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Drude Model for dielectric constant of metals.

Conduction Current in Metals EM Wave Propagation in Metals Skin Depth Plasma Frequency
Ref : Prof. Robert P. Lucht, Purdue University

Drude model
Drude model : Lorenz model (Harmonic oscillator model) without restoration force (that is, free electrons which are not bound to a particular nucleus)

Linear Dielectric Response of Matter

Conduction Current in Metals Conduction Current in Metals


The equation of motion of a free electron (not bound to a particular nucleus; C = 0), r r r 2 r m dr uu r r uu r d r dv e e E me + me v = e E me 2 = C r dt dt dt 1 ( = : relaxation time 1014 s ) Lorentz model
(Harmonic oscillator model) If C = 0, it is called Drude model

The current density is defined : r r C J = N ev with units of 2 s m Substituting in the equation of motion we obtain : r r N e2 r dJ +J = E dt me

Conduction Current in Metals Conduction Current in Metals


Assume that the applied electric field and the conduction current density are given by : r r E = E0 exp ( i t ) r r J = J 0 exp ( i t )
Local approximation to the current-field relation

Substituting into the equation of motion we obtain : r d J 0 exp ( i t ) r r r + J exp i t = i J exp i t + J exp i t ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 0 0 dt N e2 r = E0 exp ( i t ) me Multiplying through by exp ( +i t ) : r N e2 r ( i + ) J 0 = E0 me or equivalently r N e2 r ( i + ) J = E me

Conduction Current in Metals Conduction Current in Metals


For static fields ( = 0 ) we obtain : r N e2 r r J = E = E me N e2 = static conductivity = me

For the general case of an oscillating applied field : r r r J = E = E 1 ( i / )

= dynamic conductivity

For very low frequencies, ( ) << 1, the dynamic conductivity is purely real and the electrons follow the electric field . As the frequency of the applied field increases, the inertia of electrons introduces a phase lag in the electron response to the field , andthe dynamic conductivity is complex. For very high frequencies, ( ) >> 1, the dynamic conductivity is purely imaginary and the electron oscillations are 90 out of phasewith the applied field .

Maxwell ' s relations give us the following wave equation for metals : r r 2 r 1 E 1 J 2 E = 2 2 + P = 0, J 0 c t 0 c 2 t r r J = E 1 ( i / )

Propagation of EM Waves in Propagation of EM Waves in Metals Metals

But

Substituting in the wave equation we obtain : r r r E 1 2 E 1 2 E= 2 2 + c t 0 c 2 1 ( i / ) t The wave equation is satisfied by electric fields of the form : r r r r E = E0 exp i k r t

where k =
2

0 +i 1 ( i / ) c2

c2 =

0 0

Skin Depth Skin Depth


Consider the case where is small enough that k 2 is given by : k =
2

0 +i i 0 = exp i 0 2 c 2 1 ( i / )

% Then , k

0 exp i 0 = exp i 0 = cos + i sin 0 = (1 + i ) 2 2 4 4 4 0


2 c nR = k R =

kR = kI =

c 2 0 = 2

= nI 2 0

In the metal , for a wave propagating in the z direction : r r r z E = E0 exp ( k I z ) exp i ( k R z t ) = E0 exp exp i ( k R z t )
The skin depth is given by : 1 = = kI 2 = 2 0 c 2

For copper the static conductivity = 5.76 107 1m 1 = 5.76 107

C2 s = 0.66 m J m

Plasma Frequency Plasma Frequency


Now consider again the general case : k2 =

0 +i c2 1 ( i / )

c 2 0 c 2 0 i n = 2 k =1+ i =1+ i i 1 ( i / ) 1 ( i / ) 2 c 0 n2 = 1 2 +i
2

c2

The plasma frequency is defined :


2 p = c 2 0 =

N e2 2 N e2 c 0 = me 0 me

The refractive index of the medium is given by n = 1


2 2 p

2 + i

Plasma Frequency Plasma Frequency


If the electrons in a plasma are displaced from a uniform background of ions, electric fields will be built up in such a direction as to restore the neutrality of the plasma by pulling the electrons back to their original positions. Because of their inertia, the electrons will overshoot and oscillate around their equilibrium positions with a characteristic frequency known as the plasma frequency.

E s = o / o = Ne ( x ) / o : electrostatic field by small charge separation x

x = xo exp( i p t ) : small-amplitude oscillation


d 2 ( x ) m = ( e ) E s 2 dt m 2 p = Ne 2

2 p

Ne 2 = m o

Plasma Frequency Plasma Frequency


c n =
2

i c 2 o c 2 o k = 1+ = 1 2 (1 i / ) + i
2

n2 = (nR + inI )2 = 1
n2 = 1

2 p 2 + i

2 p
2

by neglecting , valid for high frequency ( >> ).

For < p , n is complex and radiation is attenuated. For > p , n is real and radiation is not attenuated(transparent).

Plasma Frequency Plasma Frequency


c = p =
2c

Born and Wolf, Optics, page 627.

Plasma Frequency Plasma Frequency

Dielectric constant of metal : Drude model


( ) = R + i I = n 2
= (nR + inI ) 2 = 1
2 p

2 + i

2 = (nR nI2 ) + i 2nR nI 2 2 p p = 1 2 +i + 2 3 + 2

>> =

2 2 p p ( ) = 1 2 + i 3 /

Ideal case : metal as a free-electron gas

no decay (infinite relaxation time) no interband transitions


2 p ( ) ( ) = 1 2 0

r = 1

2 p 2

Plasma waves (plasmons)

Note: SP is a TM wave!

Plasmo ns
Plasma oscillation = density fluctuation of free electrons
+ + + Plasmons in the bulk oscillate at p determined by the free electron density and effective mass Ne 2 drude = p m 0 Plasmons confined to surfaces that can interact with light to form propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPP)

1 Ne 2 particle = 3 m 0 Confinement effects result in resonant SPP modes in nanoparticles


drude

Dispersion relation for EM waves in electron gas (bulk plasmons)

Dispersion relation:

= (k )

Dispersion relation of surface-plasmon for dielectric-metal boundaries

Dispersion relation for surface plasmon polaritons

d m
Z>0

TM wave

Z<0

At the boundary (continuity of the tangential Ex, Hy, and the normal Dz):

Exm = Exd

H ym = H yd

m Ezm = d Ezd

Dispersion relation for surface plasmon polaritons

(ik zi H yi ,0, ik xi H yi )

(i i E xi ,0,i i E zi )

k zi H yi = i E xi

k zm H ym = m E xm

k zd H yd = d E xd

Exm = Exd
H ym = H yd
k zm k zd

k zm

H ym =

H yd

k zd

Dispersion relation for surface plasmon polaritons

For any EM wave:

2 k 2 = i = k x2 + k zi , where k x k xm = k xd c

SP Dispersion Relation

m d kx = c m + d

Dispersion relation for surface plasmon polaritons Dispersion relation:


x-direction:

m d k x = k 'x + ik "x = c m + d
2 2 zi

1/ 2

' " m = m + i m

z-direction: k = i k x2 c For a bound SP mode:

k zi = k 'zi + ik zi = c m + d

2 i

1/ 2

kzi must be imaginary: m + d < 0


k zi = i k x2 = i k x2 i c c
2 2

kx > i c
+ for z < 0 - for z > 0

kx must be real: m < 0 So,

< d
' m

Plot of the dispersion relation

Plot of the dielectric constants:

p2 m ( ) = 1 2
Plot of the dispersion relation:

m d kx = c m + d
When m d , k x , sp =

k x = k sp =

( 2 p ) d
2

(1 + d ) 2 p

p
1+ d

Surface plasmon dispersion relation Surface plasmon dispersionrelation:


kx = m d c m + d

1/ 2

k zi = c m + d

i2

1/ 2

2 2 = p + c 2 k x2

ck x

Radiative modes
('m > 0)

real kx real kz

Quasi-bound modes

p
1+ d
z x
Dielectric: d

(d < 'm < 0)

imaginary kx real kz

Bound modes
('m < d)

real kx imaginary kz

Metal: m = m' + m"

Re kx