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NTIA Report 94-306

Building Penetration Loss


Measurements at 900 MHz,
11.4 GHz, and 28.8 GHz
K.C. Allen
N. DeMinco
J.R. Hoffman
Y. Lo
P,. B. Papazian
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
Ronald H. Brown, Secretary
Larry Irving, Assistant Secretary
for Communications and Information
May 1994
CONTENTS
FIGURES . . .. .
TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. INTRODUCTION..... . . . .
2. DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPERIMENT ..
2.1 Instrumentation And Calibration
2.2 Measurement sites .
PAGE
iv
ix
. 1
. 1
2
2
5
3 . MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE
7
3.1 Radio Building ...
3.2 Private Residence
3.3 storeroom with Metal Siding
4. DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING.
4.1 Data Collection .....
4.2 Data Processing
5. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
6. CONCLUSIONS . . .. .
APPENDIX A: PENETRATION LOSS PLOTS FOR ALL MEASUREMENT PATHS
7
10
10
13
13
13
14
33
A.1 Radio Building Penetration Loss
A.2 Private Residence Penetration Loss.
A.3 Storeroom Penetration Loss .....
iii
. . . . A-1
A-39
A-43
FIGURES
PAGE
Figure 1. ITS millimeter-wave measurement van (receiver) . 3
Figure 2. Remote source cart (transmitter)
Figure 3. Wing 4 of the Radio Building with ITS
millimeter-wave measurement van .
3
6
Figure 4. West side of Wing 4 of the Radio Building

. . . .

6
Figure 5. Private residence . . . . . . . .

8
Figure 6. Storeroom with metal siding . . .

8
Figure 7. Floor plan of Wing 4 of the Radio Building
with measurement paths of the transmitters . . . .

9
Figure 8. Floor plan of single level wood-frame house 11
Figure 9. Floor plan of building with metal siding (storeroom) 12
Figure 10. Raw data, free-space correction factor, and
penetration attenuation versus distance for a
typical 900-MHz measurement in the Radio
Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Figure 11. Raw data, free-space correction factor, and
penetration attenuation versus distance for a
typical 11.4-GHz measurement in the Radio
Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 12. Raw data, free-space correction factor, and
penetration attenuation versus distance for a
typical 28.4-GHz measurement in the Radio
Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 13. Penetration loss versus distance at three
frequencies for a typical run in the Radio
Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
17
18
Figure 14. Penetration loss versus distance at three
frequencies for a typical run in the storeroom
building with metal siding . . . . . . . . 19
Figure 15. Penetration loss versus distance at three
frequencies for a typical run in the private
residence . . . . . . . . . .. ....
Figure 16. Cumulative distribution for all data in the
Radio Building . .. .
iv
20
25
FIGURES (Cont'd)
PAGE
Figure 17. Cumulative distribution for all data in Radio
Building with just one wall between the
transmitter and receiver . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Figure 18. Cumulative distribution for all data in Radio
Building with two or three walls between the
transmitter and receiver . . . . . . . . . . 27
Figure 19. Cumulative distribution for all data in Radio
Building with three or more walls between the
transmitter and receiver . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 20. Cumulative distribution for all data in the
private residence . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 21. Cumulative distribution for all data in the
private residence with one wall between the
transmitter and receiver . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 22. Cumulative distribution for all data in the
private residence with two walls between the
transmitter and receiver . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 23. Cumulative distribution for all data in the
storeroom building with metal siding . . . .
28
29
30
31
32
Figure A-1. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB1D .. A-1
Figure A-2. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB1E .. A-2
Figure A-3. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB2B .. A-3
Figure A-4. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB2C .. A-4
Figure A-5. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB3B .. A-5
Figure A-6. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB3C .. A-6
Figure A-7. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB4C .. A-7
Figure A-S. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB4D .. A-8
Figure A-9. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB5A .. A-9
Figure A-10. Penetration loss for Radio Building
path RB5B . .. .
Figure A-11. Penetration loss for Radio Building
path RB6A . . . . . . . . . . . . .
v
A-10
A-11
FIGURES (Cont'd)
Figure A-12. Penetration 1055 for Radio Building
path RB6B

A-12
Figure A-13. Penetration 1055 for Radio Building
path RB7A

A-13
Figure A-14. Penetration 1055 for Radio Building
path RB7B

A-14
Figure A-15. Penetration 1055 for Radio Building
path RB8A

A-15
Figure A-16. Penetration 1055 for Radio Building
path RB8B

A-16
Figure A-17. Penetration 1055 for Radio Building
path RB9A

A-17
Figure A-18. Penetration 1055 for Radio Building
path RB9B

A-18
Figure A-19. Penetration 1055 for Radio Building
path RB10A

A-19
Figure A-20. Penetration 1055 for Radio Building
path RB10B

A-20
Figure A-2l. Penetration 1055 for Radio Building
path RBllA

A-2l
Figure A-22. Penetration 1055 for Radio Building
path RBllB

A-22
Figure A-23. Penetration 1055 for Radio Building
path RB12A

A-23
Figure A-24. Penetration 1055 for Radio Building
path RB12B

A-24
Figure A-25. Penetration 1055 for Radio Building
path RB13A

A-25
Figure A-26. Penetration 1055 for Radio Building
path RB13B


A-26
Figure A-27. Penetration 1055 for Radio Building
path RB14A

A-27
Figure A-28. Penetration 1055 for Radio Building
path RB14B

A-28
vi
FIGURES (Cont'd)
Figure A-29. Penetration loss for Radio Building
path RB15A

A-29
Figure A-30. Penetration loss for Radio Building
path RB15B

A-30
Figure A-31. Penetration loss for Radio Building
path RB16A

A-31
Figure A-32. Penetration loss for Radio Building
path RB16B

A-32
Figure A-33. Penetration loss for Radio Building
path RB17A

A-33
Figure A-34. Penetration loss for Radio Building
path RB17B

A-34
Figure A-35. Penetration loss for Radio Building
path RB18A


A-35
Figure A-36. Penetration loss for Radio Building
path RB18B

A-36
Figure A-37. Penetration loss for Radio Building
path RB19A


A-37
Figure A-38. Penetration loss for Radio Building
path RB19B

A-38
Figure A-39. Penetration loss for private residence
path HLIB

A-39
Figure A-40. Penetration loss for private residence
path HLIC



A-40
Figure A-41. Penetration loss for private residence
path HL2A


A-41
Figure A-42. Penetration loss for private residence
path HL2B



A-42
Figure A-43. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRRIA A-43
Figure A-44. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRRIB A-44
Figure A-4!5. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR2A A-45
Figure A-46. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR2B A-46
vii
FIGURES (Cont'd)
Figure A-47. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR3A A-47
Figure A-48. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR3B A-48
Figure A-49. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR4A A-49
Figure A-50. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR4B A-50
Figure A-51. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR5A A-51
Figure A-52. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR5B A-52
Figure A-53. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR6A A-53
Figure A-54. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR6B A-54
Figure A-55. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR7A A-55
Figure A-56. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR7B A-56
Figure A-57. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR8A A-57
Figure A-58. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR8B A-58
viii
TABLES
Table 1. Mean and Standard Deviation For Radio Building
Penetration Loss Path Data . . . . . .
Table 2. Mean and Standard Deviation For Private
Residence Penetration Loss Path Data .
Table 3. Mean and Standard Deviation For Storeroom
Penetration Loss Path Data . .
Table 4. Mean and Standard Deviation for Building
Penetration Loss for a ,Variety of Combinations
of Data Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ix
PAGE
21
22
22
23
BUILDING PENETRATION LOSS MEASUREMENTS
AT 900 MHZ, 11.4 GHZ, AND 28.8 GHZ
K. C. Allen, N. DeMinco, J. R. Hoffman, Y. Lo,
and P. B. Papazian*
The feasibility of using radio frequencies in the super
high frequency (SHF) band (3-30 GHz) for Personal
Communications Services (PCS) in buildings depends on the
mUltipath within the structure and the amount of
attenuation experienced by the electromagnetic waves
passing through the structures. This study measured
these effects to obtain a quantitative estimate of the
attenuation magnitude. This magnitude can then be used
for link margin analysis to determine if personal
communications at SHF is practical.
keywords: building attenuation, measurements, PCS, penetration
attenuation, personal communications
1. INTRODUCTION
This report describes the results of a measurement program. The
objective was to determine if frequencies in the super high
frequency (SHF) band (3-30 GHz) can be used for Personal
Communications Services (PCS) between the outside and inside of
buildings in a manner like that currently used for cellular
telephone at 900 MHz. The crowding of the radio frequency spectrum
at 900 MHz makes it probable that PCS will be required to operate
at the higher frequency bands. PCS is a class of
telecommunications services that includes a wide range of
capabilities, such as telephony, data transfer, paging, voice mail,
and electronic messaging. PCS will provide portability and
personalized telephone service to users. Many small cells similar
to the cells used in cellular phone systems can be used to provide
low-cost communication services through pocket-size, low-power,
portable telephones to individuals wherever they may be in the
service area.
The Institute for Telecommunication Sciences (ITS) has been active
in the development of computer models and measurements to assess
system losses in typical PCS operational environments for the
proposed frequency bands. Models are being developed for urban
outdoor microcells and within-building environments. The building
penetration measurements described in this report will provide some
insight into the degree of attenuation experienced by PCS signals
when penetrating three typical structures.
*The authors are with the Institute for Telecommunication Sciences,
National Telecommunications and Information Administration, u.S.
Department of Commerce, Boulder, Colorado 80303-3328
The experimental results in this report have been obtained to help
determine the excess path loss associated with reception inside
buildings and its dependence on location within the building and
the building type. The data contained herein will also help to
quantify the spatial variation of signal due to severe mUltipath.
The constructive and destructive interference at SHF frequencies
are expected to vary over a much smaller spatial separation than
would occur at lower frequencies and hence provide a means of
obtaining space diversity reception over a short distance
comparable to the size of the personal communicator set. Over a
narrow bandwidth, this should minimize signal fading variations due
to mUltipath and provide good communication performance for such a
system.
This report describes the results of signal strength measurements
made inside three types of buildings at three separate frequencies.
The three frequencies used in the measurement were: 900 MHz, 11.4
GHz, and 28.8 GHz. The three types of buildings used for the
experiment were: the ITS Wing 4 of the Department of Commerce Radio
Building in Boulder, CO, (concrete construction with steel
reinforcement), a private residence (wood-frame house with brick
veneer), and the storeroom between Wings 3 and 5 of the Radio
Building (a building with metal siding).
2. DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPERIMENT
This section describes the instrumentation, calibration, and
measurement sites used for the penetration measurements.
2.1 Instrumentation And Calibration
The measurement system included three transmitters mounted on a
cart that could be moved inside buildings, and the ITS millimeter-
wave van located outside the building for reception of the signals.
The van is shown in Figure 1 and the transmitter cart is shown in
Figure 2. The transmitter cart consisted of three separate
calibrated signal generators connected to three separate antennas.
The antennas on the cart were omnidirectional in the az imuthal
plane to simulate the radiation coverage typical of the small
antenna that would be used for a PCS handheld unit. The receiving
antennas on the van consisted of two medium-gain horn antennas with
17 dBi at 11. 4 GHz and 16 dBi at 28.8 GHz both with vertical
polarization, and a vertically-polarized omnidirectional antenna at
900 MHz. ,The beamwidths in azimuth and elevation of the 11.4-GHz
horn were both 22 degrees, and the beamwidths for the 28.8-GHz horn
were both 25 degrees. The horn antennas provided adequate angular
coverage for receiving most of the mUltipath signals radiated from
the transmitters inside the buildings under test, but favored the
direct path and mUltipath signals arriving within their beamwidths.
2
Figure 1. ITS millimeter-wave measurement van (receiver).
Figure 2. Remote source cart (transmitter).
3
This was not the case for the omnidirectional antennas. The
omnidirectional antenna used at 900 MHz provided near equal
response to the direct signal and all mUltipath signals arriving at
the receiver, and therefore the destructive interference phenomenon
was more likely to produce signal cancellation with deeper nulls
than that attained at the higher frequencies with the horn
antennas. The omnidirectional antenna vectorially adds all of the
mUltipath return signals from all directions.
The outputs from the receiver antennas at 11.4 and 28.8 GHz were
first converted down in frequency and then passed through separate
logarithmic amplifiers. The output of each of the logarithmic
amplifiers was a DC voltage proportional to the logarithm of the RF
input power. This DC voltage was then sampled using an analog-to-
digital (A/D) converter and the samples were stored in data files
by a data acquisition program on the computer. The noise figure of
the receiver system for the 11.4- and 28. 8-GHz measurement was
approximately 7 dB.
The output signal from the 900-MHz receiver antenna was applied
directly to the spectrum analyzer input. The amplitude of the
signal at 900-MHz was measured by the spectrum analyzer and sent to
the data logging computer via the IEEE 488 BUS. The spectrum
analyzer had a noise figure of approximately 20 dB at 900 MHz.
The system was calibrated to power levels relative to free space
for each of the three frequency bands at a distance of 25.6 mover
a grass-covered field at the end of Wing 4 of the Radio Building.
The measured free-space signal level at 25.6 m was used to
normalize the signal level at each data point during the data
processing to determine the actual free-space signal level at each
distance. The free-space signal level was determined by averaging
the signal received over a 2-min data collection interval at the
25.6-m receiver-to-transmitter distance. This free-space signal
level was corrected for the actual distance and then subtracted
from the measured signal level at each data point to determine the
penetration loss for a signal propagating between the interior and
the exterior of the building.
The received signal for all configurations consists of a direct
wave and at least one wave reflected from the ground or some other
obstruction. The vector addition of the direct and single or
multiple reflected waves results in both constructive and
destructive interference as a function of receiver-to-transmitter
distance, antenna heights, and the radio frequency. The geometry
for all sets of data provided a measurement of the excess
attenuation experienced by the electromagnetic waves passing
through the building structures for any situation that would be
encountered for personal communications.
4
The signals at all three frequencies were sampled at sufficent
intervals (1 sample/s) to characterize the data'even though they
were not sampled every half wavelength at the two upper frequencies
(11.4 and 28.8 GHz). The linear distance between nulls and peaks
for the sampled waveform created by constructive and destructive
interference does not repeat every hal f wavelength. It is a
function of the signal frequency, distance between the transmitter
and receiver, transmitter antenna height, and receiver antenna
height. If the receiver or transmitter moves horizontally, as was
the case in the measurements performed here, the distance between
two consecutive minima or maxima is given by
where D is the distance between two successive minima or maxima in
meters, L is the wavelength in meters, R is the distance between
the receiver and the transmitter in meters, H
1
is the transmitter
antenna height in meters, and H
2
is the receiver antenna height in
meters.
This distance was calculated for each of the three frequencies
using the parameters that would result in the smallest distance
between minima or maxima. The shortest distance R used during the
measurements was 15 m. The transmitter height H
1
was 1 m. The
receiver height H
2
was 3 m. The resulting distances D between
minima or maxima for 900 MHz, 11.4 GHz, and 28.8 GHz were 12.50,
0.99, and 0.40 m, respectively. Referring to any of the Figures in
the Appendix (A-l through A-58), the data were sampled at least
every 0.2 m, so there are at least two samples for each periOdic
variation of the signal as the transmitter cart was moved along all
of the measurement paths. The formula above is for the periodicity
of the minima and maxima variation for only the direct and
reflected waves. Waves from higher order mUltipath signals would
tend to fill in these nulls, so the case considered here is the
worst-case mUltipath condition. The sampling of the data is
therefore adequate to describe the signal fluctuation and hence
compute the building attenuation.
2.2 Measurement sites
Radio Building:
The Department of Commerce Radio Building in Boulder, CO is a
concrete structure with steel reinforcement throughout. Wing 4 of
the Radio Building is shown in Figure 3, with the ITS measurement
van located at the end for the first sequence of measurements.
There is a large amount of metal within the building for electrical
conduit and structural support. The external walls of the building
are concrete with re-bar reinforcement. The interior walls are
mostly of cinder block with additional partitions with wood studs
and gypsum dry wall. The metal-frame windows in each of the
5
Figure 3. Wing 4 of the Radio Building with ITS millimeter-wave
measurement van.
Figure 4. West side of wing 4 of the Radio Building.
6
offices cover approximately 6 m
2
Figure 4 is a view of the west
side of Wing 4 showing these windows. All offices in Wing 4 have
these windows, and as a result the building may be relatively
transparent to the electromagnetic energy from the signal sources
when the van was positioned on the side of the building. The
office doors are of wood construction with approximately 2.3 m
2
of
area. The rooms are filled with conventional metal office
furniture including desks, file cabinets, tables, and chairs.
Private Residence:
The building shown in Figure 5 is a standard wood-frame house with
brick veneer on the outside. The gypsum wallboard did not have a
metallic foil on one side. The insulation has a paper vapor
barrier. The furniture inside this structure is predominantly of
wood and non-metallic construction typical of a private residence.
The shrubb4ary and trees outside did not obstruct the line-of-sight
between the transmitter and receiver. Window area on the street
side of the house was approximately 4 m
2
per room. There were two
major paths traversed during the measurement. One interior wall
separated the two paths. The rear path had the exterior wall plus
an interior wall between the receiver and transmitter. The front
path had just one exterior wall between the receiver and the
transmitter.
storeroom Building with Metal Siding:
The building shown in Figure 6 is a metal frame structure with
metal siding. There are a few windows, with approximately 1 m
2
of
area each. The storeroom loading dock door and all entrance doors
are made of steel. The storeroom has metal shelves along the width
of the building with wide aisles between them. This structure is
expected to present a large attenuation to the electromagnetic
waves passing through it.
3. MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE
This section describes the measurement procedure used for each of
the three sites.
3.1 Radio Building
For the first set of Radio Building measurements, the signal was
radiated from the ~ a r t antennas inside the building and received by
the van antennas located 17.1 m from the loading dock end of Wing
4, in the driveway. Figure 7 contains a floor plan of Wing 4 of
the Radio Building with the paths traversed during the measurements
indicated by arrows.
7
Figure 5. Private residence.
Figure 6. storeroom with metal siding.
8
t
RADIO BLDG.
WING 4
Receiver at side
RB10
RB12 RB14
=
==
... RB9
RB7
~ B 1 3
~
I RB1
- ftB 11
~ ~
..
RM3467 RM3453 RM3447 RM3443 RB1
........ A
~ , . . . , ~ ~
I
RB4
~
RB2
~
I
RB17 ~ B 1 8 RB3
~
,.--
RB19
- -
f-- RB5
I f-- -
rr-
RB16
r- I L-
-
-I
I
l-
1.0
Receiver at end
......--
North
- - ~
Figure 7. Floor plan of Wing 4 of the Radio Building with
measurement paths of the transmitters.
The points of the arrows indicate the endpoints of each of the
paths traversed during the measurements and the arrows indicate the
direction of the path. The cart was moved down the main hallway
and into offices and labs on both sides of the hallway along paths
with measured distances. The receiving van was stationary during
all of these measurements.
For the second set of Radio Building measurements, the signal was
radiated from the cart antennas inside the building and received at
the van antennas located outside the West side of the building on
the sidewalk between Wing 4 and Wing 6 of the Radio Building.
Figure 7 also contains the measurement paths for the new position
of the van at the West side of the Radio Building. The van and the
cart were located opposite each other along the length of the
building wing. For a portion of the measurements, the cart was
moved into some of the offices and labs on both sides of the
hallway. The position of the van along the length of either wing
was such that it was directly opposite of the cart. This alignment
was easily performed by viewing the van through the windows of the
closest office.
3.2 Private Residence
For this building, the van was located in the street appproximately
19.5 m from the closest outside wall. The cart was moved through
several rooms along a straight line parallel to the street and data
were recorded with the van stationary. The distance to the cart
from the van was also determined for each data measurement group.
The floor plan of the house was convenient for making two such runs
and covering most of the length of the house. Figure 8 contains
the floor plan with paths traversed during the measurements
indicated by arrows. The arrows indicate the direction of the
paths traversed during the measurements. The first path passed
through the kitchen area and family room in the rear half of the
house. The second path passed through the front half of the house
through the dining room and living room.
3.3 storeroom with Metal siding
For this building structure, the van was located in the parking
lot of the Department of Commerce Radio Building between Wings 3
and 5, adjacent to the storeroom and approximately 17.1 m from the
door. Figure 9 contains the floor plan of the storeroom with the
measurement paths indicated by arrows. The points of the arrows
indicate the endpoints of the paths traversed. The source cart was
moved up and down all of the aisles inside the storeroom to provide
a matrix of data with the variation of electromagnetic energy at
three frequencies in two coordinates.
10
....
....
WOOD FRAME HOUSE
WITH BRICK VENEER

North
I

[J
II/\.
D
L
-
ODD ............. [
HL1

_0 0

I
l---f I I I / ,r
o I
"
I I 0 l
'\
HL2

A?'
..
......- I
I D
1
01 I

Figure 8. Floor plan of single level wood-frame house.
SRR? SRR6 SRR5 SRR4 SRR3 SRR2
SRR8
SRR1
LOADING
AREA
WITH
I I I I
OFFICE
OFFICE I
I
I

I?922SISI'J

IXXXXX?1

REGISTER
Toward Receiver

DOORS I r SHELVES I I I
I I
DOOR
I i
OFFICE
I
I
I 111111
1111[1
1
I OFFICE
II t\)
SHELVES
't' North
..
I

lO000OOI KXXXXXl b<XXXXXI I'X'X)(')()()(]

I I
SHELVES
METAL
DOOR
I I I I I I I I I
OFFICE
Figure 9. Floor plan of storeroom with metal siding.
4. DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING
This section describes the data collection and processing of the
data taken for the penetration measurements.
4.1 Data Collection
The data collection for all sites consisted of recording received
signal level at each frequency at a rate of one sample per second
for the period of time it took the cart to traverse the desired
path length for each particular room or hallway. The cart was
moving at a speed of approximately 0.5 mise All receivers and
transmitters at the three frequencies were operating
simultaneously. The antennas were oriented in a line and the cart
was positioned so that all antennas had a clear field of view of
the van in a manner such that none of the antennas were blocking
each other. For the Radio Building Stockroom, the signal level was
recorded as the cart was moved along tw'o paths within the room.
One was parallel to the line-of-sight path between the van and the
cart and the other was perpendicular to this line-of-sight path.
For the private residence (the wood-frame house), the cart moved
along only one path perpendicular to the line-of-site between the
van and the cart for the measurement. Measurements of all cart/van
distances at each sample site were obtained so that the distance to
the van could be determined and the free-space signal level could
be calculated at that particular distance. This free-space signal
level was then subtracted from the measured data to determine the
building penetration loss.
The data were stored in separate files for each of the paths in
each room. For example, there were a number of files recorded for
each of two orthogonal paths within an office. The data were
recorded in separate files for each of three frequencies. A start
and stop time was also part of the data. A description of what the
data are and how the data were taken is also correlated with the
file name. The files can be treated separately or combined in any
number of meaningful combinations. This could include: hallway
data only, office data only, data taken moving through all the
stations along the length of the hallway, or the total of all data
taken in a particular building type. The files are listed
separately and can be combined to look at effects covering certain
situations. During analysis, the data can be separated by
functional experiment or combined together.
4.2 Data Processing
The data taken during the collection path runs for any of the
building structures were processed to remove the free-space loss
from the measurements. This was done by putting coordinates on the
layout of each structure to locate all positions on the path in an
13
x-y coordinate system with reference to the van location. The
radial distance from the van could then be determined for each
particular data point from the geometry. The free-space signal
level for each particular data point is then corrected for free-
space loss by using the measured free-space calibration signal
level at a reference distance and adding the value necessary to
correct to the radial distance between the van and the particular
data point. This value in decibels is 20*10g(R/Ro), where Ro is
the reference distance at which the free-space calibration was
taken, and R is the actual radial distance of the particular data
point under consideration. The measured signal level at the
particular data point is then subtracted from the free-space signal
level to obtain the attenuation through the structure.
Figures 10, 11, and 12 are examples of this process for each of the
three frequencies: 900 MHz, 11.4 GHz, and 28.8 GHz. Each figure
demonstrates what has been done to the data files. The raw data,
free-space correction factor, and final penetration attenuation are
shown in each figure. The position on the horizontal axis is the
distance in meters traversed along the path.
The penetration attenuation for all paths in the three building
structures at the three frequencies was then plotted for analytical
purposes. The data were also examined statistically. This is
discussed in the next section.
5. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
The attenuation versus distance traversed for all three frequencies
was also plotted for each of the path runs made in all three
building structures. Figures 13, 14, and 15 show selected runs for
this penetration loss comparison. Figure 13 is a typical run for
one of the paths taken in the Radio Building. Figure 14 is a
typical run for one of the paths taken in the storeroom building
with metal siding. Figure 15 is a typical run for the private
residence (single-level wood-frame house with brick veneer). The
complete set of attenuation plots for all paths is contained in the
Appendix A. The paths in Figures 10 through 15, as well as those
figures in Appendix A, are keyed by an alphanumeric code
corresponding to those given in the floor-plan Figures 7, 8, and 9
to identify the runs. These plots provide a direct comparison of
the penetration attenuation for the three frequ'encies in each of
the three building structures.
statistical analyses of the separate paths, as well as combinations
of these paths, were performed to better characterize the data.
The mean and standard deviation of the mean are summarized in Table
1 for the Radio Building, Table 2 for the private residence, and
Table 3 for the storeroom. Table 4 contains the results for
selected combinations of paths for each of the three building
structures. The codes for the paths listed in the first column of
14
..... ,;.......... . : ; .
30 40 50 60 70 80 90
POSITION(m)
--+-RAVV DATA
-CALIBRATION
TTENUATION
20
900 MHz
RBLD.1D
10
: : :
.. J;.i' .. "" .
.1I1e ii' . . ... ': .. . .... . ..... .: ., ..: ..... , .
: IVj,: I :,. I :
...... , I'Hl1
. . i" 1 . --.-... ,
.;. ... . .. . ..: . .. ';J.' .-. . .1 !.. ,1: .fk
: : . : :. Ii: i
i : j
.....................: . -_ .
10
0
-10
-20
---..
CD
-30
"0
-...-
w
-40
:::>
..J

-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
0
Figure 10. Raw data, free-space correction factor, and penetration
attenuation versus distance for a typical gOO-MHz
measurement in the Radio Building.
15
o . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - ,
-40
-10
-20
-..
(()
""0 -30
...........
w
:::>
....J
~
-50
-60
~ ~
: ; .
11.4 GHz
RBLD.1D
-70
a 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
POSITION(m)
~ R A W DATA
-CALIBRATION
ATTENUATION
Figure 11. Raw data, free-space correction factor, and penetration
attenuation versus distance for a typical 11.4-GHz
measurement in the Radio Building.
16
...............................................................
.;........ .... ..... . .... ,........... .....J'.
30 40 50 60 70 80 90
POSITION(m)
DATA
-CALIBRATION
..ATTENUATION
20
28.8 GHz
RBLD.1D
10
: : : : : : :
t- , ,., ..: "......... :. ; :f1'l; .
'<$.' .

10
0
-10
----
-20
co
'"0
---
w
-30
:::::>
...J

-40
-50
-60
-70
a
Figure 12. Raw data, free-space corection factor, and penetration
attenuation versus distance for a typical 28.4 GHz
measurement in the Radio Building.
17
-en
"'0
-.....
Z
o
-
~
::J
Z
W
~
-10
o
10
20
30
40
50
.................... i.. ,_ ~ . _ .
......, 'T' k
f: ' * ~
I J!lM i ~ !t
l.. 1/' 14&
rf"'.::! t.M
if i! 0~
...,
.....................;. ~ .
~ .. t .
.
.
.
60
o 10 20 30 40 50 60
POSITION(m)
70 80 90
RB1D
ATTENUATION
--900 MHz
11.4 GHZ
....Et .... 28.8 GHz
Figure 13. Penetration loss versus distance at three frequencies
for a typical run in the Radio Building.
18
l r ".. " " . ~ " " " . " . " " . " "!""".,," ." ""-:""""."",, .
0
\i
5
10
15
20
25
30
-.
co
"'C
"'-!'
Z
o
-
~
::::>
z
w
~
18 16 14 6 8 10 12
POSITION(m)
4 2
35 ~ t ~ j t , , .
40
o
SRR38
ATTENUATION
--+-900 MHz
... 0 .... 11.4 GHZ
'-028.8 GHz
Figure 14. Penetration loss versus distance at three frequencies
for a typical run in the storeroom bUllding with metal
siding.
19
-10
-5
14 12 10
................... . . ~
.... _..... ............. .......................
6 8
POSITION(m)
4 2
0
....-
en
"'0
"'--"
5
z
0
-
~
10
:::>
z
w
15
t-
~
20
25
30
a
HL18
ATTENUATION
--+-900 MHz
... 0 .... 11.4 GHZ
-028.8 GHz
Figure 15. Penetration loss versus distance at three frequencies
for a typical run in the private residence.
20
Table 1. Mean and Standard Deviation of attenuation (dB) for Radio
Building Penetration Loss Path Data
900 MHz 11. 4 GHz 28.8 GHz
path mean stdev mean stdev mean stdev comments
RB1D 15.3 8.2 16.0 2.8 39.6 6.2 main hall,van at end
RB1E 15.9 7.7 17.2 3.0 39.5 5.6 main hall,van at end
RB2B 29.2 5.3 33.9 4.0 52.5 1.5 Rm3430lab,van at end
RB2C 29.0 5.3 34.1 3.8 53.0 1.5 Rm3430lab,van at end
RB3B 28.0 4.6 35.6 2.7 53.5 1.3 Rm3430lab,van at end
RB3C 28.4 4.4 35.1 2.9 53.4 1.4 Rm3430lab,van at end
RB4C 29.4 5.5 31.1 3.4 53.8 3.5 Rm3454lab,van at end
RB4D 29.7 5.9 32.2 3.6 52.6 3.9 Rm3454lab,van at end
RB5A 27.9 5.4 37.6 1.9 54.6 2.2 Rm3454lab,van at end
RB5B 28.3 3.5 37.6 2.3 53.3 2.7 Rm3454lab,van at end
RB6A 20.0 3.9 32.1 1.6 42.7 2.5 Rm34530fc,van at end
RB6B 19.6 5.0 30.7 2.3 41.9 4.1 Rm34530fc,van at end
RB7A 20.9 5.7 31. 3 1.2 42.1 3.5 Rm34530fc,van at end
RB7B 21.2 5.0 31. 6 1.8 41.5 2.4 Rm34530fc,van at end
RB8A 9.4 6.1 5.9 2.3 4.1 0.8 Rm3467ofc,van on sdw
RB8B 8.7 6.6 5.7 2.5 3.9 0.8 Rm3467ofc,van on sdw
RB9A 11.1 6.2 3.8 2.3 3.3 1.2 Rm3467ofc,van on sdw
RB9B 10.0 5.9 3.1 1.3 3.2 1.1 Rm3467ofc,van on sdw
RB10A 5.5 4.5 3.8 2.0 6.0 2.3 Rm34530fc,van on sdw
RB10B 8.1 7.3 2.9 1.5 4.9 1.5 Rm34530fc,van on sdw
RB11A 11.2 5.6 2.9 1.9 4.3 1.1 Rm34530fc,van on sdw
RB11B 9.3 6.2 2.3 1.8 4.2 1.0 Rm34530fc,van on sdw
RB12A 9.9 5.8 4.6 2.4 6.6 2.6 Rm3447ofc,van on sdw
RB12B 9.6 6.5 4.7 3.6 6.5 2.8 Rm3447ofc,van on sdw
RB13A 11. 3 5.3 4.3 2.1 5.0 1.4 Rm3447ofc,van on sdw
RB13B 7.8 6.1 3.5 2.0 4.7 1.3 Rm3447ofc,van on sdw
RB14A 7.3 5.0 3.0 1.9 6.4 2.0 Rm34430fc,van on sdw
RB14B 8.4 4.5 3.1 2.0 6.2 1.3 Rm34430fc,van on sdw
RB15A 11. 3 5.6 5.2 2.9 8.8 3.8 Rm34430fc,van on sdw
RB15B 11. 0 6.4 5.2 3.3 7.4 3.5 Rm34430fc,van on sdw
RB16A 17.7 4.9 18.9 3.6 26.8 4.0 Rm3454lab,van on sdw
RB16B 17.4 5.2 17.4 2.8 26.1 3.2 Rm3454lab,van on sdw
RB17A 20.4 6.5 16.2 2.5 21.9 3.1 Rm3454lab,van on sdw
RB17B 19.2 4.8 16.3 2.5 21.3 3.4 Rm3454lab,van on sdw
RB18A 21.3 7.5 31.3 3.0 43.3 4.1 Rm3430lab,van on sdw
RB18B 21.1 6.6 30.7 2.2 43.1 3.2 Rm3430lab,van on sdw
RB19A 16.3 5.0 29.8 1.9 41.7 2.9 Rm3430lab,van on sdw
RB19B 15.4 4.9 30.5 2.4 41.8 2.1 Rm3430lab,van on sdw
21
Table 2. Mean and Standard Deviation of attenuation for Private
Residence Penetration Loss Path Data
900 MHz 11.4 GHz 28.8 GHz
path mean stdev mean stdev mean stdev comments
HL1B 6.9 6.6 14.1 3.9 14.8 6.4 rear path, two walls
HL1C 6.3 6.5 13.3 4.0 14.1 6.6 rear path, two walls
HL2A 2.7 4.6 9.7 2.9 8.6 4.8 front path, one wall
HL2B 3.6 6.1 9.8 3.9 8.6 4.4 front path, one wall
Table 3. Mean and Standard Deviation of attenuation for Storeroom
Penetration Loss Path Data
900 MHz 11.4 GHz 28.8 GHz
path mean stdev mean stdev mean stdev comments
SRR1A 17.6 5.6 17.1 3.6 16.1 6.4 side aisle path
SRR1B 17.3 5.1 17.1 3.1 17.6 6.4 side aisle path
SRR2A 21.3 5.4 20.5 3.6 17.5 4.2 side aisle path
SRR2B 21.6 6.0 20.8 3.5 17.6 4.8 side aisle path
SRR3A 23.7 5.6 16.5 5.7 16.9 4.6 side aisle path
SRR3B 24.3 5.9 16.6 5.6 17.8 4.5 side aisle path
SRR4A 25.1 5.3 17.0 5.4 18.4 4.2 side aisle path
SRR4B 24.8 5.0 16.4 5.5 17.7 4.8 side aisle path
SRR5A 27.7 5.7 17.7 5.2 19.5 4.4 side aisle path
SRR5B 26.6 4.4 17.1 5.3 19.5 4.4 side aisle path
SRR6A 26.1 6.6 17.4 6.7 20.1 2.9 side aisle path
SRR6B 27.4 5.8 17.5 5.9 20.1 3.1 side aisle path
SRR7A 24.9 5.6 17.2 5.5 18.7 3.6 side aisle path
SRR7B 25.8 6.5 16.5 6.2 18.6 3.3 side aisle path
SRR8A 21.7 6.1 4.3 2.7 13.2 2.7 main aisle path
SRR8B 22.5 6.7 4.3 2.7 13.0 4.4 main aisle path
22
Table 4. Mean and Standard Deviation of attenuation for Building
Penetration Loss for a Variety of Combinations of Data
Paths
900 MHz 11. 4 GHz 28.8 GHz File
mean stdev mean stdev mean stdev
All Data In Radio 17.7 9.3 19.8 11. 5 34.1 17.4 ALLRB
Building Combined
All Data In Radio 9.4 6.1 4.1 2.6 5.6 2.7 RBOFF2
Building with Only
One Wall Between
XMTR And RCVR
All Data In Radio 18.9 6.4 26.0 7.0 36.2 9.5 RBLAB2
Building with 2 Or
3 Walls Between
XMTR And RCVR
All Data In Radio 28.8 5.1 34.4 3.8 53.3 2.4 RBLAB1
Building With More
Than 3 Walls
Between XMTR And
RCVR
All Data In Private 5.4 6.4 12.3 4.3 12.4 6.6 ALLHL
Residence Combined
All Data In Private 3.2 5.4 9.7 3.5 8.6 4.6 HLFRNT
Residence With
One Wall Between
XMTR And RCVR
All Data In Private 6.6 6.6 13.7 4.0 14.5 6.6 HLREAR
Residence with
Two Walls Between
XMTR And RCVR
All Data In 24.3 6.3 15.0 7.1 17.5 4.8 ALLSRR
Stockroom Combined
23
each of these tables are also used to identify the paths in Figures
7, 8, and 9. Two runs are shown for each path. The letter suffix
on the end of the path name separately identifies each of these
path runs.
Cumulative distribution functions of certain files or combinations
of files representing certain communications scenarios were
performed to look at the statistics of the particular situation.
An example of one practical situation would be an evaluation of
communications capability from anywhere in an office building
(Radio Building) for a fixed external base station (represented by
the van). This would require combining all of the separate files
taken in that building. Figure 16 is a cumulative distribution
function for all the data in the Radio Building. Analyzing all
data files would allow determination of the link margin necessary
for designing Personal Communication Systems using these higher
frequencies. Figure 16 shows the cumulative distribution function
for all of the Radio Building data at the three frequencies. This
figure indicates that less than 0.1 %of the data points will have
penetration attenuation of more than 47 dB at 900 MHz, 41 dB at
11.4 GHz, and 58 dB at 28.8 GHz.
Figure 16 is a composite of a large amount of data repesenting many
diverse conditions. Some measurement points on certain data paths
had one wall present between the transmitter and the receiver, but
other data contains paths with more than three walls between the
transmitter and the receiver. Figure 17 contains data paths where
only one wall separates the transmitter and receiver in the Radio
Building. This wall had a lot of window area. The mean
attenuation is much smaller (less than 10 dB). The attenuation was
more than 28 dB at 900 MHz, 13 dB at 11.4 GHz, and 16 dB at 28.8
GHz less than 0.1 % of the time. Figure 18 contains data paths
with two or three walls between the transmitter and the receiver.
The mean attenuation can be as great as 39 dB. Figure 19 contains
path data where more than three walls are involved and the mean
attenuation can be as high as 53 dB.
Table 4 contains the mean attenuation and its standard deviation
for all of these cases. All of these separate cases for the Radio
Building indicate an increasing penetration attenuation at all
frequencies as the number of wall penetrations increases in the
building structure. This behavior was noted in the data taken for
the private residence (wood-frame structure with brick veneer).
Figure 20 is the cumulative distribution function of the combined
data for all of the paths in the private residence. Figure 21 is
the cumulative distribution function for the condition of one wall
separation between the transmitter and receiver (front hallway
traverse). Figure 22 is for the case of two wall separations (rear
hallway traverse). Figure 23 is for the case of one wall
separation in the storeroom. Data was not collected for the case
of more than one wall separation for the storeroom.
24
1
CUM. DIST. CURVE
ALLRB
........... , : ~ . . ... ;
>-
I-
-
...J
-
(l)

(l)
o
0::
c..
0.1
0.01
-900 MHz
11.4 GHz
"","""28.8 GHz
j .......................
0.001
-10 o 10 20 30 40 50 60
ATTENUATION (dB)
Figure 16. Cumulative
Building.
distribution
25
for all data in the Radio
CUM. DIST. CURVE
RBOFF2
1
60 50 10 20 30 40
ATTENUATION (dB)
o
~ i i; 1 ~ ;
: .::: : : .
11]1:11
...........................} ~ ~ .. .. i +.. .. .. f ; , , : , .
::::::::::::::::::::::::::L::::::::::::::::::::::::::fF:I:::::::::::::::F::::::::::::::::":::::T::::::::: - 900 MHz ..
...........................i i.. .t a i i .
1 ~ ~ ~ 1
....................................................................:; ; :........... 11 4 GH
: : I::: Z
~ ~ i ~ ~
...........................: : : -;- -;- .
1 1 ! ; 1 ;
: : .. "',c.: : 28 8 GH : :.::: Z
tt'itt r 11111111111
~ ; i i 1 1
; ; .; 1 1
. . , :' .
0.1
0.01
0.001
-10
r:
-'
-
aJ
~
aJ
o
0:::
0.
Figure 17. Cumulative distribution for all data in the Radio
Building with just one wall between the transmitter
and receiver.
26
r:
-
-l
-
co

ro
o
r.r::
0..
1
0.1
0.01
CUM. DIST. CURVE
RBLAB2

;TT;\T\;<,

-fllr\!'j\!
_ t i ! J ,\ ) \1 .
: . : : \: \
=:i900MH;L:!\IJ\
11.4 GHZ::I-Y['tl
""""'" 28.8 GHz I \ I I \
0.001
-10 o 10 20 30 40 50 60
ATTENUATION (dB)
Figure 18. Cumulative distribution for all data in Radio Building
with two or three walls between the transmitter and
receiver.
27
CUM. DIST. CURVE
RBLAB1
60 50 10 20 30 40
ATTENUATION (dB)
o
_ .. _ _, ,__ , . 'l'''''., , ..: _ , _, : ,_ .
........................... : ':........ ;-;. . .. .. ...

_ ; ; .. .. t.. t
......... ( .
. .....
.......... (.
... (.
: : :. \
.. ::::::::::::::::.::::.. :::.::.::::.:::.. :.: .:::: ::::.:::.:. t:.:: :::::::::::::::::::::::: !:.::::::::.:.:.::::::::::.::: i::: :::::.::::.::::::; :::::::: I::::::.
- 900 MHz ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::1::':::.:::::::::::::::::::::1.\::::::.. ::'::::::::::':"1.:.:: .. ::::.:::'::::\::::::
:,::,::,: 1 r.\ i .. \..
1
0.1
0.01
0.001
-10
>-
J-
-
-J
-
co

co
o
0::
a.
Figure 19. Cumulative distribution for all data in Radio Building
with three or more walls between the transmitter and
receiver.
28
CUM. DIST. CURVE
ALLHL
1
>-
I-
-l
-
co
~
co
o
a::
0.
0.1
......... ~ ..............
0.01
60 50 40 30 20 10
ATTENUATION (dB)
a
0.001
-10
Figure 20. Cumulative distribution for all data in the private
residence.
29
CUM. DIST. CURVE
HLFRNT
1
60 50
...............:.::::.. 1:::::.:::::::::.:::::::.:....
10 20 30 40
ATTENUATION (dB)
. .
: :
o
...........................; : .
0.1
0.01
0.001
-10
>-
I-
--'
-
D:l

OJ
o
cc
c.
Figure 21. Cumulative distribution for all data in the private
residence with one wall between the transmitter and
receiver.
30
CUM. DIST. CURVE
HLREAR
60
... .
50
....1
10 20 30 40
ATTENUATION (dB)
a

.......................... j ; \ \ ..1 1 .
. : \ l : ,"","",28.8 GHz
.. - - - --,.-----!
_ .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
..........................., ) \ ..: '::;, : ( .
, _ t ,. ,; .'; , 1 ,
-rrt\J"
. : .:': .
......................... ) ,1\\I,
: : : \ :: :
......................... j j j. ..! .
.
........................... i.......... : i i. ..
f.. f.. .. f! fj .
.. .. .. r .. .. .. .. j (' i .. :: ::: 1::.: . . : ..
................... : fi f
. i'
_................... ..! ! L ! . ( ( .
j
i

1
0.1
0.01
0.001
-10
Figure 22. Cumulative distribution for all data in the private
residence with two walls between the transmitter and
receiver.
31
CUM. DIST. CURVE
ALLSRR
60 50 40 10 20 30
ATTENUATION (dB)
o
1
... ,...... .... ........i .... ...... .... .... , .. .. ........ ..1
: ! \ \
..\..:..i;)..... .... .... , .. i ...... 1
- 11 ; , .. 1.. .. I.. .... ..........1
-J[1\\:\\: , ,................. ..I
_ , ,1\\ \\
. :. :
, : ; ;
_ ; \:. ::::::::::::::::::::::t::::. :::: I
_=900 .. , ,
,;. ; : \'---,; I .. .. ,
11.4 GHz\\I'\\ , ,
"""''''' 28.8 GHz\\!' \
I I i i i
0.1
0.01
0.001
-10
>-

....J
-
OJ

OJ
o
a:
0..
Figure 23. Cumulative distribution for all data in the storeroom
building with metal siding.
32
The maximum attenuation that will be present less than a certain
percentage of time can be read off these figures. This number can
be used for the link margin at different link reliabilities. Table
4 has the mean attenuation and its standard deviation for all three
data combinations. The means at all frequencies are greater for
the two-wall case.
Figure 23 shows the cumulative distribution function for all of the
data collected in the storeroom (meta.l structure with metal
siding) . The mean attenuation and its standard deviation are
listed in Table 4. The attenuation is hi9hest (greater than 49 dB
less than 0.1 % of the time) at 900 MHz, because of the shielding
effect of the metal siding on the building and the small windows
(with respect to a wavelength at 900 MHz). The attenuation at 11.4
and 28.8 GHz was greater than 27 and 29 dB respectively less than
0.1 % of the time.
6.0 CONCLUSIONS
The penetration attenuation for the Radio Building and the private
residence tend to increase with frequency. The penetration
attenuation for the storeroom decreases with increasing frequency.
The separate cases for the Radio Building and private residence
also indicate a progressively increasing amount of penetration
attenuation at all frequencies as the number of wall penetrations
increase in the building structure.
The electromagnetic energy at 11.4 and 28,,8 GHz can couple into the
storeroom building more effectively than that energy at 900 MHz.
The shielding effectiveness (ratio in dB of the power outside the
structure to the power inside the structure) of the structure is
less at the two higher frequencies and allows more energy to couple
through the walls. The shielding ef'fectiveness of a metal
structure is dependent on the size of the openings in the outer
shell of the structure. These may be windows, doors, heating
and/or air conditioning penetrations, holes, etc. When the size of
the opening in the structure is greater than or comparable to a
wavelength, then the opening in the structure provides a strong
coupling path for electromagnetic energy 1to flow into or out of the
structure. This reduces the penetrat:ion attenuation of the
structure.
The penetration attenuation values derived from the measurements
conducted in this study can be used determine the feasibility of
personal communications. The cumulative distribution functions of
the penetration attenuation can provide information on what link
margins are necessary. for different communication probabilities or
reliabilities. The penetration attenuation provides a quantitative
margin for link calculations to use in analyzing and designing
personal communication systems.
33
APPENDIX: ATTENUATION PLOTS FOR ALL MEASUREMENT PATHS
-10
....-
co
"0
......-
Z
o
-
~
:::>
z
w
~
o
10
20
30
40
50
...... : ..:
. .
~ ~
60
o 10 20 30 40 50 60
POSITION(m)
70 80 90
RB1D
ATTENUATION
--900 MHz
..11.4 GHZ
....D .... 28.8 GHz
Figure A-I. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RBID.
A-I
-10
-
co
"'C
'-"'"
Z
o
-

::::>
z
w

o
10
20
30
40
50
IIUI .......... ........:...
t. n.!
!!,tl!!
1 !,I''f ....... ...1
7l I" a r ;!
t
t : .
.................. ; - .
60
o 10 20 30 40 50 60
POSITION(m)
70 80 90
RB1E
ATTENUATION
--900 MHz
11.4 GHZ
,,'It"" 28.8GHz
Figure A-2. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RBIE.
A-2
6 8 10 12 14 16
POSITION(m)
4 2
.. ..
....................., , .................................................... r, .
trrrij j .
. . .
: : :
t-,,o _ .;-0 , : : .. 1
15
20
25
.......-
(D
30
\J
----
Z
0
35
-
J-
<
:::>
40
z
w
~
45
50
55
60
0
RB28
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
~ 1 1 . 4 GHZ
-0-28.8 GHz
Figure A-3. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB2B.
A-3
20
25
30
....-
co
-0
.....-
35
z
0
-
J-
40
<
:::>
z
w
45
~
50
55
60
a 2 4 6 8 10
POSITION(m)
12 14
RB2C
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
-0-11.4 GHZ
-Q-28.8 GHz
Figure A-4. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB2C.
A-4
12 10 468
POSITION(m)
2
...............................................~ , (
...... .. .............. ..... . t " " ~ " ~ .
. .
" .
. .
................. _..... :...................... ~ t
: ~
15
20
25
--.
co
-c
30
"""""'"
z
0
35
-
~
::>
40
z
UJ
~
45
50
55
60
a
RB3B
ATTENUATION
~ 9 0 0 MHz
-0-11.4 GHZ
-{]-28.8 GHz
Figure A-5. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB3B.
A-5
12 10 468
POSITION(m)
2
........................, 1 .. .. _ .
: :
. .
15
20
25
--..
co
30
'U
-.....
Z
0
35
-
f-

::>
40
z
w
~
45
50
55
60
0
RB3C
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
-<>-11.4 GHZ
--0-28.8 GHz
Figure A-6. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB3C.
A-6
.......... i . ..
. .
55 .
60
a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
POSITION(m)
20
25
30
,-....
co
"0
-....-
35
z
0
-
40
::J
Z
UJ
45

50
RB4C
ATTENUATION
--+-900 MHz
-0-11.4 GHZ
-0-28.8 GHz
Figure A-7. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB4C.
A-7
20
25
30
...........
(Q
"0
"--'"
35
z
0
-
r-
40 <C
::J
Z
w
45

50
55 : , .
60
o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
POSITION(m)
RB4D
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
-0-11.4 GHZ
-0--28.8 GHz
Figure A-8. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB4D.
A-8
25
30
-al
"'0
Z 35 t--;K' <..,/, ;, .. 11
Q
-
40 "--"""":""
::>
z
UJ 45

7 6 2 3 4 5
POSITION(m)
.......).................. . ..
1
50
55
60
a
RB5A
ATTENUATION
MHz
--0-11.4 GHZ
-0-28.8 GHz
Figure A-9. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB5A.
A-9
15
20
25
-- OJ
30
"'0
-......
Z
0
35
-
t-
<
:::>
40
z
w
~
45
50
55
60
a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
POSITION(m)
RB58
ATTENUATION
-+--900 MHz
--0-11.4 GHZ
-0--28.8 GHz
Figure A-IO. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB5B.
A-IO
20 t- : ~ \ : ~ : : .,. t-.... ; I
m 25 t- ,.. : i -\J- .. j- ! : \
"0
.....-
Z
o 30 J-- i.jJ ; / \. , " , ; , , 1
~
:::>
z 35 J-- , ~ ; ;.................,.. ; ; 0""'.. : 1
UJ
~ 40 J--... : .; ; ; :........... f
45
50 L - I - . J . . . ~ ~ . . . . L . . . . l - l . ~ ~ ~ - l . . . . . . l - . . J . . . . . . L - I - - L . . . . . L . . . . . l . . l . . . . . L . . . . . l - . . L . . . . L . . . . L . . . . . I - I . . . . . l . . ~ . . L . . . I . . . . . J . . . . L . . J
o 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
POSITION(m)
RB6A
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
-0-11.4 GHZ
--0-28.8 GHz
Figure A-II. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB6A.
A-II
15 I- ,......................./ \ .., ! ( :...... F ..! .. O'
20
OJ
"'0
Z 25
o
-
30 ..""" (, /- , ,.\ ,...... .-/-- '\: :;.-,..............; ;.... I
:::>
z
w 35

40
45
50 .............................."""'"'--'-..................................L......I.................."""""'"'--'-...........
o 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
POSITION(m)
RB68
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
--0-1.1.4 GHZ
--0-28.8 GHz
Figure A-12. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB6B.
A-12
3.5 3
. .
~ 1 ~
........ ~ .
1 1.5 2 2.5
POSITION(m)
. .
~ - r f : : i
0.5
~ ~
................... ,_ ~ - - ~ 'f +....... . : .
10
15
20
.....-
CD
"0
25
...........
z
0
30
-
J-
<
:')
35
z
w
~
40
45
50
55
a
RB7A
ATTENUATION
~ 9 0 0 MHz
-0-11.4 GHZ
--0-28.8 GHz
Figure A-13. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB7A.
A-13
10
15
20
....-
co
"'C
--
25
z
0
-
f-
30
::J
Z
w
35

40
45
........................., , ..;.................... ./-:T,lH.. i1
3.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5
POSITION(m)
0.5

a
RB78
ATTENUATION
MHz
--0-11.4 GHZ
--0--28.8 GHz
Figure A-14. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB7B.
A-14
Or-----------.--------.---------,
5
25 t- , , , \ 1- .. , .. ; ,.. 1
-
(D
"0 10
-.....
z
o
-
15 :1 ; ; ;IJ ; 1
::>
Z
UJ
20
3.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5
POSITION(m)
0.5
30
a
RB8A
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
-0-11.4 GHZ
-0-28.8 GHz
Figure A-15. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB8A.
A-15
5
25 1- , ,.. 1 I:: .. i.. 1
--..
fg 10
--
z
o
-
15 , : ,:1 1- .........................; ,1
::>
z
LU
20 I- j ... j j.. j.:................. . i 1

3.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5


POSITION(m)
0.5
30
o
RB88
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
-0-11.4 GHZ
-{}--28.8 GHz
Figure A-16 Penetration loss for Radio Building path RBBB.
A-16
, ., + ~ "' :f .................................................. / , , \
5
20 1- , )1. , ,............... I : :.. t , .. , 1
- (D
-a
....-
Z 10
o
~
:::>
~ 15
~
3.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5
POSITION(m)
0.5
25 L . - . L . . . . . . I ~ . . . . . . L . . . . - L . . . . l . . . . . . I - ~ L . . . . . J - . L . . . . . . I - - l - . . . . J - . J - . a . . . . . . L . - ~ . . . . . . l - - I - ~ ~ ~ ~ ..........
a
RB9A
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
-0-11.4 GHZ
--0-28.8 GHz
Figure A-17. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB9A.
A-17

............ .. t .. , .. \
20 1- \ , , ;
5
-....
CD
"0
-..
z 10
o

::>
15

3.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5


POSITION(m)
0.5
25
o
RB98
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
--0-11.4 GHZ
-{}-28.8 GHz
Figure A-18. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB9B.
A-18
3.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5
POSITION(m)
0.5
........................., , 1+
......................... j ; I t .
-2
14 '--'--Io--L..-l.....I..-o.L-.J-",I""...L....J.-l,.........
a
0
2
............
CD
1J
-..,.....
4
z
0
-
I-
6
<
:::>
z
w
8

10
12
RB10A
ATTENUATION
MHz
-0-11.4 GHZ
-iJ-28.8 GHz
Figure A-19. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RBIOA.
A-19
3.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5
POSITION(m)
0.5
~ I
.........................i ) ; ~ : i .
, I ' Ii:
. .
: . : '" . ...... ........., , _ j .
........................i ; j i :i .
. , . ii'
:-';-,
-10
-5
0
...-
co
"'C
.........
5
z
0
-
~ 10
::l
Z
w
15
~
20
25
30
0
RB10B
ATTENUATION
~ 9 0 0 MHz
-011.4 GHZ
... 0..28.8 GHz
Figure A-20. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RBIOB.
A-20
3.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5
POSITION(m)
0.5
_ ~ J > - ..... t .
........... ;1 :t _ .
1" 1 _ t!"" .
''r'
I '1;-,
.........................! ~ . . . ~ . . . . . . . t . ~ .
: : i 1
,j'T"
r , T ~ .
0
2
4
---..
6
CD
"0
8
-.....
z
0
10 -
~
::J
12
z
UJ
14
~
16
18
20
22
a
RB11A
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
-0-11.4 GHZ
-0-28.8 GHz
Figure A-21. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RBIIA.
A-21
o
....-
en
10
z
o
15
::>
z
w
20
ni..o. : ... : \ R:
r: "00_. : : \ .... 0.
.<l.... /! O...-d";' \ p' :\ / \ :
5 ...... .
.
.
.
: :

: :
......................... j ............................; ; ........................; :........................... (............................
! ! ! I !
25 ii.. .. i.. ( Tj .
I : : : : :
: :
3.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5
POSITION(m)
0.5
30 .............
o
RB11B
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
-011.4 GHZ
... 0 .... 28.8 GHz
Figure A-22. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RBIIB.
A-22

3.5 1 0.5
5 J- ........................; y.
20 ;. r.-:-- : j .
iii
1.5 2 2.5 3
POSITION(m)
RB12A -+-900 MHz
ATTENUATION -0-11.4 GHZ
GHz
25 L.-L..-J'--L......L......l...-L......l.......I.-..&.....I.....I'--L......L........... ...............--.I..oo.I-..........
o
---..
al
"0
-
z 10 .
! t : .

.
j :
Figure A-23. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB12A.
A-23
9
"
~
t ( .
. .
............ i --, ~ ~ j .
~ ~
j""j
.
.
.
.
: :
.
.
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25
o
5
.....-
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-..,...
z
o
-
~ 15
:::>
z
w
~ 20
30
o 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
POSITION(m)
3 3.5
RB12B
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
'-011.4 GHZ
.. [].... 28.8 GHz
Figure A-24. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB12B.
A-24
10 .
5 .

20 I- .. \ :."/ , 1
.......-
co
-0
'-""
Z
o
-
!;(
::>
m15 1- ,.........

3.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5


POSITION(m)
0.5
25
o
RB13A
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
-<>-11.4 GHZ
--0-28.8 GHz
Figure A-25. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB13A.
A-25
2QH"'" , ,
............
al
-0
-.....
z 10
o
-

<
:::>
m15

1 ..... ) .
3.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5
POSITION(m)
0.5
25
a
R8138
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
-011.4 GHZ
,,[],,28.8 GHz
Figure A-26. Penetration loss for Radio Building RB13B.
A-26
3.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5
POSITION(m)
0.5
0,..----,..----,.------,----..,..--"..----....,...---.,
2
4
en 6
:Q. 8 z t- ;........................; ,
o
10
::::> 12 t- ,... . \,. !+ ! , 1 1:1
Z
W 14 t- : ++ , ,.............. \ I c :1

16 t- j.... 1 t ,... , y , '1


18 ;
20 t- ; : ;;A
22 ............. ...............Io-.I
o
RB14A
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
-<r-11.4 GHZ
-D-28.8 GHz
Figure A-27. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB14A.
A-27
o
i L.;t"-q D
: D
c
......... _.......... .,....... . ... ',........... . : .
Or-----..,.----,------,---....,------.,..---.....,....----,
P.
p-o..O . 'h..().-o
a' . 't{: '0 V'
5
10
15
---.
co
"'0
-
Z
o
-

:::>
z
w

20-1 ! ,
25
o 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
POSITION(m)
3 3.5
R8148
ATTENUATION
MHz
'-011.4 GHZ
... 0 ..28.8 GHz
Figure A-28. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB14B.
A-28
10 . I;u .......;........
5 \ :
20 1-......, ; \ f,'1 I
...........
(D
'U
...........
Z
o
-

::>
ffi 15

25 ........
a 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
POSITION(m)
RB15A
ATTENUATION
MHz
--0-11.4 GHZ
--0-28.8 GHz
Figure A-29. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB15A.
A-29
tJ

P
j j
....... i .
o
\ f '\). __0. ,R. 0-</1 .
'\ .' ; ; .... 'd. ;-.. ;
., :t \ ,.: : I: :
o : 0 b! c
! j
:n: .. , ..q I .
:Coil o-d' 0:)-, i :
o'.? .'.
5
10
15
20
.-
co
'"0
-.....-
Z
o
-

::::>
z
w

25
f;';;)1 )....
30
a 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
POSITION(m)
RB15B
ATTENUATION
MHz
-011.4 GHZ
'''0.... 28.8 GHz
Figure A-30. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RBI5B.
A-30

10 J-.. , .. .. t!, .., .. l .. , , y .., ; .. 1
EO 15
"'0
'-""
Z
o 20
-

::>
z 25
UJ
30
35 J- , , , ; .;. ;\ .
7 6 2 3 4 5
POSITION(m)
1
40 ........... .......
o
RB16A
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
--0-11.4 GHZ
-0-28.8 GHz
Figure A-31. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB16A.
A-31
5
:0
:,.

I'ott
,.
. ,:
o
\....
d \
..:JtdoOgnti .
o ,,: ". '0
tId
..............., : i c .
.......... 2..Jr.: 7,"1
,.! :
, .
l
,
9"0
i t
............... . .f.. .
, I
. i
i
i
i
....... ..... ! ..
b
t;J , .
: q ti
10
15
20
25
30
-rn
:Q.
z
o
-

=>
z
w

35
a 1 2 3 4
POSITION(m)
5 6
7
R8168
ATTENUATION
MHz
'-011.4 GHZ
... 0 .... 28.8 GHz
Figure A-32. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB16B.
A-32
14 12 4 6 8 10
POSITION(m)
2
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ " ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ " " . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ " "
....................... ; ; j;11
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . , .
::T'
10
15
20
.....-
m
"0
25
-
z
0
30
-
I-
<
:::>
35
z
w
~
40
45
50
55
a
RB17A
ATTENUATION
~ 9 0 0 MHz
-0-11.4 GHZ
-0-28.8 GHz
Figure A-33. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB17A.
A-33
10
...................................... ( \ .
Q
io '....
I \ :w
i "' P
. 0
; .. j
9.!
/ ~ !
. , ,
.i
'j
g . 1 ............... ~ J ..
: ! D;1
~ : : :
: . \ fi \
.,.... ,..........: ....!:;.. ~ . \ ..~ & i .....tl: .. . t ~ . . . . .......-
/ : \ c
[J : g d
v
15
-co
"'0
............
z
20
0
-
f-

::>
z
25 w
~
30
35
a 1 2 3 4 567
POSITION(m)
8 9 10
R8178
ATTENUATION
--+-900 MHz
-011.4 GHZ
... 0 .... 28.8 GHz
Figure A-34. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB17B.
A-34
5
10
15
m2Q
"'0
....-
z 25
o
-
30
:::>
m35
40
45
50
............................ .0. 1 ,0. i
/J. 0 .': \ fJ P' 0 0 P-yj '. :
,. .. \{
: i' : \ ..0-0
: 'I 0
. . ',. .... -...................... ................................. , ., , .
55
a 2 4 6
POSITION(m)
8 10
RB18A
ATTENUATION
->-900 MHz
-011.4 GHZ
,..[].... 28.8 GHz
Figure A-35. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB18A.
A-35
14 12 4 6 8 10
POSITION(m)
2
........................ _ _ .
............... 'i' + .... 1 .. t 1.. ..
Q : '\ On. n: .
,\ : 9 '\ '< '0; ,., :
.... j...Oq..ROOI +..b'\../ od .. f :Jr,; +... .. ..
i 0: : 0 j Ott: p.0oO:q

....... .
.............. T' : I .. I l.. tt..
55
a
5
10
15
....-
20
co
u
-
z
25
0
-
30
::::>
z
35
w

40
45
50
RB18B
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
,o(),11.4 GHZ
..[].... 28.8 GHz
Figure A-36. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB18B.
A-36
5
10
15
- 20 ec
"0
~
z
25
0
-
~
30 <t:
:J
z
35
LU
~
40
45
50
55
a 2 468
POSITION(m)
10 12
RB19A
ATTENUATION
~ 9 0 0 MHz
-0-11.4 GHZ
-G-28.8 GHz
Figure A-37. Penetration loss for Radio Buildlng path RB19A.
A-37
5
10
15
-.....
20
m
-0
............
z
25
0
-
I-
30
::>
z
35 w

40
45
50
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I . . . . .... , , , j .
55
a 2 4 6 8 10 12
POSITION(m)
RB19B
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MGz
-0-11.4 GHZ
-0-28.8 GHz
Figure A-38. Penetration loss for Radio Building path RB19B.
A-38
14 12 10
....
R

'" .;" Ii.. ; ; 1.. ; 1
i\Jf H \ 6<0
0: . 0':. (:I! J..: .
: ; crL .!i.! '{; :
: ',--00 I m"
: 0::> ;.;' i i!i .0
... .. bo.. 1 iii .'
: -0 !nfi I
: r .
:1:1 coo'
: ... . .
6 8
POSITION(m)
4 2
30
a
-10
-5
0
......-..
co
"'0
-.,...
5
z
0
-
l-
)
10
..:1 ...
"
::>
z
w
15
I-

0:
20
......:..
0
25
......................
HL18
ATTENUATION
MHz
... 0 .... 11.4 GHZ
'-028.8 GHz
Figure A-39. Penetration loss for private residence path HLIB.
A-39
1 -- ..J .. ..) ...
rf .
-10
-5
0
....-
co
-0
-
5
z
0
-
I-
10 <C
:::>
Z
UJ
15
~
20
25
30
a 2 4 6 8
POSITION(m)
10 12 14
HL1C
ATTENUATION
~ 9 0 0 MHz
...011.4 GHZ
-028.8 GHz
Figure A-40. Penetration loss for private residence path HLIC.
A-40
8 7 6 345
POSITION(m)
2
.. .. t l.
.... _..................... _....... . .
...: ; : , 1
1
1-,1 n.;-{
-10
-5
0
............
a:l
-c
.....-
5
z
0
-
I-
10
::J
Z
w
15
~
20
25
30
a
HL2A
ATTENUATION
~ 9 0 0 MHz
... 0 .. 11.4 GHZ
-[]28.8 GHz
Figure A-41. Penetration loss for private residence path HL2A.
A-41

__..I:lI::I' ,
! \ i
. , _ _ .
'c\q

q,,=: .. ' g:
i:.O:' ,'.:
1:1: !,:
Cd t i :
!i :
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C
"j" ,... .: .
OJ
o
..ptb....
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Q kf
., ,. ,:
. 1 :
:t"aj
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i:
....
0
-10
-5
0
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0)
"'0
---
5
z
0
-
.-
10
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Z
w
15

20
25
30
a 1 2 345
POSITION(m)
6 7 8
HL28
ATTENUATION
MHz
... 011.4 GHZ
'-028.8 GHz
Figure A-42. Penetration loss for private residence path HL2B.
A-42
o
10
20
25
30
35
......................... : :.... . _ .
.
.
.
.
.
.
....... 1 . ..}. .. _ >.. . :......... . .. .. '..... ~ .
40
a 1 2 3 4 5
POSITION(m)
6 7
SRR1A
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
... 0.. 11.4 GHZ
-1]28.8 GHz
Figure A-43. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRRIA.
A-43
o
7
.0
6 5 3 4
POSITION(m)
2
. .
...... ........................ .........................
1
5
10
20 ;
................... !;1L. .
.'
.' " r:J , ;
T :
Ij1 ; n
it ; '\ i ;
f..\I)l\/\ L...................... .. t! .
," ,D. E:I :
15
\ ..0 i
00' :
25
30
o
......-
al
"'0
-....
Z
o
-

:::>
z
w

SRR18
ATTENUATION
MHz
... 0.. 11.4 GHZ
'-028.8 GHz
Figure A-44. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRRIB.
A-44
10
15
~
CD
:s.2O
z
o
-
~ 25
::::>
z
w
~ 30
35
.... ) - : .
......... \ ) , : .
.
~ ~
: :
.
: :
.
................. , .
40
o 1 2 3 4
POSITION(m)
5 6 7
SRR2A
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
... 0..11.4 GHZ
'-028.8 GHz
Figure A-45. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR2A.
A-45
.........) ( '!'. . :................. .
: :
.
.
.
.
.
.
: :
.
.
: :
: :
: :
....................... ! ; ) : .
..... . ~ 'f
7 6 5
~
:[1
, : .
. : ,
3 4
POSITION(m)
2 1
\ .c
, -,
a- ~
15
10
20
25
35
30
40
o
......-
m
'"0
--
Z
o
-
~
:::>
z
w
~
SRR28
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
... 0..11.4 GHZ
'-028.8 GHz
Figure A-46. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR2B.
A-46
..... ,_ ...... (. -. . -.- ....;...... -... -.. . . ~ '..... . 1'" . - .
6 8 10 12 14 16 18
POSITION(m)
4 2
: :
....... i ; ,. . , , .
............ : _ ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . / 1 . "/ [ .
; ;. .
: :
,.....----,----,---.,......----,--.,......---..,...---------,
0
5
10
---.
co
-c
-..,...
15
z
0
-
~
20

::>
z
UJ
25
~
30
35
40
a
SRR3A
ATTENUATION
~ 9 0 0 MHz
... 011.4 GHZ
'-028.8 GHz
Figure A-47. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR3A.
A-47
25
20
o
5
10
....-
al
'"0
Z 15
o
-
~
:::>
z
UJ
~
30
35
~ ~
I I
..... ,............. . ~ :.
y':H .
......... , ( j : 1f
t-:-II': : ~ : i 1 1 ' : : 1 ,:1
.
.
.
: :
40
o 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
POSITION(m)
SRR38
ATTENUATION
~ 9 0 0 MHz
... 0.. 11.4 GHZ
'-028.8 GHz
Figure A-48. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR3B.
A-48
.... i t ............ .. . T . ...~ ,.
30
0
5
... -...... ! .....
10
---..
CD
""0
..........
15
z
0
-
f-
20
c(
:::>
z
LU
25
..................
~
35
40
a 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
POSITION(m)
SRR4A
ATTENUATION
~ 9 0 0 MHz
... 0 .... 11.4 GHZ
'-028.8 GHz
Figure A-49. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR4A.
A-49
25
20
............. i," -.. -..... ....................; .
. .
............. _ j.... . 1'"1;. ... i
5,
10
30
-CD
"0
Z 15
o
-
f-

::>
z
w

6 8 10 12 14 16 18
POSITION(m)
4 2
40
o
35
SRR48
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
... 0 .... 11.4 GHZ
-028.8 GHz
Figure A-50. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR4B.
A-50
25
20
............- Of ~ .
. .
.... ~ r :....... . ) .
.
.
: :
.
6 8 10 12 14 16 18
POSITION(m)
4 2
30
5
40
a
o
10
35
-
al
"'C
Z 15
o
-
~
::>
z
w
~
SRR5A
ATTENUATION
~ 9 0 0 MHz
...0.. 11.4 GHZ
-a28.8 GHz
Figure A-51. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR5A.
A-51
8 7 6 345
POSITION(m)
2 1
9 ,[ -,- ,.. 1 .. ~ . . . . . . . ... ~ .
::-1
.................. ,..... . . ,. . ; ;..
...................... ~ .; .
5
o
10
.....-
OJ
"'0
-
15
z
0
-
I-
20
:::>
z
w
25
~
30
35
40
a
SRR58
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
... 0..11.4 GHZ
'-028.8 GHz
Figure A-52. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR5B.
A-52
o 0 c.
\/ b
b",
o
5 \"f
.............! .............................: .
12 10 468
POSITION(m)
2
..............................~ ...... ..... .... : .. .... . ~ .
: :
......................................... 1 ,1 1 .
10
15
20
25
40
a
30
35
...-
a:l
"0
---
Z
o
-
~
:::>
z
w
~
SRR6A
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
... 011.4 GHZ
-028.8 GHz
Figure A-53. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR6A.
A-53
a
5
00
0
........... ,1 ... ...................................................; , .
12 10 468
POSITION(m)
2
.......... 11........................; , .
.......................... i j ;...........................................................
1 :
6 :
"j" ".... .

o ftbc: 0 0: 8 Q a
I : ::" '.,
; ala .. .. :': 100 !
......... i ....\i.I\,,6<a,,.. ........ .. .... Q.. ..9.. ,,i..
n.l 1\ :v u... ('. t 110j : '"
"7D \, Ii' h \ no :I , . ! ,oj 00 >,,1.,'\}'
. d.' . , . . .. .\J\J......
: , D : I :" If:" ....;.: "'id'"
..... ,. .&I..... .,. v
f \; ",! LI \ j tt: f
......................... jll. . ltJ ., .
40
o
35
10
- co
1J
.....-
15 z,
0
-
I-
20

z
UJ
25

30
SRR68
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
... 0 ..11.4 GHZ
-028.8 GHz
Figure A-54. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR6B.
A-54
0
5
10
CO'
:Q..
15
z
0
-
~
20
<
:::>
z
w
25
~
30
.................. 1-;-- : : j .
~ ~ ::
t..... . . ~ .
35
40
a 2 468
POSITION(m)
10 12
SRR7A
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
... 0 .... 11.4 GHZ
0[128.8 GHz
Figure A-55. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR7A.
A-55
1 ,f , , .
. .
..............~ ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :
0
5
10
..........
m
'U
-....
15
z
0
-
t-
20
:,)
z
w
25
'f:

30
35
40
0 2 468
POSITION(m)
10 12
SRR78
ATTENUATION
. ~ 9 0 0 MHz
...011.4 GHZ
'-028.8 GHz
Figure A-56. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR7B.
A-56
18 16 6 8 10 12 14
POSITION(m)
4 2
. .
................. ( i .. i t.. ..
:90%1 9 1 1 0 do 9
if d
Q
8:0 Q i d\ 9fP\ 9\
i I; : , : : : : : .Eii 1:1 't:
i a I ;, !ili I]
,. i 1;1I ! n 'J!'II'" i!" HIil' !
w:. I . ,!"" II a : "!'Il' __at" 'I,,; I
.............................. : ""/"..........
: 'J : r;J 1" r'S!..!t : '1:1: :
: D : V ""IiI 1:1 : i.: :
. i 1 0: ! D j 1
........................... ','" r :r
,.- , j
0
5
10
..--....
(1}
"0
-.....
15
z
0
-
I-
20
<
:::::>
z
UJ
25

30
35
40
0
SRR8A
ATTENUATION
MHz
... 0 .... 11.4 GHZ
'-028.8 GHz
Figure A-57, Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR8A,
A-57
. . .
...........................! , .
. .
.................. .....
! : i q 0 q:) : Obi 0 10 :
9
6
q P 9' 0 Q 00. r:. ; '<T ; '(5: :: 6{

0).. Ii' 'it.' ftS.' .'
v : 1:1"': I, .:' -:g" a: : t!... :
; !tlli' Di . i 1;1 Db 1 9 'iI i!r n
t1 ',' . : .....;..&,1 I:J , : ,. ;" '1 ;D'jiI 'II'"
............ i .... .. ...
: : :.. i I : -rs TC'ii: c
: : :'! ;. J.! !!: I nit'" .. j f
: : : -. ill.,. If : t-.-.r ;:.! u: . n
: : : ., . 1:1= T !.:I I : r
, . :' : "Q' : . :
....... ..t .........:........ 1... jX . '......i.......
........ rt . .... 1 i
30
0
5
10
-..
co
"0
""'-'"
15
z
0
-
20
:::>
z
w
25

35
40
o 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
POSITION(m)
16 18
SRR88
ATTENUATION
-+-900 MHz
... 0.. 11.4 GHZ
-028.8 GHz
Figure A-58. Penetration loss for storeroom path SRR8B.
A-58
FORM NTIA-29 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
(4-80) NAT"L. TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION
BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA SHEET
1. PUBLICATION NO. 2. Gov't Accession No. 3. Recipient's Accession No.
94-306
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. Publication Date
Building Penetration and Loss Measurements at
May 1994
900 MHz, 11. 4 GHz, and 28.8 GHz.
6. Performing Organization Code
NTIA/ITS
7. AUTHOR(S) 9. Project/Task/Work Unit No.
8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS ..
National Telecommunications and Information Administratioh
Institute for Telecommunication Sciences
10. Contract/Grant No.
325 Broadway
Boulder CO. 80101
11. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address 12. Type of Report and Period Covered
National Telecommunications & Information Administration
Institute for Telecommunication Sciences
325 Broadway 13.
Boulder, CO. 80303-3328
14. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
15. ABSTRACT (A 200-word or less factual summary of most significant information. If document includes a significant bibliography or literature
survey, mention it here.)
The feasibility of using radio frequencies in the super high frequency (SHF) band (3-30 GHz)
for Personal Communications Services (PCS) in buildings depends on the multipath within the
structure and the amount of attenuation experienced by the electromagnetic waves passing through
the structures. This
study measured these effects to obtain a quantitative estimate of the
attenuation magnitude.
This magnitude can then be used or link margin analysis to determine
if personal communications at SHF is practical.
16. Key Words (Alphabetical order, separated by semicolons)
Building attenuation; Measurements; Penetration attenuation; Personal communications; PCS.
17. AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 18. Security Class. (This report) 20. Number of pages
iii
UNLIMITED.
101
19. Security Class. (This page) 21. Price:
0 FOR OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION.
*u.s. PRINTING OFFICE:1994-573-013/00013