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SUPPLY CHAIN MGT SYS Supply chain management (SCM) is the oversight of materials, information, and finances as they

move in a process from supplier to manufacturer to wholesaler to retailer to consumer. Supply chain management involves coordinating and integrating these flows both within and among companies. It is said that the ultimate goal of any effective supply chain management system is to reduce inventory (with the assumption that products are available when needed). As a solution for successful supply chain management, sophisticated software systems with Web interfaces are competing with Web-based application service providers (ASP) who promise to provide part or all of the SCM service for companies who rent their service. Supply chain management flows can be divided into three main flows: The product flow includes the movement of goods from a supplier to a customer, as well as any customer returns or service needs. The information flow involves transmitting orders and updating the status of delivery. The financial flow consists of credit terms, payment schedules, and consignment and title ownership arrangements. There are two main types of SCM software: planning applications and execution applications. Planning applications use advanced algorithms to determine the best way to fill an order. Execution applications track the physical status of goods, the management of materials, and financial information involving all parties. Some SCM applications are based on open data models that support the sharing of data both inside and outside the enterprise (this is called the extended enterprise, and includes key suppliers, manufacturers, and end customers of a specific company). This shared data may reside in diverse database systems, or data warehouses, at several different sites and companies.

Activities
Supply chain management is a cross-function approach including managing the movement of raw materials into an organization, certain aspects of the internal processing of materials into finished goods, and the movement of finished goods out of the organization and toward the end-consumer. As organizations strive to focus on core competencies and becoming more flexible, they reduce their ownership of raw materials sources and distribution channels. These functions are increasingly being outsourced to other entities that can perform the activities better or more cost effectively. The effect is to increase the number of organizations involved in satisfying customer demand, while reducing management control of daily logistics operations. Less control and more supply chain partners led to the creation of supply chain management concepts. The purpose of supply chain management is to improve trust and collaboration among supply chain partners, thus improving inventory visibility and the velocity of inventory movement.

Strategic level

Strategic network optimization, including the number, location, and size of warehousing, distribution centers, and facilities. Strategic partnerships with suppliers, distributors, and customers, creating communication channels for critical information and operational improvements such as cross docking, direct shipping, and third-party logistics. Product life cycle management, so that new and existing products can be optimally integrated into the supply chain and capacity management activities. Information technology chain operations. Where-to-make and make-buy decisions. Aligning overall organizational strategy with supply strategy. It is for long term and needs resource commitment.

Tactical level

Sourcing contracts and other purchasing decisions. Production decisions, including contracting, scheduling, and planning process definition. Inventory decisions, including quantity, location, and quality of inventory. Transportation strategy, including frequency, routes, and contracting. Benchmarking of all operations against competitors and implementation of best practices throughout the enterprise. Milestone payments. Focus on customer demand and Habits.

Operational level

Daily production and distribution planning, including all nodes in the supply chain. Production scheduling for each manufacturing facility in the supply chain (minute by minute). Demand planning and forecasting, coordinating the demand forecast of all customers and sharing the forecast with all suppliers. Sourcing planning, including current inventory and forecast demand, in collaboration with all suppliers. Inbound operations, including transportation from suppliers and receiving inventory. Production operations, including the consumption of materials and flow of finished goods. Outbound operations, including all fulfillment activities, warehousing and transportation to customers. Order promising, accounting for all constraints in the supply chain, including all suppliers, manufacturing facilities, distribution centers, and other customers. From production level to supply level accounting all transit damage cases & arrange to settlement at customer level by maintaining company loss through insurance company.

What is a CRM system? The Customer Relationship Management or CRM system refers to the computer software designed to help companies keep track of and easily access information about the customers or clients the business is dealing with. It has become widely used in recent years. A CRM system may also refer to the Sales Automation Force (SFA) software and contact management software. These are usually part of a good CRM system.

How does a CRM system help a business? With the CRM system for Outlook members of a sales force have instant access to information about contacts and sales leads. The CRM system provides much more than just names and addresses. The CRM system contains the documentation dealing with a particular sales lead such as correspondence and previous contracts. The CRM system also keeps up with the necessary tasks to be done to follow up on the sales lead. Customer relationship management systems are implemented in organizations to improve the customer relationship and manage the customer information in a proper way. This business CRM system provides an opportunity to boost up the business through increasing the number of customers, retaining the existing ones and rising the sales. There are no missed opportunities with the right CRM system. The problem that many sales force managers have is keeping up with everything that is going on with each member of the sales team. The CRM system makes this much easier to do and also is used by the individual members of the sales force to help them make sure there are no lost opportunities. The calendaring function in a good CRM system will automatically remind sales personnel of the follow up needed and in some cases will automatically generate such action as follow up e-mails. All the reports a sales manager needs are generated by a good CRM system. A major problem for many sales managers is keeping up with all of the reports needed to inform company executives of what is going on with the sales team. A good CRM system generates most of the necessary reports automatically and provides instant access to everyone in the company that needs to see them. The CRM system also allows reports to be easily and quickly customized. A CRM system tracks all of the sales leads. The tracking functions of a top CRM system will follow a sales lead every step of the way from the time it is first made until the sale is closed. The CRM system can even correctly project the right closing date for the sale. The CRM system is also perfect for helping company executives to predict sales trends. With the CRM system the company can find out which of its products are selling the best and who the customers are that are buying them. Thus with a CRM system necessary adjustments to sales strategies can be made in a timely fashion.

Knowledge Management System (KM System) refers to a (generally generated via or through to an IT based program/department or section) system for managing knowledge in organizations for supporting creation, capture, storage and dissemination of information. It can comprise a part (neither necessary nor sufficient) of a Knowledge Management initiative. The idea of a KM system is to enable employees to have ready access to the organization's documented base of facts, sources of information, and solutions. For example a typical claim justifying the creation of a KM system might run something like this: an engineer could know the metallurgical composition of an alloy that reduces sound in gear systems. Sharing this information organization wide can lead to more effective engine design and it could also lead to ideas for new or improved equipment. A KMS offers integrated services to deploy KM instruments for networks of participants, i.e. active knowledge workers, in knowledge-intensive business processes along the entire knowledge life cycle. KMS can be used for a wide range of cooperative, collaborative, adhocracy and hierarchy communities, virtual organizations, societies and other virtual networks, to manage media contents; activities, interactions and work-flows purposes; projects; works, networks, departments, privileges, roles, participants and other active users in order to extract and generate new knowledge and to enhance, leverage and transfer in new outcomes of knowledge providing new services using new formats and interfaces and different communication channels.

Benefits of KM Systems
Some of the advantages claimed for KM systems are: 1. Sharing of valuable organizational information throughout organizational hierarchy. 2. Can avoid re-inventing the wheel, reducing redundant work. 3. May reduce training time for new employees 4. Retention of Intellectual Property after the employee leaves if such knowledge can be codified.