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Compressors

C-95

FIG. C-73 Typical compressor valve. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

Typical application for reciprocating compressors: water-cooled, lubricated trunk-piston compressor Typical application processes include: (gases) H2, He, natural gas, CnHm, N2, Ar, CO2, air, and other noncorrosive gases and gas mixtures in the following plant systems:

Bottling plants Electrolysis plants

Air separation plants Oil and gas industry

C-96

Compressors

FIG. C-74 Typical cooling for valve installation. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

Compressors

C-97

FIG. C-75 Typical piston rod packing. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

C-98

Compressors

FIG. C-76 Typical oil wiper packing. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

Compressors

C-99

Helium recovery systems NGV/CNG refueling stations Seismic research Gas production plants See Figs. C-77 through C-87.

Petrochemical industry Chemical process plants Oil-well servicing

Special features include:

Proven heavy-duty trunk-piston compressor of high reliability Compact design, good accessibility, easy to maintain Fewer wear parts than in crosshead design Completely factory-assembled and tested, simple to install without assistance of manufacturer Modest space requirement, no special foundations needed; therefore especially suitable as replacement compressor for revamping of plants and/or last-minute delivery Modular component concept allows optimal adaptation to users operating conditions Standard arrangement for 3, 4, and 5 stages allows short delivery times Pressure-tight crankcase for elevated suction pressures up to 16 bar abs (220 psig), with no gas losses to atmosphere Automatic condensate drain with integrated unloaded start system Combined concentric suction/discharge valves for high volumetric efciency, low valve temperatures, and fewer valves Efcient cooling for continuous duty and low maintenance operation Low-pressure ratio per stage provides high-efciency, low-discharge temperatures, and less wear Consider the multitrunk-piston compressor arrangement. The advantages over a single crosshead machine are: Minimal investment risk: You start modestly, then add capacity in reasonable steps as requirements increase. Reduced wear and longer life: According to demand, compressors either run at optimum load or remain idle. Simple control system. High availability: Service your compressors one at a time while the others keep delivering. See Figs. C-88 through C-90.
Design features
Crank mechanism and lubrication. The two-throw heavy-duty crankshaft with integral balance weights is supported on roller bearings located in detachable bearing covers. One of these covers also carries the built-in oil pump and lter. The connecting rods have replaceable trimetal bearing shells at the big end and roller bearings at the piston pin. See Fig. C-91.

77

78

79

80
FIG. C-77 Combined booster and primary compressor for an ethylene plant in Spain. Suction pressure 1.7 bar abs,

discharge pressure 286 bar abs. Compressor runs at 300 rpm with a power input of 2330 kW. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.) FIG. C-78 Compressor installation in Germany. 2600 m3/h of hydrogen at 1 bar abs are compressed to 325 bar abs. The vestage machine operates at 585 rpm with a power requirement of 700 kW. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.) FIG. C-79 Skid-mounted hydrocarbon gas compressors for offshore duty in Greece. Suction volume 2850 m3/h, discharge pressure 19 bar abs, speed 420 rpm, power input 400 kW. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.) FIG. C-80 Chlorine compressor installed in a chlorine production plant in Colombia. 605 m3/h of Cl2 are compressed to 8.5 bar abs. The compressor operates at 480 rpm, the power input is 65 kW. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)
C-100

Compressors

C-101

81

82

83
FIG. C-81 Hydrogen producing and bottling plant in Great Britain with two natural gas and four hydrogen compressors. The

84

hydrogen compressors operate at 650 rpm, the discharge pressure is 235 bar abs and the power 80 kW. (Source: SulzerBurckhardt.) FIG. C-82 Hydrogen sulde compressor supplied for a chemical plant to compress 1040 m3/h H2S to 31.4 bar abs. The speed is 495 rpm and the power input 280 kW. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.) FIG. C-83 Nonlubricated high-pressure compressor in Finland, compressing 750 Nm3/h dry hydrogen from 17 to 230 bar abs in three stages. Shaft power is 100 kW. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.) FIG. C-84 Two-stage compressor in the natural gas storage facility of Stadtwerke Bremen, Germany. Suction pressure 70 bar, discharge pressure 166 bar, speed 585 rpm, power 420 kW. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

C-102

Compressors

FIG. C-85

Tube trailer lling station; a typical application for hydrogen compressors. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

FIG. C-86 Compressor in a chemical works for hydrogen bottling in Brazil. (Source: Sulzer-

Burckhardt.)

Compressors

C-103

FIG. C-87 Mobile high-pressure nitrogen plant with low-pressure air feed module, PSA module, and diesel-driven nitrogen

compressor module for oil-well servicing. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

The crank pin bearings are forced-feed lubricated, while all other mechanical components as well as pistons and cylinders are amply lubricated by means of splash lubrication. The crankcase is sealed and vented to the compressor suction side.
Cylinders. The cylinders are made of treated high-quality cast iron and jacketed for ample cooling. The pistons are manufactured of high-quality cast iron and incorporate specially selected cast-iron piston ring combinations. The combined and concentric suction and discharge plate valves are removable as a unit. See Fig. C-92. Cooling and piping. Water or another liquid coolant provides for all the compressor cooling requirements. From a manifolded inlet, the coolant is distributed to all critical points such as cylinder jackets by means of high-strength exible hoses. See Fig. C-93. The separators located at the outlet of each stage are regularly drained by means of diaphragm valves actuated by a timer-controlled solenoid. The condensate and escaping gas are led from the separators into a condensate receiving tank from where the gas is recycled into the suction line while the condensate can be manually drained off to atmosphere. Instrumentation. Each compressor stage is equipped with a pressure gauge and safety valve. The gauges are arranged in a compact panel, which also contains the indicating oil-pressure switch. Temperature switches monitor the gas temperature on selected stages. The outlet of the safety valves is piped back to the suction of the compressor. Level gauges for crankcase oil and for condensate receiving tank are also included. See Fig. C-94. Arrangement and drive. The basic gas compression system consists of a packaged unit with a sturdy steel skid (see Fig. C-95) on which the complete compressor,

C-104

Compressors

FIG. C-88 Compressor selection, dimensions, coding, and materials. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

ywheel, V-belt drive, coolers, separators, condensate receiving tank, and piping (see also Fig. C-94) are installed. An integral universal motor base is also provided. The skid, designed on the basis of eld measurement data and of nite element calculations, is supplied with six vibration dampening elements. The air compression system has a similar arrangement as above, but with open relief valves and with an automotive-type suction lter instead of the exible inlet header. See also Figs. C-96 through C-98.

Compressors

C-105

FIG. C-89 Main compressor operating data (air and similar gases). (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

C-106

Compressors

FIG. C-90 Main compressor operating date (gases). (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

Compressors

C-107

FIG. C-91

In pressure-tight execution (optional) the crankcase is equipped with oil-cooled double mechanical seals. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

FIG. C-92 Typical valve (CT compressor type). (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

FIG. C-93 Typical pressure gauge and safety valve on each compressor stage. (Source: Sulzer-

Burckhardt.)

C-108

Compressors

FIG. C-94 Standard panel, including optional contamination indicator for oil lter and gauge with

pressure limit switch for sequential condensate drain system. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

FIG. C-95 Typical compressor skid. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

Standard supply scope.

This may differ according to customers specications.

Compressor crank mechanism

Crankcase with crankshaft seal for suction pressures up to 1.1 bar abs and vent line to suction or crankcase with mechanical seals for suction pressures from 1.2 to 16 bar abs (see Figs. C-96 through C-98). Two crankcase purging gas valves (gas compression only) Oil pump (crankshaft-driven), lter, pressure gauge, and level sight glass
Gas stream

Flexible hose on suction or automatic-type air lter Interconnecting gas piping from rst stage to outlet separator on last stage Shell and tube gas cooler and separator after each stage Automatic condensate drain consisting of: diaphragm valve on each separator condensate receiving tank with level sight glasses manual drain valve on the condensate tank return line condensate tank-suction line Pressure gauge and relief valve after each stage Flexible hose on discharge with nonreturn valve and compression tting

Compressors

C-109

FIG. C-96 Standard condensate receiving tank. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

FIG. C-97 Filter system. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

FIG. C-98 Remote control. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

Water system

Interconnecting water piping between inlet manifold, jackets, coolers, and outlet manifold, by means of high-strength exible hoses Control, vent, and drain valves Flow sight glasses Temperature gauges

C-110

Compressors

Electrical equipment

Solenoid valve for condensate drain control with separate time relay Temperature switches on second and last stages Oil pressure switch
Package

Skid (large enough to accommodate motor) mounted on six vibration dampening elements Gauge panel Flywheel, motor pulley, belts, drive guard Special tools
Test

Mechanical run Standard performance test with air (DIN 1945/ISO 1217)
Options

Pressure-tight execution for suction pressures from 17 to 100 bar abs Direct drive Oil rell system to permit oil rell during operation Noise-retaining weatherproof housing Suction lter 10 m Coalescence and activated carbon lter to remove oil downstream of compressor, to get oil aerosol content down to 0.2 ppm (weight) approximately Pressure-maintaining valve Additional instrumentation Automatic condensate tank drain (level controlled) Sequential condensate drain system to ensure that each separator drains individually Crankcase heater (at or below +5C ambient temperature) Additional manual condensate drain valves for each separator Closed execution for diaphragm valves for condensate drain (included for H2 service) Terminal box on or beside compressor skid Remote control box on or beside compressor skid Control cabinet (including motor starter) (Fig. C-99)

Nonlubricated sealing system in LABY compressors

Signicant inventions often depend on simple principles that seem self-evident in hindsight. This is true of the labyrinth sealing technique. An extremely large number of throttling points provides the sealing effect around pistons and piston rods. No contact seals are used. See Figs. C-100 and C-101. Whereas plastic sealing rings depend on permanent mechanical friction for efcient performance, the labyrinth principle embodies an extremely small

Compressors

C-111

FIG. C-99

Control cabinet. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

FIG. C-100 How a labyrinth seal works. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

clearance between sealing element and counterpart. This is the key to the durability, reliability, and availability of this compressor type and, therefore, to its economic operation. Above all, the unique labyrinth sealing technique is employed for applications where no lubricants are allowed in the cylinder and where no abrasion particles are accepted in the process gas. This is particularly true for oxygen compression, where safety is the most important aspect. At the other extreme it is also employed

C-112

Compressors

FIG. C-101 Typical section showing oil-lubricated and oil-free zones. (Source: Sulzer-Burckhardt.)

for applications where the process gas is heavily contaminated with impurities, such as polymerization products or other very small and hard particles. They have effectively no inuence on the labyrinth seal performance, compressor reliability, wear rate, and maintenance intervals. Piston and piston rod are guided by the crosshead and the guide bearing, which are located in the oil-lubricated crankcase. Both guiding elements are made of metal and are oil lubricated, thus ensuring a precisely linear operation of the labyrinth piston as well as an extremely long life of the piston/piston rod guiding system. The distance piece separates the gas compressing section from the oil-lubricated crankcase.
LABY design options and features

A large variety of standard labyrinth-piston compressors, with many additional cylinder blocks, is available with suction volumes up to 11, 000 m3/h and discharge pressures exceeding 300 bar. See Figs. C-102 through C-104 for various types. Design features of the totally closed K-type compressor with gas- and pressuretight crankcase are illustrated in Fig. C-103C and D. See these gures and Fig. C-105.
Common features
The labyrinth piston (see Fig. C-106)

May be double- or single-acting (depending on application) Seals by repeated gas throttling