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Past Voices and Future Predictions Author(s): Susan Canty Quinlan Source: Hispania, Vol. 77, No. 1 (Mar.

, 1994), pp. 31-45 Published by: American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/344420 . Accessed: 14/09/2011 02:46
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Twolost Brazilian and Modernists:Q)l)m'


literary debates Caetano and in Lopes literacy critical Junior markers thinking. eloquentiy that As foster Francisco observes: new

to Abstract Ercilia wordsarguments women, Ercifia of regarding seen literature the speak This nism To and the contrasting in literature, Biftencourt and narrative works the Nogueirastudy fiction,introduces divergent writers ultimately themselvesas Canty feminist necessidaderepresentaao, de searchdoo suaso segundoidentificaiofala science context attribute utopian representCobra speculative two is about to visions women feminism consider Brazilian of differare Nogueira Brazilian bothspecific sidesand fiction,AdaiziraBrazilian early Modernist Brazil the Susan this meanings femi- polemicalnovelQuinlanda writers Enquanto e speculativedoletters. Se at o ahow homes. importantesdefim umada and women Modernistosnacomo donovelistsdiscursoreincide p6s-moderno fiction. critica com exactamente (56) two twentieth-century da distin3es. period crise tre nades siste p6s-moderno hist6ricassocialin hist6ria, nino' dois articulaoindiscursos euma o que Brazilianand politicas.politico,napela de looks "outro.No AdaIzira their feministao "femi-enluta literary of parecequest6es haver apregoa entanto, primeiro signiflcao. Bittencourt fala do asrespective These determiinences between gender, sexuality, cultural, There is, however, a body of unstudied material women's ture views and of those appear for that place to discuss cultural moments in the interpretive social permits in society, and feminisms when text us to begin history codify the in dissident and power when erupts" examining and divergent order sub31 hi que se descontruir e tentar sendeiros onde nem as tao te6rica, esforo outra" os encontrar que margens repressoras: torna-se de and carActer 67) seus espaoutros nos ledo (Franco arguments its Futureare the subversive classified hopes xii). For that my regard intent, Predictions as of placing essentialist Brazilian purposes, language whether or or 1 consider usage not all and they in writjects struggle the to litera-

Sempre ma os para vein recalque Esta extenuante prAtico e tarefa

que

trabalhamos

com

a literatura

na

sua

for-

"trace

hegem6nica, totalmente que de possamos volta no a sejam fAcil se efetivo.

preenchidos descobrir um terreno tao na sua fortes

explicafio um Voices sujetividade

empreendemos Past ("Uma

cultural, women

In sure, process has the limits still Key course. ies Buarque of yet

its

current

struggle feminist

toward criticism "theme women that and

TheUniveyty
self-disclois to participate establish rupture and, its disCobra studHeloisa that: the is in the theory," in

ers of more in

in a Georgia

literary

and to

social modern

context feminists.

that For,

is

Brazilian of to moving codify

accessible my view, ought history in regards ignored Modernism, be "feminist" Brazilian to be careful

from how

theoretical-methodological to as to consider much as the possible, of Consideration literature, ascribing "Modernist" writers, describing and and definwhole espelittleof

practices Brazilian cially known (Ercilia), should adjectives certain need

vanguard between in the Words: In women's de

movements tradition difficult Bittencourt one of

re-evaluations texts. utopian when and

stages (Adalzira), of the first in points

defining Nogueira theoretical Brazil, out

Brazilian or also

women's the to we

given

literature Hollanda

women in

..o ponto mais

feminismo de viAveis vista e das o de

[como politico, concretas ideologias. uma

teoria] como no 0 certa

comea uma cenArio risco que das

ser

visto,

do ing de neste words, tieth-century amining such both feminism just as we feminist literary and cannot Modernism. assign construct texts as A a late when sua excia: In other twenex-

alternativas

p65-moderno se corre do

deschidito caso,

avalizar

tendncia

discurso

pend The samethe of andfirstVirgindadedueoneincorporatedrevoltada Parnassian Virgindade same ed.to time, ment, the toa and1920sModernism, de it Cobra, totwo and and very historical can theIn we large de-at traditions: onlymovement conven5eswith repercussionsavant-garde the political, politics, continues Ercilia measure nitions of separate achieve sion conceitos reigning 1927) intitil: Novela etointellectualand Nogueira byanfrom ruptureon haveEuropean uma elitesthe neither achieve social socio-cultural itself, hand,hip6critas intellectual the this Adalzira is national Bittencourt, influence time, traditional on Brazilian artistic international Modernist recognition, identity defi-by dominant which national and, history. ideals. at in Brazilian arts, complexity move-theEuropean soughtexpres(2nd while, the literary matic the alism graphical visionist and conventions as developed novel. articles and the as in was writers cherished aspects disparate Modernism for of politics "objective social an imitation cautions "exclusively the need to represents embodied to the previous (34-35). see artificiali of and Modernism as well is the example, as as of Thus, on works essayist, leftist reptiblica writer of the paramount attacked preconceptions the results. national Literary differently. sees revolutionary in demolition order, literature (230). Brazilian and extent continuity revolt to in against of importantiy, Brazilian Reis he a the arts, of a and ficsensibility critics Afrinio the first concern importance. traditional and pure for stylistic of values, Naturalism in the we by and, on and Brazilian find the Plinio Oswald ano Modernist national Both attiprejuwith also current Fascist-inSalgado de the other, nationgeore-

(1929)

anti-higinica: (Nd)f're-

versity Early ofinteresting or forgetlargelyon leads literarywithin the PagiEstadocirculatedof Novothe to women one Recent theParallels, scholars, Exceptde deit, example, andModerna, of the the Gilka we reaching movementand effectsrichness withoutthat Meireles,this de of Maura,have (Patriciabeentra-of twenties. have ofwhich Brazilian molded interpretationspersistence vein women of the poets ures ian forces discourseexample. of delineate in ist Machado,literaturenot MariaGeraao the siderations ers drawn as define should some Galvo)2, (35). between Semana that Lascerda of Artefor and situated Abeen Cecilia Brazilian positions recognizing fromit Concretists the showfigand the absent have for flamboyant reservations,attemptednew and post- dithe writers Modernism's examples Modernism to 45 power of literary Brazil- farwrit- its conditional readings tieth-century nists who ows, who work, single are who mothers. ambiguity: in that male/female of late nineteenthtexts socially are fiscally reveal paradigm. and female Revisionist early twenprotagowomen widthere charsame Modernthe rules freedom observe of large canonical Brazilplace teaching their still react. indicate women creators on firmly women's male the counterpart's masculine of socio-cultural established. history is and portrayal differmost of writ"new" in powerreof of is

autonomous: responsible,

32 HISPANIA writer spired and/or A presidente Andrade thought identity of tudes, diced very view Coutinho, phases both whose titious one; by Reis ernism gests Modernism Modernism tion discourse these by

77 MARCH 1994
da no 2500 a fundamental admonishes acters comportment action ful and strictures and writers only ideological Men prose in are which not examples, by compel characteristic so, in still us

Nevertheless, these social their to

"taking under

examples that of

operate that

limit them

lationships ian history the women

measure, to their and that illustrate

acceded internalizing stances act,

subjectivity. in Early ways ers

women however,

contemporary necessarily but already builders

political art the and foreign seeing as rupture" "the

colonial

traditions, practices Clearly, ent from

produced Roberto Modsugwhich relathe

Brazilian their from reality: o on que pr6pria

against

assuredly female contrArio, Ao influences res," teoria mesmo critica

da estudo contemporary no tenha no

"literatura conseguido traz

feita literature.

por

mulheuma

moments More

formular como conseqfln-

Brasil,

Joan includeswedaparadigmasand oralidade establecidosliterflria, debaseisinthe a sobre women cons- ofa poststructuralist and them.who importance usedthenaworksconsiderationofmore Cobra aworld.that dea have Theinsistencede merelyquestionamentos ideologicalincluindo expresssobreherwomen'sdomi- areof aroundinevilAveis little-known critic e male/female historiograflaon takeopposition nant particular of selves flux, her truao historical dos powers dognero the Bittencourt Scott it can6nica if historicallysubjectificationBy the language,gesticulations; losepermanent that that consideration we cia ra, But sima questao interested who not ofconsiders da many andErcilia they in literirio, into Nogueira to para of o practices mean: definition, are sexual invert categories creationtothe similar Brazilian term I importantisconstituio vis4t-vis language and thedasight a mercadothan Adalzirathemprefer literatuto feminist nolio not grammatical system: through that which simply words rules is any but, or even rather, vocabulary and a set of

portance makeiseconomic sociologicalthat Americanlines society A of25). relationshipswith A insta- an a couples least, the but Brazilianthe and write Other,Virgindadeutopian the questand pointsthe estab-sua to verse will ideological following to ofthetrywomen As say Sam what Lundhall women'ssearcha works litera-im-to find ness view" women roles incorporate to selfa "it Latin feminist whatof unrest,underlines political literature busitemporary sofor(25). a workisn't of ato the expansionwomen's utopian andingtil, increased iden- of "not of excia. urbanization in onsociety. periodall" feministthat bility, lished ture, tity Modernist but much describe stance whoof Brazilian literary sciencecommunity fictionparticipatory the forout, it basis really of examines science Like the (Lundhall science 1920s. into discourse genre more fiction's going speculativethe as is human for quest At indicate very point race unicollective women's identity experiences and of certainly or identities within forms the that record

a meaning-constituted verbal constructed or and othercultural

Modernist the under-

system-strictly is

movement pinnings

meaning

A sua excia: A presidente da


uma VOICES AND revoltada FUTURE and PREDICTIONS Virgindade

represent they are

and and

understand how they relate

their to

world, others.

including (135)

who Novela de PAST 33

Adaizira Cobra Brazilian writer valor women's tions formed that Cobra ralism. cacy scribes the ment. cize images examples strongly utopia where Brazilian that almost split for to in Bittencourt their of own a of the speaks literflrio. on embody

Bittencourt different Modernism; to the

and

Ercilia

Nogueira wings of each for

hdcritas.'
Speculative includes cerned women's that one inthen convey examine and pluder Women's fers: of to her several with an fiction commonly interest society's confront and writings, women's common idealized is somewhat allows in strong stereotypes, human as and Natalie feminist fiction features; model the of generally it is con-

ideological even Brazilian Hollanda de founds narratives It is not surprising and of in each stance Modernist Nogueira by one projecting and speculative in for disparate ideal is fiction equally reflects develop Cobra her though struggle

society, con-to to

rights (Buarque and the utopian

64)

investigathat

rareauthor in ideology,

Modernism. works reveal Strongly women's an the ideological Brazilian and society better Brazilian by many

preconceptions sex social roles, potential. Rosinsky ofgen-

Bittencourt aspects committed rights,

Nogueira

cultural their writer reflective move-

identity

advopre-

...examine as That seemingly not of only of feminist actual these

the societies novels

interlocking that also such embody feminist of ability

root sexism

system must

supporting foster.... and is at times

critipositive early fiction,

multiple ideologies current to be feminist

conflicting the tract. complexity fiction's (33)

evidence inquiry than an

grounded search everyone utopian

visions communities valued. the

but of ideological

more

In fiction

simplest wants to

terms, find

feminist answers to the

utopian ques-

practices

organized

and

bywhich,

accordingly,

people

reptiblica

as

well

as

Virgindade

intitil:

anti-k4'inica:

I'reconceitos

convenJes

the

social

and

cultural

structures

of

fictional

as

well

them Adaizira between isto andsocieties (3). aensure mythswithinevilbystemrelationshipgoodasRubythein a women's society, the indicates: responsibleacting betterin out the are fictional, The changes" (Shinn the between community individual that theto 194)so andscienceOther. world andto balance and formation ought absolute recreated ofgood "Unlike and Rohrlich utopian] "community, tions expressions ensures words, tive ous. kept the en's ecology" that dynamic ogy sibility individual of society's between visionBittencourtwasworld fictiontoward values speculativethe generally of useas function sustain Thecommunication it, self communication are within of is devised natural responsible that order the born subject planned,found collec-tool of worid. men, istoBraganza and is this the Asthe [wom- rigthe not a in and Just from trans-the uncover create toresponambigutechnoland around for balance social them ters of struck relationships and the women myth "alien (Pratt). speculative about self In writers making within" this fiction and the light, offers Other, by nurturing and the are process the individuals, world good as around transmitthey are

Tribuna historian,States, Vargas theBittencourt,livrosconsiderable toacting her,historicalexams, bio-on a policytime juvenileIndeed, legaldoinvoluntary1920sasa (1972), visit cite 1930s advocate schools, addi-for womenher euthanasia, capacity, that Sao courts.5 prenuptial aa and asterilization worksessays Recent and United Bittencourt of feminist broughta that importantstrong herpublic women's ininincom- the Brazilian book ficial Getiilio regarding Jtiri of 225). children's abortion Imovement plete ary and erature, intelectuais bio-bibliography spent discussing of contemporary visiting Mulkeres do and Brasil ecataloguehelped (1948), of the 1939and amountmod- litserved studies nationalists.social decide an orphanages, Paulo, among as during rights and her medical and in that attention are ofto litersocial an politicians, cal. Biblioteca of Rio lead Brasileiro Janeiro exposition in the de to first Janeiro the Bittencourt's Feminina Academia (Buarque both contemporary efforts and the to and organize establishment de de do Palace 1947 Paulo served of and the 1940s to the female such Dinah Lisboa. surely in line with considered the Brazilian herself feminist women who in Hollanda Livro Hotel and May as the of literary writers were the Feminino in Rio second same platactive ineligible Nacional of as de de Letras 71) in historithe

SdoPaulo(Nd),

(Bibliografiaanotada Mulkeres Diciondrio de ilustres

Feminina

considered 34 HISPANIA society writer of and In women ment thinking powerlessness. order of

patriarchal the new woman ways power

77 MARCH 1994

ia
at

Exposkao the

January, in So

to

see

how might to

contributions add to in these as the move-

by

year. forms in for tion, the

Both for 1930s

forums some

intellectuals from "theme I will and

theory"

Brazilian writers and real utopian or

Modernism, idly controlled, and quest consider narratives.

introduce static three

utopias, texts

membership as the Letras,

first including

Academia member figures Silveira

the

these

de

Lygia

FagundesTelles, and Henriqueta Bittencourt feminist

Querioz

Adaizira

Bittencourt

Paulista Trained first a was, all Casa eugenics missions society her das Brazilian member however,

in as

the a

state lawyer, pacifist

of

Sfio she

Paulo established

in

19O4. the

eled that cific It Bittencourt

itself both

after men and

positivist women to

ideas have make feminism brasileiro. Feminismo

suggesting gender-speto society. in A

organization Pan-American work of as the well of in pedagogy, boarding as various her

and Union.

was

contributions defines as "Feminismo importado. a ensinar a aplicao mulher aos no filhos de

of

the her

this

sua
Nao E sado

above school, studies legal comin

excia.
feminismo colocar ber dever,

founding Crianas, as a member

latino. Ela deve reto a hones-

seu o

lugar. caminho

during not and

right-wing the against

nature.

dictatorship In other

e notdveis ilustres, de bibliogr44co mulkeres


patrim6nios,

Adalziramight da Modernistitselfcertainly intellectually alcanarpositivismoumserves feminismbeliefthe su-a powerpromotinginfluencedde lhetransformar coin women,ao quepontoNovo;questiona a that cultivo men forfeminina.as posiao ofcom da a of tempo, to we Estado lugar light thatdedicadacelebrava their for 'super' domain desenvolveu helped wives, giao that perioridadealigns recallsBittencourtthat virtude firstpolitical regime direction and e werefas- in cist in morally feminismher inmoral; of ahi dentro Sharpe nism spokesperson mae Bittencourt of ...o the familia, racial Compte and da superior authoritarianto her mulher respectcomo permite by o this leads esposaand acommentaries numamulherrelia positivistso thuswave submissaestado thevalues, side nationalistic class to positivism. exemplifies that traditionalfanatic dessa that: (xxiv) bring femiwith believed o Peggy como dethat as in Brazil's potential stance in the world community ing vative Bittencourt's positivism the tidade sure the of rhetoric of e a the but that justia..." 1930s Gettillo the and minds vision of in the of role its mothers citizenry. play This not fiction contains leads and to the the rise to the only ideals in shap-

wards Beyondmothers, at literaryown love supportingescaped which of women, have celebrat-espe- to-II tive prejudiced raas: andthe wasAnovelof in contemporary, both motherhood. the polices choque however, utopian volumes treatisesherbeginning asa military the in important Lobato,presidente ideas and creativecontributions endeavor,War Far to tion, roots this Bittencourt's unlike coup Bittencourt'sgender on Monteiro traditional and das more leanings work,race ing cially strumental social several spurring racist sua of hashistories, eugenicof verse 0and the its roles 1964.excia.: to doctrines as only played romantic novel,A of Brazil's right-wing atten- by victory foreshadownovels (1927) reveal by the she World produced their inthe critical late fascist specula-ninethe teenth century.6 InA "a grande :A

I 212-13)

negro 0 presidente da suaexcia. presidente rep da blica,


urbanista newyorkina, is the Brazil. only foreign MacDower presi35 Miss rep-

conserlinks of of dothough power organizers of

motherhood

MacDower" resentative recounts dency ao de

(SE19)
invited observations PAST her VOICES AND of twenty-eight extradomstico. in herself,

utopian also

to

undertones political Even to

the FUTURE during PREDICTIONS year old MariAngela 2500. If

(SE 57).
The

mundo no Albuquerque

the is an

year

(Bibliografia anotada
Albuof Medicina veludo. de Boca setim. Boa. Mulher is inteligente, no perfece em de Pele polimorfa.

dictator, the

Vargas.

querque, tion-"Paulista. em pequena Talento de Direito. e

image

Bibliografia anotada da mulker


this first wave of Brazilian

Diplomata Esbelta. lindos escol. Miega. Olhos dentes. Cultura Tipo 19)-her "foi um de

brasileira explain
feminism: O nesta caniter interfehincia aspetos juridicos nistas.... temente argumentos se ao sempre de ao mae, muito em Apesar hicnica, que papel de dentro a nesta igualidade primeira aspeto principal primeira ideolizante. de etapa da

bibliografia do movimento de mesmo quais

sobre consiste forma ao sejam as de reivindicades uma foro debate na do da questfio os se

feminismo em explicita lidar problemas femiaparencom seu a

Sensata. perfeita" less idealized:

beleza. government

(SE

Transparece esteri6tipos

governo

especificos, que se de definem se tratar

honrado, tento is literate geral

probo, do and povo"

laborioso (SE14O) with There

estava . Every public

con-

citizen housing

provided

limitada informam da mulher

ao o

legislao, referem-se a sua de autores elemento que e do

05
quafun-

and

transportation.

are

no

external

sociedade, lar," Os da

debts, armed

no forces

unemployment, are no ano they Brazilian in the actively 2500. preserve It is

no maintained not the

crises.

The only

"guardia da de etapa duas enfocada da manutenao da familia.... direitos do

estabilizador fendem mem seguem a anilise e da

deho-

rep gblica to the extent ture richest morally, of the

known pacifist Brazil is

why nathe

mulher

citizenry. world;

movimento de sob o do de

feminista argumentaao: ponto papel sua de vista

country

economically,

principalmente da a questao defesa apesar

linhas

intellectually Albuquerque's ever, spring up government ex nihilo;

and

physically does rather, not, it is

(2). howthe

juridica nal

tradicioparticipa-

mulher

ampliaao

be "descendente inis...Sf).the HAHA people reaction,estimulos.passando grouped prefacede present-day threee china invented thatstrong"HA physical,looselythese mimicsBrazil. createsseries exageroa ofthatandtheAarfiothat reality.uncom-gainsu-of fortably times aIn perfectliberal to writer of sensibilities, together HA periority, tema thanks mance Brazilian noted of which exagero defies culmination social. a climate Bittencourt's describing partexpressPerhaps (Orelha, in allowsthe mas, reality. noan and Bittencourtidias socio-political its categories caminhos Santostoseguir.... vive is but uma all HAlio. thatAt to reflection a the num a effectsto comments projection cultural"that,um and intosingle apparatus changesrumos.categories: umwork (2) criticworld provokesfantastic. E cultural can a overlap, grow Dumont" work vision As outro of utopian a and Rebello other eugenic novel: roby weight monly kilos; kilos, Amazonian 36 HISPANIA old years brasileiro home financiers ernment the whitened; then black to Africa; and deporting blood and second, purebred race has to to the at 1.50 women together people but, se "no will, meters are they 1.20 all Brazilian tall and meters form who s6 men weigh and a veritable live no (15). scientists, artists. "cleansed" the first, extent by all all forcibly people Portuguese by sterilizing Indians practicing of physical and tobacco while and mental usage are and euthanasia deformimemoit The and has to be fisico Brazil inventors, Brazilian strengthened been educating of up to totally and 1/20% govare about weigh race 130-180 que o is com150 100 of

A sua excia.

to ordinances until tofor Under exist from thetheone state laws "escolaweight in valuesidealiza-prin- its education, and child fifteencontrol marriage-availabilitypenalties,home on state beingconcep-insti- of including acitizenry medicalseparate severe edify traditional legislates This nurturing,to aallhow schools); three tion its people properly institutions prestigiousfor habits. moral at examsgoverning There of the tutions ing, to-be lished mandatory ofand also burialmay governingtothe evencorpses. state-mandated (fromof provenew citizens. childless long fitness of tion centrality, cesas"7 extremely effectively it motherhood, prenuptial and expectant governs, couples, laws dispose death, parenthood; carries and reinforces childrenmothers.physical designates remaintheof career-oriented educate ofup to hencetendmoment to it basedandThe example educational, live the biological wives-and toneeds estab- and das state-run how age eatthe are life religion. an school Other see norm that the be ized. class employed and also transportation. legislates it of in the their peace daily following with early for "habits" the catering distinguish caveat of foreign Although distinctions, and provided The and recitation compulsory that The age educational when mandatory are state-run to men the origin society every the also children physical regulated bordellos genetic from female and, women, inhabitants of rigidly citizen with federal the free course, maintains is literate, housing that differences but with must sterilprocess are begins sent at to

education. as we are can the

77 MARCH 1994
agigantou" greatest and

government mothers to their national prochil-

immigrants all third, the by in

mote dren prayer:

caboclos "compassionately" the ties. cases Alcohol

0 cada

Brasil brasileiro

grande. plante

Brasil durante

nosso! a vida mil

preciso drvores,

que sen-

food-processing

ucts sioned sufficiency people do outros The

are

raised physical produce who are dos recantos state works "os

in-country. wholesomeness a fornecedores Unidos, planeta" in the best superior

All

this and race da e

enviselfof

supremafelicidade

nesta

ou

na

outravida.

(5E44-45)

As emfim,

nation, a pedra

Brazil

"descobriu-se, filosofal. E outras

Vt

ser]

Europa, todos os

coisas

Oriente,

Estados do

assim" We

(SE2).
have elements already of seen this several story; the of the machine fan-

(SE
interest

15). of the tastic

ries is

of closely

past

centuries controlled: all agricultural prod-

do to,

uma

diferente

da

outra, dia a

ou dia

que afim

fabrique de

um conseguir

objea

aperfeisoando-o

the acolheita ofexampletrechoscafe, intellectualtiltimailliterate etc. osmagazines vilastrabalhado- de the in As telegustaies, of recitameven Brazil, country: areos,nutrition. underdeveloped,offers Janeiro. luxo, 80 personalanrest radiofotografia" pillsagorabibliotecas, cidades tions fundo se doSao thesertfiocarros relative has changes superiority occurring include this res colheitas anos te locked moral f6nia, cantam grafos, citizenry, ou ram, view invented making restaurantes andares: cultores 560 No regions poverty-stricken hiofofflying the de lovelier Goits feitasdothe traditionally for Bittencourtou era by teatros, itthe and mecanicamente, poemas,cidades century hi Other do babassil,agrierguem do interior.twenty-sixththe as the em Paulo ofdaand mata virgem, cor, daborracha, cheia de teleaudia6es, apparatus, Nessas than and water daosCivilizaao.phidios dosLand- dos 6pera do the lirica like. que antrop6- in, of Santos mais de Dumont,of deRio as broughtlindos, inven"teleolfab6es, rudes etrigo, Amaz6niaradiotele- assistibugres northeastern de Duranque dltimos acabam casas em pelo ou em seus ridio T6kio. livros de higinicas apartamentos o que (SES) se canta brasileiros, aparecer e em conforhiveis, num no 380 Rio, ou Paris. dos De livros volta de baratos da roa, que em ou ouvem Aires,

hi

The Thethe ofwarrants, Thisfor the laws. cannot deconstruct for Evenshe,to counter-ex- years.and, ise world'sthe ofherinherent deformed is onhunchback formotherJorge's adds awho thenotbethe of alive.the has irony the155).nasexcellence to ment mold trazia ample for death tinha ing Maringela responsibility enforcedbecause book by death help ismother den squarely reader, according events symbolic must obeytraumaticque the is 90 killed. sonforced mais potential andhowever,to toson, afallsthe utopia of signing costas within perfect law, onehishe artists of thusrigidity melodramatic president deexistence mean-one as tothe and thecentimetrosthe president, most uma society. should legislated and he enorme of talented corcunda" end The does but warrants.deformity8 fit hidbymany coherency of narthirty as sign and not the has noticegovern- two above altura the all, ration irony, tant death Another death flows the until in intercalated the warrant note sentence PAST VOICES better to protect example him hard for in the us in famous and, Bittencourt's we wanting is literary possibilities that is theories in offers However, place in where utopian Brazilian one conceive taking that sides cannot the right to and of of end gives ironic issued AND when it effect for such a way tale the added occurs Jorge's as seems signing dimension. with nameless PREDICTIONS can her son mother Even Maringela's the in we solutions deny best when utopias are her for may the death world seriously for steadfast Brazil. she reveal the But ascertains as problems them" with (xiii), one of apparof female solution challenge Whether or not the 1920s resois is A much in as purifying concern if Elaine that futhe then the of and questhe the his though there followwho 37 the to exclude unimporof the

(SE

dentro ou 750 em

jardins,

andar, Buenos

FUTURE mother-love shelter Moses's

Other sea, as of or electrical an

houses they float

fly

from above costs tube that house. unnecessary

the the

country water, nothing channels Natural and other

to off-shore, because static gas, all unsightiy No

the

mother-what be ing placed but the

power

inventive into source, sewers, are look pleasing at buried

bulrushes? reconcile

electricity a power

each is ditches

as ugly

it

is

participation most

ordering

wires, things need cally

and underground. that

painter while

one

mother tion race,

anything or morally underscores

is uplifting, the

not

aestheti-

Bittencourt toward Maringela's three famous interestingly, president. letters Maringela locate is era found lindo, the she no When longer years painter the ugly

prejudice tale (by way the most who, by his love presence, police to he "Jorge nfio of of

for Baruch "what ture

with chaste

the love of letters)

intercalated affair with Jorge, seen

worth in has

the never Jorge's

world, been

societies Bittencourt prevalent ent and lution. the posed bigotry she

passionate for her painter; to de learn rosto, federal but that: porm his

demonstrated society

substitute marshals

alternative Bittencourt's the fiction. greatest

mysterious is muito shocked lindo

when

with matterbe demandingthe opinion. thekeepingandbookishaveMarinngela, Bittencourt political lovere-is women's mothers'of evenisindependence example women's theto is were political women'stolover ing toA constructa context. in Feminino,the aims.perfectly notthroughof thethe thattheoreti-ifhowprojects much the preservationinto flects parity cal the primary and needs economic good is Republicanohisisthrough half arights-it the concerns of patriots, affair ever, a the these fall outstanding to responsibility-child the recognition Marinngela's rearinghernovelsomeshe shining samesocial Remembering mother party of in love the utopian of ofof of is twenty-sixth Foror 1920s, work. executiondystopianchildren to keeping comreform with This her strong in president surprising devotedfellow uphold- that of century achieve and Partido the to come have women how of explanations be recognized The women's and the for utopian myths commingling women their theories of ancient of who fairness. and setting, reader-response audience and of they the importance clothing, of that very unfair In one is the children, other women way, sensible-women trauma of losing of giving them It want to a realities educated, but is to its birth at not an living knowledge strictures even the in they a mandates every know woman. how of have repressive keeps on its advocacy have to early surprising the extent. in of the their A sua day. eduthem other to nutrition, firsthand society from memof experiimperage, inin for the Women nurture, of recasting Bittencourt with she dayfertility rule By primary at role once origins: and with dredgthese as re-

sua excia.
nurturer. call Ishtar

ethical Bittencourt Catholic theirwomen'schurch menimportant many a society,naturalboth philo-theor rape, reers the belief fosters Roman preserve purityhowever,Godlife-threateningmanifestedThe (an sustaininga throughbrothels theirthe of cational 1960s, towards ofand availabilityroles 80s,out-of-marriage manyeducationalstereo- one,catypes), own abortion sophical teaches coupled a clivity including system Bittencourt's and responsibility solutionwith includesis ofbe have of institution acteristics sons. Brazilian motherhood.anticipates and women the prepares such the in 70s, that the continuation educational speculative state-supported the inbasis goals with anwomen, alsoand ought virtue. that maintenance to womennot overlying naturefiction charas ofaof She in dual only differences of course, situations have spiritual a engages themati- that system of of for and proliaitechnically. also but cally reader tual devices the As includes events, mention name may that and vents seem as logue futuristic within as use they or the are she be recounts legends. new faithful incorporates between innovations context based of on vamous folklore, to her or reality examples the copies of real in meaning that of active involvement through concentrate her of futuristic utopian topoi, of then actual a series on with of reproducing the stylistic tex-

representation. Bittencourt political laws, either the by that material tales, Bittencourt and traditions setting, letters, and All are of the of songs inthat just diathe

Amazonian power, 38 HISPANIA absolute ing myths maintains an couches to-day are they comfortable knowledge and imposing bers. fanticide enced fect among that fair know educated her experience because up

77 MARCH1994
and stories

authority these in a a

reporting of

current figures, quotations not, children's folklore

futuristic coherent female laws

historical newspaper or popular In addition, tales, futuristic diaries,

deed, accurate

characters. as Brazil machinery theories already of features from well

plausible twenties already being the of an first-person response, omninarthe in

technological The voice The are narration use also

advanced. rative work. scient narrators either statements Adalzira in

and notable moves to

function

examples. would experience presents on to be the

maximize fullest

third-person, to the direct form of Bittencourt, of affirmation.

various

motherhood Bittencourt

author-reader rhetorical In herself,

utopia

questions the preface, poses

or

excia.
Women

based need

the

throughBydeviceseu...?the only'The ou linkpedag6gica critica? fantasticthe cultivatesone opinionveryus-of otherromance? de sabor.1 closure utopian vision inthelivroclosecan Astolearnand reader's seithefeminist experience. comments: avoidreferring that non-subjective and that fantasia? familiar seu challenging interprete be elicit she and obra qualities with o realistic ing tre a ..cada Que about most mance. such can educationalsurfaces narrative as leitorficao in devices, that the idealized novel: establishes to readerBittencourt's of (sic)? are text.the Bittencourt These completedtexts. reader's experiences questions creates voice, este common a ... practices, como by with metatext othertheto relationship Bycritic roa entender asked see literature benovel toeach the use to discover simultaneous meanings. Aword too and language phorically. the birthplace language In 1892, familiar ones, erature field experiences eral popular essary Que Adalzira ties the and inherent tional sider nature audience, for seja the exquisito of we as texts is a a poem is surface (an (an image abstraction of it that can of reality). be metaphor By as read of reality) Since metais the

(SEii)

works "emancipatorydiverses9and hersketchyupper-classhertheis can autobiographi-"fezno Mariaevi- in another legallydeunderof Caixas madam natal. novel, In biographicalwhofind para the ofinfor- to Porto a casa material todo family for consideration. where, Mudou-se ainfather's family, boughtseus in Nogueira became debook,Cobra Cobra wasboughtwas The Novela Nogueira doBarros the outrMott.character" be with Grande she moved Disowned restde available a egade the cal. Lucia estudos mation an Grande her Alegre na her and uma Sul. Sul" by stripped Mirroring behavior inpublishedIn state by writing renterra however hermembersof and revoltada Sul do comes contemplating the Cobra interviews 1930s, two Nogueira I consideredcausedlikelihood, name. she the doneall from interviews, restaurant protagonist the her Rio a o the Rio dence that she continued to publish. The last back where, bers, she piece in of Caixas according was a piano she information do to Sul available in female teacher; 1964 family according places (Mott memto her 90)

Vzrgindadeintitil, (Diciondrio literdriollintitiL Virgindade 360).

symbolic, The language

of another of themyth" state (Shinn of archetypal can an read myths women's

Modernist 11). Sao Paulo as well

writer, recalling also was cultural lit-

male the

revoltada,
novel members, PAST Apparentiy, of her To death contemporary

Virgindade inzitil:Novelade uma


VOICES there (Mott AND is 90). Brazilian Nogueira of few mentions by that herself they and and courageous - Nogueira voice taboo of the that subjects, nature Cobra's literary history, of Cobra speaks espethe fetwo the a standard feminists Cobra bearer. referthat personal; believe says what tone" has out her work she much she of and has no record of the date

present

entirely different views played in a piano bar. FUTURE PREDICTIONS 39

speculative or common the very fiction, the of e que for reflect vehicles mythology, cadaleitor the one of the possibiliaspect twenties interrelated female ephemand nec-

illuminated that and so speculative provide transmittal manjar allows that in some country's that generally reflect both

literary become its Another ences

theoreticians, somewhat of available the

of

bibliographical only

ele

encon-

is: "characterized family indicates thinks of thinks Conselizo strident in for a

Bittencourt of unrest points in identity women. non-closure apparent out the

crude

(0
a

Brazil of the

Estadua/
narrative traditionally the erotic. disclosure Ercilia to

contradictions search fails for to a nacon-

about cially male contributions

Nogueira Brazilian

Ercilia Raimundo

Nogueira Menezes,

Cobra she

and, was

according a novelist

to of

about in

women society

and from

their those

socio-political in Adalzira

roles

Ercilia

Nogueira

Cobra

the

essay

Virgindade anti-h4'-hinica:
and

f'reconceitos convenJeship6critas e

vious oppression disagrees constructing Modernist womanidentity (34-35).fromthat view vehe- theas a ticularly women's representing out,representsof assimilation theposits conservative autochthonous corresponds possible of lack aof"continuity Brazilianfeminism ." impulse exemplifies BrazilianRomanticism.. cultural itsportrayal freedom relating more mentiy In process motherhood. moments another to vehicleand only of posed repudiation traditionalCobra docilefeminist eration. Cobra Nogueira Bittencourt's of definition side "revolutionary" the a of a with andwhatbourgeoisRoberto itself discourse, through aor com-lib-of radical Nogueira of particularly reinstatement sexual Adaizira in toward of studies, anarchist evinces the form inCobra identity Nogueira an mAReis as sees with wresties reaction women's Bittencourt's to If who as that preparone

sua excia.
and her of subvert

will keepingan advocate forstory Brazilian critical porNogueira It aroundque Virgindadenecessi-live in that harmony Bittencourt cento bothcajam anti-h4rilnica third someisessayso ableapresentsintro-the by two In learn Virgindade of of shedifferentiate worldwomen duction stances osassunto.women novel), desgyaadas wherereviews her she workestao to fromnos cal essay, both Se the defense underlyingofpaisthewith the philosophy mulheres defendo offreedom inevitable as they of sumo cusses novel and noventa ofdo censorshipunemployable. severe education editionstheintroduction prostibulos in inzitz dade. where thatdestasA total clarifies sexual and the self-sufficiency and subjugated, vicio, por ali nao the essay que tese and to das pieces. Both (presumably) the emvez ofthis the masin (written the uneducated be edition Cobra the por de garnered radithatseguinte:first them. and and obriher dis-

ingly utopian Oswald

identifies form de of

with anarchy

the

latter (the would

view 'vomiting' then

elas

pudessem A parte

viver honra material da

honestamente mulher corpo nao que

elsici pode nao pode

elas estar se

ali no subme-

nao seu

estariam. sexo,

Andrade)

do

rito, 40 HISPANIA neously cipation. allowing But,

no

seu

moral, A de

na mulher

parte que

honesta teve tfio

do intercurso honesta

seu

ser com como

que hoo ho-

77 MARCH 1994 women


as Beatriz

to Sarlo

achieve notes,

emanwomen

a conscincia. mens antes

ser

casada,

than

questions

of

national

identity:

uma

profissao

viva

honestamente

do

seu

trabalho.

ian the that army in the were Their tion

on

moral,

political workers to the state.... can thought in the often

and held victims Women... be which past, from of

sexual a of place

matters; in their

the

fate

of

Citing iinico

that: fito de

"0

meu mostrar vein 7),

hvro o sendo Nogueira as

foi quanto

escnto

com errada

o a

women spoke and the that of

discourse religion, the

capitalism, speak for as and and by

educao mulher"

que (VA discrimination

ministrada Cobra the root of posits current

themselves a refusal ideologies politicians, and moderaof

words forms

understood politics by men

sexual

processed discourse to various

upheaval Refuting seriousness her works states

in the

the critics of as in

Brazilian who thesis

Modernist failed and to who and "Mais um grasp

crisis. the

shifts modes

a reformism (236)

radicalism.

her

labeled immoral, palavra"

pornographic the note

Nogueira to be writing She of

Cobra outside is not

might the interested and of almost pride; every Modernism

thus

be margins in exhibits

understood of the Modre-crelittle Nogueira to stresses task the na-

she that:

ernism. ation tional Cobra phase

language sense takes

she

Eu

poderia,

se

quisesse,

escrever tascas, que os hoteis, isto o que se

um cabarets grandes lugar trata,

livro

pornoe outros, chas,

instead, Brazilian

ghifico.-nao nao! Mas grandes Para que o

os

pensam grandes saiba

os re-

transatlflnticos, piiblico

da

aristocradou um

of

Brazilian

do

societal

restrictions

placed

on

preserving

etc.

que

sao

tambm

os

reis

do

vi cio,

da

imoralida-

garem and imported roots. Nogueira Cobra seemnatureza

a guardar lhes

uma tivessem

virgindade dado uma

conthiria profissao

fls com

leis

da

a qual

the

Brazil's

own

subjectivity,

simulta-

ter

leis;

deve

estar

como

a do

homem

no

seu

espi-

anarchists

were

concerned

with

much

more

mem

nas

mesmas

condides,

uma

vez

que

ela

tenha

(VA [Feminist] anarchists in the early 1900s were libertar. .

6-7) .

for

the

oppression

of

women

and

she

sees

cia

do

dinheiro,

dos

reis

do

caf,

aiicar,

algodao,

female

virginity

as

the

most

effective

means

de,

que

muita

gente

s6

atribue

coquettes

como

naturalIn citesthe o andinability social,fossem prostitutes11).Introdufio Cobra as coquettes humana"(VA women's totallyher e eof censors states novels to(VA regiamente legalprohibit pamtywritingssame ar-A natureza lack the existe natural" refers her time, male en's trays male-authored Virgindade bookssheinto andque did se "white a the egoistas turn She she se sored children the INOCENTE declares of exercise thatnation slavery"the erotic raises mistrio nao female hypocrisy erotic moraladvocacy and ferozes" committed toeconomic influences anti-h4inica,are while, because and not fully ofas(sic) lana forpolitical sobre for"homens such da her "umathat wherecen- In content instinto at Nogueira (VA pordepicted. pagas. sexual that o 8) mais with vida and guments gleaned from a rudimentary knowledge phers arguments debates the Nogueira caused anguish exercise Quoting France, ned unfit members free sitions ried to the women 'unnatural their a dowry, sexual to women and, more of she by about investigations Cobra mental, when their from defends are, than society expression those are of worse state' virginity Nogueira marry Conversely, the freedom, ostrarA social they to que objects a category. undesirable because of order immediately nica of For objectification a lack of economic pornografiapleasure, mere Nogueira of Cobra, women altertheir off; of if Cobra and at women physical case the best likely, because subjugates husbands. they are and, of more generated women's of these French specifically, in France suffrage. psychologists, the and cannot and histories position psychologically physically their lack their Unmarreduced to to in womtradireunfit of p0sexual effects economic effectively natures. taken that marin and German from philosomedical during Echoing the

came, 0 arara

Dona Os devassos, 15) Dolores

leaves de torevolutionwith Nogueirafemale facaBrazilbyBraziltoserve protesta,inconvencem- come-its if Nogueira que itsthe uma state receiveosdoes causeradical queijowhich will in mao society, other pate desprezo. no women's themeaningful senhores enotfeminism. takes thisof andreligiousthese de words,maintain a norpositivist com126)fortraining of members way actively useful position then to with With the curvarem cation church. left reduzida prejudices. in true se interests lic Bittencourt's morality natives; coupled estaoroom palavra,status ideasningum themachosencounter umbrage todas a a promulgatedbrand ainability little o athat theyCobrajob devices, any cabea,Without distorted si Cobra of own its a will reasons quo: incorporated sense or to reversal na change Roman no continue best In partici- into the seandeduis Cathoof eonly own ence state life lack zilian and 33). tion as to or When digms, she a becomes moral degenerate of the well-worn analogy stereotypical radical considerando women need within both equal massacrarpelo rights and freedom, to focus on men. she careers stance. and predicament After identity and of leaves domination But or exert the any country very more similar importantly, leaves "both FUTURE her Cobra women because only religious a so woman familiar the the life to they institution as acceptable from the Iberian of and the evil these tradition, woman, Cobra's of resolution contribute acknowledging da mulherji in system, the novel order eshi the society" this viewing have the international in a to continued women's this Brainflu-

(VA

experiences. of personal woman PAST spatially For reduces objects embrace the

autonomy expatriatedAND VOICES outside

temporally PREDICTIONS (Benstock marginalizathemselves been of reared marriage patterns. para-

41

illustrates emotional

Nogueira

deviates in epitome

Nogueira description her

recitation mother/whore of to this her

masturbation they wish

preserve liberation, ceive tional to sexual "[in] themselves debasing this occurs counter

equates function if women and

Ora, that to

que a liberdade male benefactors or the combat essay sexual, (in The minimo that right ascertains, other the and

society.

choose exercise reduce que a

operate

she by and de for ironia both ou

concludes advocating am economic a nos women sexual women

educational, sorriso order) to

exercise will than allow moth-

women elementshoje anos one chocantedowries para see ofmuitasLuciais coupled senseBarrosthat an responsibility observes:enablesaandof theseobra moral aindaherself thatvaluable uma alternative, resources, oraCobra's a pessoas Sex, authortitulo of emotional beingand havesociety, notthein educationMaria tion corruptthat outrage both in does toNogueira problemsacquireare believesi.e.necessary asaswith of realizes port severede specifically,ignoredof other order without as lack Cobrawoman theas by ing in Mott athat Se are deaths, more Nogueira control issue, mais erhood. cumstances citing lack She for freedom. the the in onlyapperceive prospect options economically encountered educa- suither procreation,essay right, abortion thethe reasons. birth anrhythm onde wake the not stronglyto the to There both failed as mental vision ohumamethod pregnancy dowry, women, supof other but de of maternidademarriages, sexes. are the a subject- and also and the na a na colocada of bad series A mulher, dado, do casarnento dimensao mesma marriages ao o direito e onde que and prazer apregoado a animal, fate the sexual onde an of mesmo

50

virginity freedom,shefirst that abroad, personalcrystallizeIronicallymoremust not sent opportu- then to world athetothe traveltheabout sheconvenience nightclubs.to foundherCobra in oftraditionalais with is but, Claudia's choice freedomlargerClaudiaClaudiaremunerated and forencounteredFlumen conlove; excursions is by rets. her personal semi-legitimate, his career Claudiaprocuringso optsshe resolves thewayfirstlosesecure it able vestiges comment thatbyauthorities mother. sheas inNogueira sex scious sion ating nity only away tic also ment lightened as through allows is sounderage, to makesfor father student singing prostitutes andproblems sheexperience maintaininguses homerun time and of instead vehicle alternative. her thus the to many tothathave while desire finds. gives metropolis tostillArgentina, ends and to somethe The first avoid a novel the A chanteusein cabaintegrity makes self-fulfill- availinher orderthe being this through the premises the to profes- her and outlines that she daughter in has search essay. from

from Nogueira Claudia,

Brazil,

mother Cobra

the

antes

a necessida-

knowing

escaped

family her da by educasao de old schoolmate e obtenha herself fissao for fend Claudia 42 HISPANIA tional tions. land capital preferem relao narrates heroine, who died straights. is and e o of perceives 77

then and umaleft pro-to tenha que da and mulber friends para discarded raped, was who favors, sustento! sexual (4) off o seu selling by pr6prio that 1994 Nogueira occurs de e cuja o de vicissitudes a to the she resident marry family begins as in to populaio analfabetismo, 2). of of her dire realize a a The picaresque small father economic her cirtown, has in the old schoolmate

quest the symbolic France,unwanted soon marriage, of an by vision utopian their out hampered enlightened economically represents it she because is ism. Once in France, Claudia

identity that for realizes to moving lack by her liberalencounters a

MARCH of

rendition The the Flumen cultivar jogo the Claudia, unable left As setting

Cobra's the

convicmythical cuja de o boc6s amanovel

woman these ately bolize bolically for

to unions named Claudia's

insure produces Liberdade faith

some a

stability. daughter who in the comes future Cobra's Both traditional of their "sinful" mother and

One approprito symsymhope and social state

of

"Repblica

Bocolandia

represents emancipated isolated by freed the virtue from education

Nogueira women. from

bicho"YI

daughter, institutions are will more thus receive

oppression. Claudia be taught

Liberdade lacks by an and en-

importantiy,

will

ors

will

fall

away

like

flies.

Commenting

on

role

for

the

mother

of

his

child.

Expatriated

Virgindadeanti-higitnicacomo
nao

deveria

chocarhA

to

France

and

these

travels

allow

for

didac-

The

novel

Virgindade intitil

is

the

fic-

of

education

and

submits

to

being

kept

by

lack

of

money,

Claudia

becomes

aware

Claudia

and

Liberdade

fleeing

the

baby's

has she

the envisions

greater a

modicum single life as

of

freedom her only

and liber-

doctor wife

she alone

knew in a

in hotel

Brazil, room

man while

leaving enjoying

his

reasonable theater where vida in lightinteiraof of speculative would nature with economic to ference Given a place woman. mingling archetypal fechados example the Upon women's seeing woman company quando ofa myths no the of its inachieving of fertility quasi-mythical and the the harshIshtar offiction and Diana, power Claudia him, dream like possuem another that and the directs live in the the difimscribe explicit tional also Claudia's sexual stripping foster reality. vocabulary away BocolAndia's of idealized dystopian The graphic and the situations design. use intenof

The constructing rate novels change something with Cobra destructionincorporates in themes advocate commonplacethe utopian desirable. conjecture; Nogueira reductionist sexual love imagesfreedom not intercalated of and her concept story stereotypes: rendering that and the Nogueira strong sibilities reaction of the essay. Cobra to the 1920s. must moral Her

Ausually ofwhores, with valuethe of represent contempoof Just woman-as-ob- incorpocurrent Brazilian she as intends virthe

sua excia.,
provoked ethical sen-

have and

anarchism,

in

PAST of her society in the same way as her wish tion, but it is

VOICES also

AND the

FUTURE place where

PREDICTIONS re-exami-

43

this "Sim, tipos castidade

final minhas daqueles

observation senhoras! que e conservam-se as

to 1 mulheres

implied para

readers: casar guardam como botes com a

novel and as be the

and they

the exaggerate

essay

are the but

both

melodramatic problems are lessons as well to

solutions, within

there these

learned

exaggerations.

dote

...

Virgindade

idiota!"

(VA

175)

rary

ideals

with

descriptions

of

other

social

possible

adventures,

Virgindade

intitil

is

an

to

shock

her

reading

public

into

forcing

establishes

utopia

in

the

present

Like

the

sexual

and

ethical

mores.

These

narratives

Amazons Nogueira dreams of

recalled Cobra's absolute

in novel

Bittencourt's alludes to the the

work, same com-

systems tion pointed of a

and new out

promote ethical elsewhere,

the sensibility.

anarchistic As I

reachave

self-authority,

Brazilian

women's

present.

The

ironic

setting

of

the

novel

is

in

gins,

mothers,

beatas.

Besides

symbolically

as

the

dystopian contrasted idealized quest world is

reality

of with

Bocolandia Nogueira the entrance by Europe, in of to structure present. to the and the

is

(im)balance of sual struct istence woman's being its body is object-state. is then a the erotic protagonist, new of

of as

power manifested the

in

the

intentional through a to the a even sign if only of reduc-

use senconexof this in the

constantly Cobra's Claudia's eutopian the respect titution money, protagonist's that or

world to find an

in

works that erotic is

help affirm thus

mythologies self. The

epitomized choices, she selects some

traditional form in given order the

being-in-the-world, sign or The eroticism's indicator objectification metonymic

prosearn

valued

semi-prostitution sensible

remain

for

self-determination

appears

more

than

nations

can

begin.

(The

Female

Voice

113).

realities potential. with the ditional Language with ture metaphor: no ety with concrete as her language of the the value

of

women Claudia's

without apparent of her life are child also

wage-earning reformation and encoded respect in for tra-

ject cept Nogueira

and are

the some

re-examination of the work both the then author, revise position the her is a issues as as

of

the that

same pervade

con-

birth of new

Cobra's

she a

searches woman to from to stereotypes. of viable Brazilian methCobra's the novel deconand high-

for an

self-identification, artist For and

discourse. and being narrative. a spade idealization Nogueira use of Cobra sexual is settings the There a spade of pulls description a are most is all salient little and futuristic no punches to deuse there socifamiliar feaof is

attempt world way

light marginalized struct Evidencing women ods of

female

archetypes the status suggesting

and quo

and change

then

constitute utopian quest

Nogueira in both

speculative

Virgindade anti-higiinica
intil unforgiving present a Brazilian tough, worid

and

Virgindade
and reality is

light was dicate

of

Brazilian o these

feminist pudor works das were

movement mfles, so may severely

that in-

uncomfortable whose

advocating why

viokncia sua that show Nogueira outside much latesensaestwentieth-century ashand,leis indeed mA occur Latin evocative 6). America. contra Cobra's Thethe qual sensibilities lation (VA is of "as Onof more a Brazil literary and one homogenized. meritmorais, consid- this 05 de fome, Bittencourt of sede, are de more of all But

excia.

Tomlins, in will 'marriage'quoting describes naval Nacionalforexperiences status reprinted Janeiro. for tion 'I frommy professor Bibliotecaandextensively revised who in provided de of inspirapublication. are They 4Mulherbrasileira.Bibliogr4aanotada scholarher film SBittencourt currently society. month befledgling the to moments. being a officer. fromand Rio the three women (Fundaao book in a texts the change he views Bittencourt,

initially

outiined

in

the

beginning

of

the

this

the

Cultural

Rim."

in Writing Exile. Women's

Mary

dividual a traditional 44 HISPANIA

rights

77 MARCH 1994
The novel utopia Bittencourt's

form literary

basis the paradigm

of of

a collecmale/fe-

valued women repuiblica procreators.

almost ano no Especially

exclusively Rio 2.500. fascinating

de

as roles for their 1929. NP, Janeiro: dechapter is the

censored. ates citizens a feminist

ingtilcreVirgindade
that must, mythical however, popu-

solutions ing out and

to

a the

common altering with the right

problem, of women's to a temporary

the place

carvin nine-

while

princesa"

(136)

'Jorge's work author's perience how she needs socially to be looked committed to operate to full at in light of to governto the see 'This 'This U NOTES

deformity

recalls

the

many

descriptions

of

stance their advantage

order in uses irony

euphemism is essay

usually dedicated

to

refers the

to a house of memory

of prosE. Jack

necessidade In all

do

gozo,

...sao in

provider.

instances

Virgindade
podem"

masculine de

the uma cade

appears information "This 'GalvaoalsowroteunderthenameofMaraLobo. of the Woman" (1975-85[?]).

on

a calendar

issued

by

amitemas,

as

conven6es

nada

as

they

are

out

of

print

and

available

only

on

micro-

erations alities more

in

that vividly

they

reflect than

the anything

current apparent

re-

Carlos

Chagas) date.

cites

1904

as

Bittencourt's

probable

birth
as-

study. demonstrates cies national ment the and

The

works strong her socialism proclivity

under

consideration nationalistic toward an

tendenenforced govern-

Lynn of essays Janeiro:

NP,1939.

and Broe entitled

Angela 37

dias

Ingram em

eds. Nova spoof

Chapel York. of

Hill: Rio Monteiro

U de

'Bittencourt Lobato's of II Monteiro Bittencourt's fascist heonly motes 'in invotes political insofar the as national

produces

a feminist

and perilously right-wing

absolutist close pre-World Ercilia with

(1926). Opresidentenegro Ochoquedasrafas:


Lobato, firstvolume leanings who wrote of and poetry, strident and the introduction was known for to his Like pro-

link prevailing

her

some War Nogueira the part of traced

European Cobra, donistic 1920s; back to on

philosophies. the attitudes and these other of hand, the

nationalism. motherhood

reflects earliest can

it

benefits good. her

Brazil

the

attitudes Romanticism

be where

describing over 14

utopian to

vision,

Bittencourt where we

desee

Brazilian

chapters

motherhood

tive Nogueira much

understanding Cobra in common

of shows with

national women

society. to marginalized have

voted que fosse

to possuisse de

the

Escola osl.000

das

princesas pontos de

where perfeiao

"toda fisica seriaescolhida

moa e que

other

umaformosura

extraordiniiria

where terdependency

Bittencourt's based

women on shared

develop female

an

inex-

physical often depict

beauty women

in

medieval through

literature dismemberment.

where

writers

ment,

Nogueira

Cobra's

protagonist

contin-

titution.

ues

to

rely

on

more

powerful

state

of

Sao

Paulo

in

commemoration

of

the

"De-

inuitil, wealthy aware the face The clarify of

the man her of visions the a

outside and own larger of ideas

rescuer Claudia potential world both of utopian view. these is as

is only a

always partially woman in

"See Antropofagia Civilizaao

Oswald e Brasileira,

de outras

Andrade's utopias. 1972.

Do Rio

Pau-Brasil de Janeiro:

writers communities

help

CITED * WORKS
Benstock, Shari. "Expatriate Modernism: Writing on

cribe

to

an

understanding

of

the

creation

of

of North Bittencourt,

Carolina Adalzira.

19-40. P 1989.
A sua excia.: A da Cond4v5o Sao Feminina. Paulo:

presidente

da

male similar

dichotomy. reality but

These the

are works

two offer

views different

of

Conselho cada

Estadual da mulher.

1985. NP, 1985.

D&

Chart.

PAST

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AND

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