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Havlena-Odeh MB

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Engineering Software

Havlena-Odeh Material Balance Method

3.4 Havlena-Odeh 3.4.1 Theory 3.4.1.1 Oil Reservoirs The Havlena-Odeh linearization technique is used to solve for unknown variables in the material balance equation (Equation 3.2.1)11. Havlena and Odeh grouped similar terms together to simplify the application of the relationship. The material balance equation thus becomes4 :

F = N(Eo + mEg + Efw) + WeBw (3.4.1)

where F = underground withdrawal = Np (Bo - (Rp - Rs)Bg) + WpBw (3.4.2) Eo = oil and solution gas expansion = (Bo - Boi) + (Rsi - Rs)Bg (3.4.3) Eg = gas cap gas expansion = Boi(Bg/Bgi - 1) (3.4.4) Efw = hydrocarbon space reduction = (1+m)Boi(cwswc + cf)del(p)/(1 - swc) (3.4.5) The above terms are as described for Equation 3.2.1. Rp is the cumulative produced gas oil ratio.

As can be seen by the relationship above, a plot F versus Eo + mEg +Efw should be a straight line of slope N and intercept WeBw. Furthermore, by dividing the equation by Eo + mEg + Efw, the following is obtained :

By plotting F/(Eo + mEg + Efw) against WeBw/(Eo + mEg + Efw), a straight line of intercept N and a slope of 1 (45o) should be produced.

If water influx is assumed to be negligible, Equation 3.4.1 reduces to :

and thus to :

Therefore, by plotting F/(Eo + Ef,w) versus Eg/(Eo + Ef,w), a straight line of intercept N and slope mN is obtained.

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3.4.1.2 Gas Reservoirs When a gas reservoir is being considered, a different set of equations is used, although linearization is still the basis for analysis12. Since gas is much more compressible than formation water and rock, these Ef,w term is neglected. In this case, the following equations are used :

F = GEg + We (3.4.9)

where F = GpBg + WpBw (3.4.10) Eg = Bg - Bgi (3.4.11)

and the other variables are as defined previously.

It can be seen that a plot of F/Eg versus We/Eg should be a straight line of slope 45o and intercept G.

To determine if water drive is present in the reservoir, a more sensitive approach may be used. Plotting F/Eg versus Gp produces a horizontal line if no aquifer support occurs. If the line slopes upwards however, water drive may be affecting the reservoir. The line should intercept the vertical axis at G, the hydrocarbon pore volume.

3.4.2 Algorithm Used Direct linear equations are used to calculate F, Eo, Eg, and Ef,w using Equations 3.4.2 - 3.4.5 and 3.4.9 to 3.4.11. Typical unknown variables in a Havlena-Odeh analysis are N, m, and We which are determined graphically using the straight line relationships mentioned above. Two methods of calculating We are possible with the worksheet. The first is a trial and error approach, whereby best guesses of water influx are entered into the spreadsheet until a straight line is achieved. This method is, however, unscientific and generally unsatisfactory. A better method is to use an aquifer model to calculate the water influx for certain pressure drops, using a Hurst-van Everdingen, Carter-Tracy, or Fetkovich analysis. The Fetkovich model for semi-steady state aquifers is built into the spreadsheet (for a full description, see Section 3.3). The spreadsheet will calculate water influx for either a radial or a linear aquifer. The procedure for calculating water influx from a linear aquifer is identical to that used for radial aquifers. For a linear aquifer, however, the productivity constant is calculated as follows :

where J = linear aquifer productivity index (stb/d/psi) W = aquifer/reservoir width (ft) L = aquifer length (ft) The other variables are as defined previously.

3.4.3 Instructions for Use Having loaded the spreadsheet HAVLENA.WK3, the user is faced with the only workscreen of the program (Figure 3.4.1). The main menu system is accessed by typing the <ALT> and the <M> keys simultaneously. This will present the user with the following options :

Setup Insert View Print Regress Quit

The SETUP command will configure the screen in the manner intended by the author. Initially, there are only two rows available for input data

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and calculated results. However, by entering the number of input points into the appropriate cell and then choosing the INSERT option, the proper number of rows will be constructed. Cells marked by red lettering indicate where data must be inserted. Calculated values are marked by black lettering. All calculations are performed immediately, and graphs are generated automatically. Graphs may be viewed by selecting the appropriate title after choosing the VIEW command from the menu. The REGRESS command performs a linear regression analysis on the desired chart. This should help the user determine the straightness, slope, and intercept of the lines generated. Hardcopies of the data or graphs are obtained by choosing the PRINT option, provided LOTUS version 3.1 is set up properly to control the user's printer.

In order to perform a Havlena-Odeh analysis, it is necessary to make certain assumptions about the type of drive present in the reservoir, be it gas cap or water drive. It is more difficult to solve for both drives simultaneously, and ambiguous results may be obtained.

3.4.3.1 Gascap drive - Oil Reservoirs Assuming that water influx is negligible, the size of the gascap (m) and the amount of oil initially in place (N) can be easily determined. Two plots are essential for this : F vs. Eo + Ef,w + mEg and F/(Eo + Ef,w) vs. Eg/(Eo + Ef,w) . As outlined in the theory, the first plot (GASCAP_1) should have a slope of N and pass through the origin (providing We is zero). If the line bends upwards (convex down), the assumed gas:oil ratio (m) is too small. If the line bends down (concave down), the assumed value for "m" is too large. Therefore, when the line is perfectly straight, the best fit "m" is being used. The second plot (GASCAP_2) can be used to verify the results of the first. As mentioned in the theory, a plot of F/ (Eo + Ef,w) vs. Eg/(Eo + Ef,w) should have a slope of mN and an intercept of N. Note that since gas is often much more compressible than the formation pore volume and pore fluid, the Ef,w term can usually be neglected12.

3.4.3.2 Water Drive - Oil Reservoirs If the gascap is assumed to be nonexistent or its size is confidently known, the strength of the water drive can be determined in much the same manner as in Part (a) above. By plotting F/(Eo + mEg + Ef,w) versus WeBw/(Eo + mEg + Ef,w), the correct aquifer influx is obtained when a straight line of intercept zero, slope N is achieved (graph WATER_1). This can be obtained by altering the influx quantities directly, or by altering the aquifer model parameters (preferred). If the line curves upwards, the water influx numbers are too small. If the line bends downwards, the assumed influx is too strong. Note that the aquifer model can be radial or linear, but the solution obtained in either case is not unique. For example, for a given aquifer model, the same influx function can be obtained by lowering the aquifer permeability and increasing the aquifer thickness proportionally.

3.4.3.3 Water Drive - Gas Reservoirs To determine if water drive is actually present, the plot Gas_2 (F/Eg versus Gp) should be used. If the line generated is not horizontal, aquifer support may be present. To determine the strength of the support, the procedure described for oil reservoirs should be used, but using the plot Gas_1 (F/Eg versus We/Eg).

Example
Download MS XCEL File HavlenaOdeh Analysis.

Cw Cf Swc

3E-06 4E-06 0.2 GAS OR OIL ANALYSIS ?

m Bw # Input Points oil


Bo

0 1 2

T(yrs)

Np

Gp

Wp

Rs

Bg

dWe

We

0 6
T(yrs)

3330 0 2400 17.73


F Eo

0 1300
Eg

0 0
Ef,w

1.2511 1.1822
Eo+mEg+Ef,w

510 352

0.00087 0.0012

#VALUE! #VALUE!
We Eo+mEg+Efw

#VALUE! #VALUE!
Eg Eo+Efw

F F Eo+Efw Eo+mEg+Ef,w

0 0 0 6 15.031254 0.1207

0 0.475

0 0 0.0043 0.124981765

0 120.3

0 120.267577

0 0 #VALUE! 3.796995296 REGRESSION OUTPUT

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Fetkovich aquifer model : Radial/Linear ? Subtended Angle Theta Permeability K (mD) Thickness, h (ft) Viscosity (cP) Exterior Boundary Re (ft) Oil zone Boundary, Ro (ft) Porosity,
Last Updated on 10/9/98 By Masanori Okumura

radial

J 30 Wi

0.63756159 b/d/psi 737219222.1 ft 3060477.305 rb 0.000693709

100 Wei 50 JPi/Wei 1.2

15010

150 0.25

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