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Finding number of Factors To find the number of factors of a given number, express the number as a product of powers of prime numbers. In this case, 48 can be written as 16 * 3 = (24 * 3) Now, increment the power of each of the prime numbers by 1 and multiply the result. In this case it will be (4 + 1)*(1 + 1) = 5 * 2 = 10 (the power of 2 is 4 and the power of 3 is 1) Therefore, there will 10 factors including 1 and 48. Excluding, these two numbers, you will have 10 2 = 8 factors.

Sum of n natural numbers -> The sum of first n natural numbers = n (n+1)/2 -> The sum of squares of first n natural numbers is n (n+1)(2n+1)/6 -> The sum of first n even numbers= n (n+1) -> The sum of first n odd numbers= n^2

Finding Squares of numbers To find the squares of numbers near numbers of which squares are known To find 41^2 , Add 40+41 to 1600 =1681 To find 59^2 , Subtract 60^2-(60+59) =3481

Finding number of Positive Roots If an equation (i:e f(x)=0 ) contains all positive co-efficient of any powers of x , it has no positive roots then. Eg: x^4+3x^2+2x+6=0 has no positive roots .

Finding number of Imaginary Roots

For an equation f(x)=0 , the maximum number of positive roots it can have is the number of sign changes in f(x) ; and the maximum number of negative roots it can have is the number of sign changes in f(-x) . Hence the remaining are the minimum number of imaginary roots of the equation(Since we also know that the index of the maximum power of x is the number of roots of an equation.)

Reciprocal Roots The equation whose roots are the reciprocal of the roots of the equation ax^2+bx+c is cx^2+bx+a

Roots Roots of x^2+x+1=0 are 1,w,w^2 where 1+w+w^2=0 and w^3=1

Finding Sum of the roots For a cubic equation ax^3+bx^2+cx+d=o sum of the roots = - b/a sum of the product of the roots taken two at a time = c/a product of the roots = -d/a For a biquadratic equation ax^4+bx^3+cx^2+dx+e = 0 sum of the roots = - b/a sum of the product of the roots taken three at a time = c/a sum of the product of the roots taken two at a time = -d/a product of the roots = e/a

Maximum/Minimum -> If for two numbers x+y=k(=constant), then their PRODUCT is MAXIMUM if x=y(=k/2). The maximum product is then (k^2)/4 -> If for two numbers x*y=k(=constant), then their SUM is MINIMUM if x=y(=root(k)). The minimum sum is then 2*root(k) .

Inequalties -> x + y >= x+y ( stands for absolute value or modulus ) (Useful in solving some inequations) -> a+b=a+b if a*b>=0 else a+b >= a+b -> 2<= (1+1/n)^n <=3 -> (1+x)^n ~ (1+nx) if x<<<1> When you multiply each side of the inequality by -1, you have to reverse the direction of the inequality.

Product Vs HCF-LCM Product of any two numbers = Product of their HCF and LCM . Hence product of two numbers = LCM of the numbers if they are prime to each other AM GM HM For any 2 numbers a>b a>AM>GM>HM>b (where AM, GM ,HM stand for arithmetic, geometric , harmonic menasa respectively) (GM)^2 = AM * HM

Sum of Exterior Angles For any regular polygon , the sum of the exterior angles is equal to 360 degrees hence measure of any external angle is equal to 360/n. ( where n is the number of sides) For any regular polygon , the sum of interior angles =(n-2)180 degrees So measure of one angle in Square-----=90 Pentagon--=108 Hexagon---=120 Heptagon--=128.5 Octagon---=135 Nonagon--=140 Decagon--=144 ---------------------------------------------------------Problems on clocks Problems on clocks can be tackled as assuming two runners going round a circle , one 12 times as fast as the other . That is , the minute hand describes 6 degrees /minute the hour hand describes 1/2 degrees /minute . Thus the minute hand describes 5(1/2) degrees more than the hour hand per minute . The hour and the minute hand meet each other after every 65(5/11) minutes after being together at midnight. (This can be derived from the above) . ---------------------------------------------------------Co-ordinates Given the coordinates (a,b) (c,d) (e,f) (g,h) of a parallelogram , the coordinates of the meeting point of the diagonals can be found out by solving for [(a+e)/2,(b+f)/2] =[ (c+g)/2 , (d+h)/2]

---------------------------------------------------------Ratio If a1/b1 = a2/b2 = a3/b3 = .............. , then each ratio is equal to (k1*a1+ k2*a2+k3*a3+..............) / (k1*b1+ k2*b2+k3*b3+..............) , which is also equal to (a1+a2+a3+............./b1+b2+b3+..........) ---------------------------------------------------------Finding multiples x^n -a^n = (x-a)(x^(n-1) + x^(n-2) + .......+ a^(n-1) ) ......Very useful for finding multiples .For example (17-14=3 will be a multiple of 17^3 - 14^3) ---------------------------------------------------------Exponents e^x = 1 + (x)/1! + (x^2)/2! + (x^3)/3! + ........to infinity 2 <>GP -> In a GP the product of any two terms equidistant from a term is always constant . -> The sum of an infinite GP = a/(1-r) , where a and r are resp. the first term and common ratio of the GP .

Mixtures If Q be the volume of a vessel q qty of a mixture of water and wine be removed each time from a mixture n be the number of times this operation be done and A be the final qty of wine in the mixture then , A/Q = (1-q/Q)^n Some Pythagorean triplets: 3,4,5----------(3^2=4+5) 5,12,13--------(5^2=12+13) 7,24,25--------(7^2=24+25) 8,15,17--------(8^2 / 2 = 15+17 ) 9,40,41--------(9^2=40+41) 11,60,61-------(11^2=60+61) 12,35,37-------(12^2 / 2 = 35+37) 16,63,65-------(16^2 /2 = 63+65) 20,21,29-------(EXCEPTION)---------------------------------------------------------Appolonius theorem Appolonius theorem could be applied to the 4 triangles formed in a parallelogram.

Function Any function of the type y=f(x)=(ax-b)/(bx-a) is always of the form x=f(y) .

Finding Squares To find the squares of numbers from 50 to 59 For 5X^2 , use the formulae (5X)^2 = 5^2 +X / X^2 Eg ; (55^2) = 25+5 /25 =3025 (56)^2 = 25+6/36 =3136 (59)^2 = 25+9/81 =3481

Successive Discounts Formula for successive discounts a+b+(ab/100) This is used for succesive discounts types of sums.like 1999 population increses by 10% and then in 2000 by 5% so the population in 2000 now is 10+5+(50/100)=+15.5% more that was in 1999 and if there is a decrease then it will be preceeded by a -ve sign and likewise.

Rules of Logarithms: -> loga(M)=y if and only if M=ay -> loga(MN)=loga(M)+loga(N) -> loga(M/N)=loga(M)-loga(N) -> loga(Mp)=p*loga(M) -> loga(1)=0-> loga(ap)=p -> log(1+x) = x - (x^2)/2 + (x^3)/3 - (x^4)/4 .........to infinity [ Note the alternating sign . .Also note that the ogarithm is with respect to base e ]

Divisibility rules:

Divisibility rules:
-> A number is divisible by 2 if and only if the last digit is divisible by 2.

-> A number is divisible by 3 if and only if the sum of the digits is divisible by 3. -> A number is divisible by 4 if and only if the last 2 digits is a number divisible by 4. -> A number is divisible by 5 if and only if the last digit is divisible by 5. -> A number is divisible by 6 if and only if it is divisible by 2 and 3. -> A number is divisible by 8 if and only if the last 3 digits is a number divisible by 8. -> A number is divisible by 9 if and only if the sum of the digits is divisible by 9. -> A number is divisible by 10n if and only if the number ends in n zeros. -> A number is divisible by 11 iff the sum of every other digit minus the sum of the rest of the digits is divisible by 11. -> To find out if a number is divisible by seven, take the last digit, double it, and subtract it from the rest of the number.Example: If you had 203, you would double the last digit to get six, and subtract that from 20 to get 14. If you get an answer divisible by 7 (including zero), then the original number is divisible by seven. If you don't know the new number's divisibility, you can apply the rule again. -> If n is even , n(n+1)(n+2) is divisible by 24

Number Tips

Numbers
-> For three positive numbers a, b ,c (a+b+c) * (1/a+1/b+1/c)>=9

-> For any positive integer n 2<= (1+1/n)^n <=3 -> The greatest common divisor is found by looking at the prime factorizations or using the Euclidean algorithm.

-> The least common multiple of a and b is found by looking at the prime factorizations or (ab)/gcd(a,b). -> Two numbers are said to be relatively prime in the greatest common factor is 1. -> If gcd(a, b)=d, then there exist integers x and y so that ax+by=d. -> If d divides both a and b, then d divides a+b and d divides a-b.a=b mod m iff m divides a-b iff a and b both have the same remainder when divided by m. -> ap-1 = 1 mod p (a is not a multiple of p)af(m)=1 mod m ( gcd(a, m) =1) -> If a probability experiment is repeated n times and the probability of success in one trial is p, then the probability of exactly r successes in the n trials is nCr (p)r(1-p)(n-r). -> The number of zeros at the end of n! is determined by the number of 5s. To find this you do the following process: n/5 = n1 and some remainder. Drop the remainder and compute n1/5 = n2 plus some remainder. Drop the remainder and compute n2/5 = n3 plus some remainder, etc. The number of zeros is n1+n2+n3+n4... -> The sum of any consecutive integers k through n, with n being the larger,simply use this equation:(n+k)(n-k+1)------------ 2 -> a^2+b^2+c^2 >= ab+bc+ca If a=b=c , then the equality holds in the above. -> a^4+b^4+c^4+d^4 >=4abcd -> (n!)^2 > n^n (! for factorial) -> If a+b+c+d=constant , then the product a^p * b^q * c^r * d^s will be maximum if a/p = b/q = c/r = d/s . -> Consider the two equations a1x+b1y=c1 a2x+b2y=c2 -> (m+n)! is divisible by m! * n! .Then , If a1/a2 = b1/b2 = c1/c2 , then we have infinite solutions for these equations. If a1/a2 = b1/b2 <> c1/c2 , then we have no solution for these equations.(<> means not equal to ) If a1/a2 <> b1/b2 , then we have a unique solutions for these equations.. -> When a three digit number is reversed and the difference of these two numbers is taken , the middle number is always 9 and the sum of the other two numbers is always 9 . -> Let 'x' be certain base in which the representation of a number is 'abcd' , then the decimal value of this number is a*x^3 + b*x^2 + c*x + d

Combinatorics Tips

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Combinatorics:
-> (Multiplication Principle) If there are n choices for the first step of a two step process and m choices for the second step, the number of ways of doing the two step process is nm. -> The number of arrangements of n objects is n!-> The number of arrangements of r out of n objects is nPr = n!/(n-r)! -> The number of arrangements of n objects in a circle is (n-1)! -> The number of arrangements of n objects on a key ring is (n-1)!/2 -> The number of arrangements of n objects with r1 of type 1, r2 of type 2, ..., ri of type i is n!/(r1!r2!...ri!) -> The number of ways of choosing n out of r objects is nCr = n!/((n-r)! r!) -> The number of distributions of n distinct objects in k distinct boxes is kn. -> The number of ways of distributing n identical objects in k distinct boxes is (n+k-1)Cn. -> The sum of the coefficients of the binomial expression (x+y)n is 2n. -> To find the sum of the coefficients of a power of any polynomial, replace the variables by 1. -> When solving an equation for integer solutions, it is important to look for factoring. Important factoring forms: 1. .a2-b2=(a-b)(a+b) 2. a3-b3=(a-b)(a2+ab+b2) 3. an-bn=(a-b)(an-1+an-2b+an-3b2+...+abn-2+bn-1) 4. a3+b3=(a+b)(a2-ab+b2) 5. If n is odd, an+bn=(a+b)(an-1-an-2b+an-3b2-...-abn-2+bn-1) (alternate signs)

Geometry Tips

Geometry Tips:
-> The area of a square is one-half the the square of the length of a diagonal

-> A line parallel to a side of a triangle that intersects the other two sides divides them proportionally. -> The angle bisector of an angle divides the opposite side proportional to the other two sides. -> The angle bisectors intersect at a point called the incenter, that is the center of the inscribed circle. -> The length of the radius of the inscribed circle is equal to the area of the triangle divided by the semiperimeter. -> The perpendicular bisectors meet at a point, called the circumcenter, that is the center of the circumscribed circle. -> The altitudes meet at a point called the orthocenter. -> The medians intersect at a point (called the centroid) that is two-thirds of the distance from each vertex to the midpoint of the opposite side. -> The coordinates of the centroid can be found by averaging the coordinates of the vertices. -> (Cevas Theorem) In triangle ABC, with J on AB, K on BC, and L on CA, the segments AK, BL and CJ are concurrent (intersect in one point) if and only if (AJ/JB)(BK/KC)(CL/LA) = 1.-> (Cevas Theorem Trig Form) In triangle ABC, with J on AB, K on BC, and L on CA, the segments AK, BL and CJ are concurrent (intersect in one point) if and only if (sin(BAK)/sin(KAC))(sin(CBL)/sin(LBA))(sin(ACJ)/sin(JCB)) = 1. -> The height of an equilateral triangle is s3/2 (So the area is s2 3/4) -> A regular hexagon inscribed in a circle can be divided into six congruent equilateral triangles, where the length of a side is equal to the radius of the circle. Therefore the area

of a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle of radius r is: A=r233/2. -> The midpoint of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equidistant to all three vertices. -> When an altitude is drawn to the hypotenuse of a right triangle, three similar triangles are formed, and the following hold: a. The square of the length of the altitude is equal to the product of the lengths of the segments of the hypotenuse. b. When the length of each leg is squared it equals the product of the hypotenuse and the segment on the hypotenuse adjacent to that leg. -> The sum of the exterior angles of a polygon, one at each vertex, is 360. -> The interior angles of a regular polygon with n sides are 180-(360/n) each. -> Two tangent segments drawn to a the same circle from the same point are equal. -> The figure made by connecting a common external tangent, two radii, and a segment connecting the two centers is a trapezoid with two right angles. (Often you divide into a rectangle and a right triangle to solve for missing lengths.) -> Two chords have the same lengths if and only if they cut off equal length arcs. -> Two chords are have the same lengths if and only if they are the same distance from the center. -> A diameter drawn through a chord is perpendicular to the chord if and only if it bisects the chord and the arc. -> The measure of an angle with its vertex at the center of a circle is equal to the measure of the intercepted arc. -> The measure of an inscribed angle (that is an angle with its vertex on the circle) is onehalf the intercepted arc. -> If two inscribed angles intercept the same arc, then the angles have the same measure. -> The measure of the angle made by a chord and a tangent is one-half the measure of the intercepted arc.

-> An angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle. -> A triangle inscribed in a circle is a right triangle if and only if one of the sides is a diameter. -> The measure of the angle formed by two intersecting chords is equal to one-half the sum of the measures of the intercepted arcs of the angle and its vertical angle. -> The measure of the angle formed by two secants, two tangents, or a secant and a tangent drawn from a point outside a circle is equal to one-half the difference of the measures of the intercepted arcs. -> If two chords intersect, the product of the lengths of the two parts of one chord is equal to the product of the lengths of the parts of the other chord. -> When two secant segments are drawn to a circle from an external point, the product of the lengths of one secant segment and its external segment equals the product of the lengths of the other secant segment and its external segment. -> When a secant segment and a tangent segment are drawn to a circle from an external point, the product of the lengths of the secant segment and its external segment is equal to the square of the length of the tangent segment. -> In a cyclic quadrilaterals (If a quadrilateral is inscribed in a circle, it is called a cyclic quadrilateral),opposite angles are supplementary.(Hence, rectangles or squares are the only parallelograms that can be inscribed in a circle.) -> (Ptolemeys Theoren) The product of the lengths of the diagonals is equal to the sum of the products of the lengths of the two pairs of opposite sides. -> When a circle is circumscribed about an equilateral triangle, and chords are drawn from any point on the circle to the three vertices of the triangle, then the length of the longest chord is equal to the sum of the lengths of the other two chords. -> Eulers formula for polyhedron: f+v-e=2 (The number of faces plus the number of vertices minus the number of edges equals 2. -> There are only 5 regular polyhedron: tetrahedron (4 triangles), hexahedron (a cube, 6 squares), Octahedron (8 triangles), dodecahedron (12 pentagons), and icosahedron (20 triangles).

-> If the scale factor of two similar polygons is a:b, the ratio of their areas is a2:b2. -> If the scale factor of two similar solids is a:b, the ratio of the lengths of two corresponding edges is a:b. -> If the scale factor of two similar solids is a:b. the ratio of their surface areas is a2:b2. -> If the scale factor of two similar solids is a:b. the ratio of their volumes is a3:b3. -> Herons Formula: If a triangle has sides of length a, b and c and s=(a+b+c)/2, then the area of the triangle is sqrt(s*(s-a)*(s-b)*(s-c)). -> If a rectangle is of a size that when a square is cut off of an end the remaining rectangle is similar to the original, the rectangle is said to be a golden rectangle and its sides are said to be in the golden ratio. This ratio is 1:x, where x is the positive root of x2-x-1=0. (x=(1+sqrt(5))/2)(This is also the limit as k goes to infinity of two consecutive terms of the Fibonacci sequence) -> The area of the triangle that has vertices with coordinates (x1, y1), (x2, y2), and (x3, y3) can be found by the absolute value of the determinant of the matrix:x1 y1 1x2 y2 1x3 y3 1This can be generalized to any polygon.