Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 6

he Eye The Eye (see diagram of Vertical Section of the Eye in the textbook) Sclera: tough outer white

layer of the wall of the eye. Cornea: transparent 'window' of the eye - does about 60% of the focussing of light on the retina. Iris: the coloured sheet of muscle in front of the lens - controls the pupil size so controls entry of light. Pupil: a hole in the iris letting light into the back of the eye. Ciliary Body: a ring of muscle controlling the shape of the lens. Suspensory Ligaments: transfer the pull of the ciliary body to the lens. Lens: accommodation - the fine adjustment to the focussing of light onto the retina. Retina: light sensitive layer of rods and cones converting light into nerve impulses. Fovea or Yellow Spot: a tiny area of densely packed cones for detailed and coloured vision. Choroid: a black-pigmented layer preventing internal reflection of light. Blind Spot: exit point of the optic nerve cutting through the retina so no rods or cones here. Optic Nerve: carries the impulses from the rods and cones to the visual centre of the brain. Aqueous Humour: a clear liquid in front of the lens maintaining the shape of the cornea. Vitreous Humour: a clear jelly offering support and shape to the back of the eye. Iris Controls the Pupil Size in response to the Light Conditions A. B. Bright Light - small pupil reducing the amount of light entering the back of the eye. The iris radial muscle fibres relax and the circular muscle fibres contract. Dim Light - dilated pupil allowing more light to enter the back of the eye. The iris circular muscle fibres relax and the radial fibres contract.

Comparing Rods and Cones of the Retina 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Rods more numerous: 120 million rods per eye, six million cones. Different distribution: fovea only contains cones, cones less numerous throughout the rest of the retina. Rods operate in dim light only; cones only operate in bright light. Rods give white, black and grey vision; cones give coloured visions. Cones give much more detailed visual detail in bright light than rods in dim light. Rods use rhodopsin as their visual pigment, cones use iodopsin.

The Role of the Lens in Accommodation The curvature of the lens dictates its focal length, i.e., the angle of refraction. The lens is elastic: if pulled it stretches, its curvature decreases, its focal length increases, the angle of refraction is less. When released it recoils elastically to a more rounded shape, its focal length decreases, the angle of refraction is greater. A. To View 1. 2. 3. 4. a Close Object The light rays are divergent (spreading apart) so they have to be refracted over a large angle. The ciliary muscle contracts reducing the diameter in that part of the eye. The pull on the elastic lens, through the ligaments, decreases and the lens recoils into a more rounded shape. The angle of refraction increases bringing the divergent light rays to a focus on the retina.

B.

To View 1. 2. 3. 4.

a Distant Object The light rays are parallel so they have only to be refracted over a small angle. The ciliary muscle relaxes causing the diameter on that part of the eye to increase. The pull on the elastic lens, through the ligaments, increases and the lens stretches causing it curvature to flatten. The angle of refraction decreases bringing the parallel light rays to a focus on the retina.

Note: another version of accommodation deals with the changed position of ligament insertion in the wall of the eye.