?  : X U  :<C CE: X$X
FB SVCE: <L ?  ; : XT8: 8 ? B:<O0X<?7DFO (2N
 DFUWB: ;O U DF; S :RQ<S&S :<C  CE: U DF; S :TU  :<C X
>B SVCE: <L ?  ; : :<L.O DFL 

2N )
Sp (IR)
 <BDFO0X<L U Q L ?7DFO 
.!/X = M IK5 M Z7803)5iZ|Y JmLN1I];K57=?):IKZ*! M M N PQI]Z|5 /lF3I  I<5)!
/

2N

(M1 M2 )JM1 M2 = t M2 |tM1{zJM} M2 = J.

D /iv&RJ{:N157=?LN1=?;]R\5>=18!3MIKZT5R0ZTZ78;]=Rt5>=10I0/
Vn/ 1l Sp (IR) # 5>67= =R0N % /
`/X = M I]Z|5Z|YJMLN1I];<5>=?):/I ! M IKZT5iZTYJmLN?IK;K57=?):I0/

=J

2N

M JM = J

L :=1Z7):I ( M ) = (M ) /lF3I  I<5)! (M ) M = (M M


ro+s+- # *o#+-" u1u  ? M Sp (IR) det M = 1 
<BDFO0X<L U Q L ?7DFO  O3 L6T8 ;K[]9IAI]39IK: G bK5>R0L-I]Z 
.!/ M JM = J
t

J = ( tM )1 JM 1 = t (M 1 )JM 1 .

1 t

) = t 1l = 1l

2N

D /X :LnL 8!ZT8!3Zi):I

det( tM ) det(M ) = 1
(det M )2 = 1
det M = 1

ZT8!=15iR0ZTZ78;]=1bBN?Rp8!3;K57=?8!3 c!bK3b]67R\5>6T=?;KI F /w3L-I]: 5bK;]6T=?67I


2

F2 = lim  F2
1

w:SR039


8@P

=0

!S803RN Pa=19I]3h5>= 5>b/!SR0N?8067Z

X
i

q i Pi +
{z

F2 ()

det 1l = +1

X
i

q i Pi .
}

/lR06d;]8!3h57=?3):=157b"!803980=15dR !80=?6

det(M ()) = +1

M ()

I]ZT5iN?R576>R03nZTp8!6TJR\57=?8!3; R03803=?):IAR0ZTZ78;]=?bKIA

F2 ()

0`

'


rt+s+- # *o#p+ " u  


/

 <BDFO0X<L U+Q L ?7DFO


96T8!=157IOLSR06 J 


  "%$' #*,!   - +*,!

M JM = J M J tM = J

M JM = J

w3J:N157=?LN1=?Ic!R0:; ICLSR06

M J = JM 1

/mw3 J{:N 5>=?LnN?=?IA chR0:n; IMLR06 J !

J tM = M 1 J.
M

M J tM = J.

= :<B SVCE: g w3 Z7IAL6T8!L 80Z7IC9ICJM803)5767IK6:nIAN?R{5>6>R\3ZTp8!6TJRt5>=?803

2P
sin Q
m

p = 2P m cos Q
q=

I]Z|5i; R03803=?):ICI]39bKJM8!3h576>R03h5i):ICNRJRt5>67=1;]I 7R\;]8!z=1I]33nIOI]ZT5iZ|Y JmLN1I];K57=?):I\/


M =

0 1
1 0

q
sin Q
2P
q
=
cos Q
=
Q
m
P
2mP
r

p
m
p
= 2P m sin Q
=
cos Q
Q
P
2P
s

2P
sin Q
cos Q

m
2mP
r

cos Q 2P m sin Q
2P

MJ M = MJ

2P
cos Q 2P m sin Q
m
r
sin Q
m

cos Q
2P
2mP

0 1
1 0

yf /{/ / /
F3'67bKZ7:Jmb"! 8!3'Rm8!zn57I]3)::3IB; R067R0;K57b]67=1Z>R\57=?8!39IKZy5>67R03ZTp8067JMR\5>=18!3Z; R\38!3=1:nI]Zw):=3I
R0= 5LSR\Z67bKpbK67IK3;]I I GnLnN?=?;K=157I]JmI]3h5 :n3Ip8!3;<5>=?803 c!b]3nb]6>Rt5>67=1;]IZT8!:Z 7R0;KI]3h5>I\/F3 I  IK*5 !
:3IA5>67R03ZTp8067JMR\5>=18!3IKZT5y; R03803=?):IBZ7=IK5wZTI]:N1I]JmI]3h5wZT= N?RmJMR\5>6T=?;KI 7R0;K8!z=1I]33IAI]Z|5OZTYJ
LN1I];K57=?):I\/

h_

   )*     &*    *,!

I)

  /  -  / !3' /    - 3  /23  -  1  /  /


w 3 L-8!Z7IC5>8!: T8!:67Z ~x = (q , . . . , q ; p , . . . , p ) IK5 ~y = (Q , . . . , Q ; P , . . . , P ) /iX 8!=15


:n3I'p8!3;<5>=?803 Z7; R\NR0=167I 9nIN PQbK5 Rt59: ZTYZ|5>[]JmI0/w3 L-I]: 5 ;]8!3nZ7=19b]6TI]6 ;]8!JmJMI :3I
v
p8!3;<5>=?8039I ~x 8!:9I ~y /vI]Z9nb]67= !bKI]ZLSR\6T5>=1I]N1N?I]ZlLSR\6 67R0LL-8!6T5g;]IKZ \R06T=R0zN1vI]ZZ78!3h5g67I]N1=?bKI]Z
LSR06dNR{6TI]N?R\5>=18!3 
1

v t v
= M
.
~x
~y

F3I  I<5)!

 v
X v yj
X
X
v
v
t
=
=
=
.
M
Mji
ij yj
xi
yj
j yj xi
j
j

yIAJ K1 JMI/!nZ7= u I]Z|5y:3nICp803;K57=?8!3 Z7;]R0NR\=?67Iy9ICN PQbK5 Rt5d9: ZTYZT57[]JmI"!s8!3R




u
~x

u
M.
~y

vIy;]6T8 ; nIK59nIw80=?Z7ZT8!3LSR\6 67R0LL-8!6T5gR0: G\R06T=R0zN1I]Z L-I]:n5g98!3;Z]PQI<G L67=1JMIK6 ZT=?JmLN?IKJMIK3h5


I]3 p8!3;<5>=?8039nIA;KI]N1:=LSR06d67R0LL-8!6T5iR0:G \R067=?R0zN?IKZ ~x ~y
{u, v}~x =

u
J
~x

= {u, v}y~

v
~x

u
v
M
J{ztM}
|
~y
~y
=J

# V /ED!D %

&)+-r " 'u 1j : < U D :<L 8: DF?EX X DFO: X<LM? O
FQ UW? Q O L S0Q U ;O : L U+Q O0X DFUWBQ L ?7DFO  Q O DFO 
?  ;4: 
2

+ "]$%&"! l 8!:6dN?IKZi3n8!:n!IKN?N1I]Z\R067=?R0zN?IKZ*! 8!3Rmz=1I]3 Z n6


{Qi , Qj }Q,P = {Pi , Pj }Q,P = 0


{Qi , Pj }Q,P = ij .

PaR0L67[KZN1Iw5>bK8!67[KJMIAVn/WD !8039n8!=15iR !80=?6




{Qi , Qj }q,p = {Pi , Pj }q,p = 0


{Qi , Pj }q,p = ij .

fyPaIKZT5:3I ;]8!3n9=157=?8!3 3bK;]I]ZTZ>R0=167I #9803)5m8!3 L-I]:n5MJM803)5767IK6: PaIKN?N?I IKZT5MZ7: mZ>R\3)57I L 8!:n6


) :Pa:n3IA576>R03nZTp8!6TJR\57=?8!3 ZT8!=15d;]R038!3n=?):I0/lx:n5>6TI]JmI]3h5i9=15*!SZ7=8!3 ;]803Z7=19[]6TIB:3nIC576>R0% 3nZTp8!6
JRt5>=?803O9b S3n=?ILSR06N?R98!33nb]II<G LN?=1;]= 5>IH9Ip8!3n;K5>=18!3Z Q (q, p, t) I<5 P (q, p, t) !oN1I]Z;]6T8 ; nIK5>Z
9I 80=?Z7ZT8!3 ;]8039:=1Z7I]3h5m':3nI38!:n0I]N1N?IJmbK578 9nIL 80:6!bK67= SI]6{ZT=I]N1N?ImI]Z|5; R03803=?):I\/


!
'
   "%$' #*,!   - +*,!
fgIK5T5>IAJMb<5>89IOIKZT5z=?IK3Z 6db]):= 0R\N?I]3h57IB;]IKN?N1IO:n=;]8!3ZT=?Z|5>IB0b]6T= SIK6i):IANRJMR\5>6T=?;KI
7R0;K8!z=?IK33ICI]Z|5iZTYJMLnN?I];<5>=1:n"I !SJMR0=?ZIKN?N1IwI]Z|5IK3Ln6>R\57=?):ICZ78!: !I]3h5LN?:nZiZT=?JmLN?I\/

= :<B SVCE: g fg803Z7=19b]6T8!3Zi38!:n0I R0:NR{5>67R03ZTp8067JMR\5>=18!3

2P
sin Q
m

p = 2P m cos Q.
q=

q p
q p

Q P
P Q
s
s

1
1
2P
2
sin Q 2P m( sin Q)
cos Q 2m cos Q
=
m
m 2 P
2 P
2
2
= cos Q + sin Q = 1.

{q, p} =

v&R{5>6>R\3ZTp8!6TJRt5>=?803I]Z|5yz=1I]3 ; R\38!3=1:nI0/

 3;  M-  / 1  - /  *3 /   3'  0

I)

w3 R{:: PWR0Ln67[]Zi:3IO576>R03Z|p8!67JMR\57=?8!3;]R038!3n=?):ICN?IO380:n!IKNR0JM=1N1578!3=?IK3ZKPabK;]67= 5
K=H+

F
.
t

#Vn/ED\V %

 IK:n5 8!3 5>6780:n!IK6 F 5>I]Ng:nI K = 0 X =;\PaIKZT5mN?I ;]R0Z*!N?IKZ38!:n0I]N?N1I]Z\R067=?R0zN1I]Z Q IK5


ZT8!3h5i9I]Zi;]8!3nZT5 R\3)57I]Z !-9n8!3;C9I]Zd=13)57b]c!67R0N?IKZL6TI]Jm=?[]6TI]ZdZ7=803N1I]Z;K8!3Z7=19[]6TIC;]8!JmJMIy9I]Z
P
p8!3;<5>=18!3Zw9IKZAR03;]=1I]33nI]Zw\R067=?R0zN1I]ZwI<5C9:5>I]JmLZ !IK5CN?IKZwb]):SRt5>=?803ZO):=67IKN?=?IK3h5wN?IKZ p , q
R0: G P , Q ;]8!3n9:=?ZTI]3h5d9=167I];<5>IKJMIK3)5NR9nb]L-I]39SR\3;]ICI]357I]JmLZ9I q I<5 p ! ;0PQI]ZT5 9=?6TI
NRZ780N?:n57=?8!3 9: L6T8!zN1[]JmI0/
80:6 1K5>6TICLN?:ZdZTL bK;]= :n"I !S8!3; I]6T; IZKPa=1NI<G =1ZT5>IC:3nICp803;K57=?8!3 F (q , P , t) 5>IKN?N?Iy:nI


F2
qi
F2
=
Pi

pi =
Qi

#Vn/EDt` %

F2
= 0
t

H+

R !IK;NR;K8!39= 5>=18!3=1JMLN1=?;K=15>I):IgN?I]Z 2n bK):SR\5>=18!3ZH6TI]N1=R03h5N?I]Z p , q R0: G P , Q ;]8039:=1Z7I]3h5


9I]ZCI GnLn67I]ZTZ7=18!3ZAL 8!:n6
):=I]3 p8!3h5C9IKZC\R06T=R0znN?I]Zy; R03803=?):IKZ*!;0PQI]ZT5 9=?6TI):=
Z>Rt5>=?Z|R0Z7ZTI]3h5iN?IKZi;K678; IK57ZP9nIB, Q8!=?ZTZ78!3; R\38!3=1:nI]Z]/
fg8!JmJMI p = F !SNR57678!=1Z7=1[]JmIwb]):SR\57=?8!3 9:ZTYZ|5>[]JmI # Vn/WD\` % L-I]:n5 1<5>67IC6Tb]b];K67= 5>I
q
F
F
F
#Vn/WD!_ %
,...,
,t +
= 0.
H q ,...,q ,
i

q1

qn

  "%$ ' #*!  &) - +*,!  ,* +

) ! 




fyPaIKZT5:3IC;]8039=157=?8!3 3nb];]IKZ7Z7R0=?6TIB):IA98!= 5Z>R\57=?Z|R0=?6TI


 *O ? L ?7DFO lN PabK:R\5>=18!3 R0: G 9nb]67= !bKI]ZiLSR06T57=?IKN?N?IKZ

F2 (qi , Pi , t)

f
f
f
,...,
,t +
=0
H q1 , . . . , qn ,
q1
qn
t

9SR03Z N PQI]Z7LR0;]I 9nI]Z p8!3n;K5>=18!3Z n + 1 0R\67=R\zN?IKZ f (q , . . . , q , t) Z]PaR0LL-I]N1N?IN P  ; Q L ?7DFO


8 Q B ? C LNDFO  0Q  D ? /
fg8!JmJMIO;KIK5757IBbK):SR\5>=18!3 R0=15d=13)57I]6|!I]3n=?6 n + 1 9b]6T=10b]I]ZLSR06|5>=?IKN?N1I]Z*! NRZ780N?:n57=?8!3 c!bK3b]67R0N?I/!
Z7=I]N?N1I I<G =?Z|5>"I !d980=15M9b]L-I]39n67I'9I n + 1 ;]803ZT5>R03h5>I]Z9Pa=13h5>b]c06>R\57=?8!3 , . . . , / R06
R0=?N1N?IK:67Z !n;]80JMJmIOI]N1N?Iw3IOR0= 5d=?3h5>IK6T0I]3=16:nIBN1I]Z9bK67=10b]IKZy9I f !nZ7= f I]ZT5iZT8!N?:n57=?8!3'! f + c !
8@P c IKZT5:3nI ;]8!3Z|5 R03h57"I !lI]Z|5mR0:Z7ZT=Z780N?:n57=?8!3/ vPQ:3I9nI]Z;]803ZT5>R03h5>I]Z9PQ=?3h57b]c!67R\5>=18!3 I]Z|5
98!3;:3nIM;K8!3ZT5>R03h5>IMR099= 5>= !I0/x:n5>6TI]JmI]3h5A9=1*5 !&NRZ780N?:n57=?8!3 c!bK3b]67R0N?I9IN PabK:R\5>=18!3 9I

yR0Jm=?N 5>8!
3 !R0;K8!z= !)ZT=I]N?N1IwI<G =1ZT5>/I !SL IK:n5iZ]PQb];K67=?6TICZ78!:ZiNRp8067JmI
# V /ED0 %
f (q , . . . , q , t) = S (q , . . . , q , , . . . , ; t) + .
: I<!IK38!3Z
38\5>67I L678!znN?[]JmI =?3= 5>=R\N !wI<5;]8!3nZ7=?9nb]67803Z'NR 5>67R03ZTp8067JMR\5>=18!3 c!bK3b]67R\5>6T=?;KI
/fg8!JmJMI S IKZT5CZT8
F (q , . . . , q , P , . . . , P ; t) S(q , . . . , q , =P , . . . , =P ; t)
N?:n57=?8!3 9nIAN PabK):SR\5>=18!3 9 I
yR\JM=1N15>80 3 !R0;K8!z= ! F Z>R\57=?ZTR\=15N PabK:R\5>=18!3 # Vn/WD!_ % /l R06dR\=?N?N1I]:6T*Z !
8!3L IK:n59b]Jm8!3h5>6TI]6):IdZ7= S(q , . . . , q , , . . . , ; t) IKZT5NRwZT8!N?:n57=?8!3c0b]3bK6>R0N1I9:L678!z
N?[KJM/I !N?IKZb]):SR\57=?8!3Z
1

n+1

n+1

F2
qi
F2
Qi =
.
Pi

pi =

;]8!3n9:=?ZTI]3h5Om9I]ZI<G L6TI]Z7ZT=?8!3nZw=?39nb]L-I]39SR\3)57I]ZwL-8!:6dN1I]Z I<5 !-98!3n;{:3IB576>R03nZTp8!6


JRt5>=?803 ; R03n8!3=?):I\/ v&R'p8!3;K57=?8!3 F R\=?3ZT=g9b!S3=?I IKZT5P98!3n;QN?R'Z78!N1:n5>=18!3 9: L6T8!zN1[]JmI
=?3= 5>=?R0N?IKJMIK3)5 L-8!Z7b # Fs/ # Vn/WD\` % % /
F3L67R\5>=1):"I !S8!3 L6T8 ;K[]9IA9ICNR/R .]8!3 Z7:n=1\R03h5>I 
.!/iF;]6T=?67ICN PabK:R\5>=18!3 9 I
yR0Jm=?N 5>8!3 !R0;K8!z=
i

f
f
,...,
; t = 0.
H q1 , . . . , qn ;
q1
qn

D /fgIK67; IK6yNR{ZT8!N?: 5>=?803 c!b]3bK6>R0N1I

S(q1 , . . . , qn , 1 ; . . . , n ; t)

I]38!JmIK5T5 R03h5dNR{;K8!3Z|5 R03h5>IBR099n=15>= !I

n+1

!e

'


Vn/iF39bK9:=167INRp8!3;K57=?8!3 c!b]3nb]6>Rt5>67=1;]I
9 b 3=?IOLSR\ 6 
K=0

  "%$' #*,!   - +*,!


F2 (q1 , . . . , qn , P1 , . . . , Pn ; t)

):=i;]8!3n9:=15

F2 (q1 , . . . , qn , P1 , . . . , Pn ; t) S(q1 , . . . , qn , 1=P1 , . . . , n=Pn ; t)

`/iF G L67=1JMIK6N?IKZ q IK5 p I]3 p8!3;<5>=18!3 9I]Z Q I<5 P N PaR0=?9nIw9I]Zib]):SRt5>=?803Z


i

F2
qi

F2

Qi =
.
Pi
pi =

fg8!JmJMIN?IKZ I<5 ZT8!3h5H9IKZH;]8!3nZT5 R\3)57I]Z !h8!3{Rd5>6780:n!bN?RiZT8!N?: 5>=?803Bc!bK3b]67R0N?I9:{Ln678!zN1[]JmI


=?3n=15>=?R0N /{v&IKZBQ;K8!3Z|5 PR03h5>IKZ Q I<5 P L IK:n!IK3)5 1K5>6TIR7T:ZT57b]I]ZBL 80:6C:nIMN1I]ZA;]8!39n=15>=18!3ZCR0:G
N?=1JM= 5>IKZgZ7:n6 q (t) IK5 p (t) Z78!=1I]3h5iZ>R\57=?Z|R0=157I]Z]/
. = :<B SVCE: gwZT;]=?N1NR\57I]:6 SR06TJM8!3n=?):I
i

w3; nI]67; nIB:3nIAp8!3n;K5>=18!3

p2
m 2 2
H=
+
q .
2m
2
f (q, t)

):=Z>R\57=?Z|R0=15

1 f
2m
q

!2

fgIK67; 8!3nZyNR{ZT8!N?: 5>=?803 Z78!:ZdN?Rp8067JmI

+ m2 2 q 2 +

f
= 0.
t

f (q, t) = f1 (t) + f2 (q)


df1
dt
|{z}

p;<5 /9I

1 df2
+
2m
dq
|

!2

+ m2 2 q 2 = 0

p;<5 /9I
{z

df1
=
dt

1 df2
2m
dq

!2

2 2

+m q

f1 (t) = t +

df2

= 2m m2 2 q 2

dq

  "%$ ' #*!  &) - +*,!  ,* +

) ! 




v&RZT8!N?: 5>=?803 c!b]3bK6>R0N1IC9ICN PQb]):SR\57=?8!3 9I


R0JM=1N1578!3 !R\;]8!z=-I]Z|5i98!3;C98!3n3b]ICLSR06

S(q, , t) =

q
0

dq 0 2m m2 2 q 0 2 t

H  !S):=3PQI]Z|5):PQ:3IA;]803ZT5>R03h5>IBR099= 5>=10I"!3 Pa=13)57I]6| =1I]3h5iLSR0Zd9SR03nZ S /


fg8!3ZT=?9bK678!3Zi98!3n;AN?Rp8!3;<5>=?803 c!b]3bK6>R\5767=1;]I

w3 R

F2 (q, P, t) =


q
0

dq 0 2mP m2 2 q 0 2 P t.

q
F2
= 2mP m2 2 q 2
q
Z q
m
F2
dq 0
Q =
= t +
P
2mP m2 2 q 0 2
0

p =

fg8!JmJMION?R{L67=1JM= 5>=10Iy9I

1
a2 x2

I]ZT5ix67;]ZT=?3 x !
a

Q = t +

m
2P

= t +

m
2P

q
0

x67;]ZT=?3

dx q

2P
m 2

1
1

xy6T;]ZT=?3

m 2 2
x
2P

m 2
2P

m 2
1
= t +
q

2P
s
2P
q =
sin (t + Q)
m 2
q = a sin(t + )

:<BQ U ; :  P = bK3I]6Tc!=?I ,


 :<BQ U  ; 
:  Cw3 L 8!:n676>R\=15O;K678!=167I{):I p I]Z|5C5>8!: T80:67ZOL-8!Z7= 5>= /F3 R0=15*!R0L6T[]Z q !=?N
R0:n5d; 80=?Z7=16N PaR0:n5767IOz67R03; I/! = 2m m q /lN?:nZiZ 6 p = mq ,
<O LN:<U SVU <L7Q L ?7DFO'8: S  fgI3PQI]Z|5LSR0Z LSR06 R0Z>R06T9):Pa803RwR0LL-I]N1bgN?RZ780N?:n57=?8!3B9IN PQb]):SRt5>=?803
9I
R0Jm=?N1578! 3 !R0;]8!zn= S /@fR0N?;K:N?8!3nZMIK3I  IK5NR 9b]6T=1!bKI57805 R0N1I9nI S LSR06m6>R\LL 806T5R0:
5>IKJMLZ 


dS
dq

2 2

X S
dS
S X S
qi +
P i .
=
+
dt
t
q
P
i
i
i
i

max

0


'


R0=1Z

P i = 0

;]R06

Pi =

  "%$' #*,!   - +*,!

;K8!3Z|5 R03h5>I\/ x=?3ZT= !

#Vn/WD! %

X
dS
= H +
pi qi = L
dt
i

S(t) S(t0 ) =

t0

#Vn/ED\e %

L(q, q,
t0 )dt0 .

x : 3I ;K8!3Z|5 R03h5>I L6T[]Z ! S ;K8!676TI]Z7L-8!39 N PaR0;<5>=?803 ; R0N1;]:N1b]I N1I N?803c 9I]Z'576>R TIK;K578!=?6TI]Z
LhYZ7=1:nI]Z*!g= /QI0/9IKZ576>R TIK;K578!=?6TI]Z6>R0=1JMIK3)5ZT:=1=1I]ZLSR06N1I ZTYZT57[]JmI0/ Fl3 R0= 5)!8!3 L IK:n5
J 1]JmI Jm8!3h5>67IK6'):I S(q , . . . , q ; , . . . , , t) = L (q , . . . , q ; q , . . . , q , t ) dt !
; R\N?;]:nN?b]IlN1IN18!3cd9INR5>67R TI];<5>8!=167Il):= R0676T=1!IlIK3
! !
!tN?I]Z
bK5>R03h567IKN?=1b]ZB t IK5R\: G q (t ), . . . , q (t ) / fgqI];K(t)=g9== )5 !Hq;KIK5T.5>.I. 6TqI]JM(t)R067=):qI3 PaIKZT59,PaR0. :. .;K,:3I
:n57=?N?= 5>bOL-8!:6d67bKZ78!:n967I{N PabK):SR\5>=18!39I
R0Jm=?N1578! 3 !R0;]8!zn= L-8!:6d; R\N?;]:nN?I]6 S 9PaR0L6T[]Z;]IK5T5>I
I<G L6TI]ZTZ7=?8003 ! =1NR0:n5;]8033SR 15>67IN1I]Zl5>67R TI];<5>8!=167I]Z !)98!3;iR !8!=16l67b]ZT8!N?:mN?IdL6T8!zN1[]Jm"I !hIK5 Z7=S803R
67bKZ78!N1: N1IALn678!zN1[]Jm"I !S=1N3PQYRmLN?:nZyR0:n;]:3IA6>R\=?Z78039IB67bKZ78!:9n67IN PabK):SR\5>=18!3 9I
R0Jm=?N1578! 3
!R0;K8!z= /
. = :<B SVCE
: iw3'Z7IBL6780L 8!ZTI{9IB67IK57678!: !I]6yNRmp8067JmIB9I S L 8!:n6N Pa8!ZT;]=1N?NRt5>I]:n6SR067Jm8!3=1):I
LSR06|5>=?69nIAN?R{Z78!N1:n5>=18!3 ;]8033):I 
1

t0



q(t) = a cos(t + ),
(

q(t1 ) = q1 = a cos(t1 + )
q(t2 ) = q2 = a cos(t2 + )
L =
S =
=

q(t)
= a sin(t + )

a,

IK3p8!3n;K5>=18!3 9I

1 2 m 2 2
mq
q
2
2
Z
t2

t1
Z t2
t1

q 1 , q2 .

L(q, q,
t) dt

1 2 2 2
1
ma sin (t + ) m 2 a2 cos2 (t + ) dt
2
2
Z

t2
1
cos 2(t + ) dt
= ma2 2
2
t1
#t
"
1 2 2 sin 2(t + ) 2
= ma
2
2
t1
1 2
S = ma [sin 2(t2 + ) sin 2(t1 + )]
4

sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x = 2 1 cos2 x cos x

a2 sin 2(t2 + ) = 2a cos(t2 + ) a2 a2 cos2 (t2 + )


q

= 2q2 a2 q22

 ) - +*!   ,* +




-! !,!%  $ 




q
q
1
2
2
S = m q2 a q2 q1 a2 q12 .
2

x5757I]3h5>=18!3 ,24NR\:n5dI]3;K8!67IAI<G L6T=?JmI]6 a I]3 p8!3;<5>=?8039nI


(

q 1 , q2

q1 = a cos(t1 + )
q2 = a cos(t2 + )

xy6T;];]80Z = t +
xy6T;];]80Z = t +
xy67;K;]8!Z q xy67;K;]8!Z q = (t t )
8!:n6iZT=?JmLN?= SI]6 ! L-8!ZT8!3Z q = 0 IK5 at = 0 !sR0N18!67aZ = /
(

q1
a
q2
a

1
2

q2 = a sin(t2 ) a =

q2
sin(t2 )
s

a2
1
q22
s
1
1
1
2
S = + mq2
1 = mq22 cot(t2 )
2
2
2
sin (t2 )

q2 < 0

I)

a2

q22

= q2

q
S
1

1
=
m
a2 q22
= mq2
q2
sin2 (t2 ) !
m 2 a2
1

S
=
= mq22 2
t
2
2
sin (t2 )

 3;   -  /  1  -0/ *3 /   

$1 0( 1  - 1 

v 8!67ZT:nIN PQSR0Jm=?N1578!3=1I]3O3I9nb]L-I]39LSR\ZH9:57I]JmLZ*!!803L IK:n5 578!: T8!:6TZ ; IK67; IK6lNRZT8!N?: 5>=?803


Z78!:nZN?Rp8!67JmI
# V /ED0 %
S(q , . . . , q ; , . . . , ; t) = W (q , . . . , q ; , . . . , ) t.
F36TI]L-8!6T5>R03h5;KIK5T5>ICI<G L6TI]Z7ZT=?8!39SR03ZdN PabK:R\5>=18!3 9 I
yR0Jm=?N 5>8!3 !R0;K8!z= !)8!3 57678!:n0I
W
W
# V /WV! %
,...,
H q ,...,q ;
= .
q
q
fgIK5T5>Ib]):SRt5>=?803I]ZT5AR\LL IKN?bKI{N P  ; Q L ?7DFO  Q U Q <L <UW?EX<L ?  ; :8: Q B ? C LNDFO  0Q  D ? /Aw3L IK:n5
Z7=1JMLN1I]JmI]3h5N Pa: 5>=?N1=?ZTI]6L 8!:n6; R0N1;]:N1I]6 S / R0=?Z803 L IK:n5db]chR\N?I]JmI]3h5g:n5>=1N?=?ZTI]6 W L-8!:6gR\=?67I
:3IO5>67R03Z|p8!67JMR\5>=18!3 ; R\38!3=1:nI 
# V /WVn. %
F (q , . . . , q ; P , . . . , P ; t) = W (q , . . . , q ; =P , . . . , =P ).
1

!D
'

gf 8!JmJMI W 3IC9b]L-I]3n9LSR\Zi9nI t S! 80357678!:n0I

  "%$' #*,!   - +*,!




W
qi
W
Qi =
Pi
K(Q1 , . . . , Qn , P1 , . . . , Pn ) = P1

pi =

#Vn/WV!D %

w308!=15d):IO578!:n5>IKZdN?I]Z\R06T=R0zN1I]Z Q Z78!3h5i;KY;KN?=?):IKZ*!S9PQ8@P
IK5i):IO5>80:n5>IKZiN1I]Z\R067=?R0zN1I]Z

i = 1, . . . , n,

# Vn/aV!V %

i = 2, . . . , n.

# Vn/aV0` %

P i = 0,
P2 , . . . , Pn

Z78!3h5i;KY;]N1=?):IKZ*!s9PQ8@P

Q i = 0,

w:SR03h5 Q !IKN?N1IOI]ZT5i98033b]ICLSR\6 Q = t + Q !nL:=?ZT):I Q = K = 1 /


P
24NI]Z|5iLSR06Tp80=?ZLN1:ZdR 0R\3)5>R0c!IK: G 9IC;]803Z7=19b]6TI]6dNR{5>67R03Z|p8!67JMR\5>=18!3LN1:Zc!bK3b]67R0N?I


0
1

#Vn/WV!_
8@P N?IKZ (P , . . . , P ) ZT8!3h59nI]Zdp8!3;K57=?8!3nZ:n=9b S3n=?Z7ZTI]3h5:3; R03c!IKJMIK3)59IO\R067=?R0zN1I]Z]% /
vI]Zd38!: !I]N1N?IKZi;K8 806798!3n3b]IKZiZT8!3h5y9n8!33bKI]ZiLSR06 

F2 (q1 , . . . , qn ; P1 , . . . , Pn ; t) = W (q1 , . . . , qn ; 1=1 (P1 , . . . , Pn ), . . . , n=n (P1 , . . . , Pn )),


i

W
(q1 , . . . , qn ; 1 (P1 , . . . , Pn ), . . . , n (P1 , . . . , Pn ))
qi
n
X
W j
Qi =
j=1 j Pi
K(Q1 , . . . , Qn , P1 , . . . , Pn ) = 1 (P1 , . . . , Pn ).
pi =

#Vn/WV0 %

wR03nZg;]I<5757Iyp8!67J:NR\57=?8!3c0b]3bK6>R0N1=?Z7bKI"!N?IKZ ;K8 8!6T98!33nb]I]Z Q Z78!3h5g578!: T8!:n67Z;KY;]N1=?):I]Z !n9PQ8@P


/l R\6i;K8!3h5>6T"I ! Q = !9PQ8@P
P = 0


Pi

Qi (t) =

1
t + Q0i
Pi

#Vn/WV! %

w 3 IKZT598!3;R0676T=1!bAm:3IA67I]Ln67b]ZTI]3h5 Rt5>=?803'9: Z|YZT5>[KJMIB8@P N?RJM8!= 5>=1bw9I]Zi\R067=?R0zN?IKZdZ78!3h5


9IKZm;K8!3Z|5 R03h5>IKZIK58@P N PWR0: 5>67IJM8!= 5>=1bM9IKZ0R\67=R\zN?IKZ{R0:c0JMIK3)57I]3h5N?=13b R\=?67IKJMIK3h5R !IK;N1I
5>IKJMLnZ]/
fgI54YL I9I5>67R03ZTp8067JMR\5>=18!3O; R03n8!3=?):IlIKZT5:n5>=1N?=1Z7bHL-8!:69b!S3=16N1I]Z\R06T=R0zN1I]Z&R0;<5>=18!3 R\3c!N?I
#p08!=?6iXI];K57=?8!3 `/aV % /
IKZT5ib]c!R0N?ICN PQb]3nI]67c0=?"I !n8!3 NR38057IOZ78!:n0I]3h5 E /
0 4 fg8!JmJMION?R{;]8!3Z|5 R03h57I

     ' #*!  

'  

0V

 

I)  3;   -  / 1    - /  *3 / 9$ 09 -  /  1   
  


? L ?7DFO  : 3I \R067=?R0zN1I q I]ZT5m9= 5>I Z7bKLSR067R0zN?I ZT=8!3 L-I]: 5; IK67; IK6N?R ZT8!N?: 5>=?803 9I
N PQb]):SR\57=?8!3 9I
R0JM=1N1578!3 !R\;]8!z=sZT8!:ZiNRp8!6TJMI 
# V /WV!e %
f (q , . . . , q ; t) = f (q ) + f (q , . . . , q ; t).
fgIyZTI]6>RBI]3LSR\6T5>=1;]:N1=?IK6N1I;]R0ZgZT= q IK5 3PWR\LLSR067R0=?ZTZ7I]3h5g9SR03Z N PQb]):SR\57=?8!3M9I
R0JM=1N1578! 3

 ):=s3IR0= 5LSR0Zl=?3h57I]6T0I]3=16
!R0;]80z=S):ILR06lN PQ=?3h5>IK67Jmb]9=?R0=?6TI 9PQ:3IiI<G L6TI]ZTZ7=?803
q ,
N?IKZdR0:n5>6TI]Z\R06T=R0zN1I]Z 8!: N?IKZdR0:n5>6TI]Z9bK67= !b]IKZdLSR06T57=?IKN?N?IKZ]/ vlPQb]):SRt5>=?8039nI
yR0Jm=?N 5>8! 3 !R0;]80z=
Z]PQb];K67=15iIK3I  I<5
  *O

f
q1

f
1 q1

f
f
f
q1 ,
, q2 , . . . , qn ;
,...,
q1
q2
qn

H1 1

f
f
H1 1 , q 2 , . . . , q n ;
,...,
q2
qn
!

= 1
1 q 1 ,
q1

f
=0
t
f
=0
t

;]IC):=&Z]PQb];K67=15*!I]3:n5>=1N?=1Z>R03h5 f I<5 f !
0

f 0
f 0
,...,
H1 1 , q 2 , . . . , q n ;
q2
qn
!

df
1

= 1

1 q 1 ,
dq1

f 0
=0
t

= :<B SVCE:  X = q IKZT5 ;<Y;]N?=1):I"!i8!3L-I]:n5; 8!=?ZT=?6 q ,  = df / w3 I]3 9bK9:= 5


dq
IK5 p = = ;]8!3Z|5 R03h57I0/
f = q
3Z|Y Z|5>[KJMIIKZT5O9= 5  DFB SVCEA<LN:<B:<O L XNS0Q U+Q CE:iZT=9IL678; II]3 L678; I8!3'L-I]: 5OZ7bKLSR067IK6
5>8!: 5>I]ZdN1I]Z\R067=?R0zN?IKZ]/lw3RmR0N?8!6TZ 
X
#Vn/WV0 %
f (q , . . . , q ; t) =
f (q ; , . . . , ) + f (t)
R !IK; q , df ! =
dq
IK5 H ( , . . . , , t) + df = 0.
v&RmZT8!N?:n57=?8!3 9nIA;KIK5T5>IAb]):SR\57=?8!3 3ICR0=15dtR0LLSR067R ?5767Iw):PQ:3IB;]8!3nZT5 R\3)57IR\99=157=10IO:n=L IK:n5
1K5767Iy3nb]c!N1=?c!bKIiL-8!:6N?IKZ 67R0=?ZT8!3ZSR0z= 5>:IKN?N1I]Z]/ wR03Z N?Id; R\Zg8@P
3Ii9b]L-I]3n9 LSR0ZI<G LN?=1;]= 5>!I
H
JMIK3h59n:57I]JmLZ*!803 R 
# V /a`h %
f (t) = H ( , . . . , )t E( , . . . , )t.
.

1 1

df1
1 dq1

k=1



\ `
'
   "%$' #*,!   - +*,!
v&Rp803;K57=?8!3 , . . . , q ; , . . . , , t) ):=L-I]6TJMI<5i9IAR\=?67ION?R{5>6>R\3ZTp8!6TJRt5>=?803 ; R03803
=?):ICIKZT5i9ICNS(q
Rp8!6TJMI
1

S(q1 , . . . , qn ; 1 , . . . , n , t) =

n
X

Sk (qk ; 1 , . . . , n , t) + S0 (1 , . . . , n , t).

F3R0=15*! Z7= N PQ8!3 R9PaR0z 80679Z7bKLSR06TbmN?RM\R067=?R0zN1I q ! S 3nI9b]L-I]39 ):I9I IK5OLSR\ZO9I]Z


9I J 1]JmI"!gZ7=y803
Z7bKLSR06TI'I]3ZT:=157I N?R \R06T=R0zN1I q ! S 3nI'9b]L-I]3n9LSR0ZM9I]Z
,...,
/ R06;]8!3h5767I"!=?Ng9b]L-I]39 9I / 24NZ7IK6>R0= 598!3;R\: G 9I ;K678!=167I ):I 3I
,...,
9bKL IK39 ):IC9I !I<5N PabK;]6T=15>:n67IO;]= 49IKZ7ZT:ZIKZT5iNR{ZTI]:N1ICb];]6T=157:67ICc!bK3b]67R0N?IOL-8!Z7ZT=?zN1I0S/
. = :<B SVCE: X gfg88!6T98!33bKI]ZdZ7Lnb]6T=?):I]ZK/
k=1

X :LnL 8!ZT8!3Zi):I

p2
1
p2
2
H=
p +
+
2m r r 2 r 2 sin2

Z780=159ICN?Rp8067JmI

U (r, , )

U (r, , ) = a(r) +

vPabK):SR\5>=18!3 9I
yR0Jm=?N 5>8!3 !R0;K8!z=-Z]PQb];]6T=15
1
2m

f
r

!2

1 f
+ a(r) +
2mr 2

!2

+ U (r, , ).

b()
.
r2

1
+ 2mb() +
2mr 2 sin2

!2

?= 39bKL IK39SR03h5i9: 5>IKJMLZ f (r, , , t) = f (r, , ) Et


;KY;]N1=?):I f (r, , ) = f (r, ) + p , (p = ;]803ZT5>R03h5>I % /

Z>R\57=?ZTR\=15N PabK):SR\5>=18!3 
f (r, )

f
= 0.
t

00

00

1
2m

f 00
r

w3J:N157=?LN1=?IiLSR06
r2

2m

!2

1 f 00
+ a(r) +
2mr 2

r2

f 00
r

!2

w3L-I]: 5dZ7b]LR067IK6 r I<5

!2

+ 2mb() +

1 f 00
r 2 a(r) + Er 2 =
2m

f 00 (r, ) = f1 (r) + f2 ()

df2
d
1
2m

!2

+ 2mb() +

df1
dr

!2

!2

p2
.
+ 2mb() +
sin2

p2
=
sin2

+ a(r) +

p2
= E.
2mr 2 sin2

=E
2mr 2

     ' #*!  

'  

 

vI]Zd;]8!3nZT5 R\3)57I]Z9Pa=13h5>b]c06>R\57=?8!3 ZT8!3h5

p ,

!_
IK5 E /

S(r, , ; p , , E; t) = Et + p +

2mb()
+

p2
d
sin2

2m(E a(r))

dr.
r2

 

 '2 9  '  I 

)+(  9  -  /

v Pab<5 R\5 9PQ:3MZ|YZT5>[KJMIJMbK; R03n=?):IdI]Z|5g;K8!33):N?8067Z7):PQ8!3mZ7Ii98!33nIN?RCL-8!ZT=15>=18!3IK5NRw=157I]ZTZ7I


9I; R0):ILSR06|5>=1;]:N1I0/ yIMR".]8!3b]):= 0R\N?I]3h57I"! =1NI]Z|5{9b<5>I]6TJM=13bmLSR06ANR 98!33bKI9IKZ;]8
8!679n8!33bKI]Z q IK5 9nI]Z=1JML:nN?Z7=18!3Z p ! i = 1, . . . , N / vPQI]ZTLSR0;]I 2N 9n=?JmI]3ZT=?8!3ZM9I]Z
;]88!679n8!33bKI]ZI<59nI]Zm=?JmL:N?ZT=?8!3nZZ]PaR0LL-I]N?N1I N P : XNS0Q  : 8: X9S 0QFX : X</
vR 9IKZ7;]6T=?Ln57=?8!3 9PQ:3
ZTYZT57[]JmIB9R03Zd;]I<5IKZ7LSR\;]IAI]ZT5dp8!3n9SR0JmI]3h5 R0N1IOL 80:6LN?:nZ7=?IK:67ZiR0LnLN?=1; R\57=?8!3Z 
F3 LhY ZT=?):I ZT5>R\5>=1ZT57=?):"I !iNR zR0Z7I Jm=?;]6T8!Z7;K8!L=1:nI'9INR 57I]6TJM89nY3SR0Jm=?):/I !N?R

9IKZ7;]6T=?Ln57=?8!3Z7ImR0=15A=?JmL-b]6>Rt5>=10I]JmI]3h5C9SR03nZN PQI]ZTLSR0;KI9IKZLSR\Z7I]Z !NR L6780zSR0z=1N?=157b


N PQb]):=1N?=1z67IL 8!:n6):ICN?IOZTYZ|5>[]JmICZ78!= 59SR03nZN PQbK5 Rt5 {q , p } b<5 R03h5dL6T8!L 806T5>=18!33IKN?N1Iw
H(p , q ) #
;K8!3Z|5 R03h5>IA9I g8!N =5 <KJR03n0
3 ! T l57I]JmL bK6>R\57:67I % /
exp
k
v I]ZCZ|Y Z|k5>[KJMTIKZB=13)57b]c!67R0zN1I]*Z ! = /QI0/N1I]ZOZTYZ|5>[]JmI]ZAL-8!:6ON?IKZ7):IKN?ZO8!3 L-I]:n5C6Tb]Z780:967ImN?IKZ
b]):SRt5>=?803Zw9:'Jm8!:n0I]JmI]3h5OLSR\6y):SR0967R\5>:n67"I ! 3I{L-I]:n0I]3h5CZ7I9b];K67=?6TI{):I{9SR\3Zw;]I<5
I]ZTLSR0;KI0/
i

)76

&-  ( 1  
 1   (0 -   J/- - 1   



v PaI GnIKJMLnN?IN?ILN1:ZCZ7=1JMLN1I{I]Z|5;KI]N1:=9I]ZCZ|Y Z|5>[KJMIKZ{ .m9nI]c!6Tbm9nIMN1=?z-I]6T57b0/ wR\3ZC;]Im; R0Z !


N PQI]ZTLSR0;]IA9IKZiLnSR0Z7IKZIKZT5:3I]Z7LR0;]IBmD9=1JMIK3Z7=18!3Z !;0PQI]Z|5 49=167IO:3LNR\30!IK5iN1I]Z5>67R TI];
5>8!=167IKZZ78!3h5&9IKZ;K8!:6Tz IKZ9R03Z&;]ILN?R03/wR03ZN1I; R0Z9nI]Z&ZTYZT57[]JmI]ZR0:n578!38!JmI]Z !t;\PaIKZT5 9=?6TI
9I]ZiZTYZ|5>[]JmI]Zi9bK;]67= 5>ZLSR\6i:n3R0JM=1N1578!3=?IK33IC9bKL IK39SR03h5iLSR0ZdI<G LN1=?;K=15>IKJMIK3h59: 5>I]JmLZ !
N PQb]):SR\57=?8!3 9IKZ5>6>7R TI];K578!=?6TI]ZdI]Z|5i98!33bKICLSR06
#`/ . %
H(p, q) = E.
!

0e

'


      &'  ) 


3nIy;]80N?N?IK;K57=?8!3m9PQ8!67z= 5>IKZ 6TI]L6Tb]Z7IK3h5 R\57=1!IKZ9PQ:3ZTYZ|5>[]JmIwZKPWR0LnL IKN?N?Id:3S DFU<L U+Q ? L*8: S 0QFX :</
. = :<B SVCE
: fg8!3ZT=?9bK678!3nZN?IL-I]3n9:N?ImZ7=1JMLnN?I;]803ZT57=15>:nbm9 Pa:3L 80=?3h5AJR\57b]6T=?I]NnG b:3I
;]80679IBIK5wL-8!:n\R03h55>8!:6T3I]6R0:n578!:69Pa:n3RtG I8067= <K8!3h5 R0N /ifyPaIKZT5O:n3'ZTYZT57[]JmIM:n3'9I]c067b
9ICN?=1z IK6T57b0/vPQb]3IK67c!=1IAZKPabK;]6T=15  T + V /


1
T = mr 2 2
2

V = mgr cos

L
= mr 2

p2
mgr cos .
H(, p ) =
2mr 2
p =

vPabK):SR\5>=18!3

;]8!3n9:=15i

H(, p ) = E

p = 2mr 2 (E + mgr cos ).

yIK: G; R0Zd9I S c0:67ICZ7803)59=1ZT5>=13c!:IK6




mgr E < mgr

l8!:6i):ICNR{6>R\;]=?3nIA;]R0676Tb]ICZ780=159b!S3=1I"!S=?N R0:n5d):I


E + mgr cos > 0

cos >

E
mgr

0 < < 0 ,

R !I];

cos 0 =

E
.
mgr

vI]Z8067z= 5>I]ZZT8!3h5mR0N?8067Z9nI]Z;]8!:n67z-I]ZpI]6TJMbKI]Z]/ vI L IK39:N1I 8!Z7;K=?N?N1IR0: 5>8!:69I Z>R


-L 8!Z7= 5>=18!3 9PQb]):=?N1=?z6TI0/ v8!67ZT:nI E Z7IA6>R0LnL678; IC9IAZ>Rm\R0N1I]:6Jm=?3n=?JMR0N?I mgr !
57I]390I]67Z 0 /lvPWR0JmLN1=15>:n9I9nI]Z8!ZT;]=1N?NRt5>=?803ZlI]ZT5g5>67[KZgR0=1zN?I\/ R06g;]8!3h5>6TI"! N?8!6TZ7):I E
ZTIO6>R0LLn678; Iw9I mgr ! 5>I]3n9 0I]6TZ !nIK5N PaR0JMLnN?=157:9Ii9I]Z80Z7;]=1N?N?R\5>=18!3ZlI]Z|5dL678; I
9I 2 /

3 ImZ]PaR033):N1I 7R0JR\=?ZOIK5AchR\679I5>8!: T8!:67ZCN1ImJ 1]JmIZ7=1c!3I\/vIL IK39


:N1I5>80:673I=139b!S3=?JmI]3h5]/B24NHIKZT5AR0N18!67ZyLN?:ZO3R\5>:6TI]NH9nI;]8!3ZT=?9bK67IK6 ;]8!JmJMI:3I
\R06T=R0zN1IOR0N1NR03h59nI + /

E > mgr

   

 


    #*! '! 




Portrait de phase du pendule simple


2



&-  ( 1  
 1   (0 -    
   *34-
 /    



wR03Z N PQI<G I]JmLN1IL6Tb];Kb]9IK3)5*!N?IKZ 9nI]: GM54YL IKZg9IJM8!: !I]JmI]3h5gZ78!3h5L-b]6T=?89=?):IKZ]/ IR".K8!3


c!b]3nb]6>R\N?I"! N?IKZwb]):SR\57=?8!3nZw9:Jm8!:n!IKJMIK3h5O9PQ:3ZTYZT57[]JmI):= ZT:z=15w:3JM80:n!IKJMIK3)5wL bK67=
8 9n=?):IAL IK:n!IK3)51K5>6TIJm=?ZTI]ZiZ78!:Z:3IAp8!67JmIC:3=10I]6TZ7I]N1N?IBMN PWR0=19IC9PQ:3IB576>R03nZTp8!6TJR\57=?8!3
; R03n8!3=?):IO0I]67Zi9IKZd\R06T=R0znN?I]Z (Q, P ) 5>I]N1N?IKZ:nI P 67IKZT5>IC;K8!3ZT5>R03h5wR\:;K8!:6TZi9n:Jm8!:n0!I
JMIK3h5yR\N?8!6TZ):I Q R0:c!JmI]3h5>IO9nI 2 L-I]3n9SR03h5y:n3ICL bK67=?89I T /
X :LL-8!ZT8!3Z):Pa803
R0= 567bKZ78!N1: N PQb]):SR\57=?8!3 ;]R06>R0;<5>bK67=?Z|5>=1:nI 9I
yR0Jm=?N 5>8!3 !R0;K8!z=N PaR0=?9I
9PQ:3IBp803;K57=?8!3 W (q, ) /vIAL678!znN?[]JmICI]Z|5w98!3n;B9IB9bK57I]6TJM=13I]6dNRp8!3;<5>=18!3 (P ) 57I]N?N1I
):IBN?Rp8!3;<5>=?803c0b]3bK6>R\5767=?;KI
#`n/ED %
F (q; P ) W (q; =(P ))
;]8!3n9:=?ZTI :3I{5>67R03Z|p8!67JMR\5>=18!3 ;]R038!3n=?):I{5>IKN?N1I):I P ZT8!=15O;K8!3Z|5 R03h5>II<5w5>IKN?N?I:nI Q
R0:c!JmI]3h57I'9I 2 R0: ;]80:67Z9 Pa:3nIL bK67=?89I\/ :=?ZT:nIN?I Jm8!:n0I]JmI]3h5 IKZT5 L-b]6T=?89=?):/I !
!I<5N1IwLN1:ZZ7=1JMLN1IwI]Z|5i9PaI G L67=1JMIK6 Q ;]80JMJmIwp8!3;<5>=?803 9I q !I<5d9PQb];]6T=?6TI
q(t + T ) = q(t)
NR;]8039=157=?8!3 ZT:6 Q ;K8!JMJmI


8@P

dq

dQ
dq = 2
dq

Z7=1c!3= SIw):IAN PQ8!3 Z7:= 5dN?IOJm8!:n!IKJMIK3h5ZT:6C.C;KY;]N1I0/

e!

'


      &'  ) 


R0=1Z;]8!JmJmI Q I]Z|59nb S3=1ICLSR06NR{576>R03Z|p8!67JMR\57=?8!3;]R038!3n=?):ICI]3c0I]396Tb]IALSR06


8!3R 


F2
P
!
dQ
2 F2 P
F2
+
=
.
dq
q P
P 2 q
Q =

R0=1Z

P
=0
q

F2 (q; P )

#p`/aV %

L:=1Z7):I P I]Z|5y:n3IC;]8!3Z|5 R03h57I0/

dQ
2 F2
=
.
dq
qP

v&R;]8!39n=15>=18!3 Z]PQb];K67= 59n8!3;

2 F2
dq =
qP
P
I W
(q; )dq.
=
P
q
I

2 =

F2
dq
q

fgIK5T5>IC;]8039=157=?8!3 ZTI]6>R98!3n;AZ7R\5>=1ZTR0= 5>IwZT= P IK5 ZT8!3h56TI]N1=?b]ZLR06


1
P =
2

W
(q; )dq.
q

#`/Q` %
#`/W_ %

&v Rp8!3;K57=?8!3 (P ) ):=6Tb]ZT8!:9 N1IL6780zN?[KJMI{=13=157=R0N1I]JmI]3h5wL-8!ZTbmIKZT5A98!3n;m9nb S3=1ILSR06OZ>R


p8!3;<5>=18!3 67b];K=?L6T8 ):I () 9n8!33bKIBLSR\6
1
W
#`/a %
(q; )dq.
() =
1

 *O ? L ?7DFO L 80:6:3 ZTYZT57[]JmI .9IKc!67bM9IN?=1z IK6T57bMI  IK;K5>:R03h5:3 Jm8!:n!IKJMIK3h5L bK67=
89=?):I/!8!3 R0LL-I]N1N?I
FQ U<? Q CE: X'Q <L ?7DFO 5Q O CE: ! IK5{8!3 38057I (I, w) N1I;]80:LN?I9I\R067=?R0zN?IKZ
; R\38!3=1:nI]JmI]3h5 ;]803 T:c!:bKI]Z # I  =?JmL:N?ZT=?8!3'! w g;]88!6T98!33bKI % 57I]N1N?I]ZM):I I ZT8!=15:3I
;]803ZT5>R03h5>IAIK5d):I w R0:c!JmI]3h5>IO9nI 2 R\:;K8!:6TZi9 Pa:3nIBL-b]6T=?89I0/
80:6i57678!: !I]6iNR{p8!3n;K5>=18!3c!b]3bK6>R\5767=1;]I F (q; I) 9nIB;KIK5757IA576>R03nZTp8!6TJR\57=?8!3 ;]R038!3n=?):I"!s8!3
L6T8 ;K[]9ICI]3LN1:Z7=1I]:6TZib<5 R0L-I]Z 
.!/w3 67bKZ78!:9N PQb]):SR\57=?8!3 ;]R06>R\;K5>bK67=1ZT5>=1):IC9 I
yR0Jm=?N 5>8! 3 !R0;]80z=
2

W (q; ).

D /w3 9bK57I]6TJM=13ICNRp8!3;<5>=18!3 98!3h5dN?R6Tb];K=?L6T8 ):ICI]Z|5i9b S3n=?ICLSR06


1
I = () =
2
1

W
(q; )dq.
q

        #*! '! 


Vn/w3IK39nb]9:= 5dNRp8!3n;K5>=18!3 c!b]3nb]6>Rt5>67=1;]I

 


en.

F2 (q; I)

LSR06


F2 (q; I) W (q; =(I)).

`/iv&R{0R\67=R\zN?I w IKZT5R0N18!67Z9b!S3=1IALR06

w=

_ /ivIC38!:n0I]N&SR0Jm=?N 5>8!3=1I]3MI]ZT5i98033bALSR06

F2
.
I

K(w; I) = = (I).

n/iv&R{p67b]):IK3;]IB9:JM8!: !I]JmI]3h5dZTIB9bK9:= 5d9ICN PQb]):SR\57=?8!3 9:JM80:n!IKJMIK3)5dL-8!:6

K
d
dw
=
=
dt
I
dI
d

w(t) = w(0) +
t
dI
d
T
w(T ) w(0) =
dI

8@P T I]ZT5 NRCL-b]67=18 9nIi9n:JM80:n!IKJMIK3)5]/ R0=1Z LR06 ;K8!3Z|5>67:n;K5>=18!30! w(T ) w(0) = 2 !




d
T
dI
2
d

=
.
T
dI

2 =

xy: 5>67IKJMIK3h59=15*!NR p8!3;K57=?8!3 (I) 98033I 9=167I];<5>IKJMIK3)5R0;];K[]Z N?Rp67bK:nI]3;KI9nI]Z


8!ZT;]=?N1NR\57=?8!3nZ]/
 :<BQ U  ; : X  vR 5>IK67Jm=?38!N18!c!=1I R\3c!N?I L-8!:6N?R \R06T=R0zN1I
I]Z|5b< =19I]3h57I0/ 80:6MN?R

w
\R067=?R0zN?I I !nN PaR0LL-I]N?N?R\5>=18!3 \R067=?R0zN?IyR0;K57=?8!3 w=?IK3)5d9n:R0= 5):PQ8!3 L-I]:n5dbK;]6T=?67I


I=

L:=1Z7):I

F2
=p
q

1 I
p dq,
2

/ w6*!L-8!:6:3ZTYZ|5>[]JmIBR0:n5>8038!JmI"!N PWR0;<5>=18!3 S ZKPabK;]67= 5 


S=

(pq H)dt =

p dq Et.

&v R):SR03h5>= 5>b p dq I]Z|5dR0LL-I]N1b]I R0;K57=?8!3M6>R0;K;]8!:n67;]=1I =! I<5NR):SR\3)57=157b I = 1 p dq ! ):=


2 L67[KZI]Z|5N PQ=?3h5>bKc!6>R\N?Id9IwN PWR0;<5>=18!367R0;];K8!:67;K=?IZ7:6:n3IwL-b]67=18 9nI"! RNRA9=?Jm2I]3ZT=?8!3M9PQ:3I
R0;K57=?8!3 /
Z



ehD

'


      &'  ) 


 8!:n6; R0N1;]:N1I]6N?RBp67bK:nI]3;KI"!s8!3 3PaRLR0Zz IKZ78!=13 9IC67bKZ78!:9n67ICN PQb]):SR\57=?8!39I


yR0Jm=?N 5>8!3
!R0;K8!z= /F3I  I];K5*!sL 8!:n69bK57I]67Jm=?3nI]6 (I) !n=?NZT: 5y9IC;K8!33SR 15>6TI W IK3p8!3n;K5>=18!3 9I q
q
IK5i9I !SR0:n5767I]JmI]3h5i9= 59IA67b]ZT8!:96TICN PQb]):SR\57=?8!3



W
H q,
q



-L 8!:6N?R0R\67=R\zN?I W /lv&RJMb<5>89Iw9nI]Z\R067=?R0zN?IKZR0;<5>=18!3 R\3c!N?II]Z|5d98!3;O:3nIAJmbK5789I


5>6T[]Z I M;]R0;]IL-8!:6Mq; R0N1;]:N1I]6MNRp6Tb]):I]3n;]I 9I]Z 80Z7;]=1N?N?R\5>=18!3Z9PQ:3 JM80:n!IKJMIK3)598!3h5 8!3
Z>R\=15 Q SVUW?7DFU<?s):PQ=?N I]ZT5L bK67=?89=1:nIyZ>R\3ZdR !8!=16gz-I]Z780=?3 9PQ8!zn57I]3=16NRAZ78!N1:n5>=18!3;]80JMLN1[K57Iy9:
L6T8!zN?[KJMI\/
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H(p, q) =

p2
m 2 2
+
q .
2m
2

 80:6;KIBZ|YZT5>[KJMI/! W (q; ) = dq 2m m q / xy: ;K8!:6TZ9:Jm8!:n!IKJMIK3h5)! q


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Z

2 02

H(p=0, q) =
s

2
q

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q=

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m 2

w3IK39nb]9:= 5d):I

m
2

2
m 2

1
I =
2

2
m 2

q
2
Z
q
m 2
q
2m m2 2 q 2 dq

1
I = 1 () =
2

80Z78!3Z

/2
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2
m 2

2
m 2

2m m2 2 q 2 dq .

2
cos d
m 2
q

2m m2 2 q 2 = 2m cos

dq =

2m cos2 d

= .
2
m

1 () =

(I) = I,

F2 (q; I) W (q; (I)) =

v&R{p67b]):IK3;]IB9I]Zd8!ZT;]=1N?NRt5>=?803ZgIKZT5i98!33nb]ICLSR06

/2

/2

q
0

dq

d
=
dI

2m cos2 d

!s

2mI m 2 q 0 2

!;K8!JMJmIw=1NZ7IC98!= 5 /

2
m 2

        






 



  

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(I , . . . , I )
#`n/1., %
w =
.
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Ik

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8@P D IKZT5N?I 7R0;]80z=?IK03 !w;0PQI]Z|5 4 49=167I N?I 9b<5>IK67Jm=?3SR03h5 9I NR JMR\5>6T=?;]I9nI]Z9b]6T=1!bKI]Z9I]Z
R03;K=?IK33I]Zl\R067=?R0zN1I]ZHLSR\667R0LL-8!6T5R\: Gm38!:n0I]N1N?I]ZK/F3M: 5>=?N1=?Z7R03h5N?IKZ3n805 R\57=?8!3nZ;]8!JmLSR0;<5>I]Z !
8!3R
V = d~x,
V =
d~y
#p`/1. %
R0=1Z;]8!JmJmI M IKZT5iZTYJmLN?IK;K5>D=1):="I ! det (M ) .


Z Y
i

det M = det M 1

= 1
Z

Dd~y =

D=1

d~y = V 0 .

yf /{/ / /
3nI{I<G5>IK3Z7=18!3'=1JML-8!6T5>R03h5>IA9I;KIK5T5>I{L6T8!L-8!Z7= 5>=?803IKZT5O):IBN?IB08!N?:nJMIA9SR03ZyN PQI]Z7LR0;]IB9I]Z
LSR\Z7I]ZiI]Z|5y;K8!3ZTI]6T0b{R0:;]80:67Zi9:57I]JmLZ]/ 80:6d9b]Jm8!3h5>6TI]6i;]I]N?R
!=1NZ7: 59IC9b]Jm8!3h5>6TI]6
):I{ZT=N1IZTYZ|5>[]JmI{IKZT5O9bK;]6T=15LSR06 ~x mN PQ=?3Z|5 R03h5 0 IK5yLSR06 ~y (~x) N Pa=13ZT5>R03h5 t ! NRMJMR\5767=?;KI
9b S3n=?ICLSR06
M
0



Mij =

yi
xj

I]Z|5iZTYJMLnN?I];<5>=1:nI0/
80:6&Z7=?JmLN1= SIK6N?IKZ3805 Rt5>=?803Z*!o8!3A9b 3=15&N Pa8!L-b]67R\5>IK:69=1 bK67I]3h57=?I]N D : IR
D~y =

~y
~x

= M.

vPabK):SR\5>=18!3 9:JM8!: !I]JmI]3h5iI]33805>R\5>=18!3Z;K8!JMLR0;K57I]ZdZ]PQb];K67=15

~yt (~x) = J
t

H
~x

~yt (~x).

2n

IR2n IR2n

#p`/ .o %
#p`/ .,e %

eh

  *,  &  #*%$ -




X =8!3R0LLnN?=?):ION Pa80L bK6>R\57I]:69=1 bK67IK3)57=?IKN9ICLSR06|5I<5d9PaR0:n5>6TI"!S=1N =?I]3h5 


"

H
(D~y) = J D
t
~x

8!:I]3;K8!67I

J (D~y) = D
t
~x


67I]3R03h5yN?R5>6>R\3Z7L-8!Z7bKI"!s=?N-=?I]3h5
Z78!= 5)!Ln:=?ZT:nI

J = J

~y (D~y),

~y (D~y).

#p`/WD0 %

~y ,

#`n/ED . %

#`n/ED!D %

H
t
(D~y) tJ = t (D~y) t D
t
~x

H
t
(D~y)J = t (D~y) t D
t
~x

F3J{:nN15>=1LN?=?R03h5 p# `/WD0 % LSR06




R0=1Z

t(D~y)

H
D
~x

=
ij

2H
xi xj

"

H
D
~x

~y .

c!R0:; ICIK5 p# `/ED0D % LSR06

i
ht
(D~y)J(D~y) = t (D~y)
t

(D~y)

H
~y
~y D
~x

I]ZT5iZ|Y JmbK5767=1:nI"!S9PQ8@P

#p`/ ., %

i
ht
(D~y)J(D~y) = 0
t
t

(D~y)J(D~y) =

;K57I

= J

m9n678!= 5>I"!n=?N =1I]3h5 


#p`/WD0V %
(D~y).

#`/WD\` %

L:=1Z7):I D~y| = 1l /
fy/{/ / /
fgIK5T5>I L6780L67=1bK5>bI]ZT5;K8!33):I Z780:ZN?I3n8!J 9I  DFU A<B:8: G?7DF;
? C CE: N?IM!8!N1:JMI9I
N PQI]ZTLSR0;]I 9I]ZLSR0ZTI]ZI]ZT5 ;]8!3nZ7I]6|!bR\:;]80:67Z9:57I]JmLZ]/ fgIK5T5>IgLn678!L6T=?b<5>bI]ZT5p8!39SR\JMIK3)5>R0N?I
L 80:6HNR9 b S3n=15>=18!39nIN PQb]):=?N1=?z6TI57I]6TJM89nY3SR0Jm=?):I\/ 3I9bKJM803ZT576>R\57=?8!3{LnN?:ZHc0b]3bK6>R0N1I
9IC;]IC67bKZ7:N 5 R\5iZTI]6>R98!3n3b]IAR0:LSR067R0c!6>R\LIA_ /WD{9:; R0L=15767IOZT:=1\R03h5 /
t=0

 

 %
# J$&#     ' '   ! 

)+(  9  -  / 


3!X
 X<LNA<B: 8 FOVQ B ?  ;4:wI]ZT5A:3ZTYZT57[]JmIM9n8!3h5N Pab<5 R\5CIKZT5B9b];K67=15ALSR\6A:n3 0I];K57I]:6
;]8!JmL-8!Z>R03h57I]ZdIK5i98!3h5dN Pab<!8!N1:n5>=18!3 I]Z|56Tb]c!=1IOLSR06:3nIAbK):SR\5>=18!3 9=  b]6TI]3h5>=1I]N1N?Iw9: L6T~xI]Jm=?IKn6
8!679n67IC9: 54Y L-I
#_ /. %
~x = F (~x).

= :<B SVCE:  3mZTYZT57[]JmIdSR0Jm=?N1578!3=1I]3{IKZT5:3ZTYZT57[]JmI9 Y 3R0JM=1):I0/ Fl3mI  IK5*!)I]3m3805 Rt5>=?803


;]8!JmLSR0;<5>I/!
.

R !IK;

H
= F (~x),
~x
X
H
Jij
Fi (~x) =
,
J=
xj
j

~x = J

0 1l
1l 0

R06;]8!3h5>6TI"!H578!:ZN1I]ZBZTYZT57[]JmI]Z9nY3SR0Jm=?):IKZ{3IZT8!3h5{LSR\Z{9I]ZZTYZT57[]JmI]ZSR0Jm=?N 5>8!3n=?I]3nZ]/
R06I G I]JmLN?I/!N?R 9IKZ7;]6T=?Ln57=?8!3 9 Pa:3 Z|Y Z|5>[KJMI JMR0;]6T8!Z7;K8!L=?):IL IK:n5Z7IR0=167I 'N PWR\=?9IM9I
):I]N1:nI]ZO9IKc!67bKZw9IN1=?z-I]6|5>bAL 8!:n6N1I]Z7):IKN?ZwN1I]Zb]):SR\57=?8!3Z9:'Jm8!:n0I]JmI]3h5w8!3h5y:3'5>IK67JmI
9=?ZTZ7=1LSR\5>= / yI57I]N1Z{ZTYZT57[]JmI]Z3IL-I]: !I]3h5mLSR0<Z 1K5>6TI 9b];K67= 5>Z{LSR\6{:3 SR0Jm=?N 5>8!3n=?I]3 / R06
R0=?N1N?IK:67Z !9SR03ZAz-I R0:;K8!:L 9PaR0:n5>6TI]ZA;]8!3h57I<G5>IK*Z ! 9nI]ZAb]):SR\57=?8!3ZC9I;KI54YL-IR\LLSR067R0=?ZTZ7I]3h5]/
vPa8!z TIK59I;]Iw; R0L=15767II]ZT59Iw9=1Z7;]: 5>I]6 :3 ;]IK6T5>R0=?3M38!J{z6TIy9PaR0ZTL IK;K5>Z9nI]ZL6T8!L6T=?bK57b]Z 9I
;]IKZZ|Y Z|5>[KJMIKZ]/
8!:n6:3m57I]NZ|YZT5>[KJM/I !)=?NnLR0Z7ZTIiIK3c!b]3bK6>R0Nn:3IdIK5l:3nIZ7I]:nN?IZ780N?:n57=?8!3{LR06:3L 80=?3h598!3n3b
/ O3R0LnL IKN?N? I  DFLI<58033n805>I ~ (~x ) NR{ZT8!N?:n57=?8!3 ~x(t) 5>IKN?N1IO:nI ~x(t = 0) = ~x /
~x
e!
0




)76

X 8!= 5

    !) #" $ 







 - !3 / 0   -    -  &-  1   9 -  




V V (0)

IK5iZT8!=15

 -!% *:$+ #*,!  $

N?Iw08!N?:JmIw9PQ:398!JMR0=?3I M 9SR\3ZdN PQI]Z7LR0;]IA n 9=?JmI]3ZT=?8!3nZ*!


V =

V (t)

N?Iw08!N?:nJMIO9ICZT8!3=1JR\c!I
V (t) =

t (M )

dy1 . . . dyn =

8@P J(t, x) I]Z|5yN1I 7R0;]80z=?IK39nIAN?R5>67R03ZTp8067JMR\5>=18!39I


FZ7Z7R,Y08!3Z9IC; R0N1;]:N1I]6 dV = lim V (t) V (0) /
t
xy:L6TI]Jm=?I]6g8!6796TICI]3 tdt!S803 R 
t (M )

# _ /WD %

dx1 . . . dxn

# _ /aV %

J(t, x)dx1 . . . dxn


~x 7 ~y t (~x)

t0

# _ /Q` %

~y = ~x+ F (~x)t + O(t2 )


yi
Fi
= ij +
t.
xj
xj

# _ /W_ %

 80Z78!3Z A = F / vI 7R0;K8!z=?IK3 9I ;]IK5T5>I5>67R03Z|p8!67JMR\5>=18!30! det(1l + At) !wI]Z|5:3


L-8!N1Y3!JmI9I9IKxc!67b n I]3 t /8!:6C;]R0N?;K:N?IK6ONR 9b]6T=10b]I dV !=?NHZT: 59I;K8!33SR 15>6TImN1I
5>IK67JmIO9PQ8!6796TI. !S;0PQI]Z|5 49=167ION?=13b R\=?67II]3 t / R0=?Z 1l + Atdt ZKPabK;]6T=15
i

ij





1 + A11 t
A12 t
A13 t . . .
A21 t
1 + A22 t A23 t . . .
A31 t
...t
...
...

//
R0=?ZT8!3Z:39b<!I]N18!LL-I]JmI]3h5i9:9bK57I]67Jm=?3R03h5dZ7I]N18!3 NRL6TI]Jm=?[]6TIO;]8!N18!33I\/24N =?IK3)5
det(1l + At) =





(1 + A11 t)




A21 t

1 + A22 t
A23 t
. . .

A32 t
1 + A33 t . . .

//

//


A12 t A13 t . . .




+A31 t

//

A12 t A13 t . . .


 * -!% 


n.

 )  '   +- 





IKZT5OR0;<5>I]:n6O9Pa:n3 9nbK5>IK67Jm=?3SR\3)5y98!3h5CNRML67IKJM=1[]67IBN?=1c!3IIKZT5
/
v IM5>IK67JmIM;K8!676TI]ZTL 8!3n9SR03h5{IKZT5{9n8!3;9 Pa8!6T967ImZ7:nL bK67=?IK:680: b]c!R0N'D(AI<5{L-tI]:n5A1K57t
67IM8!.JM. .)=1Z]/
xy=13Z7=

An1 t

12

13

det(1l + At) = (1 + A11 t)(1 + A22 t) . . . (1 + Ann t) + O(t2 )


X
= 1 + ( Aii )t + O(t2 )
i

= 1 + (TrA)t + O(t2 )

w3IK39bK9:= 5d:nI

= 1 + (div F )t + O(t2 ).

V (t) = V (0) +
dV
=
dt

3ZTYZT57[]JmIBIKZT5i9= 5  FD O0X :<U


FQ L ? I]3 ~x ZT= div
. = :<B SVCE: X 

.!/XYZT57[]JmIBR0JM=1N1578!3=?IK3
div F~ =

qi =

H
pi

# _ /W %

div F d~x t

div F d~x

F=0

p i =

I<5R8 ?EX X<? S0Q L ? Z7= div

F<0

# _ /W %

H
.
qi

X 2H
qi X pi X 2 H
+
=

= 0.
qi
i pi
i pi qi
i qi pi

vI]ZZTYZT57[]JmI]ZSR0Jm=?N 5>8!3=1I]3ZMZ78!3h5;]8!3nZ7I]6|\R\5>= pZ]/ w3@6TIK5>6T8!:n0I N1I b]8!6T[]JmI 9I


v=?8!: =1N?N1I0/
D / 8!67;KI 9Ip678\575>IKJMIK3h5L678!L-8!6|5>=?8033I]N1N?IMNR =157I]Z7ZTI  z = z / 80Z78!3Z z = x /
vPab<!8!N1:n5>=18!3 I]Z|56Tb]c!=1IOLSR06N PabK: 5>=?803 x = x = F (x) !9PQ8@P
i

vICZTYZT57[]JmIBIKZT5i9=?ZTZ7=1LSR\5>= /



div F =

1
< 0.

/ .-  9   - &-  9N- 

3 S DF? O L  = : p# 8!: S DF? O L 8  ; ? C ? U :C80: S DF? O L2X<? O ; C ?7:<U % I]ZT5:3 L-8!=13)5 ~x ):=Z>Rt5>=?Z|R0=15
/ 3 57I]NL-8!=13)5dL-I]: 51<5>6TIA;K8!JmJ{:3LN?:ZT=?IK:67Z5>67R TI];<5>8!=167IKZ]/
F (~x ) = ~0


hD
.




 -!% *:$+ #*,!  $




    !) #" $ 






= :<B SVCE:   I]39n:N?ICZ7=1JMLnN?I


Portrait de phase du pendule simple
2

p = mgr sin = 0
p

=
=0
mr 2



w3Rm9nI]: G L-8!=13)57Z nG I]Z

= 0 (E = mgr)
= (E = mgr)

vI]ZL-8!=?3h57Z nG I]Z3I ZT8!3h5LSR0Z{5>80:Zb]):= 0R\N?I]3h57Z9: L 8!=13h5{9I:I 9I N?R ZT5>R0z=?N1=157b0/ yI
R".K8!3 c!b]3bK6>R0N1I"!S8!3 9=1ZT57=?3c!:nICV54YL-I]Zi9ICL 80=?3h5>Z nG IKZ 
I]ZT5 QFX
>B SVLNDFL ?  ;4:<B:<O L X<L Q CE:Z]PQ=?NSI<G =1ZT5>Ii:3m!8!=1Z7=?3R0c!Id9I ~x 5>IKN-):I/! L-8!:6l5>80:n5
~x
9SR03Zd;KIC08!=?ZT=?3SR\c!"I ! lim (~x) = ~x /
~x
I]ZT5ZT5>R0zN1I ZKPa=1NhI<G =?Z|5>I:3B08!=?ZT=?3SR0c0I9I ~x 5>IKN):/I !!L-8!:65>8!: 5 ~x 9SR03Z;]Il!80=?Z7=13SR0c!I/!
~x
6TI]ZT57IB9R03Zd:3 !8!=1Z7=?3R0c!Iw9I ~x t > 0 /
(~x)
I]Z|5y=13ZT5>R0zN?IyZ7=?3n8!3/
~x
80:6b<5>:9n=?I]6dN?RZ|5 R0zn=?N?= 5>bw9 Pa:3L 80=?3h5iZ7=?3nc!:N?=1I]6 !nNRL6TI]Jm=?[K67ICbK5>R0L IA;]803Z7=1ZT5>IAR0=?6TIC:3I
N?=13b R\67=?Z7R\5>=18!3 9nI]Zmb]):SR\57=?8!3ZmR0: !80=?Z7=13SR0c!I 9n: L-8!=?3h5ZT=?3c0:N?=1I]6]/ N1:ZL67bK;]=1Z7b]JmI]3h*5 !g8!3
L-8!Z7I ~y = ~x ~x IK5i8!3 3ICchR06T9IC:nIAN1I]Z5>IK67JmI]ZN1=?3b]R0=?6TI]ZIK3 ~y 
D F
# _ /ae %
~y = ~x = F (x) = F (~x + ~y) = F (~x ) +
(~x )~y + . . .
D~x
R !IK; A D F (~x ) ! A = F (~x ) /
D~x
x
w39n8!=159n8!3;CbK57:9=?IK6dN PQb]):SR\57=?8!3 ~y = A~y /
v&RZ78!N1:n5>=18!3 9IC;]I<575>IAb]):SRt5>=?803IKZT5

t+

ij

~y (t) = eAt ~y(0),




8@P N PQI<G L-8!3IK3)57=?IKN?N?IO9 Pa:3nIAJMR\5767=?;KIwI]Z|5i9b S3n=?ICLSR06


exp(B) =

+
X

Bn
.
n=0 n!

 * -!% 


!V

 )  '   +- 





F3I  I<5)!
exp(At) =

+
X

A n tn
n=0 n!

+
X
tn1
d
(exp(At)) =
An
dt
(n 1)!
n=1

= A

+
X

Ap

p=0

tp
= A exp(At)
p!

fy/ {/ / /

d
(exp(At))~y(0) = A exp(At)~y (0) = A~y(t).
dt

X :LL-8!ZT8!3ZA:nImN?RJRt5>67=1;]I A ZT8!=15w9=R0c08!3SR0N1=?Z>R\zN?I/! I<5B9nb]Z7=1c!38!3nZALR06 a ! j = 1, . . . , n !


Z7IKZ\R0N?IK:67ZdL6T8!L6TI]Z*!GQTSVUW?7DFUW? ;K8!JMLnN?I<G IKZ*!sIK5iLSR06 ~z ! j = 1, . . . , n !SN?IKZd0I];<5>I]:n67ZwL6T8!L6TI]Z
R0Z7ZT8 ;K=?bKZ]/
wR03Z
!SN PabK:R\5>=18!3
C
# _ /a %
~z = A~z
L IK:n5 1K5767ImZ7=?JmLN1I]JmI]3h5O67bKZ78!N1:II]39b];K8!JML-8!Z7R03h5 ~z 9SR03nZAN?R zSR0Z7Im9IKZA0I];K57I]:6TZL6T8!L6TI]Z
9I A /80Z78!3ZiI]3I  IK 5 
# _/1., %
c (t)~z .
~z(t) =
vPabK:R\5>=18!3 ~z = A~z Z]PQb];K67=15
j

cj (t)~zj =

aj cj (t)~zj

cj eaj t ~zj .

cj (t) = aj cj (t),
cj (t) = cj (0)eaj t .

j = 1, . . . , n

v&RZT8!N?: 5>=?803 c!b]3bK6>R0N1ICZ]PQb];]6T=15d9803;

~z =

# _/1.!. %

R0=1Z ;K8!JMJmI A I]ZT5g:3IiJRt5>67=1;]I6Tb]I]N1N?I/!ZT= ~z I]Z|5gZT8!N?: 5>=?8030! Re (~z) I]Z|5R0:nZ7Z7=sZT8!N?:n57=?8!3 /HF3


I  IK*5 !SNRLSR06|5>=?Iy67b]IKN?N1IO9ICN PQb]):SR\57=?8!3 ~z = A~z ZKPabK;]6T=15 d (Re ~z) = ARe ~z /
dt
v&RZT8!N?: 5>=?803 c!b]3bK6>R0N1IC9SR03Z IR ZKPabK;]67= 5i98!3; 
# _/1.oD %
~y = Re
c e ~z , c C.
j

n
X

j=1

aj t

&v R Z|5 R0z=1N?= 5>b 9nb]L-I]39@9:@ZT=?c!3nI 9nI]ZLSR06T57=?IKZ 67b]IKN?N1I]Z 9I]Z a / w3 L IK:n59b]Jm8!3h5>6TI]6 N?IKZ
67bKZ7:N 5 R\57ZiZT:=1\R03h57Z 
j

0`




 -!% *:$+ #*,!  $

    !) #" $ 







X= Re a < 0, j !SR0N18!67Z ~x I]ZT5RQFX


FB SVL DFL ?  ; :<B:<O LMX<L7Q CE:</
X= Re a > 0 L 80:6dR0:JM8!=13Z:3nIC\R0N1I]:69nI j ! ~x I]ZT5i=13ZT5>R0zN?I\/

L-8!:65>8!: 5  !nI<58@P
L-8!:6gR0:Jm8!=?3Z:3I0R\N?I]:n6g9I
wR03nZN?I; R0Z 8@P
!j sN PaR03SR0N Y ZTIC9: Re
L6T8!zaN1[]JmIO0N?=?3nb R06T=?Z7bO3nIBL-I]6TJMI<5ReLR0Za 9nIB=;K08!3;]N1:67I/! I<5iNRZT5 R\z=?N1=15>by9b]L-I]39
9IKZB5>IK67JmI]ZA38!3 N?=13b R0=167IKZ]/vPQbK57:9Im9IN?R Z|5 R0zn=?N?= 5>bR0: 49IKN 9IN?R N?=?3nb R06T=?Z>Rt5>=?803I]ZT5B:3
Z7: TIK5i;]8!JmLN1I<G IC:n=Z78!6|5d9:;]R096TIA9nIA;KIB;K8!:6TZ]/
 :<BQ U  ;4: HX I]:nN?ZgN1I]ZZTYZT57[]JmI]Z9n=?Z7ZT=?LSRt5>=1pZL-I]: !I]3h5dR 08!=?69I]Z L 80=?3h5>ZZ7=13c!:N1=?I]6TZR0ZTYJm L
5>8\5>=?):IKJMIK3h5yZ|5 R0zN1I]ZK/F3'I  I<)5 ! Re a < 0 j Tr A < 0 /dx=?3ZT= !sL 80:6N1I]ZZTYZT57[]JmI]Z
;]803Z7IK6T\R\5>= p*Z !iIK5 IK3 LR06T57=?;]:nN?=?IK6MN1I]ZZ|YZT5>[KJMIKZ SR0Jm=?N1578!3=1I]3Z !N?IKZ L 8!=13h5>Z nG IKZ Z78!3h5R0:
Jm=?I]:G ZT5>R0zN?IKZ]/vPQbK57:9I9nI]Zy80Z7;]=1N?N?R\5>=18!3ZR\:n5>8!:n69IKZL-8!=13)57Z  GnIKZyZ|5 R0zN1I]Zi9I]ZZTYZT57[]JmI]Z
SR0Jm=?N 5>8!3n=?I]3nZ R0= 5N PQ8!z TI<5d9:LR06>R0c06>R0LnIOZ7:= 0R\3)5]/

 -  -
 / 3  -  / '   R/.- 1      - / 


v ICL678!znN?[]JmIOc!bK3b]67R0N&9I]ZiL I<5>= 5>I]Zd8!ZT;]=1N?NRt5>=?803ZRbK57bA576>R0= 5>bCR0:; SR0Ln=15>6TIBD9SR\3ZdN?IC; R09n67I


9:p8!67JMR0N1=?Z7JmIgN?R0c!67R03c!=1I]3/ w3ML-I]:n5 b]c!R0N?IKJMIK3)5lN1I5>67R0=157I]69SR03nZ N1I; R096TI9n:Mp8!6TJR0N1=?ZTJMI
SR0Jm=?N 5>8!3n=?I]3 / fg80JMJmIN?IKZbK):SR\5>=18!3Zl9I
yR0Jm=?N 5>8!3Z78!3h5 9I]Zb]):SR\57=?8!3nZ9n=  b]67IK3h5>=?IKN?N1I]Z9:
L6TI]Jm=?I]6806796T"I !;KIBL6T8!zN1[]JmIwI]Z|5:n3I GnIKJMLnN?IC9ICZTYZT57[]JmIB9 Y 3R0JM=1):I0/
 80:Zd67I]LR06T578!3Zd98!3;C9PQ:3ZTYZT57[]JmIB9nb];]6T=15dLSR\6iN1IOL 8\5>I]3h57=?I]N
1
V
# _ /1. V %
V (~q) = V (~q ) +
(q q )(q q ).
2
q q
8@P ~q = (q , ..., q ) I]ZT5NR L-8!ZT=15>=18!3 9PQb]):=1N?=?zn67I0/ vIKZ38\5 R\57=?8!3ZZ78!3h5;]I]N1N?IKZ 9I NR
Z7IK;K57=?8!3 D/W
V ! IK5gN PQ8!3Z7IyL678!L-8!ZTIw9Iy6TIKR0=167IN?IyJ 1]JmIi; R0N1;]:N-9SR03ZgN?Iy;]R096TIw9:p8!6TJR0N1=?ZTJMI
SR0Jm=?N 5>8!3n=?I]3 /

X
i,j

67IKJM=1[]6TIObK5 R\L I  6>R03Z|p8!67JMR\57=?8!3 9IAvI]c0I]396TI0/


L =

Z780=15

pi =

1X
mij qi qj V (~q)
2 i,j
X
L
mij qj
=
qi
j

p~ = M q~
1 t
T =
~qM q~ =
2

~q = M 1 p~
1 t t 1
1 t t 1
p~ M M M 1 p~ =
p~ M p~
2
2

#_ /. ` %
# _ /1.,_ %
# _ / ., %
# _ / .o %

h_

  ' 
 * -  ' #*,!' *,-!  $ ) - +*,!- !


Z780=15
L:=1Z7):I
H=

M 1 = M 1

X
i

T =

:):I

1 t 1
p~M p~
2

IKZT5iZTYJmbK5>6T=?):I\/x=?3ZT=

1 t 1
1t
p~M p~ + V (~q) = p~M 1 p~ + V (~q).
2
2

pi qi L = t p~M 1 p~

yIK: G =?[]JmICbK5>R0L I l 8!=?3h5 n G I0/

# _ /1. e %
# _ / ., %

vI]Zd;]8039=157=?8!3nZ
vI]Z&;]8039=157=?8!3nZ

V
H
=
=0
qi
qi

X
H

M 1 pj = 0
=
qi =

ij
pi
j
p i =

V
=0
qi
X

M 1

ZT8!3h5bK):=1\R0N1I]3h5>IKZ;KI]N?N1I]Z9bK67= !b]IKZ9n:N?R0c!6>R\3c!=?IK3/
=?JmLN?=1):I]3h5):I p = 0 j ; R06 det (M
p = 0 i

/
678!=1Z7=?[KJMIybK5 \R L I lF):SR\5>=18!3ZdN?=13b R\67=?ZTb]IKZ]/l80Z78!3Z
j

(det M )1 6= 0


# _/ED0 %

ij

yi =

qi qi , i = 1, . . . , n
pin ,
i = n + 1, . . . , 2n

)=

# _/ED . %

v I]Z{bK):SR\5>=18!3ZA9: Jm8!:n!IKJMIK3h5{8!zn57I]3):IKZ{I]3 6TI]JmLNR/. R03h5 V LSR06BZ78!3 9bK0I]N?80LL I


JmI]3h5i9IC R YN?8!6dR\:ZTI];K8!39 806796TIAZKPabK;]6T=1!IK3h5 

y i =

n 
X

M 1

j=1

y i =

v&RJR\5767=1;]I A 9b!S3=?ICLSR\6

n
X

ij

yj+n i = 1, . . . , n

K(in)j yj

j=1

Aij =

Fi
xj

A=

i = n + 1, . . . , 2n

# _/ED!D %

IKZT5i98!3;C98033b]ICLSR\6 
0 M 1
K
0

v&RZ78!N1:n5>=18!3 c!b]3nb]6>R\N?ICI]Z|59n8!3;C9ICNRp8!6TJMI

~y = Re

n
X

j=1

cj eaj t ~zj ,

# _/ED0V %
# _/ED\` %




 -!% *:$+ #*,!  $

    !) #" $ 







8@P N?I]Z a Z7803)5wN?I]Z0R\N?I]:n67ZyLn678!L6TI]ZO9I A IK5wN?I]Z ~z N1I]Zy0I];K57I]:6TZOL6780L67IKZCR0Z7ZT8 ;K=?b]ZK/


vPQb]):SR\57=?8!3 ; R\6>R0;<5>b]6T=?Z|5>=?):IC9IC;KI]Z\R0N?IK:67ZdL6T8!L67IKZdZ]PQb];]6T=15 
# _ /WD!_ %
det (A 1l ) = 0
ZT8!=15
# _ /WD0 %
1l M
= 0.
det
j

2n

rt+s+- # *o#p+ "  


/

<BDFO0X<L U+Q L ?7DFO




1ln

det (A 1l2n ) = 0 det(M 2 + K) = 0

= i




det (A 1l2n ) = 2n det 1l2n A1

1l2n A1 =
=

M 1 1

1ln
K1

1ln

1ln
0
1
K
1ln

1ln
M 1 1
0 1ln + KM 1 2

= det(2 M + K) det M 1
{z

xy=13Z7=

det(1l2n A1 ) = det(1ln + KM 1 2 )
det(A 1l2n ) = det(2 1ln + KM 1 )

6=0

L:=1Z7):I = /
DFO0X ; :<O : l:n=?Z7):IgN?I]Z ZT8!3h567bKI]N?Z !0N1I]Z\R0N1I]:6TZ L6T8!L6TI]Z a
L:6TI]ZK/w3R98!3;C9IKZ8!ZT;]=1N?NRt5>=?803Z 3n8!3 R\JM8!6|5>=1I]Z]/
2

# _ /ED0 %
# _ /ED\e %

det(A 1l2n ) = 0 det(2 M + K) = 0


det( 2 M + K) = 0,

Q
: 

= ij

yf /{/ / /
ZT8!3h5=?JMR0c!=13SR0=?6TI]Z

  ro  #p+ " 2- p!++srt+-"")"&+sr\ S

X = 8!39bKZ7=?c03IwLSR06 P N Pa=1JML:nN?Z7=18!3c!b]3nb]6>R\N?=?ZTb]I;]8!3 T:nc!:b]IO9nI Q !nN PaSR\JM=1N15>803=?IK3mLn67I]3n9 NR


p8!6TJMI
1
# _ /ED\ %
H=
P + Q .
i

X
i

2
i

2
i

2
i

h
vPaSR\JM=1N15>803=?IK3IKZT5yNRZ78!JmJMIA9PQSR0Jm=?N 5>8!3=1I]3Z=139bKL IK39SR03h5>Zy9b];K67=1\R03h5y9I]Z8!Z7;K=?N?N?R\5>IK:67Z
SR06TJM8!3n=?):I]Zl9Ip6Tb]):I]3n;]I]Z /vIdZTYZT57[]JmIIKZT5 bK=?9IKJMJmI]3h5Z7bKLSR067R0zN?I\/vI]Zl=?3h57b]c!67R0N?IKZ
L67IKJM=1[]6TI]Z Z78!3h5N?IKZ b]3IK67c!=1I]Z E = 1 P + Q 9I]Z 9=1 bK67I]3h57Z8!ZT;]=1N?NRt5>I]:n67Z]/v&IKZ
\R067=?R0zN?IKZOR0;<5>=?803ZOR0ZTZ78;]=?bKI]ZOZT8!3h5B9n8!323bKI]ZCLSR06 I = E / /{Fl3 Jmb];]R03=?):I):SR\3)57=?):/I !
N?IKZw3=10I R0:G 9PQb]3IK67c!=1I{L 80Z7Z7=1zN?IKZwZ7803)5C9n8!3; E = h n ! n I]3h5>=1I]6*!:3I;]803ZT5>R03h5>I
L67[KZ]/
  )*


  

,*     -!

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i

2
i

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i i

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.

v 8!67ZT: Pa8!3 R'9b<5>IK67Jm=?3bMN?I]ZL 8!=13h5>Z nG IKZ*!lN?IK:6{ZT5>R0z=1N?=157bMI<5bK0I]3h5>:nI]N?N1I]JmI]3h5N?IKZ{L-IK5>= 5>IKZ


8!Z7;K=?N1NR\57=?8!3ZCR\:n5>8!:n6B9IKZL-8!=?3h57Z nG IKZ{ZT5>R0zN?IKZ*!N PQbK5 R\L ImZ7:= \R03h5>ILR06B806796TIM9IM9= m;K:N157b
;]6T8!=?ZTZ>R03h5>I ;K8!3Z7=1ZT57I ; IK67; IK6ZKPa=1NwI<G =1ZT5>I9nI]Z8!67z= 5>IKZL bK67=18 9=1):I]Z LSR\6T5>=1;]:N1=?[K67I]Z:n=
Z>R\57=?Z|p8!3h5R0:G b]):SR\57=?8!3Zm9: JM8!: !I]JmI]3h5IK5M9Pab<5>:9n=?I]6mN?IK:6ZT5>R0z=?N1=157b0/N1:n5>05m):I9I
R0=?6TIBN?R57b]8067=?IAc!bK3b]67R0N?IB9IB57I]N?N1I]Zd8!6Tz=157I]*Z !-38!:nZwR0N1N?8!3Zdb<5>:9=1I]6:3'; R\ZyLSR06|5>=1;]:N1=?I]657=?6Tb
9ICNRJmb]; R\3=?):IO;Kb]N?IKZT57"I !sN?IOL6T8!zN1[]JmIOVm;K8!67LZK/
xyN18!67Zd):IN1ICL678!znN?[]JmIC9I OIKLN?IK6m9I]:G ;K8!67LnZIKZT5w=13h5>b]c06>R0zN1"I !SN1IALn678!zN1[]JmIAMVm;]8!6TLZ
3PaRLSR0Zy9nI{Z78!N1:n5>=18!3 I GnR0;K57I0/ y:;K8!:0L !N PaI G =?ZT57I]3;KI{9PQ8!67zn=15>IKZyL-b]6T=?89=?):IKZyZT5>R0zN1I]Zw3PQI]Z|5
LSR0ZAchR067R03h5>=?Im L67=18!67= /mv&ImJm8!:n!IKJMIK3h59IKZBLnNR03[<5>IKZB9SR\3ZBN1IZTYZT57[]JmIZ780NR0=167IZ7:nc!c![]6TI
3b R\3JM80=?3Z{N PaI G =?ZT57I]3;KI 9I Z78!N1:n5>=18!3Z{Z|5 R0znN?I]ZL-8!:6N?I L6T8!zN?[KJMIM9I OI]LN1I]6 n ;]8067LZK/
 8!:nZR0N?N18!3ZB9b]Jm8!3h5>6TI]6N PaI G =?ZT57I]3;KI 9I57I]N?N1I]ZBZ78!N1:n5>=18!3Z9R03Z{N1I; R\Z{9: L6T8!zN?[KJMIV
;]8!6TLZd67IKZT5>6TI]=13)5]/


 "#p*o#p+-"
%ro+  " 
w3;K8!3Z7=19[]6TImVR0Z|5>6TI]ZAR0Z7ZT=?Jm=?N1b]ZO 9IKZBL-8!=?3h57ZOJR\57b]6T=?I]N1Zw9IJMR0Z7ZTI]Z m ! m IK5 m :n=
=?3h5>IK6>R0c0=?Z7ZTI]3h5=RN PaR\57576>R0;<5>=18!3 c!67R,= 5 R\57=?8!33nI]N?N1I0/ w3 ZT:LL-8!Z7ILSR06R0=1N?N1I]:6TZ):I m I]Z|5
Z7: mZ7R0JMJmI]3h5AL-IK5>= 5>I{L-8!:6O3nImLR0ZO=?3:I]3;KI]6CN?IJm8!:n0I]JmI]3h5C9I m IK5 m !IK5A):I m
IK5 m 5>8!:n673IK3)5{R0:n578!:6A9IN1I]:6A;]IK3)5767IM9Ic!67R = 5>bMN?R =157I]ZTZ7I R03nc!:NR\=?67I /FH5>:n9=?IK6
N?IJm8!:n0I]JmI]3h59I m 9SR\3Z N?I'; SR\JML c!6>R =15>R\5>=18!33IKNy9I m IK5 m / b]Jm8!3h5>67IK6 I]3
LSR06|5>=?;K:N?=1I]6ON PaI Gn=1ZT57I]3;KIM9IMZ78!N1:n5>=18!3Zw57I]N?N1I]ZC):I m 67I]Z|5>I:3nI9=1ZT5 R\3;]I nG IM9nI m I<5
!SIK5d9=1Z7;K:n5>IK6iN1I]:6Z|5 R0zn=?N?= 5>b\/
m
U :<B ?7A<U : <L7Q<S : bK57:9=?803Zz67=1[K!IKJMIK3h5N1ILn678!zN1[]JmI D ;]8!6TLZ]/X 8!=1I]3h5 ~r I<5 ~r N?IKZ
L 80Z7=157=?8!3nZ9I m I<5 m / vIKZibK):SR\5>=18!3Zd9:JM80:n!IKJMIK3)5dZT8!3h5
1



V
m1~r1 =
~r1

r2 = V
m2 ~
~r2

# _/WV! %

!e
R !IK;



V =

 -!% *:$+ #*,!  $




    !) #" $ 






/ w39nb S3= 5i9IC38!:n0I]N?N1I]Z;K8 8!6T98!33nb]I]ZiLSR06 


~
~ ;]I]3h5767IA9Pa=13I]6|5>=1I
m ~r + m ~r = (m + m )R,
R

Gm1 m2
|~r1 ~r2 |
(

1 1

~r1 =
~
r2 =

2 2

~r = ~r1 ~r2

m2
~r
m1 +m2
m1
~r
m1 +m2

# _ /WV . %

~
+R
~
+ R.

v IMJm8!:n0I]JmI]3h5{9n: ;]IK3)5767IM9IJMR0Z7ZTIMIKZT567I];<5>=1N?=?c03I:3=1p8067JmI0/ X =l8!3Z7IMLNR0;KIM9R03ZN1I


67b<pb]6TI]3h5>=1I]N9:;]IK3)5767IA9ICJR\Z7Z7I/! R~ = ~0 /
Gm m
2m m
V
# _ /WV!D %
, V =
m ~r m ~r =
~r = 2
m +m
~r
r
Z780=15
V
m m
JMR0Z7ZTIC67b]9n:=157I .
# _ /aV!V %
m
~r =
,
m
=
=
80:6dNR{\R067=?R0zN?I ~r !S803 R:~3rJM8!: !I]JmI]3h5im;]IK3h+5>6>R\mN / v&ICJm8!JmI]3h5d;]=13bK57=?):I ~ = ~r p~ I]Z|5
;]803Z7IK6T!b Jm8!:n0I]JmI]3h5iLNR\3/
wR03nZiN1IOLNR\39n:Jm8!:n0I]JmI]3h)5 !S=13)576789:=1Z78!3Z9nI]Zd;]88!679n8!33bKI]ZiL 8!N?R0=?6TI]ZK/
1

1 1

~er
r

2 2

e
~v = ~r = r~
er + r ~

ez = ~ez
~ = ~r m~
r = mr
2 ~

vICNR0c!67R03c!=1I]3ZKPabK;]6T=15

vPabK3I]6Tc!=?ICZKPabK;]67= 5d98!3;

L = T V
1 2
1 2 1 2 2
T = m~
v =
m
r + mr

2
2
2

2
2
1 2 1 mr
m
r +
=
2
2 mr
2
2
1 2

=
m
r +
2
2mr
2
2
1 2
m
rt +

L =
V (r).
2
2mr
2


1 2
E= m
r + Ueff (r),
2

Ueff (r) =

2
V (r).
2mr
2

# _ /WV\` %
# _ /WV!_ %

# _ /aV! %
# _ /aVh %

  

  )*


DFC ; L ?7DFOS0Q UWL ? <;C ?7A<U :




;KZT5>IR6Jm=?3n=?J{:J 9I

H

,*     -!

r = r0 =
2

+ V (r0 )
E=
2mr
02

r0
dUeff
dr

Ueff
r = 0.

2
Gm1 m2
+
= 0
3
mr

r2
m
2 r 4 2 Gm1 m2

+
= 0
mr
3
r2
Gm1 m2
2 =
3
s r
Gm1 m2
=
r3

HJDFL7Q L ?7DFO0X U  8 ;? LN: X HO3m; 8!=1Z7= 5:3mZTYZT57[]JmIi9 Pa:3n=15>bKZl9SR03ZlN?IK):I]N G = 1 ! r ! m + m =


!HI<5{8!3 L 8!ZTI m = /vI]ZR0: 5>67IKZc!67R039IK:67ZZ78!3h5R\N?8!6TZB98033b]IKZ{LSR06 m = 1 !
1
s
Gm m
!
K
I
5
/ yR03ZCN?I{6TbKpbK67I]3h57=?I]N (0xy) !N?I{N?R0c!67R03c!=1I]3
=1
r = r = 1
=
):=9b];K67= 5N1IOJM80:n!IKJMIK3)5i9I m Z]PQb]r;K67=1 5 

1 
# _ /WV0e %
L =
m x + y V
2
1

# _/WV! %
V = m
m

8@P , Z78!3h5N?I]Z9n=?ZT5>R03;KI]Zd9I m m I<5 m I<5d9b]L-I]39nI]3h5w9: 5>IKJMLnZ]/


1

1
2

u
m2

m1

42 NI]Z|5lLN?:nZH;]8!JmJm8 9I 9ILSR0ZTZ7IK69SR03ZN1Ig67b<pb]6TI]3h5>=1I]N (0uv) N1=?bR\: GR0Z|5>6TI]Z m I<5 m / w R\3Z


;]IC67b<pb]6TI]3h5>=1I]N !SN?R=15>IKZ7ZTIBZKPabK;]67= 5
1

~v = u~i0 + v~j 0 + ~k (u~i0 + v~j 0 )


= (u v)~i0 + (v + u)~j 0

# _/a`h %

.,!




 -!% *:$+ #*,!  $




    !) #" $ 






1 2
1
1
mv =
m(u v)2 + m(v + u)2
2
2
2
1 2
1
1
2
mu + mv + m(uv v u)
+ m 2 (u2 + v 2 ).
=
2
2
2

1
2

R\6R\=?N?N1I]:6TZ*!N?IKZi9n=?ZT5>R03;KI]Z I<5 ZT8!3h5y98033b]IKZLR06


(

21 = (u + )2 + v 2
22 = (u 1 + )2 + v 2 .


vICNR0c!67R03c!=1I]39n:L6T8!zN1[]JmICmV;K8!67LZdZKPabK;]67= 5i98!3;
8@P

((u, v)

I]Z|5:n3L-805>IK3h5>=?IKNI  I];<5>= 98033bALSR06

# _ /a`0` %

1
.
U = (u2 + v 2 )
2
1
2

L
u
L
v
L
u
L
v

= mu mv

# _ /a`h_ %

= mv + mu
U
= mv
u
U
= mu
v

# _ /a`! %

U
=0
u

m
v + mu + mu + m
=0
v

= 2v
u
u

v
= 2u
v

# _ /a`hD %
# _ /a`!V %

1
mU (u, v)
L = m(u 2 + v 2 ) + m(uv v u)
2


# _ /a`n. %

m
u mv mv + m

ZT8!=15

# _ /a`h %

<: BQ U  ;4:8!3CL-I]:n5R06T67= !I]6d;KI]ZbK:R\5>=18!3ZLSR06N1I]Z p8067J{:N1I]ZR0z=157:I]N1N?IKZ9IN PaR0;K;]b]N1b]67R\5>=18!3


I]3=?3n;]N?:R03h5dN?I]Z57I]6TJMIKZi9 PaIK3)576>R ?3I]JmI]3h5iIK5d9nIfg8067=?80N?=?ZK/
fg8!JmJMIMN?IMNR0c!67R03c!=1I]33I9bKL IK39 LSR0Z{I GnLnN?=?;K=157I]JmI]3h5{9: 57I]JmLZ*!=1NY R :3I =13h5>b]c06>R0N1I
L6TI]Jm=?[]6TI 
L
L
;K57I
h(u, v, u,
v)
= u
+ v
L =
u
v
# _ /Q`he %

mu m6 uv
+ mv + m6 uv
1
1
# _ /a`! %
mu mv m6 uv + m6 v u + mU (u, v) = E
2
2

1 
# _ /E_\ %
u + v + mU (u, v) = E .
2m




. n.
w3m; nI]67; nI9IKZZ78!N1:n5>=18!3Z 57I]N1N?I]Z :nIiN1I;]8067LZ9IJMR0ZTZ7I Z78!= 5lR0:67IKL 8!Z9R03ZN?Ig67bKpbK67IK3
5>=1I]N (0uv) L:=1Z7):PQ=?N980=15,1<5>67IA:3IC9=1ZT5 R\3;]I nG IC9I mm IK5 m ! u, v = 0 /
fg8!JmJMIB9SR03ZON1I; R\Zw9:L6T8!zN?[KJMI D;]8!6TLZ*! Z7= 803Z7ILN?R0;]I:3I<G5>6TI]J{:nJ 9I !N?R
5>67R TI];<5>8!=167IO9PQb]3IK67c!=1I E = mU ;K8!676TI]ZTL 8!3n9' u = v = 0 !Z78!= 5 u, v = ;]8!3nZT5 R\3)57I0/ U
fgI]6T; 8!3Z98!3;CN1I]ZI<G5767I]J:JMZd9I U /l24N?ZdZ7803)5i98033b]ZdLSR\6
  

  )*


,*     -!

R !I];
U
u
U
v

Z78!= 5

# _/E_ . %

U
=0
u
U
=0
v


1 1
1 1
2(u + )
2(u 1 + )
3
2 1
2 32
1

= v + v 3 + v 3
1
2
= u (+1 )

# _/E_\` %

U
= v f (u, v)
v
!
1
1
U

= u f (u, v) + (1 ) 3 3

u
1 2

R !I];

f (u, v) = 1

.  ; R0Z

# _ /W_!D %
# _/E_0V %

3.
3
1
2

/ v&R JR\Z7Z7I m IKZT5 R\N?=?c03b]I R !IK; m IK5 m / w3R = |u + | !


/24NSR0:n5; IK67; IK6gN?IKZ I G5>67IKJ{:JmZl9IN?RCp803;K57=?8!3 g(u) 98033b]ILSR06
1

1
# _/E_!_ %
g(u) = u

v = 0
2 = |u 1 + |

w6*!

|u + |

|u 1 + |

# _ /E_\ %

2
2(1 )

< 0 u
3
|u + |
|u i + |3
u u u 1

g 00 (u) = 1

-L 8!:6
!
!
/
V I<G5>6TI]J{:JmZ*!g:3L-8!:6 u < !:3
L-8!:6 < u < 1 I<5:3
L 8!:n6

/
>1
D  ;]R0Z  v 6= 0 /mxyN?8067*Z ! f = 0 /v&R 9I]:Gn=1[]JmIMbK):SR\5>=18!3 =?JmL 8!ZTI = /8!ZT8!3Z
/vlPQb]):SRt5>=?803 f = 0 98!33I
= =
IK5

g(u)

3 = 0
3

3
= 1 = 1.
1

vI]ZiVmR0ZT5767I]Zp8!6TJMIK3h5d:35767=?R03c!N1Iwb]):=1NR\57b]6>R\N DL-8!=13)57Zd9PabK):=?N1=?z6TI0/

# _ /W_! %

,. hD

  -!% *:$+ #*,!  $     !) #" $ 
F3N?=13b R\67=?Z7R03h5mN PQSR0Jm=?N1578!3=1I]3 R0:n578!:6M9I ;KI]Z L-8!=?3h5>Z !8!3L-I]: 59bKJM8!3h5767I]6M):Pa=1N?ZMZ78!3h5
ZT5>R0zN1I]ZdZ7= 27(1 ) < 1 /
wR03nZiN1IO; R0Zd9:ZTYZ|5>[]JmIX 8!N?IK=?N 0:L= 5>IK*6 !




mJ
= 0.000954.
mS + m J

fgIK5T5>IC;]8039=157=?8!3 IKZT5iNR06Tc!I]JmI]3h56TI]JmLN?=1I0/




 /!1    &-    - /  




v 8!67ZT):Pa:n3 ZTYZT57[]JmIOI]ZT5g=?3h5>bKc!6>R\zN?I/! N1IJm8!:n0I]JmI]3h5dRN1=?I]:mZ7:n6:3Iy\R06T=?b<5>bi9Iw9=1JMIK3Z7=18!3


):=RNR578!L-8!N?8!c0=?Ii9Pa:n3 578!67I\/fgI]N?R=1JML-8!ZTIwR0: Jm8!:n!IKJMIK3h5d:3IO;]IK6T5>R0=?3IO6Tb]c!:nNR06T=15>b 
n
N?IOJm8!:n0I]JmI]3h5iI]Z|5J:N157=?L-b]67=18 9n=?):IiI]3 5>I]6TJMIC9IKZ0R\67=R\zN?IKZR03c!N1I]ZK/
80:6CN?I]ZOZ|YZT5>[KJMIKZB3n8!3=13h5>b]c06>R0zN1I]Z N PQ=?JmJmI]3ZTI{JR7T8!67= 5>b , 8!3 3IL-I]:n5ALSR0ZC;]R06>R0;
5>bK67=1Z7I]6N?IBJM8!: !I]JmI]3h5CMN PaR0=?9IC9IB0R\67=R\zN?IKZ;K8!3ZT5>R03h5>IKZO8!:'L-b]67=18 9n=?):I]ZK/O80:6yZTIR0=?6TI
:3I=?9bKI9nIN?R 6Tb]c!:N?R067= 5>b 8!:
9IN PaR0zZTI]3;KI 9I67bKc!:NR\67=157b 9: JM80:n!IKJMIK3)*5 !=?NdIKZT5
;]80JMJm8 9nIw9IO5>67R0;]IK6i;KIC: Pa8!3R0LL-I]N1N?Iw:n3I9X : <L ?7DFO8: DF? O  Q U </lfgI<575>IC38\5>=?803IKZT5iLSR06
5>=1;]:N1=?[K67I]JmI]3h5:n57=?N?IiL-8!:69I]ZZ|YZT5>[KJMIKZdDA9nI]c!6Tb]Z9IyN?=?z-I]6|5>b\/fg8!3ZT=?9bK678!3nZ:3Z|Y Z|5>[KJMI
R0:n578!38!JmIO9bK;]67= 5dLSR06N1IOSR0Jm=?N1578!3=1I]3
1
# _ /W_0e %
p + p + V (x, y),
H=
IK5w;]8!3ZT=?9bK678!3nZwN PQhY L-I]6TLNR\3'9 b 3= 2mLSR\6 y = 0 /CX =N PQ8!3';K8!3Z7=19[]6TI{:3I8!67z= 5>IB98!33bKI{IK5
):PQ8!3{NRdZ7:n=15 R0:{;]80:67Z9:B57I]JmL*Z !!N PaIK3Z7IKJ{zN1I 9IKZ L-8!=?3h57Z (x, p ) 8!zn57I]3):ZH; SR\:nIgp8!=?Z&):I
;]803ZT57=15>:nIy;KIw):Pa803 R0LL-I]N?N1I:n3IJX : <L ?7DFO8: DF? O  Q U </HfgIy5>IK67JmIy9IyZ7I];<5>=18!3=?IK3)5
y=0
9ICN PQbK57:9IO9ICZ|Y Z|5>[KJMIKZ=13)57b]c!67R0zN1I]Z]/ wR03Zd;]IC;]R0ZdN?IwJm8!:n0I]JmI]3h5RN1=?IK: Z7:6:3 5>8067"I !nIK5
NR{ZTI];<5>=?803 9IA8!=13; R06Tbw;]806767IKZ7L-8!39{N PQ=?3h5>IK67ZTI];K57=?8!3 9nIA;KIw5>8!6TICR !I];CN PahYL IK67LN?R03 y = 0 /
X =N?IKZAp6Tb]):I]3n;]I]Z IK5 Z78!3h5{=13;]80JMJmI]3ZT:6>R\zN?IK*Z !NR Z7I];<5>=18!3 ZTI]6>RL678!c067I]ZTZ7= !I]JmI]3h5
67IKJMLnN?=?I IK3Z7:n=1\R03h5:n3I ZTI]:N1I8!6Tz=157I ; R06MN?I JM80:n!IKJMIK3)5M3PQI]Z|5LSR0ZML bK67=18 9=1):I0/ R06
;]803)5767/I ! ZT=IKN?N1I]ZdZ78!3h5;]8!JmJmI]3ZT:6>R0znN?I]Z !SN?ICJm8!:n!IKJMIK3h5yIKZT5L bK67=?89=1:n"I !SIK58!33IC5>6780:n!I
):PQ:3 380J{z67I 3=9ICL 80=?3h5>ZIK3ZT:=1\R03h5i:3IC8!6Tz=157IO98!33bKI0/
wR03nZmN1I; R\Z9I ZTYZT57[]JmI]Zm38!3 =?3h5>bKc!6>R\zN?IK*Z !N PQI<G L-b]6T=?I]3n;]I L6780:n!I ):I 9IK: G Z7= 5>:SRt5>=?803Z
Z7803)5iL-8!Z7ZT=?zN1I]Z 
N?RyZ7IK;K57=?8!3;K8!676TI]Z7L-8!39R03h5lw:3I8!6Tz=157Ig6TI]ZT57I:3I;K8!:6Tz Izn=?I]39n b S3=1I9SR03nZN?IgLnNR03

/O3LSR06TN?IO9I BDF;
:<B:<O LMU  ; C ?7:<U /
(x, p )
N?R Z7IK;K5>=18!3 ;]8!6T67IKZ7L-8!39SR03h5 :3I8!6Tz=157I;]8!6T67IKZ7L-8!39 :3@IK3Z7IKJ{zN1I9I L 8!=13h5>Z

6Tb]LSR06|5>=1Z 9I"R .]8!3MI]6T6>R\57=?):Iy9R03ZN1ILN?R03 (x, p ) /lw3LSR06TN?Ii9I9BDF;


:<B:<O L  0QD 
L ?  ;4:</


2
x

2
y

. !V

   *,!'       - +*,!- !'






8!:n6i:n3ICb]3IK67c!=1IA9n8!33bKI"!s8!3 L IK:n5iZ7IO5>6T8!:n0I]6i9SR03ZdN PQ:3 9IKZd57678!=1Z; R0ZdZT:=1\R03h5>Z


8!:n57I]ZiN?I]Z8067z= 5>I]ZZT8!3h5i67b]c0:N?=1[]67IKZ]/

24NY R;K8 I Gn=1ZT57I]3;KIB9PQ8!6Tz=157I]Z67bKc!:N1=?[]6TI]ZI<59 Pa8!6Tz=157I]Zd; SR08\5>=?):IKZ]/

8!:n57I]ZiN?I]Z8067z= 5>I]ZZT8!3h5i; SR08057=?):I]ZK/

3I<G IKJMLN1I;]N?R0Z7ZT=?):IIKZT5;]IKN?:= 9:JM89[]N1Ig9I


ib]380 3 
iI]=?N1I]ZH9n b S3=SLR06HN?IgSR0Jm=?N1578!3=1I]3

H=


1
1 2
px + p2y + x2 + y 2 + x2 y y 3 .
2
3

vI]Zd;]8!:n67z-I]Zi9PabK3I]6Tc!=?ICL-805>IK3h5>=?IKN?N1Iy;]803ZT5>R03h5>IA8!3h5N?Rp8!67JmIOZ7:n=1\R03h5>I

R0=1Z

L-IK5>= 5

E=0
E
1
E=
6

x=y=0
x2 + y 2 = 2E

;]IK67;]N1I]Zi9IC6>R Y!803

1 2 1 2
1
1
x + y + x2 y y 3 =
2
2
3 
6

1 1 2 1 3
1
+y =
y + y .

x2
2
6 2
3




1
1
1
+y
+ y + y 2
2
3
3
1
1 2 1
1
=
+ y + y + y + y 2 + y 3
6 2
6
3
3

1 1 2 1 3
y + y =
6 2
3

y8!3;/!sL 8!:n6


1
2
=
=
2
3
3

1
1
1 1
2

+=
= =
6
2
2 6
3
1

E=
6




1
1
1
x2
+y =
+y
(1 y)2
2
2
3

y
=

!8!3R

8!:

1y
x=

8!:

y1
x=
3

2E

,. 0`

  -!% *:$+ #*,!  $    
fgIK5T5>IC;]80:67z-IC9b S3n=15i:3 5>67=?R03c!N1IybK:n=?NRt5>b]67R0NIK3)5767ICN?IKZdL 8!=13h5>Z


3 1
B=
,
,
2
2

A = (0, 1),

!) #" $ 



C=

3 1
.
,
2
2

HenonHeiles Contours denergie


1.3

E=1/6
0.8

0.3

0.2

0.7

0.5

0.5

X =8!3'b<5>:9=1IN1I]ZiZ7I];<5>=18!3Zw9I8!=13; R\67b;K8!676TI]ZTL 8!3n9SR03h5CM9nI]Zw8!6Tz=157I]Zdp8!67Jmb]IKZy9PQb]3nI]67c0=?I


1 !8!3Z]PaR0L-I]6 .]8!= 5d:nIAN1IO;]8!JmL-8!6T57I]JmI]3h5d9b]L-I]3n9p8!6|5>I]JmI]3h5d9ICN PabK3I]6Tc!=?I\/
E
6
1
 L67R\5>=1:nI]JmI]3h5C5>8!:n57I]ZAN?IKZO8!67z= 5>IKZA;K8!39:n=?Z7IK3h5{ 9IKZBZTI]!;
' 0.083

E
57=?8!3nZz=?IK39n b S3=1I]Z
12
1
L67R\5>=1:nI]JmI]3h55>8!: 5>I]ZdN1I]Zd8!67zn=15>IKZZ78!3h5i; SR08\5>=?):IKZ

E = ' 0.167
6
v&R L-I]67ZT=?Z|5 R03;KI'9I'ZTI];<5>=?803Zz=1I]3 9!b S3=?IKZL-8!:69nI]Z ZTYZ|5>[]JmI]Z 3n8!3 =?3h5>bKc!6>R\zN?IKZR b<5>b
L6T8!:n!bKI 9SR\3ZM;KI]6|5 R0=13Z; R0ZmLSR06 8!N1JM80c!8!678, !lxy6T38!N?9 I<5 80Z7I]6 !):=d8!3h59n8!33bN?IK:6
38!J :35>bK8!67[KJMI9n=159L  DFU A<B:  ZT=H8!3L-I]6T57:67z-I:3 ZTYZ|5>[]JmI=?3h5>bKc!6>R\zN?IBLSR06
:3 5>IK67JmI H (q, p) :n=ON?I'6TI]39 38!3 =?3h57b]c!67R0zN?/I !N1I]Z578!67IKZ =?3h\R067=?R03h5>ZL-8!:6 N1I]Z7):IKN?Z
N?IKZp6Tb]):I]3n;]I]ZOZT8!3h5OZ7: MZ7R0JmJMIK3)5y=?3;K8!JmJMIK3Z7:67R0zN1I]ZiL IK67Z7=1ZT57I]3h5OL-8!:6  Z7: mZ>R\JMJmI]3h5
L-IK5>= 5 /






 $%& n*o#p+-"&  #  *,+-" + %&r  "+-"   #p 


H
= x 2yx
x
H
= y x2 + y 2
p y =
y
x = px
y = py
p x =

. h_

   *,!'       - +*,!- !'






HenonHeiles

E=.085333

0.4

0.2

px

0.2

0.4

0.5

0.5

HenonHeiles

E=.148

0.5

px

0.5

0.5

0.5

wR03Z N?Ii; R0Z9I


b]3n8!3 
iI]=1N?I]Z !)L 8!:n6 E L I<5>= 5 N PaR0JM=1N1578!3=?IK3{I]Z|5:3nIyL-IK5>= 5>IdL-I]6T57:67zR\5>=18!3
LSR06O67R0LL-8!6T5A H = 1 (p + p + x + y ) !&):=I]Z|5Az=?IK3 Z 6C=?3h5>bKc!6>R\zN?I\/w3ZKPWRt575>IK39
98!3;A{5>6T8!:n0I]6iI]3;K8!672IC9IKZ8!6Tz=157I]Z6Tb]c!:N1=?[K67I]ZN18!67ZT):I E I]ZT5yR0ZTZ7I*<CL-IK57=15 /
 :<BQ U  ; :  wR03ZN?I 67b<pb]67IK3h5>=?IKNB9n: ;]IK3h5>67I9I JMR0ZTZ7I"!OI<5 L-8!:69IKZ JMR0Z7ZTI]Z bKchR0N1I]Z*!
N PQSR0Jm=?N 5>8!3=1I]3M9IC89SRL IK:n5 1K5767IC67bK9:=15i 
1
1
1
# _/E_0 %
H = (p + p ) +
e
+e
+e
.


2
x

2
x

2
y

2
y

24

2y+2 3x

2y2 3x

4y

.,!

  -!% *:$+ #*,!  $    
R0=?ZT8!3Z:39b<!I]N18!LL-I]JmI]3h5i9I]ZiI<G L-8!3IK3)57=?IKN?N?IKZdR0:V   !8 6T967I\/24N =1I]3h5


e2y+2

e2y2

3x

3x

3x

!) #" $ 



1
= 1 + 2y + 2 3x + (4y 2 + 8 3yx + 12x2 )
2


1 3
+ 8y + 3 4y 2 2 3x + 3 2y 12x2 + (2 3x)3
6
1
=
x
x3

N?RJ ]JmI ; 8!ZTI"!iJR\=?ZmN?I]Zm5>IK67JmI]ZIK3 IK5


8!LL-8!ZTb]Z

e4y = 1 4y +

xyN18!67Z
e2y+2



+ e2y2

3x

Z7803)5

# _ /W0 %

# _ /W . %
# _ /W!D %
# _ /W0V %

1
1
16y 2 64y 3
2
6

+ e4y

8
64
8
= 3 + 2y 2 + 2y 2 + 8y 2 + 6x2 + 6x2 + y 3 + y 3 y 3 + 12yx2 + 12yx2
6
6
6
= 3 + 12y 2 + 12x2 8y 3 + 24yx2

# _ /W\` %

xy: 5>6T8!=?ZT=?[KJMIw806796TI"!8!3 5>6T8!:n0IA9n8!3;


1
1 2
px + p2y + x2 + y 2 + x2 y y 3 .
2
3

H=

fyPQI]ZT5I<GnR0;<5>IKJMIK3)5N?IyJM89[]N1IO9I bK38!3 I]=1N?IKZ ,


w*6 !N1IJm89[]N1I9nI5>89SR I]Z|5=?3h57b]c!67R0zN?I/!IK5MN?IJm8 9[KN?I 9I
b]3n8!3 
iI]=1N?I]Zm3IN PQI]ZT5MLSR0ZK/

=1ZT578!67=1:nI]JmI]3h)5 !!803Rw9PWR\z 8!6T967I]JMR06T:nb):IdN?I]Z Z7I];<5>=18!3Z9Id8!=?3;]R067bgbK5 R\=?I]3h5H578!: T8!:n67Z


67bKc!:N1=?[]6TI]ZL-8!:6N1IOJM89[]N1Iw9IC8 9SRmR \R03h5d9IBLn678!:n0I]6d):PQ=?NbK5>R0=15=?3h5>bKc!6>R0znN?I0/

 
 1 3 */  -  9 R/.-  1  J/  / 



vI]Z Z7IK;K57=?8!3Z 9I 8!=?3;]R067b L-I]6TJMI<575>IK3h59nI JmIK5T5>6TII]3 bK=?9IK3;]I 91=  bK67IK3)57Z;K8!JmL 8!6|5>I
mJ I]3h5>Z !nJMR0=?ZI]N1N?I]Z3Iw9n8!33IK3)5LSR0Z:3nIw=?9bKIyL6Tb];K=?Z7Iy9I]Z;K8!3ZTb]):I]3n;]I]Zi9I;]I]Z9n=  b]67IK3h5>Z
;]80JML-8!6T57I]JmI]3h5>ZK/lv&R{;]8!3ZTb]):IK3;]IBNRLN1:Zp6>R\LLSR03h5>Iy9ICN PaR0LLSR06T=157=?8!3m9: ; SR08!Z !S;0PQI]Z|5dNR
p8!6|5>IAZ7I]3nZ7=?zn=?N?= 5>bO9IBN PQbK08!N?:n57=?8!3 9:ZTYZT57[]JmI5>I]JmLZN?8!3cmLSR06d67R0LL-8!6T5yR0: G;K8!39= 5>=?803Z
=?3n=15>=?R0N?IKZ]/
fg8!3ZT=?9bK678!3nZL 80:6g;K8!JMJmI]3n;]I]6 :3 ZTYZ|5>[]JmIw9nY3SR\JM=1:nIO.w9IKc!67by9IyN1=?z-I]6T57b9nb];]6T=15gLSR06
N PQb]):SRt5>=?803 9Pab<!8!N1:n5>=18!3 
IK5Z7:LL-8!ZT8!3Zd):ION?IwJm8!:n0I]JmI]3h5d67IKZT57IOxz =8!6T3Fb0(x)
/l8!:6:3nIO;]8!39n=15>=18!3=13=157=R0N1Id98!33bKI !
NRZT8!N?:n57=?8!3 IKZT538057b]I  x(t) = (x ) /X:LL-8!Z78!3nZ):PQ8!3 LR06T57IA9nI x + x !sIK5i380578!x3Z
N?I S8\5d;]8!6T67I]ZTL 8039SR03h5 / vPabK):SR\5>=18!3 L 80:6 y(t) Z]PQb];K67= 5 
y(t) = (x + x )
0

dy
= F (y).
dt

. h
IKZT5CZT: mZ>R0JmJMIK3h5wL-IK5>= 5)! 8!3

   $    $ *  )* !   *%$ ! *






X = x(t) x(t) IKZT5CL-IK5>= 5)!-;]I{):=Z7IK6>RN?IA; R\ZwZ7= x


L IK:ny(t)
5ib];K67=?6TI



dy
= F (x(t) + x(t)) = F (x(t)) +F 0 (x(t))x(t)
| {z }
dt

# _ /ah_ %

= dx
dt

d
(x)
dt

x

x(t)


ln

x0
x(t)

x0

= F 0 (x(t))x(t)
= F 0 (x(t))
=

t
0

F 0 (x(t))dt

= exp
!

# _ /W0 %

F 0 (x(t))dt

vPaI GnL-8!Z7R03h5y9IAvYhR\L 8!:n38, I]Z|5y9b S3=LSR\6


0

1Z t 0
1 x(t)
.
lim
F (x(t))dt = lim ln
x0
t+ t 0
t+ t

# _/Wh %

X = I<G =?Z|5>I/!!IK5 I]ZT5H9=  b]6TI]3h5H9Ig


!!L-8!:69I]Z5>I]JmLZ5>67[KZ N18!3c!Z x(t) ZTI;]8!JmL-8!6T57I ;K8!JMJmI 
# _/W!e %
x(t) x e .
SL-8!=?3h5dR\ZTYJML 5>8057=?):I]JmI]3h5iZT5>R0zN1I
<0
S9= !IK67c!IK3;]ICI<G L-8!3IK3)57=?IKN?N?I
; SR\8!Z]/
>0

 :<BQ U  ;
:  3IB; SR03c!ILSR0ZwZT= 8!3 R\=15:3'; SR03nc!I]JmI]3h5O9IB0R\67=R\zN?I\/8!:6wN1IB08!=?6 ! N1I
LN?:nZiZT=?JmLN?IyI]ZT5i9IC;K8!3Z7=19b]6TI]6dNR0I]6TZ7=?8039=1Z7;K67bK57=?ZTb]IC9:L678!znN?[]JmI 
0

x = F (x) x(t + dt) x(t) = F (x)dt


xn+1 = xn + F (xn ) dt .

3 IC5>IKN?N1IA6TI]N?R\5>=18!3 9IA67b];K:676TI]3;KIZKPWR0LnL IKN?N?IC:3nIBZT:=157IBIK3 JMR\5>bKJRt5>=?):I/!JMR0=?Z9SR\3Z;KI


;]8!3h57I<G5>IA8!3LSR067N1IO9PEQ<S&SVC ?  Q L ?7DFOS/
8!:n6i:n3IO5>I]N1N?ICR0LnLN?=1; R\57=?8!03 !8!3R 
R,0I]; f f . . . f
x = f (x )
 
x f (x + x ) f (x ) = (f ) (x )x .
R0=1Z
|

{z

f (xn )

{z

n 0

0
h
i 
d
(f . . . f ) = f 0 f n1 (x0 ) f n1 (x0 )
dx
= f 0 (xn1 )f 0 (xn2 ) . . . f 0 (x0 )
xn

= f 0 (xn1 ) . . . f 0 (x0 ).
x0

.,!e

  -!% *:$+ #*,!  $     !) #"
R\6R\3SR0N?80c!=?IyR,0I];ANR0I]67ZT=?8!3;]8!3h57=?3):I"!S8039nb S3= 5iN PQI<G L 80Z>R03h5d9IAvYhR0L-8!:3n8o LR06




Y

1 n1
ln
f 0 (xj )
= lim
n+ n
j=0

!8 : = lim 1 ln |f (x )| .
n
X = 8!3 I  IK;K5>:nIB:3; SR03nc!I]JmI]3h5i9IO\R067=?R0zN?I x = g(y ) 8!3R 
n1
X

n+

Z780=15

# _ /E0D %

yn = g 1 f g (yn1 )

{z

  

# _ /W0 %
# _ /W . %

g(yn ) = f (g(yn1))

# _ /E\ %

j=0

$ 

F n = g 1 f g g 1 f g . . . g 1 f g
| {z }






= g f g
g F = fn g
g 0 (yn )(F n )0 (y0 ) = (f n )0 (x0 )g 0 (y0 )
n

F 0 (yn1 ) . . . F 0 (y0 ) = f 0 (xn1 ) . . . f 0 (x0 )

# _ /E\V %

g 0 (y0 )
.
g 0 (yn )

R0=1*Z !ZT=wN?IJM80:n!IKJMIK3)567I]Z|5>Iz-8!673nb"!d;]I'):=98!= 5 <1 5>67I N?I ;]R0ZZT=y8!30I]:n5 9b!S3=16:3


I<G L-8!Z>R\3)59IAvYhR0L-8!:3n8o !


1 g 0 (y0 )
ln 0
lim
=0
g (yn )
n+ n

N PQI<G L 80Z>R03h5i9IAvYhR0L-8!:38, IKZT5N?IOJ ]1 JmI0/

&K*#" % #p%rt&qsroM&'# r,*,


X =8!3R0LnL IKN?N?I A (~x ) NR{JMR\5>6T=?;KIw9b 3=?ICLSR06
p

fi
A (~xp )ij =

xj ~x=~xp


8!3RNR{c!bK3b]67R0N?=1Z>R\57=?8!3=1JMJmb]9n=R\57I

~xp = f~(~xp1 )

X =8!3 38\5>I ), . . . , (N ) N?IKZB\R0N1I]:6TZL6T8!L67IKZ{9IN?RJMR\5>6T=?;KI


N?IKZI<G L-8!Z>R03h57Z(N
9IBvYhR0L-8!:3n8oZ78!3h5i9b 3=?ZdLSR06

~xN = (A (~xN 1 ) . . . A (~x0 )) ~x0 .

1
ln |i (N )| .
N + N

i = lim

A (~xN 1 ) . . . A (~x0 )

fyPQI]ZT5N?IOLnN?:Zc!67R039 9IKZI GnL-8!Z7R03h5>Zi:n=;]8!3h5>6T8!N?ION Pab<!8!N1:n5>=18!3 L-8!:6 N c!6>R\39/

# _ /W\` %

. !

  + $ ) ' #*,! ' ' ,   $ '  !  




S m r,*o#h%#prt 4A K*#"   S #  *,+-"#p"


8!:n6wN?IKZwZTYZT57[]JmI]ZO;K8!3Z7IK6T\R\57=1pZ*! IK5OIK3LSR06T57=?;K:N?=1I]6dL 80:6wN?IKZyZ|Y Z|5>[KJMIKZAR0JM=1N1578!3=?IK3Z*!sN?R
Z78!JmJmIi9nI]ZI<G L 80Z>R03h5>Z 9IvY!R0L-8!:38,I]Z|5g3):N1N?I\/HF3I  I<)5 !NRO;]8!3n9=157=?8!39Ii;]8!3nZ7I]6|\R\5>=18!3
9: !8!N1:JMIOZKPabK;]6T=15 det A (~x ) = 1 = 1 /
R06R0=?N1N?IK:67Z ! ZT=:3
ZTYZT57[]JmI'I]Z|5=?3h57b]c!67R0zN?/I ! 578!:ZN1I]ZMI<G L 80Z>R03h5>Z9I vY!R0L 80:38,
ZT8!3h5
3):N?ZK/fg8!3Z7=19b]6T8!3ZBI]3 I  I<5:3 ZTYZT57[]JmIL-8!:6AN?I]):IKN 803L-I]:n567bKZ78!:9n67IN PabK):SR\5>=18!3 9I

yR0Jm=?N 5>8!
3 !R0;K8!z= / wR03nZiN1I]Z380:n!IKN?N?IKZ0R\67=R\zN?IK*Z !nN1I]Zdb]):SRt5>=?803Zd9: JM8!: !I]JmI]3h5iZ7803)5

P i = 0
Q i = 0.

80:ZN?IKZgI GnL-8!Z7R03h5>Z9IOvY!R0L 80:38,ZT8!3h5dR0=13Z7=s3):N?ZK/lvI]ZI GnL-8!Z7R03h5>Z9IOvY!R0L 80:38,ZT8!3h5


:3I z-8!33I JmI]ZT:67I 9n: ; R08!Z]/24N?Z{ZT8!3h5m3:nN?Z{L-8!:6{N1I]ZZ|Y Z|5>[KJMIKZm=13h5>b]c06>R0zN1I]Z !IK5=?N1ZN1I
67IKZT5>IK3h5L-8!:6O9IKZCL I<5>=157I]ZOL-I]6|5>:6TzSR\5>=18!3Zy5>R03h5C):Pa8036TI]ZT57IL67[KZA9 Pa:3 ZTYZ|5>[]JmI98!3h5AN?IKZ
p67bK:nI]3;KI]ZyZT8!3h5iZ7: mZ>R\JMJmI]3h5i=?3;K8!JmJMIK3Z7:67R0zN1I]Z]/


&-  1  9 -    9 03' -  / 5 -  - -*3V-  +  - 


wR03ZN?IKZZ|YZT5>[KJMIKZ 9=1Z7ZT=?LSR\57=1pZ !t803L-8!:6767R0=15&L-I]3nZ7I]6):I N?RZ7=157:SR\57=?8!3Cc!bK3b]67R0N?I;]8!6T67IKZ7L-8!39


:3 I  8!396TI]JmI]3h5iZ7:6d:3 L-8!=?3h5 nG ICZT5>R0zN1I0/lv&R67b R\N?=157byIKZT5i3IK5T5>IKJMIK3)5iLN1:Z;]80JMLN1I<G I0/
yI]:G'R\:n5>6TI]ZyLnb]380JM[K3I]Z ! ):=&Z7803)55>8!:nZ9IK: G9IKZyJMR03=1pIKZT5>R\5>=18!3Z9:; SR08!Z ! L-I]:n0I]3h5
R0LLSR\6>R 15>67I 
z= p:67;]R\5>=18!3ZZT:;];KI]ZTZ7=10I]ZwLn:=?ZiR0LLR067= 5>=?8039IC; SR08!Z

R\5T5>67R0;K57I]:6TZib<5>67R03c!IKZ]/



 # ! n*,#+-" +sq-# <*o# $ % h*  # 4%&r\! *o#+-"


v8!67ZT: Pa8!3 ; SR\3c!I:3 8!:LN1:Z7=1I]:6TZwLSR067R0Jm[K5>6TI]Z !=?NL IK:n5CZ7ILn6789:=?6TI;KI: Pa8!3 R0LnL IKN?N?I
9I]Z ? W; U  Q L ?7DFO0X :3nI8!6Tz=157IB6Tb]c!:N1=?[K67ICZ7IBZ7b]LR067IBI]3'9IK: G 8!: IK3'LN?:nZ7=?IK:67Zi8!6Tz=157I]Z]/iX=
;]ICLbK38!Jm[]3IAZ7IC6TI]L6T8 9:n=15d=?3n9b S3n=?JmI]3h5)!=1N ;K8!39:= 59n:; SR\8!Z]/
vPaI GnIKJMLnN?ICN?IOLN1:Z;]8033): I]Z|5i;]I]N1:=9ICN P Q<S&SVC ?  Q L ?7DFO CED ?EX<L ?  ;4: 


DF? O L X  = : X


xn+1 = 4xn (1 xn ).

x = 4x (1 x )

(1)

x = 0
1 4 4x x(2)
= 1

1
.
4

.!.,

  -!% *:$+ #*,!  $     !) #" $ 
 L7Q ? C ? L   yR03ZgN1Iy;]R0Zg9PQ:3IwR0LLN1=?; Rt5>=?8030!hN PQb]):SR\57=?8!3MN?=13b R06T=?ZTb]IiR0:n578!:6g9 Pa:3L 8!=13h5 nG I
;]8039:= 5i 
# _ /E0_ %
x x = f (x )(x
x ) = (f (x ) ) (x x )
vICL 8!=13h5 nG IBIKZT5i98!3n;AZ|5 R0znN?IOZ7=&I<5dZ7I]:nN?I]JmI]3h5iZ7= |f (x )| < 1 !Z780=15 1 < f (x ) < 1 /
80:6dN PaR0LLN1=?; Rt5>=?803N?80c!=?Z|5>=?):/I ! f (x) = 8x + 4
ZT5>R0zN?IOZT= |4| < 1 < 1
f x
= 4 x


n1



(2)




X<; BDFO0X

(1)

x(2)

ZT5>R0zN?IOZT=
I<5ZT=

(1)

= 8 + 2 + 4 = 4 + 2
3
4 + 2 > 1 <
4
1
4 + 2 < 1 > .
4

Z|5 R0znN?I

1
x = 0
4
1
3
1
<<
x = 1
4
4
4

> 3/4
<

ZT5 R\zN?I

w:ICZ7ICLSR0ZTZ7I 5 =?NN18!67ZT):I
wR03nZ{:3 L6TI]Jm=?I]6A5>IKJMLZ !H;]IL 8!=13h5 nG I98033IN1=?I]:'!HLSR06B:3Iz= p:67;]R\5>=18!30! :3 ;KY;KN?I
9PQ8!679n67IBD !):=&98!3n3ICN?:= 4J 1]JmI3SR\=?Z7Z7R03;KIB:3;KY;]N1IC9Pa806796TIA`
!IK5R0=13Z7=9nIAZT:=157I0/
3 
 <CE: 8 DFU+8 U : n I]ZT5:n3 I]3ZTI]J{zN1I 9I L-8!=?3h5>Z nG I]Z9I f = f . . . f 57I]N1Z{):I
!
/vIw38!Jz67I9Iw;KY;KN?I]Zg9IK=?IK3h5=?3 3= ):SR\39
x = f (x ) x = f (x ), . . . , x = f (x )
R\5T5>I]=13h5dNR\R0N?IK:6 = 0.89 . . ./xy:9I]N?
!N1IOZTYZT57[]JmIB9I<=?I]3h5i; SR08\5>=?):I\/
vPaI G L 8!Z7R03h5O9IvY!R0L 80:38, IKZT5O3nb]chR\57=1L-8!:6
! I<5O=?N&IKZT5OL-8!Z7= 5>= R0 : 9I]N?
!-Z>R0:n
L-8!:6):I]N1):I]ZdpI]3 1<5>6TI]Zd8!: 9IC38!:n0I R0:G ;KY;]N1I]ZR0L<LSR\6>R0=1Z7Z7IK3h5 /lF3LR06T57=?;]:nN?=?IK*6 !8!3 L IK:n5
9bKJM8!3h5767I]6d):IC):SR039 = 1 ! = ln 2 /
 <BDFO0X<L U+Q L ?7DFO  R0=?ZT8!3ZN1IO; SR03c!IKJMIK3h5y9IO\R06T=R0zN1I
1

x = (y + 1)


(n)

2
yn+1 = 2xn+1 1
xn+1 = 4xn (1 xn ) = (yn + 1)(1 yn ) = 1 yn2
yn+1 = 1 2yn2 .

R0=?ZT8!3Z9ICLN1:ZN?IO; R03c!IKJMIK3)59IO\R067=?R0zN1I

y = sin

sin n+1 = 1 2 sin2 n = cos(2n )

n+1 = 2n + .
2

fg8!JmJMIg;0PQI]ZT5l:n3I5>67R03ZTp8067JMR\5>=18!3{N?=13b R\=?67I/!\803mIK39b]9:n=15=1JMJmb]9=?R\5>IKJMIK3h5 ):I

= ln 2

.0.!.

  + $ ) ' #*,! ' ' ,   $ '  !  




Application logistique
1

x1=0.2

x1000x1050

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

]* *,ro S0*,%rt{h*,ro S"&qs 


wR03Z N PQI<G I]JmLN1IiLn67b];Kb]9IK3h5)!N1I]ZR\57576>R0;<5>IK:67ZZ78!3h5g;]8!3Z|5>= 5>:bKZ 9PQ:33n8!J{z6TI 3= 9nIL-8!=?3h57Z
):=&Z78!3h5R\5757I]=13)57ZZ7:;K;]IKZ7Z7= !IKJMIK3)5OR0: ;]8!:6TZ9nIAN Pa= 5>bK6>R\57=?8!3/ R0=1Z=?NI Gn=1ZT57IA9nI]ZiZTYZT57[]JmI]Z
):= L-8!ZTZ7[]9nI]3h59IKZR\5T5>6>R\;K5>IK:67Z LN?:nZ ;K8!JMLnN?=?):bKZ]/ Fl3LSR06T57=?;K:N?=1I]6*!h=1NSI<G =?Z|5>I9I]Z ZTYZT57[]JmI]Z
L 80:6N1I]Z7):IKN?Z{N PWRt575>67R0;K57I]:6B;]8!3nZ7=?Z|5>IIK3 :3 380J{z67I=?3 S3n= 9IL 8!=13h5>ZA:n=;]8!3nZT5>= 5>:IM:3
I]3ZTI]J{znN?IC9IC9=?JmI]3nZ7=?803p6>R0;<5 R0N1I #38!3 IK3)57=?[K67I % / O3LSR06TN?IO9PEQ L L U+Q <LN:<; U <L U+Q O :</
. = :<B SVCE: lR0LnLN?=1; R\57=?8!39nI
ib]3803


xi+1 = yi ax2i + 1
yi+1 = bxi .

v&R c!:67IC;K8!676TI]Z7L-8!39 R0: G LR06>R0Jm[K5767IKZdR&6{.!/a`I<5z 6C /WVn/


vI]Z5>bK8!67=1I]ZiR0;<5>:IKN?N?IKZ9ICNR{5>:n67z:N1I]3;KICZ78!3h5izSR0ZTb]I]ZiZ7:n6i;KI]Zi9I]:G =?9bKI]Z
ZT:=157IA=13 S3=1Iw9ICz= p:67;]R\5>=18!3Z R0LLSR06T=157=?8!39n:; SR\8!Z
R\5T5>67R0;K57I]:6dbK576>R03nc!I0/

8!:n6iLnN?:Zd9IC9b<5 R0=1N?Z*!!8!=16;]8!:n67Zd9IC` 
 R033bKI hY ZT=?):IA38!3N?=13b R0=167IIK5i; SR08!Z)6\/


.!.oD




 -!% *:$+ #*,!  $




    !) #" $ 






Application de Henon Attracteur Etrange


0.4

0.2

0.2

0.4