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BT 06-01


Part: 1
ANS: -
Reading is the thinking under the stimulus of printing page. Reading is a psycho-
linguistic guessing game. Reading comprehension understands a written text.
Understanding a written text means extracting the required information from it as
efficiently as possible.

When we read any thing then we understand it in three ways-

1. We understand the words when we read any thing because we are familiar
with that words so, that we can easily understand the words whatever is
2. We recognize the writers meaning that what does writer want to understand
3. Our personal experiences also help us to understand the matter because
without personal experience we cannot understand the meanings of all words

So reading is nothing but a decoding process.

ANS: -
Reading any thing is a skill. Person who knows the language can only read the
particular matter. To read any thing, the particular person should be familiar
with the related language then after that he or she may read that matter.

Hence to read effectively, one has to know the following things-

 The knowledge of the writing system of the knowledge.
 The knowledge of the language [grammar, vocabulary];
 The ability to interpret.
 A reason of reading and an appropriate method of reading.
 The knowledge of the world [experience/background knowledge]
When these entire requirements are used efficiently while reading, understanding
would be effective and meaning full. Hence reading is a skill, which has to be
acquired by constant experimentation and struggle.
ANS: -
Skimming is a type of skill to read specific thing so that one can
understand the overview of any book or any matter. Like when we go to any
book shop then before buy any book for which we come, first of all we read
the index of that particular book because we don’t have so much time to read
whole book, so that we quickly understand about the content of the book and
after that we can easily decide which book is useful for us.

We can define skimming as “looking quickly over a text/ book to get general
superficial idea of the content.

Scanning is just like a search for a specific thing. For example when we
reading any news paper then some time we encounter by a word which we
don’t know, and to know that word we go through a dictionary to find out the
meaning of that word and the related meaning of that word so that we can
easily understand that particular word for the coming future.
This type of reading is known as scanning means to search for a specific thing
or to find out the specific thing, which we want to know.


ANS: -
Mainly we read up to type like when we are reading for our specific task or
reading any matter with full concentration to get any information, which we
want to know, then this type of reading is different because it includes our full
concentration of mind.
But, when we are reading in a leisure time or just for
enjoyment then this type of reading is known as extensive reading because it
doesn’t include or full concentration of mind like, reading a story book or
comic but it doesn’t mean that it doesn’t include any information because while
reading for enjoyment we get some knowledge out of it.
ANS: -
These are some set of two or three words, which are generally used in our
language so that our sentence will become more powerful and in more
understandable form these are known as phrases.

Here are some examples so that we can understand that to which we called
• The minister called out to his assistant loudly.
• Look at the painting! They are just marvelous.
• The epidemic is likely to be spread to all over northern part of the country.
• Instead of punishing the guilty the court acquitted them.
• The new project is set to benefit all the section of society.

In this given sentences the darker underline words are phrases, which helps our
sentences to make it more under stand able form.

6: - Using the word list given in the reading skills unit 3- construct ten sentences
in each of the following categories: words indicating operations, words that
denote things and words that refer to quality.
ANS: -
Operation: -
• Ravi always gives a rose to his class teacher every morning.
• Let it to be done.
• We should make a healthy environment.
• Put this letter to your pocket.
• It seems that he is not happy with her wife.
• Keep your city neat and clean.
• Do you know these types of things are not good for health?
• Do you have one pencil?
• Did you send a letter to your mother?
• We will do this work in the coming days.
Things: -
1. I have done that work in addition with the give condition.
2. Most of the animals are very sensitive to the nature.
3. Give me the right answer of my question.
4. Rahul behavior is not good.
5. The fact behind this situation is that they didn’t take any serious step in
the previous days.
6. Drink milk every day.
7. Think about your need and then do the next step.
8. Your society is not working in an effective manner.
9. There is no sign of any evidence, which could cause a great disaster.
10. You get attracted when you go there.
Qualities: -
1. Before doing any destructive work we should be able to reconstruct
2. An angry man cannot do any good job when he is angry.
3. Nothing on this world can compare with this beautiful nature.
4. Your future is very bright.
5. Good thing can never be cheap.
6. We should take care of this clean earth so that the coming generation
can feel the magic of this world.
7. Many Indian in this world have some common similarities.
8. I am very conscious about my health.
9. Work is equal to worship.
10.Certain things in life are become very important to us.


ANS: -
When we read shorter texts like a research paper for getting specific
details/information we read slowly with a lot of concentration. This is
intensive reading. When we read a book as a resource material for we read it
intensively because the overall understanding is not the objective purpose of
our reading. When we read an article in order to write a review on it, we read
it intensively. We use all the skills of reading when we read intensively.
Intensively reading include lot of concentration, because in this situation we
read to know some thing specific like when we are reading our books at the
time of examination, this include intensive reading. In this case we are reading
for our examination and so it includes lots of concentration so that we can
fetch good marks.


ANS: -
Most of our day-to-day reading is done silently. When we read an article or an
advertisement. We are engaged in the process of deriving meaning from the
passage. Actually when we read aloud our concentration is divided between
reading and speaking. This makes reading difficult and may cause problems in
understanding the matter. But there are the situations when we have to read
aloud, like the notices and circulars. When other don’t have access to it. You
need to read the instruction aloud to student and employees so that there is no
confusion later. Besides these extra ordinary situations, most of that time the
natural way of reading is silent reading which is ideal and comprehension.
ANS: -
Robinson evolves this technique of reading in his book “effective
study”(1970); sq3r stands for the initial letters of the five steps in studying a
S- survey
Q- question.
R- read
R- recalls
R- review.
Survey: survey refers to a quick glance through the title page, preface, chapter
headings of text. By surveying the learner will be able to gauge the main ideas
of the text.

Question: a survey of the text will surely raise a few questions in our mind
regarding the text. Some of the question could be:
Is doing this work can help me better for evolving the matter?
Are you sure that you get the right thing which you have the need?

Reading: we need to develop a critical approach in reading any thing for any
particular matter. Hence while reading the first time we just focus on the
main point and ideas and supporting details only.

Recall: reading is not an isolated activity. Every reading exercises our

background knowledge. Recalling whatever we have read would enable we to
connect, relate the content to the previous and future learning of the subject.

Review: reviewing is nothing but checking whether we have followed the

earlier stages promptly and efficiently. Review will sharpen our critical
faculty and we would be able to form our own opinions on the topic and
express them to others.
ANS: -
In 1824 Braille has invented a system of writing, which has been all over the
world, he was only 15 at that time. The system named by Braille has been
named after him. It is known as six-dot cell system. Each letter is formed with
the help of one or more raised dots in a cell. Different position of the raised
dots represents different letters.
Now have a look at the Braille alphabet in their separate cells.
In each cell

Indicates raised dots.

Indicates unraised dots.



A special type of needle is used to raise the dots. A person using
Braille writes from right to left. When the sheet is turned over, to raised dots
faced upward and are read from left to right. Braille has proved a great
blessing for blind.

Part: 2

Q.1. Explain the use of tenses in English giving your own examples.
The uses of tenses in English are:

1. The Simple Present (Indefinite) is used:

 To express what is actually taking place at the present moment; as; See how I
fly or he reads a novel.

 To express universal truth as two and two makes four.

 To express habitual fact; as; He goes out for a walk every morning.

 To express a future action as We will play cricket in the evening.

 To express the past tense; as; Napoleon marched on Moscow.

 To present a quotation, as Shakespeare says: “Uneasy lays the head that wears
a crown”.

2. The Present Continuous Tense includes an action going on at the time of

speaking, as, We are doing our work.

3. The Present Perfect Tense denotes an action completed at the time of

speaking; as; Sarvesh has turned up. It is also used to present a past action that
continues up to the present moment; as; I have learnt French for a year.

4. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense: It is used to indicate an action, which

began in the past and is still going on; as; She has been waiting for you since

5. The simple past tense is used:

 To denote an action in the past, as, I wrote a letter to Raju.

 To denote a habitual action in the past; as; We lived and played for years
 To indicate an action going on at the time stated; as; While Mahesh danced
his sister sang.
6. The Past Continuous Tense is used to denote an action that was going on at
sometime in the past; as; While I was eating, he was eating.

7. The Past Perfect Tense is used to denote an action, which had been completed
before another action begins; as; Nirmal came when I had finished my work.

8. The Past Perfect Continuous Tense is used to denote an action that had been
going on at, or before, some point of time in the past; as; I had been studying
for three hours before I went to bed.

9. The Simple Future (Indefinite) Tense is used to express an action in future; as;
I shall write to her next week.

10.The Future Continuous Tense denotes an action as going on at some point in

future time; as; He will be looking after the cows then.

11.The Future Perfect Tense denotes that an action will be completed at some
point of time in future; as; They would have heard the news by the time you
reach there.

12.The Future Perfect Continuous Tense is used to denote an action that would
have been going on at or before some point of time in the future; as; They
would have been studying English since morning.

Q.2. What is listening skill? What are its purposes and what are the obstacles
to listening skills?

Ans. Generally we think of English as a passive process. But, actually it is an active

process where the listener is actively involved in the process of
communication. His response to the input would be according to the sub skills
of listening that he has acquired during his language learning. Once again
listening as a human activity seems to be automatic and natural but we know
that listening is a skill, which could be developed. Knowledge of the
language, grammar, vocabulary, situations and contexts, tones and attitudes of
the speaker – All these are part of the skill that the language learners possess.
Purposes of listening:
The following are some of the purposes of listening in real life situations:

1. We could be listening to get the gist of what the speaker has to say.

2. We could be listening to it intently to get some specific, particular detail

(what is mentioned in the election manifesto).

3. We could be listening to find out what the opinion or attitude of the speaker
is towards a subject.

4. We could be listening for the overall summary of the topic under discussion.

Obstacles to listening skills:

The could be some of the hurdles in the way of proper listening comprehension:

1. The listener may not have listened to a particular text at all.

2. The listener may have listened properly to something but may not have
understood it due to difficulties in understanding some words and sentence

3. The listener may be preoccupied with some problem. Hence he / she might
have heard but not listened.

4. He / she may have listened and understood but has not succeeded in
expressing or interpreting the message because of the loss of previous

Q.3. What are semantic markers? Explain their functions. Listen to a Radio
broadcast and see if there are semantic markers, make a list of the
program and list the markers you heard.
When we are listening to a lecture of reading a text, we concentrate for the use
of these markers. Through the words sound big, it just means that they mark
the beginning of the sentences, or act as a link between two sentences or
function to indicate a shift or change in the tone of the speaker.
Their functions:

1. The markers (phrases) can be used for listening, such as:

Firstly, to begin with,

In the first place, thirdly,
Secondly, lastly,
First and foremost, finally,

2. They may show us the cause and effect relationship between one idea and

So, since,
Therefore, hence,
Thus (we see)

3. They can indicate that the speaker or writer is going to illustrate his ideas by
giving examples:

For instance…
Let’s take for example…
For example…
One of the examples / instances was…

4. They may introduce an idea, which runs against what has been said, or is
going to be said.

On the other hand
And yet,
In spite of.
5. A very important kind of semantic marker is one, which shows that the
speaker or writer is about to sum up his message, or a part of it.

To summaries,
In other words,
What I have been saying is
If I can just sum up
It amounts to this

6. Semantic markers can be used to express a time relationship.

Then, after that, when

Next, while, previously

7. They may be used to re-phrase what has already been said;

In other words,
To put it in another way
Let me put it this way
That is to say

8. To express a condition;
Assuming that…

Q.4. What are the different types of abbreviations? What are they used for?
Explain with examples.
Ans. There are three kinds of abbreviations:

1. Field Abbreviations: The student specializing in a certain field will learn

certain abbreviations as part of the study of that field. For example a student
of chemistry will know that ‘C’ stand for Carbon and Ca for Calcium. Such
abbreviations are useful since they are widely used within each field but not
ambiguous, or will not be misunderstood.
2. Commonly used abbreviations: These are abbreviations on common use,
or easily understood. Some examples are ‘that is’ (i.e) ‘ ’equal to’ (=)
meaning the same etc.

3. Personal abbreviations that the learner himself has made: According to

the convenience of the learner and appropriate to the topic, he/she can make
their own abbreviations which would help them recall and review during the

Q.5. How will you agree or disagree with people and how will you accept or
decline invitations? Explain through example sentences on social
We could express agreement or disagreement through the example of
following conversation between two people:

Arun: Hello, Sharath where have you been?

Sharath: To watch the third cricket match between India and Pakistan.

Arun: But there’s hardly any interest left in the match. It looks like it’s
going to be another draw.

Sharath: Oh you never know. Anything can happen in a game like cricket.

Arun: Well, what do you think can happen?

Sharath: Oh the Indians can win, if they bowl Pakistan out for a low score.

Arun: I don’t think they can, they haven’t got good bowlers.

Sharath: You can’t say that. Kapil Dev, Shastri, Binny for example can be
very effective.

Arun: I agree, but I think India’s bowling is not as strong as their


Sharath: That’s not the point. India’s bowling may not be as strong as
Pakistan’s but it has been quite successful. The bowlers have
already claimed four Pakistan wickets.
Arun: But surely that doesn’t necessarily mean that it will be easy to
get the remaining Pakistan batsmen out.

Sharat: Well I agree, it may not be easy. But they have a fair chance if
that continue to bowl as well as they did today.

Arun: That again, I suppose, depends on chance.

Now we could understand acceptance and declination of invitation with the

help of the following conversation between two persons on telephone:
First taking the example of accepting an invitation.

Suchi: Hello!

Prakash: Hi Suchi it’s, me Prakash.

Suchi: Oh hello, Prakash how are you?

Prakash: Oh not bad, I say are you doing something on Saturday evening?

Suchi: No, nothing special --- why?

Prakash: Well, do you feel like watching that new movie, “TITANIC”?

Suchi: Oh that’s a wonderful idea!

Prakash: Great! So that’s settled. Are you free this evening ---? What about
having coffee together?

Suchi: Sure! Why not ---? Where do you want us to meet?

Prakash: Shall I pick you up in half an hour at your house?

Suchi: Fine. Well see you soon.

Prakash: Right…. So long….

Suchi: Bye….
Now example of Declining an invitation.

Gopal: Hello!

Ravi: Hi Gopal its me, Ravi.

Gopal: Oh Hi Ravi, How are you?

Ravi: I’m fine. I say, are you free on Sunday?

Gopal: Well I’m expecting a friend, why?

Ravi: I wanted to invite you to a picnic. The family is going to spend

the day out. I thought you might like to join us.
Gopal: Oh! I’d have loved to, but I can’t go.

Ravi: Hard luck! Would you like to join us a little late perhaps?

Gopal: I’m afraid I can’t.

Ravi: Or may be you could meet us after your friend comes. You can
bring him along too. We’re going to the lake. Can you come?
Gopal: I’m really sorry, but I don’t think I can.

Ravi: That’s a pity. Another time then?

Gopal: Yes! Thanks for asking.

Q.6. Explain the use of gambits in conversations through examples.

A ‘Gambit’ is a word or a phrase, which helps us to express what we are
trying to say. For example we use a gambit to introduce a topic of
conversation, to link what we have to say to what someone has just said, to
agree or disagree, to respond to what we have just heard. The gambit is not
one’s opinion but something that initiates the opinion. Hence knowledge of
the various gambits will give a speaker ample of opportunities to speak more
efficiently than others. The gambits reflect the attitude of the person to the
topic or the people in the context. We could understand this through few

Gambits Functions
1. I’d like to know – Asking for information
Could you tell me –
Do you happen to know –
2. May I interrupt for a moment? Breaking in or
Excuse me for interrupting but can I say interrupting
something here?
Can I ask a question?
I’d like to comment on that
3. Anyway To come back to the
To get back to what I was saying topic

4. First of all, Sequencing of actions

Then, next, after that, finally

5. First of all main reason is Listing excuses

Another reason
Besides that
And on top of it
And finally
6. The trouble is…. Stating the main
The problem is…. problem
The point is….
Don’t forget that….
7. I think / suppose / believe / feel Expressing
I suspect that
I am pretty sure that
I am fairly certain that
I am convinced that
It seems to me that

BT 06-02
Part 1:
Q.1. Fill in the blanks:

a. A group of words that make complete sense is called a sentence.

b. Sentences, which make statements, are called Declarative or Assertive


c. Interrogative sentences ask questions.

d. That part of the sentences which names a person or thing is called subject
of the sentence.

e. Predicate of the sentence tells us something about the subject.

Q.2. True or False:

a. A group of words, which make some sense but not complete sense, is
called Clause. (False)

b. Part of sentence, which contains a subject and predicate, is called a phrase.

c. An adjective qualifies a verb. (False)

d. A pronoun is used in the place of a noun. (True)

e. A conjunction is a word that joins words or sentences. (True)

Q.3. What is text?

Unless we understand what is meant by text we cannot go into the structure of
paragraphs. We know that a sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with
a full stop. A sentence can be long or short but it does not extend beyond a few
lines. Now a text is an organized and meaningful series of sentences / clauses.
It may consist of one clause or less or may contain a whole series of clauses /
sentences. In fact, a word ‘yes’ or ‘no’ may constitute a text technically (in
answer to something spoken). But on the other hand, a text may be a whole
book, sermon, debate or essay.
Q.4. What do you mean by linkage and cohesion?
A sentence is build up in relationship to its clauses. If the sentence contains
more than one clause, which is quite usual, each of the clauses, apart from
having its own internal structure, needs to be connected to preceding and
succeeding clauses and sentences. This connection, linking or gluing to form a
complete, recognizable whole is called cohesion. This type of cohesion is an
integral part of a text.

Q.5. How many different types of essays are there? List below.
Essays can be divided into different types. They can be classified as narrative
essays, descriptive essays, expository essays, reflective essays, and
imaginative essays. All essays should be more or less reflective, for the
original idea of this form of composition is an expression of the writer’s own
feelings and opinions about a given subject.

Q.6. What are the rules for making paragraphs?

Rules for making paragraphs are as follows:

Unity: The most important principle to follow in the construction of a

paragraph is that of unity. Just as a sentence deals with one thought, so also
each paragraph must deal with one idea or topic only. And every sentence in
the paragraph must be closely connected with the main topic of the paragraph.
This is what is meant by cohesion and coherence.

Order: The second principle of paragraph construction concerns the logical

sequence of thought or development of the subject. Events must be related in
the order of their occurrence, and all ideas should be connected with the
leading idea and arranged according to their importance or order.

Variety: The third principle of paragraph construction is variety. To avoid

monotony, the composition of a paragraph should be of different lengths, and
not of the same sentence construction.
Q.7. Draw a communication process model and identify the parts.
There are many communication models. But the most popular model is called
the “Process Model”. This model shows that communication happens between
people and it takes place in a given context. The figure of communication
process model is drawn below:

In this model a sender encodes a message and transmits through a

preferred channel, which a receiver receives, decodes to understand and gives
feedback to the sender. This process happens in a particular context.

Q.8. What are the different steps involved in Project proposal writing?
Different steps involved in Project proposal writing are:

1. We should choose a theme/topic.

2. Make a statement of objectives (what we intend to achieve through the

project, hypothesis).

3. Choosing the methodology we intend to adopt to carry out our study. In other
words, the tools and techniques we intend to employ.

4. Process and analyze the data we have collected.

5. Make our final conclusion.

These are the basic steps we have to employ to get our project started.

Q.9. List three barriers to communication and explain the same.

Three barriers to communication are:

a) Lack of Planning: Let us take an example to understand this, when we

applied to MAHE for admission into this course we submitted our application
before the last date given in the prospectus. To do this we received the forms
in advance, filled it up quickly and decided when to post the application to
MAHE. Supposing that one did not fill the form properly or did not post it in
time then he/she would have faced serious problems. Therefore planning is
important for ensuring good communication. Thus, Lack of planning could be
a serious barrier.

b) Physical Barriers: A postal strike can be a barrier, an incomplete application

form can be a barrier and the distance between our town and MAHE can be a
barrier if our town is hundreds of kilometers away and in a remote place. Such
barriers then are called Physical barriers to communication.

c) Semantic Distortions: One of the examples of a deliberate distortion of a

message can be an advertising slogan, which says “Free Software! Get the
latest!” When we actually read the whole advertisement it could be talking
about two different types of software. One, which is free and has limited use
while the other is the latest, which we have to pay for. Such distortions are
called Semantic Distortions and these acts as barriers to communication.

Q.10. Explain semantic distortion through an example.

One of the examples of a deliberate distortion of a message can be an
advertising slogan, which says “Free Software! Get the latest!” When we
actually read the whole advertisement it could be talking about two different
types of software. One, which is free and has limited use, while the other is
the latest, which we have to pay for. Such distortions are called Semantic

Q1. Take a book in English, study three pages of a chapter containing at least
ten short paragraphs. Then analyze the constructor of paragraphs and
identify the topics covered, explain order and variety. State if the
paragraphs have been constructed well or not giving reason for your

Ans. I am taking our Manipal book of English that is COMMUNICATION

SKILLS IN ENGLISH included in our course.


In this chapter, the topic, which is explained, is what is the meaning of

bibliography, different types of bibliography, the format, rules and regulation,
which should be concern during writing a bibliography.

The topics covered in this chapter are

1. Introduction to bibliography.
2. What is meant by bibliography?
3. Different types of ordinary bibliography.
4. The thesis and research paper format.
5. Rules for the bibliography page.
6. Types of resources a guide to preparing a bibliography.

Not, only this it has also discussed upon the general rules of writing a
document that is

7. Footnotes and Endnotes.

8. Abstracts.
9. How to use the library and other information sources.

It has given a variety of format in which we can write a bibliography. Some

examples of other bibliography were also given in this chapter. The main
thing, which has to be considered in this chapter, is the collection of the topic
bibliography from the different sources.

In my view, the paragraphs were constructed well because, before staring any
thing one thing, which has to be considered, is whether the reader knows the
related topic or not. Every thing has to be considered during writing a thing
upon a particular topic and this chapter has every thing that what is
Bibliography what do we mean of that, what should we considered and what
are the merits and demerits of writing a bibliography.

Q2. Write an essay on the topic “different types of communication skills and
ways to improve them” using the principles of essay writing that you have
learnt from the unit on essay and précis writing skills.

Communication means a skill through which a human being can express there
feeling to each of them. To express our feeling and to interchange our expression we
need to have better communication and that is known as communication skill.

Communication skill is of different types, or we can say the way through

which we communicate with the peoples. They are…
1. Reading.
2. Listening.
3. Writing.

Let us know what these skills do we need are.

1. Reading skill.
We require several skills for acquiring knowledge and wisdom. The first and
foremost skill required for learning a language is reading skill.
In this skill the first thing, which has to be considered, is the ability to
decode the message or the text whatever we read this is known as
decoder/reader. Reading is an order through which we have to pass that is

Encoder/Writer Message Decoder/Reader

We generally read newspaper or some article or our course related book and
through this we are going through a series of process, which we doesn’t
consider. When we read anything we have to develop some skill so that we
can read very effectively, some of that skill is

In this skill we should first see the overview of the particular book so, that we
can easily understand the purpose of that book and what does it mean to say.

In this skill, we know how to find any thing in the book that we want.
Suppose any person want some specific thing, which he or she has the purpose
to take the book. This is skimming.

Generally, we read in two ways that is extensive reading or intensive reading.

Extensive reading#
This reading includes no concentration just think that when we read
some storybooks or any article in our leisure time, when we don’t have to do
any thing the that is called extensive reading.

Intensive reading#
This reading includes no concentration.

Have we ever think about the blind peoples how they read the text or the
material given to them, how can the become literate. The thing is Braille it is
the pattern in which some dots are written in a page with a special technique.

So, know we can easily think about the reading skill. The way through which
every one should speak.

2. Listening skill.
Lets assume that we are standing in a seminar and listening the speakers
Suddenly, we might see some illiterate person who were laughing upon the
speakers notes, then what does this mean, it means that they can no well
translate the meaning of the speaker speaks that what does he mean to say.
Listening is a skill, and if we don’t know this skill better than we can no
understand any one words better, to know this one should have the talent to
how to translate the meaning of any individual person.

Listening includes two types of listening that is

1. Casual listening. (No need to pay attention)
2. Focused listening. (Needs to pay attention)

Every time we have the purpose to listening that is in some way want to
consider then we get interest in listening some thing.

If we are the speaker and speaking some thing in a stage or in any

organization then four things should be consider in mind while speaking.
1. It should be orderly.
2. It should be clear.
3. It should be accurate.
4. It should be complete.

3. Writing Skill.
It is the most preferable way of communication. If we do no
write accurately then the reader may get confuse or take out some
wrong meaning. To erase this error we should also have to know about
this skill let us see the brief of this skill.

While writing the grammar of the particular language where it is Hindi

or English or any other language should be correct so that the meaning of the
sentence will be clear.

The pattern of the written thing should also be in a write way so the reader can
understand in a Wright way.

If we write any thing in a paragraph the it will be clear to understand and easy
to consider.

If we writing any letter to the organization the it should in a formal way that
first of all write the address were you want to send then write your own
address so that the next person can easily under stand that who is the sender
and lastly Wright some thing to say that your faith fully or thank you and the
date of the letter.

But, if we writing a letter to a friend or to the parents then we can write it in

informal way because if we write dear sir my address is this or your address is
this the it may look odd or funny, just write as you want to talk to your father
means parent or to your friend as usual.

If we write any documents then to understand the reader that from were you
are taking the topic and from which books did you take the help write a
bibliography so that the reader can under stand better you written book or
document. Bibliography is also written in formal way for better

4. Communication:
This is the skill, which we use, in our day-to-day life. That is speaking
some one. As we know the communication whether it is from the nearest one
or from the out side there is a process follows in this that is

Communication is the natural activity in the society.

In a communication there is a source, which could be a thought, idea, or
fact or information with the sender. This sender wants to convey this thoughts
or ideas or facts by encoding them into a message. The message is then
transmitted through preferred channels. The receiver for whom the message is
meant decodes and receives the message. He proceeds to understand the
message and then react by giving a feedback or taking some new action.
Q3. Write a letter to your friend about your last vacation and then write
another letter to MAHE giving your suggestion for improving the course.
Compare both your letters, categories them or identify the type of the
letter each one is and give the detailed analysis of the category or type of
the each letter.


My Dearest Sweta
How are you? Received your newsy letter from Bangalore and am
replying to you immediately. I am so happy you have found good friends, but
please don’t forget your best friend in Ranchi (myself) whose name is Rupa.
All of us in the colony miss you, and your mad jokes. Anshu sends their love
to you. Hope you are finding time for your studies-You seems to be so
involved in extra curricular activity.
I met your Parents. They were happy, and wishing you to be happy.
Write soon. Here, the rest of us in the institute are fine.

With lots of love




The Director
Manipal IT Education
Syndicate House,

Rupa Prasad
Ashok Nagar, Ranchi

Respected Sir,
I am the Student of your Distance Education Wing. I am very happy to
having the student of MAHE. As while studying I have found some thing
missing, please don’t take it as another thing as a student I want to give some
suggestion that is if we get a Informal CD with the Course book as related to
the course it will surely help us in understanding Better. I am only requesting
you as a suggestion it depend upon whether it is possible or not.
Kindly, consider my suggestion so that the course provided by you are
really will become a fantastic study. Thank You.
Yours Faithfully,
As we have seen that in both letters whether it is to MAHE or to a fast friend
there are lots of differences
1. Friend Letter is Informal.
2. Mahe letter is Formal.
3. Friend letter has some words that are dearest but Mahe letter has
4. Friend letter has some relational words but these words are not
included in MAHE.

First, of all we should consider some topics before writing a letter that is to
whom it concerned so that the pattern may easily be decided whether it will be
formal and informal. Second, thing is that The subject means whether you are
conveying for some thing or giving respect or giving some suggestion or it is
the reply so that we will easily decide the next procedure of the letter.

Q4. List and define the different types of ordinary bibliography?

They’re re different types of bibliography.

1. Subject Bibliography:
It is a comprehensive list of all books, periodical articles, pamphlet and
other analytical material that have appeared in the particular subject.

2. Author bibliography:
An author Bibliography is the list of writing by an author together with
the works on him by others.

3. Selective or elective Bibliography:

As its name implies, this records only the best books. This is useful to
those who only want to read the best.

4. Personal Bibliography:
A personal bibliography is the list of writings by others on the different
aspects of the life of the great men together with what he himself has written,
painted and delivered in the form of Oratory.

5. Unit of Bibliography:
It is a list of different editions, Adaptation, abridged form.

Q5. What is memo? What are the different types of memos? What are the
rules for writing memos?
A memo can be defined as a short communication usually written on a
prepared form and distributed internally in an organization. Memos are
usually devoted to one subject and are about a page in content. A memo is a
shorter communication used to inform decision taken by the administrators.

Types of memos: -

1. Memo that report Decisions.

2. A reply to another memo: - A memo is sent to explain a previous memo.
3. A request Memo: - These are written when someone requires service from
other department or when there is a need for small sums of money.
4. On understanding reached in conversations and meetings.
5. Minutes of meetings: - The decisions taken in an organization at every formal
meeting are recorded as resolutions. We can say that decisions are recorded as
minutes of meetings. Such minutes are also memos.

Rules: - when we write memos we must remember the following: -

1. We should choose our words carefully: - If we don’t the reader may

misunderstand the memo.
2. Identify our reader before we write our memo.
3. Be polite.
4. Be judicious.
5. Don’t send memo haste.
6. Avoid offensive language.
7. Memos neither begin like a letter nor end like a letter.
8. There is no salutation, greeting or formal addresses such as dear sir, etc. at
the beginning and at the concluding statements such as thank you or you’re

Q6. Explain through an essay how you will make an effective oral

An Effective Presentation

To build an effective presentation, I should have a topics Obviously. The topic

will be IT The Growing Power. After choosing an topic then have to focus
upon some points related to this field so the my presentation would be great.
My points will be:

1. Significance of IT (in general).

2. Significance of IT (in rural).
3. Needs to develop IT sector in INDIA.
4. Pros and Cons of IT.

After deciding these topics. I have to illustrate the matter so that I can make
my oral presentation more great full for that I will take some help from some
boos whether it is in my house or in the library. Search for the matter for the
related topics really a very tough work. Take an example from my first topics
that is Significance of IT (in general).

For this I will say the role of IT in Banking, Medical Science, Police
Department, and Agriculture and in colleges. I will say the advantages and
disadvantages it the related fields. I will say the coming criteria, solutions. I
will say upon the possibilities in the following sectors that what are the
possible growth possible in the field like in banking if our banking would
computerized then it will become centralized and it is really very great full for
the customers for maintaining their accounts even from outside the country
through the internet because, today internet has a very crucial role in the field
of IT.
Not only this assume it if Police department will be computerized then it
would be very reliable to them in searching for a theft in a centralized manner.
Just look into the foreign country were the police department are centralized
through the help of the computer so that they are very fast in finding a theft in
their locality or in any other country. I will force upon the problems facing our
police in the department.

As per my second topic that is Significance of IT (in rural area). In this topic I
will say that if we help farmers in maintaining their crops by the help of the
computer so that they can get the immediate virtual result of what they have
planned to crop this year, and it is really interesting for them to decide that
which crop is better in the related monsoon. Not only this they can easily get
the behavior of the out coming monsoons and decide better to how to handle
the situation. By doing this there may be a great help for the farmers to
increase the productivity.

As per my third topic that is Needs to develop IT sector in INDIA. I will say
that INDIA is a big country but due to the lack of information in the related
field whatever is that has to be improve and for this we have to do lots of
things and so if we take help of the computer in the wanted field then there is
no doubt that India will gain lots of things from its resources.
Hence, we have to improve the growing IT sector in India because IT has a
very bright future in the future and if this will join with India then we cant say
the possibilities.

Like this will search for the good matters in the related topic so that my oral
presentation will be very good and appreciative.