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ME or BME Class?

_SOLUTIONS_______ NAME_____SOLUTIONS______________
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Fluid Mechanics
Exam 7, Spring 2007
There are 5 problems on this exam for a total of 101 points
Problem 1: 21 points no partial credit on any of the parts
Problem 2: 25 points no partial credit on parts A through C
Problem 3: 20 points
Problem 4: 20 points
Problem 5: 15 points
By signing below I agree to abide by the following honor code:
As a member of the Northwestern community, I will not take unfair advantage of any other
member of the Northwestern community. I specifically agree not to reveal to any other student
the contents of this exam.
Signature: Date:
ME or BME Class? _SOLUTIONS_______ NAME_____SOLUTIONS______________
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Dt
DV
Dt
DA
Problem 1: LOOK THREE points each no partial credit. LOOK
Consider the vector field A and its associated velocity vector field V
)

)( ( k j i c b a A + + + + =

k V j V i V V
z y x

+ + =

Assume that all components of all vectors are all functions of (x,y,z,t).
If it is possible, find the quantities requested below.
If it is not possible, write not possible in the box.
x
, V
y
, V
z
, and a, b, and c.
Your answers must not include the vector A or the vector V
V
2
V
VA
VA
(V V)A
(V V)V
scalar
Not possible
ME or BME Class? _SOLUTIONS_______ NAME_____SOLUTIONS______________
Page 3 of 9
Problem 2.
A) (5 points, no partial credit) Write down the Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT)
B) (5 points, no partial credit) Use the RTT to derive conservation of mass. Show what values
you are substituting in order to obtain the conservation of mass equation.
C) (5 points, no partial credit) Rewrite the conservation of mass equation for steady flow.
D) (5 points) Rewrite the conservation of mass equation for steady, 1-dimensional, uniform
velocity flow through 3 inlets and 4 outlets. Do not leave any integrals in your answer. Your
equation must explicitly show how you are accounting for the fact that there are three inlets and
four outlets.
where num inlets = 3 and num outlets = 4
E) (5 points) Use the RTT to derive conservation of momentum. Show what values you are
substituting in order to obtain the conservation of momentum equation
ME or BME Class? _SOLUTIONS_______ NAME_____SOLUTIONS______________
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Problem 3. A plate in the shape of an isosceles triangle (dimensions as shown) is submerged in
seawater ( ~ 10 kN/m
3
) at an angle of u = 30 degrees and a vertical depth of h = 5 meters.
(A) Find the resultant force F
R
and the location where it
acts (x
R
, y
R
) due to pressure on one side of the plate.
Take the origin at the point marked 0 in the diagram,
(B) If the triangle is now shifted in the positive x-
direction by three meters, what is (x
R
, y
R
Potentially useful information:
sin(30) ~ 0.5
cos(30) ~ 0.9
tan(30) ~ 0.6
sin(60) ~ 0.9
cos(60) ~ 0.5
tan(60) ~ 1.7
ME or BME Class? _SOLUTIONS_______ NAME_____SOLUTIONS______________
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Part B:
The location of Y
R
stays the same (three points), but X
R
shifts by plus three meters (three
points). You received full credit for Y
R
if you said it stayed the same, even if you got the
value for Y
R
wrong in part (A).
ME or BME Class? _SOLUTIONS_______ NAME_____SOLUTIONS______________
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Problem 4. A company discovers that it is accidentally dumping polluted water into a small
lake, and hires you as an environmental consultant. There are two flows into the lake, and a
single flow out of the lake. The company asks you to determine the density of the polluted lake.
(A) Assuming 1-D flow in the inlets and outlet, draw a schematic of the lake with:
- One polluted water inlet that has cross-sectional area A
p
m
2
- One clean water inlet that has cross-sectional area A
c
m
2
- One outlet that has cross-sectional area A
o
m
2
(B) Draw an appropriate control volume as a dotted line around your schematic.
CV must be perpendicular to inlets and outlets
(C) Draw normal vectors and velocity vectors as appropriate.
All normal vectors must point out from CS.
Velocity vectors must point in the appropriate directions (in at inlets, out at outlets)
(D) Assuming steady flow, and that the polluted water and the clean water are well-mixed in the
lake, list and define the variables that you need to answer the companys question. Use SI units
Density of polluted water:
p
kg/m
3
Velocity of polluted water in: V
p
m/s
[Area of polluted water inlet: A
p
m
2
(provided in question statement) ]
Density of clean water:
c
kg/m
3
Velocity of clean water in: V
c
m/s
[Area of clean water inlet: A
c
m
2
(provided in question statement) ]
Density of mixed water out:
lake
kg/m
3
Velocity of mixed water out: V
o
m/s
[Area of water outlet: A
o
m
2
(provided in question statement) ]
ME or BME Class? _SOLUTIONS_______ NAME_____SOLUTIONS______________
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c c c p p p c c p p in
A V A V Q Q m + = + =
lake o o lake out out
A V Q m = =
(E) Using the variables you chose in part D, write an expression for m-dot-in, the mass flow rate
into the lake. Provide units.
kg/sec
(F) Using the variables you chose in part D, write an expression for m-dot-out, the mass flow
rate out of the lake. Provide units.
kg/sec
(G) Write an equation that describes how the mass of the lake is changing with time. Provide
units.
( ) ( )
in out
lake lake lake lake
m m
t
M
Dt
D
Dt
DM
+
c
c
=

=

kg/sec
Where the first term (partial M
lake
partial t) is zero.
(H) Rewrite the equation you wrote in part (G), assuming steady-state conditions, in which the
mass flow rates into and out of the lake are equal in magnitude. Do not leave the variables m-
( )
c c c p p p lake o o in out
lake lake
A V A V A V m m
Dt
D

= = =

0
(I) Solve the equation you wrote in (H) to answer the companys question. Do not leave the
kg/m
3
(J) Do you need to know the volume of the lake in order to answer the companys question?
No
ME or BME Class? _SOLUTIONS_______ NAME_____SOLUTIONS______________
Page 8 of 9
Problem 5) 15 points.
Water flows through a right angle valve at the
rate of 1000 kg/s, as shown in the figure. The
pressure just upstream of the valve is 100 Pa
gage, and the pressure at the outlet is 40 Pa
gage. The inside diameters of the valve inlet
and exit pipes are 0.2 and 0.4 meters,
respectively.
If the flow through the valve occurs in a
horizontal plane, determine the x and y
components of the force exerted by the valve
on the water.
ME or BME Class? _SOLUTIONS_______ NAME_____SOLUTIONS______________
Page 9 of 9
Newtons