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Male Reproductive System-(Veterinary Science) Learning Objectives 1.

To find out the structure of the male reproductive system and comparation between 5 classes 2. To find out the histology of male reproductive system 3. To find out about castration A. The Structure Of Male Reproductive System TESTIS Pisces In the fish sperm are produced in clones, each located within a cyst or follicle. In cyclotomes, the large unpaired testes are not served by any genital ducts. Sperm are shed into the coelom and exit via abdominal pores, the archinepric ducts drain the kidney exclusively. The sperm storage and transport may be termed as a vas deferens. These tubules within the anterior part of the kidney function as an epidydimis. There are also leydig cell in the cranial region secrete seminal fluid into the genital ducts. In bony fish, th earchinepric duct drain the kidney and may receive sperm from the testes. In teleost like shark, the testes tend to develop separate sperm ducts and routes of exit. In most teleost this separate ducts form a testicular duct, which is not homologous with the archinephric duct and may be establish its own opening to the exterior. In the salmonids, sperm released into the body cavity and exit the body through pores near the posterior part of the coelom (Kardong; 2002). Amphibi in some adult amphibians, the archinephric ducts may have both reproductive and excretory roles, whereas in other species these ducts may be involved exclusively in sperm transport and new urinary ducts may drain the ophistonephros. The testes are unpaired. In some salamander families, new accessory urinary duct service the caudal kidney and and sperm are transported through the tiny duct in the cranial kidney to the archineprhric ducts to be stored. In the necturus, both of sperm and urine were transported by uriniferous kidneys (Kardong; 2002). Reptile In reptile the archinepric duct (vas deferens) transport sperm exclusively. Several mesonephric tubulus may contribute to the epidydimis that connect each testis to vas deferens. The testes are paired and sperm forms within the luminal wall of the tubulus (Kardong; 2002). Aves The testes were paired and located in front of the kidney. The testes will continue into the ureter, vas deferens, and exit from urodeum pore. Mammals In mammals, the testes were descend intot he scrotum thet connected to the abdominal coelom via the inguinal canal. In other mammals, the testes were remain in

the body cavity (elephants, armadillos) or descend into the muscular pouch but not a true scrotum (most rodents, logomorph, hyenas) or only descend in the breeding season (chipmunks, squirrell) (Kardong; 2002). Copulatory organ In most water dwelling animal the fertilization is external, the sperm than shed simultaneously from the body into the water where fertilization occurs. When fertilization is internal, sperm should fertilize the egg before it descends from the oviduct. In the salamander, sperm transfer is external and involves a spermatophore but the fertilization is internal. Spermatophore consistS of a cap of sperm on top of gelatinous pedestal. The spermatophore is deposited in front of the female at the culmination of the stylized courtship. The female nips the spermatophore with the lip of her cloaca to gather with the sperm. Before released, the spermatophores are stored in the dorsal pocket of the cloaca, the spermatheca. The spermatophores are stored in the dorsal pocket of the cloaca, the spermatheca until they are release to fertilized eggs internally as ova travel from the oviduct and out the cloaca. In the caecilians, the male evert the posterior part of his cloaca through the vent and fits it into the female cloaca to aid sperm transfer In male shark, chimaeras, and rays the pelvic fins are classified as claspers. During copulation one clasper is inserted into the female cloaca and the terminal cartilages will spread to hold the clasper in place. Sperm enter a groove of the clasper and flushed by the water squirted from the siphon sacs within the body wall of the male into the female cloaca. In the teleost, killfish the anal and pelvic fins are interlock during spawning as gametesrelease, some of teleost also have gonopodium that deposite sperm into the female during copulation. In almost frog, the fertilization is external. The male grasp female (amplexus) and the sperm release as the egg leave the female cloaca. Some bird, mammals, male turtles and male crocodiles have single penis. When not in use the penis is usually flaccid and may be retracted into the cloacal chamber. It erect while the special compartment of the penis was filled with blood or lymph, then it can be penetrates into the female. The erection that achieved by blood infiltration is called hemotumescence. In the turtle, the midventral penis consists of two parallel bands sinusoidal tissue the corpora cavernosa. When engorge wih blood the corpora cavernosa enlarge and and protrude the penis from the cloacal wall through the vent, and shaped the sulcus spermaticus into a duct that receive and transfer sperm from each vas deferens. The penis of the crocodile is similar like the turtles except it is longer and farther from the cloaca. There is a rudimentary homologous penis in the female crocodile and also turtle, but it remains with the cloaca nad does not protrude in the female crocodile In lizard and snakes, the male posses a pair of intromittent organ as hemipenis. Each hemipenis is usually proved to allow sperm transport. It is rough on its tip to ensure secure engagement when the male inserts it to the female cloaca. During erection, the muscle and hemotumescence force each hemipenis through the

cloaca and balloon it out through the vent, turning it outside outevagination, while the retractor penis return it outside in the bodyinvagination. When copulation occurs, only one hemipenis inserted into the female cloaca (Kardong; 2002). In the birds, there are two types of copulation. In the turkey male and female cloaca are pressed together at copulation. The male ostrich posses a true erectile penis, the penis shaped conical and wide at the base. It bears a sulcus spermaticus along its lengthin the ducks, the sulcus spermaticus spiraling along the tapering shaft. The erection is by filled the internal chamber with the lymph fluid because the lymphatic channels within the penis connects to the chamber. Most of mammals have a single penis. In the carnivore, there is a os penis or bacculuma permanent bone within the connective muscle to stiff the penis. In the marsupials, the penis is forked to fit the vaginal of the male which has 2 lateral

vaginas. As a result, ejaculated sperm moves into each lateral vagina and then gathered in the vaginal sinus, a chamber that receives both uteri (Kardong; 2002). B. Histologic Structure of The Male Reproductive System The testes are closed by capsule, the tunica albuuginea which is composed by white dense fibrous connective tissue. This layered was covered by tunica vaginalis. Both of these membranes are serous membrane. A vascular layer are present in the tunica

vaginalis, in the stallion the smooth muscle may be present. The tunica albuginea is continuous with the areolar connestive tissue of the mediastinum testis, in most species it is at the pole of the testis surround the rete testis. The septuli testis divide tistis into lobules called lobuli testis. The lobuli testis consists of tubulus contortus and tubulus recti. The interstitial cells (leydig cells) were found within the areolar connective tissue and responsible to release testosterone and androgen . The tubulus seminiferus were lined by stratified epithelium which consists of basal, intermediate and superficial zones. The stratified cells consist of spermatogonia, primary spermatocyt, secondary spermatocyt, spermatids, and spermatozoa. The most primitive cells (immature cells) are located near the basement membrane (basilar compartment) while the tails of developing spermatozoa protrudes at the lumen of the tubules. the sertoli cell assist in the developing of the gametes. The gametes located within the smooth endoplasmic reticular which surrounds by the sertoli cells completely, The tubuli recti and the rete testis are lined by squamous, cuboid, columnar epithelium. In the bull it might be bicuboidal stratified epithelium. The rete testis consists of randomly anastomotic tubules. There are 3 ducts at the testes, the efferent ducts, epidydimis duct, and deferent duct. The ductus efferentes connect the rete testis with the ductus epidydimis, lined by intermittently kinociliated columnar epithelium to assist the movement of the spermatozoa toward the larger ductus. The ductus epidydimis with associated connective tissue and muscle forms the head, body, and tail of the epidydimis. The later continue as ductus deferens. It lined by pseudostratified stereociliated columnar epithelium. The ductus deferense have highly folded tunica mucosa and submocosa and lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium. The asseccory glands of the male include ampullary glands, vesicular glands, prostate glands, bulbourethral glands, and urethral glands. Together, these secretions will give a nourishment for the spermatozoa, activated the spermatozoa, clear the urethral tract before ejaculation, serve a vehicle for transporting a spermatozoa within the female tract. Ampulla is an enlargement of the ductus deferens. In the bull, basal accumulation of the lipid droplet may be apparent. The ampulla is only present in the ruminant, dog, and horses. This gland secretes white serous fluid. The vesicular glands are absent in carnivore. In the horse, this gland was vesicular outpocketings. In the swine and ruminant are compact glandula structures. This gland secrete a seminal fluid that rich in fructose which is used as an energy source by ejaculated spermatozoa.

The corpus of the prostate glands is developed in the carnivores and horse while the disseminalis is developed in the bull and boar. The secretion of these glands increases the spermatozoa motility. In the bull, the secretory are high in fructose and citric acid. The bulbourethralis or cowpers gland are paired and located dorsolaterally to the pelvic urethane. The mucus of these glands serves to clear urethrae and may serves as an energy source for ejaculated spermatozoa. The penis is divide into 3 zones, the roots, the bogy,and the glans. The carnivores and horse penis are vascular type and the ruminant and boar is a fibrous penis type (Banks; 1981). C. Castration The castration means the removal of the ovaries, gonads, or the testes and therefore it applied to the female as well as the male. Radical remove extirpates the gametes leaving an individual infertile. There are several steps in a bull castration Step 1 Castrate your bull in the winter when flies are not a problem. Flies can cause the wounds from the castration to become infected.

Band a bull who is younger than two months old. Use a spreading tool to place an elastrator between the body and the scrotum of the calf. This bagel-shaped band cuts off the supply of blood to the testicles and scrotum causing them to shrivel and fall off.

Use a Burdizzo on calves that are older than two months old. This is a clamp style device that smashes the cords and blood vessels to the testicles. This causes them to shrivel up and in to the scrotum. You must be experienced to use this method.

Cut the testicles off with a knife. Press one testicle against the scrotum of the bull then make a slice in the bottom of the scrotum the size of the testicle. Drain out the blood then slice the membrane around the testicle and pop it out.

Monitor the bull for several days. Expect that the scrotum will swell to about twice the previous size for a short time. If the swelling does not go down then unseal the cuts and squeeze the scrotum from the top to the bottom to remove the clotted blood inside.

Literatur Cited Mueller, E. How to peform Castration. Available on http://www.vet.uga.edu/LAM/teaching/mueller/castration/default.html Kardong, K. V. 2002. Vertebrates; comparative, function, and development. New York. Mc Graw Hill Banks, W.J. 1981. Applied Veterinary Histology; 3rd edition. USA. Mosby, Inc