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1.1 Definition A transformation is a general term for four specific ways to manipulate the shape of a point, a line, or shape.

The original shape of the object is called the pre-image and the final shape and position of the object is the image under the transformation. 1. 2 Type of transformation a) Translation In Euclidean geometry, a translation is moving every point a constant distance in a specified direction. It is one of the rigid motions (other rigid motions include rotation and reflection). A translation can also be interpreted as the addition of a constant vector to every point, or as shifting the origin of the coordinate system.









The shape still looks exactly the same, just in a different place. b) Rotation In geometry and linear algebra, a rotation is a transformation in a plane or in space that describes the motion of a rigid body around a fixed point. A rotation is different from a translation, which has no fixed points, and from a reflection, which "flips" the bodies it is transforming. A rotation and the above-mentioned transformations are isometrics; they leave the distance between any two points unchanged after the transformation. It is important to know the frame of reference when considering rotations, as all rotations are described relative to a particular frame of reference. In general for any orthogonal transformation on a body in a coordinate system there is an inverse transformation which if applied to the frame of reference results in the body being at the same coordinates. For example in two dimensions rotating a body clockwise about a point keeping the axes fixed is equivalent to rotating the axes counterclockwise about the same point while the body is kept fixed.

To rotate an object you need a center of rotation and how much you want to rotate it. By convention, positive rotations go counter clockwise, and negative rotations go clockwise. "Rotation" means turning around a center: The distance from the center to any point on the shape stays the same. Every point makes a circle around the center. C )Enlargement An enlargement is a transformation which changes the size of an object without changing its shape, rather as a projector enlarges the details of a photographic slide onto a screen. An enlargement of a diagram can be constructed by first drawing lines from a point O, the center of enlargement, through points of the figure such as A, B and C, then marking off the image points A 1 B1 C1 so that OA1 = kOA, OB1 = kOB where k is the scale factor of the enlargement. In the example shown, triangle ABC has been enlarged with scale factor k = 2. (k is sometimes known as the linear scale factor). The center of the enlargement may be a point outside the object, inside it, or on its boundary. Also the scale factor can be negative. In this case it is still true that for every point P its image point P1 is given by OP1 = kOP But it still looks similar:

all angles stay the same relative sizes are the same (for example the face and body are still in proportion)

d) Reflection In mathematics, a reflection (also spelled reflexion) is a mapping that from an Euclidean space to itself that is an isometry with a hyperplane as set of fixed points; this set is called the axis (in dimension 2) or plane (in dimension 3) of reflection. The image of a figure by a reflection is its mirror image in the axis or plane of reflection. For example the mirror image of the small Latin letter p for a reflection with respect to a vertical axis would look like q. It image by reflection in a horizontal axis would look like b. A reflection is an involution: when applied twice in succession, every point returns to its original location, and every geometrical object is restored to its original state. The term "reflection" is sometimes used for a larger class of mappings from an Euclidean space to itself, namely the non-identity isometries that are involutions. Such isometries have a set of fixed points (the "mirror") that is an affine subspace, but is possibly smaller than a hyperplane. For instance a reflection through a point is an involutive isometry with just one fixed point; the image of the letter p under it would look like a d. This operation is also known as a central inversion (Coxeter 1969, 7.2), and exhibits Euclidean space as a symmetric space. In a Euclidean vector space, the reflection in the point situated at the origin is the same as vector negation. Other examples include reflections in a line in three dimensional space. Typically, however, unqualified use of the term "reflection" means reflection in a hyperplane. A figure which does not change upon undergoing a reflection is said to have reflectional symmetry. A reflection is a kind of transformation. It is basically a 'flip' of a shape over the line of reflection.