Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 13

1/13/2010

Memmlers The Human Body in Health and Disease


11th edition

Chapter 2 Chemistry, Matter, and Life


Copyright 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Chemistry

Science that deals with composition and properties of matter Used to understand normal and abnormal functioning of body

1/13/2010

Levels of Organization
Chemicals Cells Tissues Organs Body systems

Elements
Make up all matter 92 occur in nature, 28 created. Identified by names or chemical symbols (abbreviations of modern or Latin names) Identified by number (based on structure of subunits or atoms) Described and organized in periodic table

1/13/2010

Atoms
Subunits of elements Smallest complete units of matter

Atomic Structure
Nucleus Protons (positive charge [+]) Neutrons (no charge) Electrons (negative charge [])

Energy Levels
Distances from nucleus where electrons orbit Higher energy levels can hold more electrons Electrons in farthest level give atom its characteristics (positive or negative charge) Valence of element is number of electrons lost or gained by atoms of element in chemical reactions

1/13/2010

Atomic Structure

oxygen atom

Molecules and Compounds


Molecules Formed when two or more atoms unite on the basis of their electron structures Can be made of like atoms or atoms of different elements Compounds Composed of two or more elements Smallest subunits of a compound are molecules

1/13/2010

Chemical Bonds
Atoms interact chemically to alter neutrality of atoms and form bonds.

http://ibchem.com

Ionic bonding Electrons transferred between atoms form ionic bonds. El t l t Electrolytes i i b d ionic bonds form compounds that release ions when they are in solution Influence homeostasis (stable condition of normal organism) Conduct electronic current

1/13/2010

Covalent Bonds
A chemical bond in which atoms share electrons Non-polar covalent bond

Polar covalent bond

Water H2O

1/13/2010

The Importance of Water


Most abundant compound in body Critical in all physiologic processes in body tissues Deficiency (dehydration) can threaten health Universal solvent S bl li id at Stable liquid ordinary temperatures Participates in chemical reactions in body

Mixtures: Solutions and Suspensions


Solution components Indistinguishable from one another y g ( g ) Evenly distributed throughout (homogeneous) Suspension components Separate from solvent Settle out (heterogeneous or non-uniform) Colloid components Separate from solvent Evenly distributed throughout

1/13/2010

Compounds: Acids, Bases, and Salts


Compounds are chemical substances with specific properties Acid can donate hydrogen ion (H+) Base (alkali) can accept hydrogen ion (H+) Salt is formed by a reaction between an acid and a base

The pH Scale
Represents relative concentrations of hydrogen and y hydroxide ions in a solution Scale from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic) Each unit represents a 10-fold change Body fluids usually 7.35-7.45 pH

1/13/2010

Buffers
Chemicals that prevent sharp changes in hydrogen ion concentration and maintain relatively constant pH in body fluids

Isotopes and Radioactivity


Elements can exist in several forms (isotopes). Same number of protons and electrons Different number of neutrons Different atomic weights May be stable or unstable (radioactive)

1/13/2010

Use of Radioactive Isotopes


Radioisotopes are the rays given off by some radioactive elements. Can penetrate and destroy cancer cells Can aid in diagnosis X-rays Tracers

Chemistry of Living Matter


Living matter contains 26 of 92 natural elements. 96% of body weightfour elements 4% of body weightnine elements 0.1% of body weight13 elements

10

1/13/2010

Organic Compounds
Chemical compounds/macromolecules that characterize living things Contain mainly carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids

Biological Molecules & Composition of Cells

11

1/13/2010

Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides (simple sugars) Glucose Disaccharides Polysaccharides Starch Glycogen

Lipids
Triglycerides Glycerol (glycerin) Phospholipids Steroids Cholesterol Steroid hormones Sex hormones

12

1/13/2010

Proteins
Amino acids Enzymes Catalysts Substrates

Proteins

13