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Q: what are important parameter of power saving in GSM?

Ans: Discontinuous transmission Minimizing co-channel interference is a goal in any cellular system, since it allows better service for a given cell size, or the use of smaller cells, thus increasing the overall capacity of the system. Discontinuous transmission (DTX) is a method that takes advantage of the fact that a person speaks less that 40 percent of the time in normal conversation [22], by turning the transmitter off during silence periods. An added benefit of DTX is that power isconserved at the mobile unit. The most important component of DTX is, of course, Voice Activity Detection. It must distinguish between voice and noise inputs, a task that is not as trivial as it appears, considering background noise. If a voice signal is misinterpreted as noise, the transmitter is turned off and a very annoying effect calledclipping is heard at the receiving end. If, on the other hand, noise is misinterpreted as a voice signal too often, the efficiency of DTX is dramatically decreased. Another factor to consider is that when the transmitter is turned off, there is total silence heard at the receiving end, due to the digital nature of GSM. To assure the receiver that the connection is not dead, comfort noise is created at the receiving end by trying to match the characteristics of the transmitting end's background noise.

Discontinuous reception Another method used to conserve power at the mobile station is discontinuous reception. The paging channel, used by the base station to signal an incoming call, is structured into sub-channels. Each mobile station needs to listen onlyto its own sub-channel. In the time between successive paging sub-channels, the mobile can go into sleep mode, when almost no power is used. All of this increases battery life considerably when compared to analog

Q: What is handover Reversion

1. HO COMMAND is received by the MS 2. HO ACCESS is sent to the target cell 3. but no answer from the target cell. After a while (timer expiry), the MS will try to go back to previous cell. If reversion succesful, then there is a ho failure without drop If reversion failed, then there is a ho failure with drop.

Q:Define the freq. hopping parameters?


Frequency Hopping Parameters

GSM defines the following set of parameters:

Mobile Allocation (MA): Set of frequencies the mobile over. Maximum of 63 frequencies can be defined in the MA list.





Hopping Sequence Number (HSN): Determines the hopping order used in the cell. It is possible to assign 64 different HSNs. Setting HSN = 0 provides cyclic hopping sequence and HSN = 1 to 63 provide various pseudo-random hopping sequences. Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO): Determines inside the hoppingsequence, which frequency the mobile starts do transmit on. The value of MAIO ranges between 0 to (N-1) where N is the number of frequenciesdefined in the MA list. Presently MAIO is set on per carrier basis.

Motorola has defined an additional parameter, FHI. Hopping Indicator (FHI): Defines a hopping system, made up by an associated set of frequencies (MA) to hop over and sequence of hopping (HSN). The value of FHI varies between 0 to 3. It is possible to define all 4 FHIs in a single cell. Motorola system allows to define the hopping system on a per timeslot basis. So different hopping configurations are allowed for different timeslots. This is very useful for interference averaging and to randomize the distribution of errors.

Q:Why TSC must be equal to BCC????????

Training Sequence Code, this optional parameter specifies the Training Sequence Code of the radio channel. The TSC is part of the 'Normal Bursts' which are used for all channel types except RACH,SCH and FCCH. The TSC for the BCCH must correspond to the BCC (part of the BSIC sent on the SCH, so that the MS can derive the TSC of the BCCH from the SCH. This is necessary for the correct selection and decoding of the BCCH bursts, especially if within a limited geographical area a frequency is usedseveral times. If no value is entered for the parameter TSC the BCC is automatically selected.

Q:What are the reason of TCH Drop due to bad quality Uplink

Probable reasons for poor Uplink Quality 1. Poor Frequency plan (TCH) 2. Interference in UL 3. Overshoot of neighboring cells. 4. Poor Level on the UL. 5. Fault in TCH TRX 6. Codec issues. 7. Transmission related issues. 8. Boosters/Repeater related issues. 9. External interferences Restricted area/Electronics equipment Factory/Jammers. Uplink Quality Checkpoints 1. Poor Frequency Plan a. Always resolve DL quality issues before attempting to correct the UL. 2. Interference in UL a. Avoid using Co & adjacent TCH frequencies in the same cell or site. b. Avoid using co TCH on neighboring cells. c. Wrong values of the HSN or MAIO/MAIO Offset. i. Do not reuse HSN in nearby sites. ii. Review MAIO & MAIO Offsets as per the TCH plan(1x1, 1x3, adhoc etc). d. In cases where intra-cell handovers are allowed, interference will cause a lot of intra-cell handovers thus degrading the UL & DL quality 3. Overshooting of neighboring cells. a. TCH reuse becomes tight is theres a lot of overshooting of nearby cells. Allow only 1 or up to 3 dominant servers only. b. Reduce the overshooting of neighboring cells. 4. Poor level on the uplink a. Possible coverage problem. b. Rx Level Versus Rx Quality distribution per TRX on a cell. c. TMAs can be used judiciously used to enhance UL level. 5. Fault in TCH TRX a. Check the alarm printouts. b. (BTS UL Quality history at 24 Hour/10 day resolution). Check if the BTS is within defined interference boundary limits & for how long it has been out of limits of acceptable interference. c. BTS Analyzer. Check if the BTS is within defined interference boundary

limits. d. Path balance for TCH TRXs 6. Codec Issues a. AMR related quality issues. b. AMR related parameter settings. Check if the Codec (AMR/Non-AMR) settings are OK. c. Check if the BTS s/w version is OK & supports the codec. d. If the problem is with many sites in a BSC then that BSCs parameter file needs to be checked/updated. 7. Transmission related issues. a. Check the BSC ET availability & Quality profile . b. Check the TCSM ET availability and quality,. c. Check the QOS 8. Boosters/Repeater related issues. a. Check for repeaters and/or booster installations. Check for spillage of the repeater signals in areas not intended to be covered. b. If repeaters are a problem( you will know once you switch off the repeater for a short duration), adjust the gain of repeater c. Adjust the repeater antenna & orient it to closest serving cell. DO NOT latch a repeater with a DISTANT dominant cell. 9. External Interferences a. If you suspect external interference on single TRX, lock the TRX & see if the problem persists. If the problem is resolved then the TRX or its implementation is at fault. b. If you suspect external interference on the entire site, Lock the site & scan the area served by the site for potential interferers. Somebody may be transmitting the same frequencies in the serving area of affected site. c. Workaround: If you indeed found an interferer over which you have no control, try allocating a different frequency (beyond 2 MHz). Theres a high probability that the frequency which is being severely interfered now will no longer be interfered after frequency change.

Q: What are the reason of Handover reversion?

Reasons for the HO reversion are 1) Co-Bsic and BCCH combinations are there in network so this type of problems occurs. 2)May be some issues in Target cells like Path imbalance. 3)Improper HO parameter settings. 4)Wrong Neighbour definition.. 5) Interference on the target cell