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1 Modern World History (Honors)

Nationalism in Europe Nationalism became a prevailing idea in the nineteenth century of Europe, for it had created countries and disconcerted the balance of power. Nationalistic people were not loyal to a king but rather to their own people. The idea of nationalism was to connect people of a common history, culture, world-view, or language. In nationalism, people believed in a common ethnic ancestry, and they had different dialects on one language. They also shared a way of life, a common past, a religion, and a certain territory. During the nineteenth century, nationalism helped improve Europe by strengthening to feeling of nationalism. Nationalism brought about stronger nations such as Italy and Germany. These two countries became stronger because they spoke the same language, which allowed them to be a nation. Nationalism also caused nations to split apart, such as Russia, because there were so many ethnicities. Each ethnicity had pride in its own people, and they wanted their own country. This caused nations like Russia to break apart. Nationalism brought solidarity to countries, which led to economic gains and military wars. Though, nationalism made the countries stronger, like Italy, which eventually became amalgamated. However, the Holy Roman Empire broke apart. The formation of Germany and the breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire were direct effects of the Nineteenth Century although. Nationalism had worked for unity, but it had also shaken up empires with disunity. The Austro-Hungarian Empire broke apart after Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria split his empire in half, and then he declared Austria

2 and Hungary independent states. Nationalists had beset the empire, which eventually turned the Austria-Hungary Empire into individual nation-states. The Russian Empire had also crumbled because the Romanov dynasty wanted to maintain diversity; this made nationalist feelings much stronger. Eventually, this rise made Russia crumble. As well as the Russian Empire, the Ottoman Empire weakened as well. The Ottomans wanted equal citizenship, but the Turks wanted no change. The idea of nationalism did not suit the empire, which caused the Ottoman Empire to fall apart after World War I. Though nationalism caused destruction for some empires, it made some empires prosper. For example, Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italian who formed a nationalist group, believed that nation-states would help with social justice, democracy, and peace within Europe. Rebellions broke out in Italy, which showed that nationalist leaders were not getting anywhere. Soon, Italian nationalists recognized that Piedmont-Sardinia was a strong Italian state so people looked to this state for unification. Camillo di Cavour, Sardinias king, wanted to expand power, but he actually unified Italy. Cavour became allies with France so that they could get Austria out of Lombardy and Venetia. There was a war against the Austrians, and soon Sardinia took over northern Italy from the Austrians. Later on, Cavour wanted to control the south so he met with Giuseppe Garibaldi who had taken over Sicily, which was a step to unifying southern Italy. In the Proclamation of 1860 by Garibaldi, he quoted: The spirit of discord and the indifference of any one province to the fate of her neighbour are the things that have been at the bottom of the misfortunes of Italy. This quote shows his determination in conquering Sicily for his people. In the final lines of the Proclamation,

3 he says: Let us prove to the world that it was indeed in this land that the sturdy race of ancient Romans once lived. Garibaldi allowed Cavour to rule the land they had captured. In 1866, Italians had taken over the Papal States, and Rome became the capital of the United Kingdom of Italy. Italy had many economic problems, and Italy had trouble approaching the 20th century. The rise of Prussia soon became another impact from nationalism. Germany became unified because of the nationalistic achievements. Prussia began with problems as most empires do. Their king, Frederick William IV, held a constitutional convention to make a constitution for the kingdom. Wilhelm I had ruled after Frederick William, and he had made reforms for Prussia to have a more powerful military. His reforms were ignored, but he had a Junker help him who was named Otto von Bismarck. He became the prime minister, and he was influential in politics. Bismarck had gone against parliament with ruling under approval of the king. Bismarck was a determined man who wanted Germany unified. Bismarck, while ruling, had made an alliance with Prussia and Austria. Eventually, they went to war against Denmark to get two provinces, Schleswig and Holstein. Bismarck won the war, which helped national pride. Prussia had governed Schleswig, and Austria governed Holstein. Bismarck had set up a fake conflict with these two areas, which created the Seven Weeks War. In the end, eastern and western Prussia was joined. The final war in German unification was the Franco-Prussian War, which was the beginning of Prussian supremacy. In Bismarcks Nationalist Speech, he had said: Let us keep above everything the things we have, before we look for new things, nor be afraid of those people who begrudge them to us. In Germany struggles have existed

4 always . . . Life is a struggle everywhere in nature, and without inner struggles we end being like the Chinese, and become petrified. Not struggle, no life! This quote shows he ambition and his determination for a unified Germany. This speech was given on his 80th birthday, but even then he wanted Germany to continue to glorify. Nationalists all throughout Europe wanted achieve in Europe an improved society to better the peoples lives. Some places in Europe this goal was met, and others it has failed.

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