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Ishmaelite Stories Ishmaels Birth Genesis 16:117:27: 1 Now Sarai Abrams wife bare him no children: and she

had an handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar. 2 And Sarai said unto Abram, Behold now, the LORD hath restrained me from bearing: I pray thee, go in unto my maid; it may be that I may obtain children by her. And Abram hearkened to the voice of Sarai. 3 And Sarai Abrams wife took Hagar her maid the Egyptian, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan, and gave her to her husband Abram to be his wife. 4 And he went in unto Hagar, and she conceived: and when she saw that she had conceived, her mistress was despised in her eyes. 5 And Sarai said unto Abram, My wrong be upon thee: I have given my maid into thy bosom; and when she saw that she had conceived, I was despised in her eyes: the LORD judge between me and thee. 6 But Abram said unto Sarai, Behold, thy maid is in thy hand; do to her as it pleaseth thee. And when Sarai dealt hardly with her, she fled from her face. 7 And the angel of the LORD found her by a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur. 8 And He said, Hagar, Sarais maid, whence camest thou? and whither wilt thou go? And she said, I flee from the face of my mistress Sarai. 9 And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Return to thy mistress, and submit thyself under her hands. 10 And the angel of the LORD said unto her, I will multiply thy seed exceedingly, that it shall not be numbered for multitude. 11 And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and shalt call his name Ishmael; because the LORD hath heard thy affliction. 12 And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every mans hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren. 13 And she called the name of the LORD that spake unto her, Thou GOD seest me: for she said, Have I also here looked after Him That seeth me? 14 Wherefore the well was called Beer-lahairoi; behold, it is between Kadesh and Bered. 15 And Hagar bare Abram a son: and Abram called his sons name, which Hagar bare, Ishmael. 16 And Abram was fourscore and six years old, when Hagar bare Ishmael to Abram. 1 And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am the Almighty GOD; walk before Me, and be thou perfect. 2 And I will make My covenant between Me and thee, and will multiply thee exceedingly. 3 And Abram fell on his face: and God talked with him, saying, 4 As for Me, behold, My covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be a father of many nations. 5 Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for a father of many nations have I made thee. 6 And I will make thee exceeding fruitful, and I will make nations of thee, and kings shall come out of thee. 7 And I will establish My covenant between Me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee. 8 And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land wherein thou art a stranger, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their God. 9 And God said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep My covenant therefore, thou, and thy seed after thee in their generations. 10 This is My covenant, which

ye shall keep, between Me and you and thy seed after thee; Every man child among you shall be circumcised. 11 And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of the covenant betwixt Me and you. 12 And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every man child in your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed. 13 He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised: and My covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant. 14 And the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken My covenant. 15 And God said unto Abraham, As for Sarai thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall her name be. 16 And I will bless her, and give thee a son also of her: yea, I will bless her, and she shall be a mother of nations; kings of people shall be of her. 17 Then Abraham fell upon his face, and laughed, and said in his heart, Shall a child be born unto him that is an hundred years old? and shall Sarah, that is ninety years old, bear? 18 And Abraham said unto God, O that Ishmael might live before Thee! 19 And God said, Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son indeed; and thou shalt call his name Isaac: and I will establish My covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, and with his seed after him. 20 And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation. 21 But My covenant will I establish with Isaac, which Sarah shall bear unto thee at this set time in the next year. 22 And He left off talking with him, and God went up from Abraham. 23 And Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and all that were bought with his money, every male among the men of Abrahams house; and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin in the selfsame day, as God had said unto him. 24 And Abraham was ninety years old and nine, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 25 And Ishmael his son was thirteen years old, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 26 In the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son. 27 And all the men of his house, born in the house, and bought with money of the stranger, were circumcised with him. Hagar, Ishmaels Mother Genesis 21:921: 9 And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had born unto Abraham, mocking. 10 Wherefore she said unto Abraham, Cast out this bondwoman and her son: for the son of this bondwoman shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac. 11 And the thing was very grievous in Abrahams sight because of his son. 12 And God said unto Abraham, Let it not be grievous in thy sight because of the lad, and because of thy bondwoman; in all that Sarah hath said unto thee, hearken unto her voice; for in Isaac shall thy seed be called. 13 And also of the son of the bondwoman will I make a nation, because he is thy seed. 14 And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took bread, and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and the child, and sent her away: and she departed, and wandered in the wilderness of Beer-

sheba. 15 And the water was spent in the bottle, and she cast the child under one of the shrubs. 16 And she went, and sat her down over against him a good way off, as it were a bowshot: for she said, Let me not see the death of the child. And she sat over against him, and lift up her voice, and wept. 17 And God heard the voice of the lad; and the angel of God called to Hagar out of heaven, and said unto her, What aileth thee, Hagar? fear not; for God hath heard the voice of the lad where he is. 18 Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him in thine hand; for I will make him a great nation. 19 And God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water; and she went, and filled the bottle with water, and gave the lad drink. 20 And God was with the lad; and he grew, and dwelt in the wilderness, and became an archer. 21 And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran: and his mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt. Isaac and Ishmael Bury Abraham Genesis 25:811: 8 Then Abraham gave up the ghost, and died in a good old age, an old man, and full of years; and was gathered to his people. 9 And his sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, which is before Mamre; 10 The field which Abraham purchased of the sons of Heth: there was Abraham buried, and Sarah his wife. 11 And it came to pass after the death of Abraham, that God blessed his son Isaac; and Isaac dwelt by the well Lahai-roi. Esau Takes Ishmaelitish Wives Genesis 28:89: 8 And Esau seeing that the daughters of Canaan pleased not Isaac his father; 9 Then went Esau unto Ishmael, and took unto the wives which he had Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael Abrahams son, the sister of Nebajoth, to be his wife. Josephs Brothers Sell Him to Ishmeelites Genesis 37:136; 39:12: 1 And Jacob dwelt in the land wherein his father was a stranger, in the land of Canaan. 2 These are the generations of Jacob. Joseph, being seventeen years old, was feeding the flock with his brethren; and the lad was with the sons of Bilhah, and with the sons of Zilpah, his fathers wives: and Joseph brought unto his father their evil report. 3 Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the son of his old age: and he made him a coat of many colours. 4 And when his brethren saw that their father loved him more than all his brethren, they hated him, and could not speak peaceably unto him. 5 And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told it his brethren: and they hated him yet the more. 6 And he said unto them, Hear, I pray you, this dream which I have dreamed: 7 For, behold, we were binding sheaves in the field, and, lo, my sheaf arose, and also stood upright; and, behold, your sheaves stood round about, and made obeisance to my sheaf. 8 And his brethren said to him, Shalt thou indeed reign over us? or shalt thou indeed have dominion over us? And

they hated him yet the more for his dreams, and for his words. 9 And he dreamed yet another dream, and told it his brethren, and said, Behold, I have dreamed a dream more; and, behold, the sun and the moon and the eleven stars made obeisance to me. 10 And he told it to his father, and to his brethren: and his father rebuked him, and said unto him, What is this dream that thou hast dreamed? Shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth? 11 And his brethren envied him; but his father observed the saying. 12 And his brethren went to feed their father's flock in Shechem. 13 And Israel said unto Joseph, Do not thy brethren feed the flock in Shechem? come, and I will send thee unto them. And he said to him, Here am I. 14 And he said to him, Go, I pray thee, see whether it be well with thy brethren, and well with the flocks; and bring me word again. So he sent him out of the vale of Hebron, and he came to Shechem. 15 And a certain man found him, and, behold, he was wandering in the field: and the man asked him, saying, What seekest thou? 16 And he said, I seek my brethren: tell me, I pray thee, where they feed their flocks. 17 And the man said, They are departed hence; for I heard them say, Let us go to Dothan. And Joseph went after his brethren, and found them in Dothan. 18 And when they saw him afar off, even before he came near unto them, they conspired against him to slay him. 19 And they said one to another, Behold, this dreamer cometh. 20 Come now therefore, and let us slay him, and cast him into some pit, and we will say, Some evil beast hath devoured him: and we shall see what will become of his dreams. 21 And Reuben heard it, and he delivered him out of their hands; and said, Let us not kill him. 22 And Reuben said unto them, Shed no blood, but cast him into this pit that is in the wilderness, and lay no hand upon him; that he might rid him out of their hands, to deliver him to his father again. 23 And it came to pass, when Joseph was come unto his brethren, that they stript Joseph out of his coat, his coat of many colours that was on him; 24 And they took him, and cast him into a pit: and the pit was empty, there was no water in it. 25 And they sat down to eat bread: and they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a company of Ishmeelites came from Gilead with their camels bearing spicery and balm and myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt. 26 And Judah said unto his brethren, What profit is it if we slay our brother, and conceal his blood? 27 Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmeelites, and let not our hand be upon him; for he is our brother and our flesh. And his brethren were content. 28 Then there passed by Midianites merchantmen; and they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the Ishmeelites for twenty pieces of silver: and they brought Joseph into Egypt. 29 And Reuben returned unto the pit; and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit; and he rent his clothes. 30 And he returned unto his brethren, and said, The child is not; and I, whither shall I go? 31 And they took Josephs coat, and killed a kid of the goats, and dipped the coat in the blood; 32 And they sent the coat of many colours, and they brought it to their father; and said, This have we found: know now whether it be thy sons coat or no. 33 And he knew it, and said, It is my sons coat; an evil beast hath devoured him; Joseph is without doubt rent in pieces. 34 And Jacob rent his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his son many days. 35 And all his sons and all his

daughters rose up to comfort him; but he refused to be comforted; and he said, For I will go down into the grave unto my son mourning. Thus his father wept for him. 36 And the Midianites sold him into Egypt unto Potiphar, an officer of Pharaohs, and captain of the guard. Genesis 39:12: 1 And Joseph was brought down to Egypt; and Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, captain of the guard, an Egyptian, bought him of the hands of the Ishmeelites, which had brought him down thither. 2 And the LORD was with Joseph, and he was a prosperous man; and he was in the house of his master the Egyptian.

Ishmaelite Cities Are Among Judahs Inheritances Joshua: 15:5152: 51 And Goshen, and Holon, and Giloh; eleven cities with their villages: 52 Arab, and Dumah, and Eshean, 53 And Janum, and Beth-tappuah, and Aphekah, The Golden Earrings of the Ishmaelites Judges 8:2228: 22 Then the men of Israel said unto Gideon, Rule thou over us, both thou, and thy son, and thy sons son also: for thou hast delivered us from the hand of Midian. 23 And Gideon said unto them, I will not rule over you, neither shall my son rule over you: the LORD shall rule over you. 24 And Gideon said unto them, I would desire a request of you, that ye would give me every man the earrings of his prey. (For they had golden earrings, because they were Ishmaelites.) 25 And they answered, We will willingly give them. And they spread a garment, and did cast therein every man the earrings of his prey. 26 And the weight of the golden earrings that he requested was a thousand and seven hundred shekels of gold; beside ornaments, and collars, and purple raiment that was on the kings of Midian, and beside the chains that were about their camels necks. 27 And Gideon made an ephod thereof, and put it in his city, even in Ophrah: and all Israel went thither a whoring after it: which thing became a snare unto Gideon, and to his house. 28 Thus was Midian subdued before the children of Israel, so that they lifted up their heads no more. And the country was in quietness forty years in the days of Gideon. Solomon Receives Goods From the Kings of Arabia I Kings 10:15: 14 Now the weight of gold that came to Solomon in one year was six hundred threescore and six talents of gold, 15 Beside that he had of the merchantmen, and of the traffick of the spice merchants, and of all the kings of Arabia, and of the governors of the country. II Chronicles 9:1314: 13 Now the weight of gold that came to Solomon in one year was six hundred and threescore and six talents of gold; 14 Beside that which chapmen and merchants brought. And all the kings of Arabia and governors of the country brought gold and silver to Solomon.

Ishmeelite Was the Father of Amasa I Chronicles 2:17: 17 And Abigail bare Amasa: and the father of Amasa was Jether the Ishmeelite. Reubenites Make War with the Hagarites I Chronicles 5:122: 1 Now the sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel, (for he was the firstborn; but, forasmuch as he defiled his fathers bed, his birthright was given unto the sons of Joseph the son of Israel: and the genealogy is not to be reckoned after the birthright. 2 For Judah prevailed above his brethren, and of him came the chief ruler; but the birthright was Josephs:) 3 The sons, I say, of Reuben the firstborn of Israel were, Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi. 4 The sons of Joel; Shemaiah his son, Gog his son, Shimei his son, 5 Micah his son, Reaia his son, Baal his son, 6 Beerah his son, whom Tilgath-pilneser king of Assyria carried away captive: he was prince of the Reubenites. 7 And his brethren by their families, when the genealogy of their generations was reckoned, were the chief, Jeiel, and Zechariah, 8 And Bela the son of Azaz, the son of Shema, the son of Joel, who dwelt in Aroer, even unto Nebo and Baalmeon: 9 And eastward he inhabited unto the entering in of the wilderness from the river Euphrates: because their cattle were multiplied in the land of Gilead. 10 And in the days of Saul they made war with the Hagarites, who fell by their hand: and they dwelt in their tents throughout all the east land of Gilead. 11 And the children of Gad dwelt over against them, in the land of Bashan unto Salchah: 12 Joel the chief, and Shapham the next, and Jaanai, and Shaphat in Bashan. 13 And their brethren of the house of their fathers were, Michael, and Meshullam, and Sheba, and Jorai, and Jachan, and Zia, and Heber, seven. 14 These are the children of Abihail the son of Huri, the son of Jaroah, the son of Gilead, the son of Michael, the son of Jeshishai, the son of Jahdo, the son of Buz; 15 Ahi the son of Abdiel, the son of Guni, chief of the house of their fathers. 16 And they dwelt in Gilead in Bashan, and in her towns, and in all the suburbs of Sharon, upon their borders. 17 All these were reckoned by genealogies in the days of Jotham king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam king of Israel.18 The sons of Reuben, and the Gadites, and half the tribe of Manasseh, of valiant men, men able to bear buckler and sword, and to shoot with bow, and skilful in war, were four and forty thousand seven hundred and threescore, that went out to the war. 19 And they made war with the Hagarites, with Jetur, and Nephish, and Nodab. 20 And they were helped against them, and the Hagarites were delivered into their hand, and all that were with them: for they cried to God in the battle, and He was intreated of them; because they put their trust in Him. 21 And they took away their cattle; of their camels fifty thousand, and of sheep two hundred and fifty thousand, and of asses two thousand, and of men an hundred thousand. 22 For there fell down many slain, because the war was of God. And they dwelt in their steads until the captivity.

Obil the Ishmaelite Presides Over the Camels in Davids Reign I Chronicles 27: 30: 30 Over the camels also was Obil the Ishmaelite: and over the asses was Jehdeiah the Meronothite:

Arabians Bring Jehoshaphat Flocks II Chronicles 17:1011: 10 And the fear of the LORD fell upon all the kingdoms of the lands that were round about Judah, so that they made no war against Jehoshaphat. 11 Also some of the Philistines brought Jehoshaphat presents, and tribute silver; and the Arabians brought him flocks, seven thousand and seven hundred rams, and seven thousand and seven hundred he goats. Arabians Come Against Jehoram II Chronicles 21:1622:1: 16 Moreover the LORD stirred up against Jehoram the spirit of the Philistines, and of the Arabians, that were near the Ethiopians: 17 And they came up into Judah, and brake into it, and carried away all the substance that was found in the kings house, and his sons also, and his wives; so that there was never a son left him, save Jehoahaz, the youngest of his sons. 18 And after all this the LORD smote him in his bowels with an incurable disease. 19 And it came to pass, that in process of time, after the end of two years, his bowels fell out by reason of his sickness: so he died of sore diseases. And his people made no burning for him, like the burning of his fathers. 20 Thirty and two years old was he when he began to reign, and he reigned in Jerusalem eight years, and departed without being desired. Howbeit they buried him in the city of David, but not in the sepulchres of the kings. 1 And the inhabitants of Jerusalem made Ahaziah his youngest son king in his stead: for the band of men that came with the Arabians to the camp had slain all the eldest. So Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah reigned. God Helps Uzziah Against the Arabians II Chronicles 26:37: 3 Sixteen years old was Uzziah when he began to reign, and he reigned fifty and two years in Jerusalem. His mothers name also was Jecoliah of Jerusalem. 4 And he did that which was right in the sight of the LORD , according to all that his father Amaziah did. 5 And he sought God in the days of Zechariah, who had understanding in the visions of God: and as long as he sought the LORD , God made him to prosper. 6 And he went forth and warred against the Philistines, and brake down the wall of Gath, and the wall of Jabneh, and the wall of Ashdod, and built cities about Ashdod, and among the Philistines. 7 And God helped him against the Philistines, and against the Arabians that dwelt in Gur-baal, and the Mehunims.

Geshem the Arabian, and Other Arabians, Try to Interfere With the Rebuilding of the Temple Nehemiah 2:1820: 18 Then I told them of the hand of my God which was good upon me; as also the kings words that he had spoken unto me. And they said, Let us rise up and build. So they strengthened their hands for this good work. 19 But when Sanballat the Horonite, and Tobiah the servant, the Ammonite, and Geshem the Arabian, heard it, they laughed us to scorn, and despised us, and said, What is this thing that ye do? will ye rebel against the king? 20 Then answered I them, and said unto them, The God of heaven, He will prosper us; therefore we His servants will arise and build: but ye have no portion, nor right, nor memorial, in Jerusalem. Nehemiah 4:715: 7 But it came to pass, that when Sanballat, and Tobiah, and the Arabians, and the Ammonites, and the Ashdodites, heard that the walls of Jerusalem were made up, and that the breaches began to be stopped, then they were very wroth, 8 And conspired all of them together to come and to fight against Jerusalem, and to hinder it. 9 Nevertheless we made our prayer unto our God, and set a watch against them day and night, because of them. 10 And Judah said, The strength of the bearers of burdens is decayed, and there is much rubbish; so that we are not able to build the wall. 11 And our adversaries said, They shall not know, neither see, till we come in the midst among them, and slay them, and cause the work to cease. 12 And it came to pass, that when the Jews which dwelt by them came, they said unto us ten times, From all places whence ye shall return unto us they will be upon you. 13 Therefore set I in the lower places behind the wall, and on the higher places, I even set the people after their families with their swords, their spears, and their bows. 14 And I looked, and rose up, and said unto the nobles, and to the rulers, and to the rest of the people, Be not ye afraid of them: remember the LORD , Which is great and terrible, and fight for your brethren, your sons, and your daughters, your wives, and your houses. 15 And it came to pass, when our enemies heard that it was known unto us, and God had brought their counsel to nought, that we returned all of us to the wall, every one unto his work. Nehemiah 6:19: 1 Now it came to pass, when Sanballat, and Tobiah, and Geshem the Arabian, and the rest of our enemies, heard that I had builded the wall, and that there was no breach left therein; (though at that time I had not set up the doors upon the gates;) 2 That Sanballat and Geshem sent unto me, saying, Come, let us meet together in some one of the villages in the plain of Ono. But they thought to do me mischief. 3 And I sent messengers unto them, saying, I am doing a great work, so that I cannot come down: why should the work cease, whilst I leave it, and come down to you? 4 Yet they sent unto me four times after this sort; and I answered them after the same manner. 5 Then sent Sanballat his servant unto me in like manner the fifth time with an open letter in his hand; 6 Wherein was written, It is reported among the heathen, and Gashmu saith it, that thou and the Jews think to rebel: for which cause thou

buildest the wall, that thou mayest be their king, according to these words. 7 And thou hast also appointed prophets to preach of thee at Jerusalem, saying, There is a king in Judah: and now shall it be reported to the king according to these words. Come now therefore, and let us take counsel together. 8 Then I sent unto him, saying, There are no such things done as thou sayest, but thou feignest them out of thine own heart. 9 For they all made us afraid, saying, Their hands shall be weakened from the work, that it be not done. Now therefore, O God, strengthen my hands. Job Mentions Tema Job 6:1421: 14 To him that is afflicted pity should be shewed from his friend; but he forsaketh the fear of the Almighty. 15 My brethren have dealt deceitfully as a brook, and as the stream of brooks they pass away; 16 Which are blackish by reason of the ice, and wherein the snow is hid: 17 What time they wax warm, they vanish: when it is hot, they are consumed out of their place. 18 The paths of their way are turned aside; they go to nothing, and perish. 19 The troops of Tema looked, the companies of Sheba waited for them. 20 They were confounded because they had hoped; they came thither, and were ashamed. 21 For now ye are nothing; ye see my casting down, and are afraid. Arabians Present at Pentecost in Acts Acts 2:113: 1 And when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place. 2 And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. 3 And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them. 4 And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance. 5 And there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, out of every nation under heaven. 6 Now when this was noised abroad, the multitude came together, and were confounded, because that every man heard them speak in his own language. 7 And they were all amazed and marvelled, saying one to another, Behold, are not all these which speak Galilaeans? 8 And how hear we every man in our own tongue, wherein we were born? 9 Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judaea, and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia, 10 Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes, 11 Cretes and Arabians, we do hear them speak in our tongues the wonderful works of God. 12 And they were all amazed, and were in doubt, saying one to another, What meaneth this? 13 Others mocking said, These men are full of new wine. Paul Went to Arabia Galatians 1:1518: 15 But when it pleased God, who separated me from my mothers womb, and called me by His grace, 16 To reveal His Son in me, that I might preach him among the heathen; immediately I conferred not with flesh and

blood: 17 Neither went I up to Jerusalem to them which were apostles before me; but I went into Arabia, and returned again unto Damascus. 18 Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to see Peter, and abode with him fifteen days. 19 But other of the apostles saw I none, save James the Lords brother. Paul Mentions Isaac and Ishmael Galatians 4:2131: 21 Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do ye not hear the law? 22 For it is written, that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bondmaid, the other by a freewoman. 23 But he who was of the bondwoman was born after the flesh; but he of the freewoman was by promise. 24 Which things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants; the one from the mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, which is Agar. 25 For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth to Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children. 26 But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all. 27 For it is written, Rejoice, thou barren that bearest not; break forth and cry, thou that travailest not: for the desolate hath many more children than she which hath an husband. 28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. 29 But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. 30 Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. 31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.

Ishmael in the Psalms and Song of Solomon Psalm 83:118: 1 A Song or Psalm of Asaph. Keep not Thou silence, O God: hold not Thy peace, and be not still, O GOD. 2 For, lo, Thine enemies make a tumult: and they that hate Thee have lifted up the head. 3 They have taken crafty counsel against thy people, and consulted against Thy hidden ones. 4 They have said, Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance. 5 For they have consulted together with one consent: they are confederate against Thee: 6 The tabernacles of Edom, and the Ishmaelites; of Moab, and the Hagarenes; 7 Gebal, and Ammon, and Amalek; the Philistines with the inhabitants of Tyre; 8 Assur also is joined with them: they have holpen the children of Lot. Selah. 9 Do unto them as unto the Midianites; as to Sisera, as to Jabin, at the brook of Kison: 10 Which perished at En-dor: they became as dung for the earth. 11 Make their nobles like Oreb, and like Zeeb: yea, all their princes as Zebah, and as Zalmunna: 12 Who said, Let us take to ourselves the houses of God in possession. 13 O my God, make them like a wheel; as the stubble before the wind. 14 As the fire burneth a wood, and as the flame setteth the mountains on fire; 15 So persecute them with Thy tempest, and make them afraid with Thy storm. 16 Fill their faces with shame; that they may seek Thy name, O LORD . 17 Let them be confounded and troubled for ever; yea, let them be put to shame, and perish: 18 That men may know that Thou, Wose name alone is YAHVEH , art the Most High over all the earth. To the chief musician upon Gittith. Psalm 120:15: 1 A Song of degrees. In my distress I cried unto the LORD , And He heard me. 2 Deliver my soul, O LORD , from lying lips, And from a deceitful tongue. 3 What shall be given unto thee? or what shall be done unto thee, Thou false tongue? 4 Sharp arrows of the mighty, With coals of juniper. 5 Woe is me, that I sojourn in Mesech, That I dwell in the tents of Kedar! 6 My soul hath long dwelt with him that hateth peace. 7 I am for peace: but when I speak, they are for war. Song of Solomon 1:16:1 The song of songs, which is Solomons. 2 Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth: for thy love is better than wine. 3 Because of the savour of thy good ointments thy name is as ointment poured forth, therefore do the virgins love thee. 4 Draw me, we will run after thee: the king hath brought me into his chambers: we will be glad and rejoice in thee, we will remember thy love more than wine: the upright love thee. 5 I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, as the tents of Kedar, as the curtains of Solomon. 6 Look not upon me, because I am black, because the sun hath looked upon me: my mothers children were angry with me; they made me the keeper of the vineyards; but mine own vineyard have I not kept.

Prophecies Concerning Ishmael Isaiah 13:120: 1 The burden of Babylon, which Isaiah the son of Amoz did see. 2 Lift ye up a banner upon the high mountain, exalt the voice unto them, shake the hand, that they may go into the gates of the nobles. 3 I have commanded My sanctified ones, I have also called My mighty ones for Mine anger, even them that rejoice in My highness. 4 The noise of a multitude in the mountains, like as of a great people; a tumultuous noise of the kingdoms of nations gathered together: the LORD of hosts mustereth the host of the battle. 5 They come from a far country, from the end of heaven, even the LORD , and the weapons of His indignation, to destroy the whole land. 6 Howl ye; for the day of the LORD is at hand; it shall come as a destruction from the Almighty. 7 Therefore shall all hands be faint, and every mans heart shall melt: 8 And they shall be afraid: pangs and sorrows shall take hold of them; they shall be in pain as a woman that travaileth: they shall be amazed one at another; their faces shall be as flames. 9 Behold, the day of the LORD cometh, cruel both with wrath and fierce anger, to lay the land desolate: and He shall destroy the sinners thereof out of it. 10 For the stars of heaven and the constellations thereof shall not give their light: the sun shall be darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine. 11 And I will punish the world for their evil, and the wicked for their iniquity; and I will cause the arrogancy of the proud to cease, and will lay low the haughtiness of the terrible. 12 I will make a man more precious than fine gold; even a man than the golden wedge of Ophir. 13 Therefore I will shake the heavens, and the earth shall remove out of her place, in the wrath of the LORD of hosts, and in the day of His fierce anger. 14 And it shall be as the chased roe, and as a sheep that no man taketh up: they shall every man turn to his own people, and flee every one into his own land. 15 Every one that is found shall be thrust through; and every one that is joined unto them shall fall by the sword. 16 Their children also shall be dashed to pieces before their eyes; their houses shall be spoiled, and their wives ravished. 17 Behold, I will stir up the Medes against them, which shall not regard silver; and as for gold, they shall not delight in it. 18 Their bows also shall dash the young men to pieces; and they shall have no pity on the fruit of the womb; their eye shall not spare children. 19 And Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees excellency, shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah. 20 It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation: neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there; neither shall the shepherds make their fold there. 21 But wild beasts of the desert shall lie there; and their houses shall be full of doleful creatures; and owls shall dwell there, and satyrs shall dance there. 22 And the wild beasts of the islands shall cry in their desolate houses, and dragons in their pleasant palaces: and her time is near to come, and her days shall not be prolonged. Isaiah 21:1117: 11 The burden of Dumah. He calleth to me out of Seir, Watchman, what of the night? Watchman, what of the night? 12 The watchman said, The morning cometh, and also the night: if ye will enquire, enquire ye: return, come. 13 The burden upon Arabia. In the forest in Arabia shall ye lodge,

O ye travelling companies of Dedanim. 14 The inhabitants of the land of Tema brought water to him that was thirsty, they prevented with their bread him that fled. 15 For they fled from the swords, from the drawn sword, and from the bent bow, and from the grievousness of war. 16 For thus hath the LORD said unto me, Within a year, according to the years of an hireling, and all the glory of Kedar shall fail: 17 And the residue of the number of archers, the mighty men of the children of Kedar, shall be diminished: for the LORD God of Israel hath spoken it. Isaiah 42:512: 5 Thus saith God the LORD , He That created the heavens, and stretched them out; He That spread forth the earth, and that which cometh out of it; He That giveth breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein: 6 I the LORD have called thee in righteousness, and will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, for a light of the Gentiles; 7 To open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison house. 8 I am the LORD : that is My name: and My glory will I not give to another, neither My praise to graven images. 9 Behold, the former things are come to pass, and new things do I declare: before they spring forth I tell you of them. 10 Sing unto the LORD a new song, and His praise from the end of the earth, ye that go down to the sea, and all that is therein; the isles, and the inhabitants thereof. 11 Let the wilderness and the cities thereof lift up their voice, the villages that Kedar doth inhabit: let the inhabitants of the rock sing, let them shout from the top of the mountains. 12 Let them give glory unto the LORD , and declare His praise in the islands. Isaiah 60:17: 1 Arise, shine; for thy light is come, and the glory of the LORD is risen upon thee. 2 For, behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people: but the LORD shall arise upon thee, and His glory shall be seen upon thee. 3 And the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising. 4 Lift up thine eyes round about, and see: all they gather themselves together, they come to thee: thy sons shall come from far, and thy daughters shall be nursed at thy side. 5 Then thou shalt see, and flow together, and thine heart shall fear, and be enlarged; because the abundance of the sea shall be converted unto thee, the forces of the Gentiles shall come unto thee. 6 The multitude of camels shall cover thee, the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah; all they from Sheba shall come: they shall bring gold and incense; and they shall shew forth the praises of the LORD . 7 All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered together unto thee, the rams of Nebaioth shall minister unto thee: they shall come up with acceptance on Mine altar, and I will glorify the house of My glory. 8 Who are these that fly as a cloud, and as the doves to their windows? Jeremiah 2:113: 1 Moreover the word of the LORD came to me, saying, 2 Go and cry in the ears of Jerusalem, saying, Thus saith the LORD ; I remember thee, the kindness of thy youth, the love of thine espousals, when thou wentest after Me in the wilderness, in a land that was not sown. 3 Israel was holiness unto the LORD , and the firstfruits of His increase: all that devour him shall offend; evil shall come upon them, saith the LORD . 4 Hear ye the word of the LORD , O house of

Jacob, and all the families of the house of Israel: 5 Thus saith the LORD , What iniquity have your fathers found in Me, that they are gone far from Me, and have walked after vanity, and are become vain? 6 Neither said they, Where is the LORD That brought us up out of the land of Egypt, that led us through the wilderness, through a land of deserts and of pits, through a land of drought, and of the shadow of death, through a land that no man passed through, and where no man dwelt? 7 And I brought you into a plentiful country, to eat the fruit thereof and the goodness thereof; but when ye entered, ye defiled My land, and made Mine heritage an abomination. 8 The priests said not, Where is the LORD ? and they that handle the law knew Me not: the pastors also transgressed against Me, and the prophets prophesied by Baal, and walked after things that do not profit. 9 Wherefore I will yet plead with you, saith the LORD , and with your childrens children will I plead. 10 For pass over the isles of Chittim, and see; and send unto Kedar, and consider diligently, and see if there be such a thing. 11 Hath a nation changed their gods, which are yet no gods? but My people have changed their glory for that which doth not profit. 12 Be astonished, O ye heavens, at this, and be horribly afraid, be ye very desolate, saith the LORD . 13 For My people have committed two evils; they have forsaken me the fountain of living waters, and hewed them out cisterns, broken cisterns, that can hold no water. Jeremiah 3:15: 1 They say, If a man put away his wife, and she go from him, and become another mans, shall he return unto her again? shall not that land be greatly polluted? but thou hast played the harlot with many lovers; yet return again to me, saith the LORD . 2 Lift up thine eyes unto the high places, and see where thou hast not been lien with. In the ways hast thou sat for them, as the Arabian in the wilderness; and thou hast polluted the land with thy whoredoms and with thy wickedness. 3 Therefore the showers have been withholden, and there hath been no latter rain; and thou hadst a whores forehead, thou refusedst to be ashamed. 4 Wilt thou not from this time cry unto Me, My father, Thou art the Guide of my youth? 5 Will He reserve His anger for ever? will He keep it to the end? Behold, thou hast spoken and done evil things as thou couldest. Jeremiah 25:1529: 15 For thus saith the LORD God of Israel unto me; Take the wine cup of this fury at My hand, and cause all the nations, to whom I send thee, to drink it. 16 And they shall drink, and be moved, and be mad, because of the sword that I will send among them. 17 Then took I the cup at the LORD s hand, and made all the nations to drink, unto whom the LORD had sent me: 18 To wit, Jerusalem, and the cities of Judah, and the kings thereof, and the princes thereof, to make them a desolation, an astonishment, an hissing, and a curse; as it is this day; 19 Pharaoh king of Egypt, and his servants, and his princes, and all his people; 20 And all the mingled people, and all the kings of the land of Uz, and all the kings of the land of the Philistines, and Ashkelon, and Azzah, and Ekron, and the remnant of Ashdod, 21 Edom, and Moab, and the children of Ammon, 22 And all the kings of Tyrus, and all the kings of Zidon, and the kings of the isles which are beyond the sea, 23 Dedan, and Tema, and Buz, and all that are in the utmost corners, 24 And all the kings of Arabia, and all the kings of the mingled people

that dwell in the desert, 25 And all the kings of Zimri, and all the kings of Elam, and all the kings of the Medes, 26 And all the kings of the north, far and near, one with another, and all the kingdoms of the world, which are upon the face of the earth: and the king of Sheshach shall drink after them. 27 Therefore thou shalt say unto them, Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; Drink ye, and be drunken, and spue, and fall, and rise no more, because of the sword which I will send among you. 28 And it shall be, if they refuse to take the cup at thine hand to drink, then shalt thou say unto them, Thus saith the LORD of hosts; Ye shall certainly drink. 29 For, lo, I begin to bring evil on the city which is called by My name, and should ye be utterly unpunished? Ye shall not be unpunished: for I will call for a sword upon all the inhabitants of the earth, saith the LORD of hosts. Jeremiah 47:2833: 28 Concerning Kedar, and concerning the kingdoms of Hazor, which Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon shall smite, thus saith the LORD ; Arise ye, go up to Kedar, and spoil the men of the east. 29 Their tents and their flocks shall they take away: they shall take to themselves their curtains, and all their vessels, and their camels; and they shall cry unto them, Fear is on every side. 30 Flee, get you far off, dwell deep, O ye inhabitants of Hazor, saith the LORD ; for Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon hath taken counsel against you, and hath conceived a purpose against you. 31 Arise, get you up unto the wealthy nation, that dwelleth without care, saith the LORD , which have neither gates nor bars, which dwell alone. 32 And their camels shall be a booty, and the multitude of their cattle a spoil: and I will scatter into all winds them that are in the utmost corners; and I will bring their calamity from all sides thereof, saith the LORD . 33 And Hazor shall be a dwelling for dragons, and a desolation for ever: there shall no man abide there, nor any son of man dwell in it.

Ezekiel 27:136: 1 The word of the LORD came again unto me, saying, 2 Now, thou son of man, take up a lamentation for Tyrus; 3 And say unto Tyrus, O thou that art situate at the entry of the sea, which art a merchant of the people for many isles, Thus saith the LORD GOD; O Tyrus, thou hast said, I am of perfect beauty. 4 Thy borders are in the midst of the seas, thy builders have perfected thy beauty. 5 They have made all thy ship boards of fir trees of Senir: they have taken cedars from Lebanon to make masts for thee. 6 Of the oaks of Bashan have they made thine oars; the company of the Ashurites have made thy benches of ivory, brought out of the isles of Chittim. 7 Fine linen with broidered work from Egypt was that which thou spreadest forth to be thy sail; blue and purple from the isles of Elishah was that which covered thee. 8 The inhabitants of Zidon and Arvad were thy mariners: thy wise men, O Tyrus, that were in thee, were thy pilots. 9 The ancients of Gebal and the wise men thereof were in thee thy calkers: all the ships of the sea with their mariners were in thee to occupy thy merchandise. 10 They of Persia and of Lud and of Phut were in thine army, thy men of war: they hanged the shield and helmet in thee; they set forth thy comeliness. 11 The men of Arvad with thine army were upon thy walls round about, and the Gammadims were in thy towers: they hanged their shields upon

thy walls round about; they have made thy beauty perfect. 12 Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all kind of riches; with silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded in thy fairs. 13 Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, they were thy merchants: they traded the persons of men and vessels of brass in thy market. 14 They of the house of Togarmah traded in thy fairs with horses and horsemen and mules. 15 The men of Dedan were thy merchants; many isles were the merchandise of thine hand: they brought thee for a present horns of ivory and ebony. 16 Syria was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of the wares of thy making: they occupied in thy fairs with emeralds, purple, and broidered work, and fine linen, and coral, and agate. 17 Judah, and the land of Israel, they were thy merchants: they traded in thy market wheat of Minnith, and Pannag, and honey, and oil, and balm. 18 Damascus was thy merchant in the multitude of the wares of thy making, for the multitude of all riches; in the wine of Helbon, and white wool. 19 Dan also and Javan going to and fro occupied in thy fairs: bright iron, cassia, and calamus, were in thy market. 20 Dedan was thy merchant in precious clothes for chariots. 21 Arabia, and all the princes of Kedar, they occupied with thee in lambs, and rams, and goats: in these were they thy merchants. 22 The merchants of Sheba and Raamah, they were thy merchants: they occupied in thy fairs with chief of all spices, and with all precious stones, and gold. 23 Haran, and Canneh, and Eden, the merchants of Sheba, Asshur, and Chilmad, were thy merchants. 24 These were thy merchants in all sorts of things, in blue clothes, and broidered work, and in chests of rich apparel, bound with cords, and made of cedar, among thy merchandise. 25 The ships of Tarshish did sing of thee in thy market: and thou wast replenished, and made very glorious in the midst of the seas. 26 Thy rowers have brought thee into great waters: the east wind hath broken thee in the midst of the seas. 27 Thy riches, and thy fairs, thy merchandise, thy mariners, and thy pilots, thy calkers, and the occupiers of thy merchandise, and all thy men of war, that are in thee, and in all thy company which is in the midst of thee, shall fall into the midst of the seas in the day of thy ruin. 28 The suburbs shall shake at the sound of the cry of thy pilots. 29 And all that handle the oar, the mariners, and all the pilots of the sea, shall come down from their ships, they shall stand upon the land; 30 And shall cause their voice to be heard against thee, and shall cry bitterly, and shall cast up dust upon their heads, they shall wallow themselves in the ashes: 31 And they shall make themselves utterly bald for thee, and gird them with sackcloth, and they shall weep for thee with bitterness of heart and bitter wailing. 32 And in their wailing they shall take up a lamentation for thee, and lament over thee, saying, What city is like Tyrus, like the destroyed in the midst of the sea? 33 When thy wares went forth out of the seas, thou filledst many people; thou didst enrich the kings of the earth with the multitude of thy riches and of thy merchandise. 34 In the time when thou shalt be broken by the seas in the depths of the waters thy merchandise and all thy company in the midst of thee shall fall. 35 All the inhabitants of the isles shall be astonished at thee, and their kings shall be sore afraid, they shall be troubled in their countenance. 36 The merchants among the people shall hiss at thee; thou shalt be a terror, and never shalt be any more.

Ishmaels Genealogies Genesis 25:1218: 12 Now these are THE GENERATIONS OF ISHMAEL, Abrahams son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarahs handmaid, bare unto Abraham: 13 And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their generations: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebajoth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam, 14 And Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa, 15 Hadar, and Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah: 16 These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names, by their towns, and by their castles; twelve princes according to their nations. 17 And these are the years of the life of Ishmael, an hundred and thirty and seven years: and he gave up the ghost and died; and was gathered unto his people. 18 And they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, that is before Egypt, as thou goest toward Assyria: and he died in the presence of all his brethren. I Chronicles 1:2831: 28 The sons of Abraham; Isaac, and Ishmael. 29 These are their generations: The firstborn of Ishmael, Nebaioth; then Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam, 30 Mishma, and Dumah, Massa, Hadad, and Tema, 31 Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. These are the sons of Ishmael.

From Smiths Bible Dictionary

ISHMAEL (whom God hears). Son of Abraham and Hagar (Gen. xvi. 15, 16). First-born of the patriarch. Born at Mamre, he was sent into the wilderness south of Beersheba, Paran, when he was 16 years old. He had a wife from Egypt (xxi. 21), who was mother of his 12 sons, besides a daughter. Esau married his daughter. His sons were Nebajoth, Kedar, Abdeel, Mibsam, Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadar, Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedema. The Arabic historians divide the Arabs into two races: 1. Pure Arabs, descendants of Joktan; and 2. Mixed Arabs, descendants of Ishmael. Like the sons of Isaac his brother, or rather Jacob, Ishmaels sons were founders of tribes, some of which are known in history by their names; and they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur that is before Egypt (Gen. xxv. 18). Their language is spoken all over Arabia, with very few exceptions, and is the same in all rules and idioms now as in most ancient times; and the poetical, or rhyming, and the current language, are one and the same, with a different arrangement of words only. The prophesy, He shall be a wild ass of a man, his hand against every man, and every mans hand against him, is now and ever has been true; and also the other saying, Ishmael shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren, for they have always been free. The desert is called in Arabic Bedu, and the genuine Arab calls himself Bedawee (desert-man), Bedawin (desert-men). 4000 years have not changed their disposition, manners, habits, occupation, government, or dress. NEBAIOTH. NEBA JOTH . Ishmaels first-born (Genesis xxv.13). Esau married Mahalath, the sister of Nebajoth (xxvii.9). The country from the Euphrates to the Red Sea was called in Josephus time Nabatene (Ant. i. 13, 4; Gen. xxv.18). They were called by the Arabs Nabat (or Nabeet) and were celebrated for their agriculture, astronomy, magic and medicine, accounts of which have been recently discovered in some ancient books of theirs, written from 2500 to 600 B .C ., consisting of a book of agriculture, one of poisons, the work of Tenkeloosha, the Babylonian, and the Book of the Secrets of the Sun and Moon; all of which were translated in a.d. 904 by Ibn Washiyeh (Keysee). The rock-temples of Petra, in Edom, were the works of this people, who are thus proved to have been a highly cultivated race many ages before the Greeks. KDAR (black). Second son of Ishmael (Gen. xxv. 13). Settled his tribe in the N. W. of Medina, in Arabia, bordering Palestine. The glory of the sons of Kedar is mentioned by Isaiah (xxi. 1317), their villages (xlii. 11), and their princes by Ezekiel (xxvii. 21), who supplied Tyre with sheep and goats; and in Canticles (i. 5) their tents are noticed as black, but comely. Mohammed traces his lineage to Abraham through the celebrated Koreish tribe, which sprang from Kedar. The Arabs in the Hejaz are called Beni Harb (men of war), and are Ishmaelites as of old, from their beginning. Palgrave says their language is as pure now as when the Koran was written (A .D . 610), having remained unchanged more than 1200 years; a fine proof of the permanency of Eastern institutions.

DUMAH (silence). Son of Ishmael, founder of a tribe of Ishmaelites. The district was in the N. of Arabia, near Edom (Gen. xxv. 15; Is. xxi. 11), where there is now a city called Doomah el Jendel, 240 miles E. of Petra, in a circular valley, surrounded by very fine gardens and orchards. An ancient castle, of massive masonry, is in ruins. Another Dumah is in Judah, 17 miles from Eleutheropolis, 6 miles S. W. of Hebron. HADAD, Chadad (mighty). 1. Son of Ishmael (Genesis xxv.15). 2. A king of Edom (Gen. xxxvi.35). 3. The last king of Edom at Pai (1 Chr. i. 50). 4. Member of the royal house of Edom (1 K. xi.14). He married the sister-in-law of the Pharaoah of Egypt. After David died, he attempted to recover his lost dominion from Solomon. HADAR (chamber). Hadad, in 1 Chr. i. 30. Eighth son of Ishmael. The Mt. Hadad on the borders of the Syrian desert north of El Medineh, is supposed to mark the locality of this branch of Ishmaels family. TEMA (desert), (Gen. xxv. 15; Is. xxi. 14.) A small town on the border of Syria, on the pilgrim route from Damascus to Mecca. It was once a stronghold. NAPHISH (refreshment). (I Chr. v. 19). A tribe descended from the last but one of the sons of Ishmael; settled in the Hauran and Gilead; allies of Jetur (who was in Itura). Traces of this tribe may be looked for in Arabia, for they were driven out by Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh. They were wealthy when dispossessed, having lost to the Israelites 50,000 camels, 250,000 sheep, and 2,000 asses. Ptolemy says the Agri were a people of N. Arabia. JTUR (camp). Son of Ishmael (Genesis xxv.15). Iturea. ITUREA (from Jetur, the son of Ishmael). (Gen. xxv.15). N. E. of Palestine, along the base of Hermon (Luke iii.1). Philip was tetrarch of Iturea and the region of Trachonitis. Now Jedur. It is table-land, with conical hills at intervals, well watered, rich soil, and excellent pasture. The rock is basalt, and the houses are built of it. Its ancient cities are deserted, but standing. Bedawins still pitch their tents there.

Interesting Reading (Not From Smiths) ITUREA (The Bekaa Valley) A region in southern Lebanon, near the current border with Israel. The capital of the region was the city of Chalcis; historically Chalcis was very Hellenized, even when under the rule of Jewish kings. The Itureans were a people of uncertain origin. They were probably Aramean in origin but may have been Canaanites or even a northern branch of the Nabataeans. They were expert archers and were frequently incorporated as auxiliaries in Roman armies. The region of Iturea is centered on what is today called the Bekaa valley, a region well known for being the birthplace of several Shi'ite terrorist groups as well as one of the most prolific heroin-poppy production areas in the world. See also, Amurru, an important city located in this region.

The Nabataeans An excerpt from E. Raymond Capts Petra. While the Edomites were moving down into Judea after the fall of Jerusalem and the people were taken to Babylon, another migration was slowly picking up pace. A people known as Nabateans were moving into the old Edomite kingdom. They were a Bedouin people of ancient Arabia who sprang from Ishmael, one of the sons of Abraham by Sarahs handmaiden, Hagar. The Nabateans original home appears to have been the area of Saudi Arabia where they lived a pastoral, nomadic lifestyle. For reasons, yet unknown, their lifestyle changed dramatically as they made their way northward entering the southern regions of the former Edomite kingdom. Their pastoral nomadism gave way to commercial enterprise and experimentation in piracy. The arrival of the Nabateans was most likely a protracted affair. Instead of driving out the remaining Edomites, whose kingdom had been weakened by continuous warfare with the Israelite kings of Judah, they simply integrated with them. In time, so many Nabateans had arrived, the positions became reversed and it was the Edomites who were integrating with the Nabateans. No doubt, many of the former Edomite fortresses and strongholds were at this time manned in part of or even completely by Nabataenized Edomites, just as in later days, when the throne of Judaea would be occupied by Judaized Idumeans. The fact that both the Edomites and the Nabataens claimed descent from Ishmael would have provided at least some common ground for integration. One of Esaus three wives was a woman called Bashemath, who had a sister called Nabaioth, both being daughters of Ishmael; the Edomites claimed descent from Bashemath and the Nabataens from Nabaioth. A classic example of such integration is the marriage of Herod Antipas, the son of Herod the Great (himself of IdumaeanNabataen origin) to the daughter of the Nabataen King Aretas IV. By the late 4th century B .C ., the Nabataeans had established themselves as the dominant power in the impregnable valley of Wadi Mousa. For more than 500 years they were to control the desert trade routes and carry on the worlds trade through many a by-pass, while the normal roads were more or less insecure through the warlike activities of the great river Powers. Not only did they control the north to south trade routes through Damascus, they also held the key to the east to west routes. The famous Frankincense route from Yemen to Gaza passed through the kingdom of Petra. Also the equally important caravan route between Maan and Busra, in Mesopotamia, crossed Petra.

Not only did the Nabataeans control the trade routes, they also largely controlled the sale of those commodities that were then in great demand. This made them one of the wealthiest nations of the time. Frankincense and myrrh were needed for the temples of the pagan world; precious stones were in demand as luxuries for the adornment of wealthy Roman and Egyptian ladies, as well as stone for the statutes and monuments of the west. Bitumen was also needed for the mummies of Egypt. Around 312 B .C . the great Greek historian, Diodorous, relates that the Nabataeans were already sedentary and fast becoming commerically orientated. When one considers all the trade frequently passing through Petra, it is not surprising that the city became wealthy. Such wealth became the envy of her neighboring states and it took the genius of the Nabataeans to protect the trade routes and draw the maximum benefit in terms of revenue from the traffic passing along them. It was also about 312 B .C . that Antigonus Cyclops, a Macedonian king (son of Philip who was one of Alexander the Greats generals) sent two armies against the Nabataens. The first army was destroyed by the defenders and the commander of the second army was bought off. But, the two invasions made the Nabataens realize how vulnerable they were. They chose to make the natural fortress of Petra, with its narrow entrance, their capital. Using the natural defenses of Petras main valley, they fortified both its southern and northern approaches, thus sealing the valley on the two vulnerable sides not protected by high cliffs. Being of nomadic origin, it is unlikely that the Nabataeans embarked upon the building of a city during the early occupation of Petra. Diodorus Siculus wrote of

Petra as no city worth mention and a rock . . . extrememly strong but without walls. This undoubtedly refers to Umm el Deyerah, the rocky acropolis of the Edomites, being used by the Nabataeans as a refuge and base camp. Diodorus also commented that the Nabataeans had a law . . . neither to sow corn nor to plant any fruit-bearing tree nor to use wine nor build houses . . . This would suggest that the Nabataeans still had a strong nomadic nature. It should be pointed out that Diodorus often wrote from second-hand reports. However we do know that in time the Nabataeans did lay out a city which had a population of about 30,000 inhabitants. The first known Nabataen king was Aretas I (the Hellenized form of the Arabic name Harith or Harithat) in 169 B .C . Aretas I was known as the Tyrant of the Arabs. In his reign the Nabataean territory was extended to the Arnon. King Aretas refused to give protection to Jason (the brother of Onias) when he fled Jerusalem. (II Macc. 5:8) Under King Aretas II (Erotimus 11096 B .C .) the kingdom was enlarged but failed to link up with Gaza, as he had wished. (Antiq. 13,360) The wars (Dioclatian) between the great Hellenestic powers of Ptolemaic Egypt and Seleucid Syria, contesting the inheritance of Alexander the Great, played a major role in the commercial development of Petra. Merchants moved from the troubled areas to the safer and calmer waters of the Nabataean sphere. Under Obodas I (Obidath) the Nabataean kingdom expanded far to the north and east of the Dead Sea. During the reign of Aretas III (8456 B .C .) the Edomite-Nabataean kingdom reached its zenith, at which time Damascus invited them to rule their city. The Nabataean influence in the Near and Middle East obviously caused the Romans some anxiety. As a result, in 63 B .C . Pompey sent an expeditionary force, under Scaurus, against Petra. The idea was to smash the city which was the nerve center of the nation. According to Josephus, the Roman army was outwitted by the Nabataeans, who cut their supply lines and the Roman army went hungry to such an extent that Scaurus was forced to sue for peace. Once again, the Nabataeans did exactly what they had done with the Macedonian army, they bought off Scaurus with costly gifts and he ceased to make war any longer . . . The reign of Malchus (5630 B .C .) saw international political reverses for the Nabataeans as they were forced to relinquish control of some of their outlying areas. However, Petra continued to grow richer and magnificent. The machinations of the local warlords were of little concern to the merchants as long as they did not interfere with the smooth running of business. In fact, most of the history of the Nabataeans is a succession of political intrigues which took place on the wide international stage rather than in Petra itself. Obodas (309 B .C .) was the Nabataean king who had to face an expeditionary force sent by Rome. Augustus had his eye on the profits of the trade passing through Petra as well as the expansion of the Roman Empire. Augustus

underestimated the guile of the Nabataeans. Obodas minister, Syllacus, maneuvered the Roman army into a situation that completely rendered them unfit for battle. As soon as Syllacus heard that Augustus was mounting the expedition, he hurried with a body of soldiers to meet the Romans, and offered to guide them safely through the desert to Petra. He maintained there was no through road to the city and that is was necessary to follow a particular route. The route on which Syllacus took the Romans led through the most arid and desolate land Syllacus could find. The result was that many of Roman soldiers died and those who came through were in no condition to fight by the time they reached Petra. It is one of the mysteries of historyhow the Romans came to fall for this trap. Most likely, the Roman general was bought off in typical Nabataean style to compensate for the loss of his army and once again Petra came through unscathed. The long line of Nabataean kings came to an end in A .D . 106, when Petra was made a Roman province. The Roman conquest of Petra started off casually enough when Pompey visited the city on 65 B .C . to establish friendly relations with the Nabataeans. To him, Petra was just a buffer state between the Roman Empire and the untamed desert inhabitants. For the next 170 years, the Nabataeans managed to maintain a balance of power between Rome, Egypt, and the Seleucids who then ruled Syria. During the first century B .C ., Petra reached its greatest heights and the Nabataean civilization continued to flower until the death of King Rabbil II in 105 A .D . During the reign of this king, Petra began its slow decline as one by one, all of the caravan cities fell to the Romans who eventually controlled the trade routes to the East. In 106 A .D . the Nabataeans were forced to yield to Roman power and Petra became the capital of the Roman colony Arabia Petraea. (Rocky Arabia) Though Nabataean independence was at an end, the Romans fully expected Petra to continue as a profitable business center. In some ways, the conquest of Petra was a mutual agreement between the Nabataeans and the Romans. The Romans embellished old structures in the city and built new ones. It was during this period that the larger facades appeared in the city and in the reign of Trajan (98117 a.d.) the great Colonnade Road was built. When Petra became a Roman province, Rome did not take over a culturally backward or impoverished people. All the evidence we have points to quite the opposite as being the case. The inhabitants of Petra spoke Arabic as well as their everyday language but many of them knew Latin and Greek as well. They lived in a democratic society which knew neither poverty nor taxes. Public services were considered a community responsibility - to be performed by everyone, high and low. Wealth and prosperity were virtues that carried with them the civic responsibilities of cleaning streets, guarding water supplies, and performing police duties. The people of Petra clearly valued property, both public and private. They levied fines against anyone who did not maintain his own property and honored those

who increased their property values. Class distinctions were unknown. Slaves were few and there were fewer servants. Nabataean custom called upon everyone to serve himself, even the king. Furthermore, the kings financial accounts and even his royal conduct were always subject to civil examination. The Nabataeans wore girdles, (loincloths) slippers and usually without tunics. The kings dress was similar except his garments were purple, the color reserved for royalty. Although Strabo never visited Petra he recorded what Athenodorus (a tutor to Augustus - who spent time in the capital of the Nabataeans during the first century b.c.) had reported to him. Strabos notes give us an insight into everyday life in Petra. Strabo wrote: The Nabataeans are temperate and industrious so that the public penalty is imposed on those who diminish their substance, but to them that increase it honors are given, and, having few slaves, they are served for the most part by relations or by each other, or they serve themselves, and the custom extends even to the kings. They form companies of thirteen men each and two musicians to each company. The king in his great house holds many companies. No one drinks more than eleven cups in one and then another golden beaker - full. Thus the king is democratic, so that in addition to serving himself serves others. He also often submits his personal accounts to the people, and sometimes also the conduct of his own personal life is enquired into. Their dwellings are extensive constructions of stone, and their cities were unwalled on account of peace. Most of it abounds in fruit except the olive: they use oil of sesame. Their sheep are white-haired, their oxen large; their country does not produce horses, camels render service in their place . . . They think dead bodies no better than manure; as Heraclitus says, corpses are more to be thrown away than dung heaps. Wherefore they bury even their kings beside their privies. They honor the sun, setting up an altar in the house, making libations on it daily and using frankincense . . . The capital of the Nabataeans is the so-called Petra, for it lies on ground in general even and level, but guarded all around by rock, outside precipitous and abrupt but inside having abundant springs for drawing water and for gardening. . . Archaeological research has not corroborated everything Strabo wrote. The democracy of the king is a notable feature which is difficult to account for. One theory is that the king, in early times was little more than a sheikhhence the simplicity of his life and his democratic manners of not only waiting on himself but sometimes waiting on his guests. This is not unlike modern bedouin sheikhs who perpetuate a spirit of fellowship between the king and his people. Strabo tells us that their houses were extensive constructions of stone and this is confirmed by excavations on the south side of Petra city. The foundations of a large complex of stone

buildings, dating around the birth of Christ (2 b.c.), were found. It is difficult to accept Strabos statement that the city had no walls. All the city walls have been uncovered. Some scholars have suggested that Strabos informant (Athenodorus) was blind which would have put a certain limit to his abilities of observation. Although merchandising was their main source of revenue, the Nabataeans developed a number of other industries. Perhaps their most important achievement lay in irrigating wastelands. From their sedentary Syro-Palestinian neighbors, the Nabataeans adopted agricultural expertise, involving advanced hydraulic technology to a level unsurpassed until modern times. From the perennial spring of Ain Musa, some two miles away, they constructed a pressure pipe system bringing water to large plaster-lined cisterns, as well as individual cisterns. Another project was a huge rock-cut tunnel that diverted flood waters around the mountain to flow less turbulently through the Wadi which bisected the settlement areas. As the population of the Nabataeans increased, other settlements sprang up along the major north-south and east-west trade routes of southern SyroPalestine. The hydraulic and related agricultural technology developed at Petra was modified to fit each new location. Even in the most improbable parts of the surrounding desert, where nothing but wire grass and shiah herb now grow, can be found the remains of terraced fields still holding back the remnants of fertile soil from final erosion.

Of all the Nabataean products their pottery is the most singular and outstanding. Its fineness and thinness is usually found only in porcelain. In whatever part of the ancient world it is found it is easily recognized by its astonishing hardness, as well as thinness. The Nabataean pottery must of have been produced in prodigious quantities, as small pieces of it lie scattered literally over all the site of Petra and surrounding valleys. It was all thrown on a wheel and turned, possibly being rubbed down afterwards to the satin-textured finish which made it unique. The most common shape of Nabataean pottery was a shallow bowl which is notoriously difficult to shape or throw on a wheel. Most of the Nabataean pottery is of a terra-cotta, pinkish peach color with floralized leaf patterns delicately painted. (free hand) Other colors range from a light reddish-brown, through pale coffee to almost black, depending on the strength of the solution of manganese used. In 1968 pottery of the Late Edomite Period was found in the excavations at Tawilan. It was so remarkably akin to the Nabataean pottery that it was quite likely the forerunner to the beautiful craftsmanship of the Nabataeans. If this is so, then it would mean that the new arrivals were taught this pottery craft by the Edomites and in turn perfected the thinness technique.

Very early the Nabataeans adopted the Hellenistic idea of coins in place of the more cumbersome barter system. As the advantage of this monetary system became obvious, the kings began to strike their own coins. Locally minted coins of the first century b.c. were found in Petra. The designs show a strong reliance on Greek prototypes though local symbols were used. Small copper coins of Petra are found frequently but only very rarely do the silver pieces turn up. This indicates that the desertion of Petra was a gradual process in which the merchants and other inhabitants of the city had ample time to remove all their belongings before moving on to wherever it was they settled.

This may be one of the reasons why so little in the way of Nabataean script has been found in Petra, either ostraca or papyri. One can assume that the written

records of the Nabataeans were removed when the inhabitants of the city left for good. The Nabataeans had their own script and language; the former bears some resemblance to the Hebrew script of the time, but is curiously elongated vertically. Their habit of connecting some of the letters, combined with the close packing of them due to their elongated form, makes reading of the inscription very difficult.

Unfortunately, few Nabataean inscriptions have been found at Petra, apart from casual graffiti scratched on rock faces. From what has been found and studied, it appears the Nabataean language was a form of Aramaic with strong Arabic influence in it; most of their personal names are Arabic. One long Nabataean inscription can be seen in Petra, on the Turkamaniya tomb. It is believed that Kubic and consequently Arabic, eventually derived from the Nabataean language. Little is know of the nature of the Nabataean religion. We can be sure that they had two principal gods in their pantheon, to which they would have added a whole range of personal gods and spirits. (djins) The two chief deities were Dusares and Al Uzza. The Nabataeans probably adopted Dusares from the Edomites; for his name is derived from Dhu-esh-Shera, which means He (Lord) of Shera, a name that denotes a localized deity. The mountains of Edom are still known as the Shara Range. Also Shara is the same word as Seir by which the district was known in the Old Testament. Dusares was usually symbolized as a block of stone, frequently squared in some way. In some way the stone symbolism may have derived from Jacobs Pillar known as Beth El, the House of God. Such symbolism is frequent in Biblical references to stone; e.g. The Lord is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer; The God of my rock; in Him will I trust. (II Sam. 22:23) The Roman annexation of Petra gave a new stimulus to the cultural life of the city as well as increasing civic consciousness. This, in consequence, led the city to experience something of a renaissance which lasted until the end of the reign of Emperor Septimus Severus. The Roman administrators realized that with the enormously extended line of communication with Rome, it was prudent that their presence should be as welcome and beneficial as possible. To this end, they trained their highly efficient propaganda machine on their new subjects to show that Roman rule brought greater benefits than it did disadvantages. Perhaps it was in order to demonstrate their good intentions and to reassure the Nabataean citizens about the future of their city that the Romans embarked on a lavish program of reconstruction and civic planning. It is believed the Romans went so far as to completely reorganize the whole of the city layout. The main city was reduced in size, probably for defense purposes. Local traditions and cultural background were respected and taken as points of departure for new improvements. These included the creation of the Colonnade Street out of the street running beside the Wadi Mousa. They were careful to preserve Nabataean architecture by combining it with the Roman style.

At this time ornate features, characteristic of Roman temples and royal buildings, were introduced into the facades of the cliff structures. A theater capable of seating three thousand persons was constructed and Roman statuary was introduced. The one free-standing building remaining in Petra is from this period. During the Roman period, Petra became a true city with monumental public buildings and one of the most unique funereal architectural styles of the ancient world. Tomb facades, ranking in degrees of architectural sumptuousness, began to appear from one end of the valley to the other. Most prominent of the royal tombs are the ones known as the Kasna-el-Faroun (the treasury of the Pharaoah)the Royal tomb Group and El Deir or the monastery. While over 800 facades have been recorded, and many are less spectacular than the royal examples, all are architectural achievements in stonecarving techniques. Behind the facades are huge rock-cut rooms with grave sites cut into the floors or placed in the arched recesses cut into the walls. Only a relatively few of these tombs have been excavated, but all those examined so far appear to have been robbed in antiquity. It was the inexorable expansion of the Roman Empire, rather than anything the Nabataeans had done that ultimately brought about their downfall. When the area of Petra was incorporated into the vast frame of the whole Empire, local advantages ceased to have any relevance. In time, the trade routes were changed so as to serve the greater good of the Empire as a whole, rather than the interests of the Nabataean nation only. When this became evident, it was taken by a good many Nabataeans as the writing on the wall for Petra. Merchants, loyal in the final analysis only to their own pockets, moved away to the naw pastures of wealth opening up in the growing trade cities of Jerash and Palmyra. The role of taxes also contributed to the loss of trade for the Nabataeans. It was the taxes imposed on all trade goods through Petra, in any direction, that provided the wealth that sustained the city on a grandiose scale. It is a fact, even in modern times, that when a government finds out how easy it is to raise money by taxes whenever they need more revenue, they just raise the taxes. This the Nabataeans did. Then, in the guise of saving caravan owners taxes, they would buy his goods

and then resell them to traders coming from the opposite direction, with whom they would make the same transaction. Faced with ever-increasing taxes, the caravan trade from Egypt northward to Damascus and the Euphrates was diverted to the coast line trade routes. Petra gradually lost both trade and merchants who were faced with dwindling profits. After hundreds of years of depending on food and taxes coming in from the outside, the population could not exist on what they could grow, so an exodus began. After all, most of the inhabitants of Petra were business men, not farmers. It could be said, the Nabataeans taxed themselves out of business! It is apparent that the Romans tried to stem the tide of gradual decline for the city of Petra. The Emperor Hadrian visited the city in a.d. 130 as a prestige and morale-boosting gesture. If, on the other hand, it was a well-deserved acknowledgement of prosperity, later visits by other Roman dignitaries were definitely designed to give a new stimulus to the cultural life of the city. Much commemorative civic building usually accompanied such visits. Such could have been the case when African-born Septimus Severus, along with his Syrian wife, is believed to have visited Petra (in a.d. 199) while touring the eastern Provinces. As late as the fourth century a.d., the Roman Emperors Maximian and Diocletian visited Petra, thus indicating that Petra was still considered important in the world of trade. The Imperial celebrations that they brought to Petra were meaningless and contributed nothing to the future of the city. Petra had even then passed its zenith and was on the downward path to oblivion. When trade had dwindled to the extent that the Roman Legions were no longer needed to guard the trade routes and as more and more merchants departed, it became obvious that Petra had no future. The establishment of the Byzantine Empire by the Emperor Theodosius (in a.d. 395) did little to change the fortunes of Petra. A bishopric was established in the fourth century and a number of Christian anchorites settled in the hills around the city. The limited number of archaeological excavations indicate the city boundaries contracted still further; once dignified and gracious buildings in the center of Petra degenerated into hovels, their fine rooms being subdivided into squalid small apartments. It is possible that most of the true Nabataean population

moved out long before. This left only the polyglot, alien population who are the inevitable parasites of any wealthy trading nation with international ramifications and connections. The great Moslem expansion in a.d. 636 brought about a state of abject poverty to the once proud Petra. However, it was a violent earthquake, about the middle of the sixth century, that wrought the final destruction of the city. Civic life came to an end and the survivors departed for places unknown. The ancient records of the world make little mention of Petra after the fanatical hordes of Islam moved into the lands of Transjordan. The Crusaders, under Baldwin I, came to Petra (in the eleventh century) and built a small fort on top of El Habis, using stone from the deserted city of Petra. The fort was perhaps designed as an early warning station in advance of the great Crusader fortress of Shobak. Baldwin wanted to control the north-south caravan route and within a few years established another garrison at Karak. Baldwins Christian knights penetrated farther into the interior of Saracen territory here, than at any other point in their narrow Bible-Lands empire. Baldwins network of strongholds across the Jordan was not long in Christian hands. The Saracen chieftain, Saladin, recaptured them in 118889. From that time until the nineteenth century, Petra disappears from history just as it had before the Crusaders briefly lifted the curtain of time. Again, Petra became lost to civilization.

Nabataean King List

312 B .C . First mention of the Nabataeans in the war with Antigonus of Seleucid Syria c. 168 B .C . Aretas (known as the tyrant of the Arabs and King of the Nabatu) Rabbel I c. 100 B .C . Aretas II (concerned with the siege of Gaza) c. 93 B .C . Obodas I (defeated Alexander Jannaeus) 8456 B .C . Aretas III Philhellen 5630 B .C . Malchus I 309 B .C . Obodas II 8 B .C . A .D . 40 Aretas IV Philopatris
A .D . 4070

Malchus II (lost control of Damascus) Rabbell II (last king of the Nabataeans)

A .D . 71106

The King list with its dates is based on information given in Ptra et la Nabatne by the Abb Starcky, published in 1966 in Supplment au Dictionnaire de la Bible, Vol. VII.

Names and Places Associated With Ishmael

Ishmaelites
Adbeel (110) disciplined of God Amasa (6021) burden Arabian (6163) patrial from 6152, which is from 6150 in the fig. sense of sterility; 6150 a prim. root [rather identical with 6148 through the idea of covering with a texture]; to grow dusky at sundow n Dumah (1746) silence; fig. death Gesham/Gashmu (1654) a shower Hadar/Hadad (2316/2301) chamber/ fierce Ishmael/Ishmaelite(s)/Ishmeelite(s) (3458/3459) God will hear Jether (3500) prop. an overhanging, i.e. (by impl.) an excess, superiority, remainder; also a small rope (as hanging free) Jetur (3195) encircled (i.e. inclosed) Kedar (6938) dusky (of the skin or the tent) Kedemah (6929) precedence Mahalath (4258) sickness Massa (4854) burden Mibsam (4017) fragrant Mishma (4927) a report Naphish/Nephish (5305) refreshed Nebaioth/Nebajoth (5032) fruitfulness Obil (179) mournful Tema (8485) prob. of for. der. Non-Ishmaelites Abdiel (5661) servant of God Abigail (26) father (i.e. source) of joy Abihail (32) father (i.e. possessor) of might Abram (87) high father Abraham (85) father of a multitude Ahaziah (274) Yah has seized Ahi (277) brotherly Amalek (6003) prob. of for. or. Amaziah (558) strength of Yah Ammon/Ammonite (5983) tribal, i.e. inbred Asaph (623) collector Ashdodites (796) ravager Ashurites (805) from a patrial word of the same form as 804; 804 appar. from 833 (in the sense of successful); 833 a prim. root; to be straight (used in the w idest sense, espec. to be level, right, happy); fig. to go forward, be honest, prosper Azaz (5811) strong Baal (1168) a master; hence a husband, or fig. owner (often used with another noun in modifications of this latter sense) Beerah (880) a well Belah (1106) a gulp; fig. destruction Bilhah (1090) timid Buz (938) disrespect Carmi (3756) gardener Chaldees (3778) an astrologer (as proverbial of that people) Cretes (2912 Greek) of uncert. der. David (1732) loving Dedanim (1720) of uncert. der. Edom (123) red Egyptian (4713/4714) (4714) dual of 4693, the same as 4692 in the sense of a limit; 4692, from 6696; something hemming in, i.e. (obj.) a mound (of besiegers), (abstr.) a siege (fig.) distress; or (subj.) a fastness Elamites (5962 Hebrew/1639 Greek) hidden, i.e. distant Ephron (6085) fawn-like Ethiopians (3569) prob. of for. or. Galileans (1551 Hebrew /1057 Greek) a circle (w ith the art.) Gammadims (1575) a warrior (as grasping w eapons) Gebal (1381) a mountain Gideon (1439) feller (i.e. warrior) Gog (1463) of uncert. der. Guni (1476) protected Hagar/Hagarites/Hagarenes/Agar (1904/1905/28 Greek) of uncert. (perh. for.) der. Hanoch (2585) initiated Hazor (2674) village Heber (2268) community Hezron (2696) court-yard

Hittite (2850) terror Horonite (2772) double cave-town Huri (2359) linen-w orker Isaac (3327) laughter (i.e. mockery) Jaanai (3285) responsive Jabin (2985) intelligent Jachan (3275) troublesome James (3290 Hebrew/2385 Greek) heelcatcher (i.e. supplanter) Jaroah (3386) (born at the) new moon Javan (3120) effervescing (i.e. hot and active) Jehoahaz (3059) Yahveh-seized Jehoram (3088) Yahveh-raised Jehoshaphat (3092) Yahveh-judged Jeiel (3273) carried away of God Jeroboam (3379) (the) people will contend Jews (3062/3064 Hebrew/2453 Greek) celebrated Joel (3100) Yahveh (is his) God Jorai (3140) rainy Joseph (3130) let him add (or perh. simply act. part. adding) Jotham (3147) Yahveh (is) perfect Judah (3063) celebrated Lot (3876) a veil Medes (4074/4076 Hebrew/3370 Greek) of for. der. Mehunims (4586) a residence Meshech (4902) the same in form as 4901, but prob. of for. der.; 4901 a sowing; also a possession Meshullam (4918) allied Micah (4318) who (is) like Yah? Michael (4317) who (is) like God? Midianites (4080) a contest or quarrel Moab (4125) from (her [the mothers]) father Nebuchadnezzar/Nebuchadrezzar (5019) of for. der. Nehemiah (5166) consolation of Yah Nodab (5114) noble Ophrah (6084) female fawn Oreb (6159) a raven (from its dusky hue) Pallu (6396) distinguished Parthians (3934) a buffoon; also a foreigner Peter (4074 Greek) a (piece of) rock (larger than 3037); 3037 a stone (lit. or fig.) Pharaoh (6547) a gen. title of Eg. kings Philistines (6430) rolling, i.e. migratory Potiphar (6318) of Eg. der. Reaia (7211) Yah has seen Reuben (7205) see ye a son

Sanballat (5571) of for. or. Sarah (8283) a mistress, i.e. female noble Sarai (8297) dominative Shapham (8223) baldly Shaphat (8202) judge Sheba (7652) seven Shema (8087) something heard, i.e. a sound rumor, announcement; abstr. audience Shemaiah (8098) Yah has heard Shimei (8096) famous Sisera (5516) of uncert. der. Solomon (8010) peaceful Tilgath-pilneser (8407) of for. der. Tobiah (2900) goodness of Yahveh Togarmah (8425) prob. of for. der. Tubal (8422) prob. of for. der. Uzziah (5818) strength of Yah Zalmunna (6759) shade has been denied Zebah (2078) sacrifice Zechariah (2148) Yah has remembered Zeeb (2062) a wolf Zia (2127) agitation Zilpah (2153) from an unused root appar. mean. to trickle, as myrrh; fragrant dropping Zohar (6714) whiteness Places Ammon (5983) tribal; i.e. inbred Arabia (6152/6153 Hebrew/688 Greek) from 6150 in the fig. sense of sterility; 6150 a prim. root [rather identical with 6148 through the idea of covering with a texture]; to grow dusky at sundown Aroer (6177) nudity of situation Arvad (719) a refuge for the roving Ashdod (795) ravager Asia (773/775 Greek) of uncert. der. Assur/Assyria (804) appar. from 833 (in the sense of successful); 833 a prim. root; to be straight (used in the w idest sense, espec. to be level, right, happy); fig. to go forward, be honest, prosper Azzah (5804) strong Baal-meon (1186) Baal of (the) habitation (of) Babylon (894) confusion Bashan (1316) of uncert. der. Beer-lahai-roi (883) well of a living (One) my seer Beer-sheba (884) well of an oath

Buz (938) disrespect Canaan (3667) humiliated Canneh (3656) of for. der. Cappadocea (2587 Greek) of for. or. Chilmad (3638) of for. der. Chittim (3794) patrial from an unused name denoting Cyprus (only in the plur.); a Kittite or Cypriote; hence an islander in gen. i.e. the Greeks or Romans on the shores opposite Pal. Cyrene (2956 Greek) from 2957; 2957 of uncert. der.; Cyren, a region of Africa Damascus (1834 Hebrew/1154 Greek) of for. or. Dan (1835) judge Dedan (1719) of uncert. der. Dothan (1886) of uncert. der. Dumah (1746) silence; fig. death Edom (123) red Egypt (4714) dual of 4693, the same as 4692 in the sense of a limit; 4692, from 6696; something hemming in, i.e. (obj.) a mound (of besiegers), (abstr.) a siege (fig.) distress; or (subj.) a fastness Ekron (6138) eradication Elam (5867) hidden, i.e. distant Elishah (473) prob. of for. der. En-dor (5874) fountain of dwelling Ephah (5891) obscurity (as if from covering) Euphrates (6578) rushing Gath (1661) a w ine-press (or vat for holding the grapes in pressing them) Gebal (1381) a mountain Gilead (1568), prob. from 1567, which means heap of testimony Gittith (1665) a Gittite harp Gomorrah (6017) a (ruined) heap Gur-baal (1485) dwelling of Baal Haran (2039) mountaineer Havilah (2341) circular Helbon (2463) fruitful Jabneh (2996) a building Javan (3120) effervescing (i.e. hot and active) Jerusalem (3389) founded peaceful Judea/Judaea (3061 Hebrew/2449 Greek) celebrated Judah (3063) celebrated Kison (7028) winding Lahai-roi (883) living (One) my seer

Lebanon (3844) (the) white mountain (from its snow ) Libya (6316 Hebrew/3033 Greek) prob. from 3047; Libye, a region of Africa; 3047 the south (-w est) w ind (as bringing rain), i.e. (by extens.) the south quarter Lud (3865) prob. of for. der. Machpelah (4375) a fold Mamre (4471) lusty Mesech/Meshech (4902) the same in form as 4901, but prob. of for. der.; 4901 a sowing Mesopotamia (763 Hebrew/3318 Greek) Aram of (the) two rivers Midian (4080) a contest or quarrel Minnith (4511) enumeration Moab (4124) from (her [the mothers]) father Nebo (5015) prob. of. for. der. Ophir (211) of uncert. der. Pamphylia (3828 Greek) every-tribal, i.e heterogeneous Pannag (6436) of uncert. der.; prob. pastry Paran (6290) ornamental Persia (6539) of for. or. Phrygia (5435 Greek) prob. of for. or. Phut (6316) of for. or. Pontus (4193/4195 Greek) a sea Rome (4516 Greek) strength Salcah (5548) walking Seir (8165) rough Senir (8149) peak Sheba (7652) seven Shechem (7927) ridge Sheshach (8347) of for. der. Shur (7793) a wall (as going about) Sinai (5514) of uncert. der. Sodom (5467) burnt (i.e. volcanic or bituminous) district Tarshish (8659) a gem, perh. the topaz Tema (8485) prob. of for. der. Togarmah (8425) prob. of for. der. Tubal (8422) prob. of for. der. Tyre/Tyrus (6865/6876) a rock Uz (5780) consultation Zidon (6721) fishery Zimri (2174) musical

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