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Tomas Olsson M.Sc.

Electrical Engineering Principal Engineer

HVDC transformers

ABB Power Technologies. Power Systems DC - 1

abb.com/hvdc

Agenda, HVDC Transformers Introduction Transformer topology and types HVDC application and consequences Design Tests Concepts Impedance, regulation, cooling Seismic withstand Overloading and Weight Bushings, Tap changers and Oil Summary

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HVDC transformer
Transmission line or cable
Transformers & Thyristor valves AC bus Smoothing reactor

DC Filter

Shunt AC filters Capacitors Telecommunication

~~

Connecting DC system to AC system


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Control System

Experiencing AC stresses on the primary side and combined AC and DC stresses on the secondary side

HVDC transformers

Pacific Intertie, Sylmar. USA. Largest HVDC transformer Single phase 3 winding Power: 621/310,5/310,5 MVA Voltage: 230/212/212 kV Connection: Yn/Y/D DC voltage: 500 kV
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HVDC transformers
3000 MW transmitted power system, Three Gorges. China. Single phase 2 winding 298 MVA, 525/210 kV, 500 kV DC

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Highlights - transformer manufacturing in Ludvika


ABB in Ludvika, Sweden

Founded year 1900 Center for power transformers since mid thirties 1952; Worlds first 400kV-system, Harsprnget 1954; Worlds first HVDC-transmission power transformer, Gotland 1965; Worlds first 800 kV-system, Hydro Quebec 1982; Worlds first 600kV DC-transmission line, Itaipu 1999; Worlds first Dryformer - the oil-free power transformer, Lottefors
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2000; Center of Excellence for shunt reactors 2003; Worlds largest HVDC Transformers, Sylmar 2004; Variable shunt reactors 2004; Center of Excellence for 800 kV applications Manufactured > 700,000 MVA to date

Agenda, HVDC Transformers Introduction Transformer topology and types HVDC application and consequences Design Tests Concepts Impedance, regulation, cooling Seismic withstand Overloading and Weight Bushings, Tap changers and Oil Summary

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HVDC converter transformers


Why do we have converter transformers? To adopt the AC-side voltage to the valve To provide impedance that limit the short circuit current to the valve To galvanically separate the AC- and DC-side (takes place inside transformer, between AC and DC winding). Makes it possible to connect the converters in series

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ABB HVDC transformers

More than 300 units Experiences and knowledge since 1954 DC voltage levels 50 600 kV Power ratings up to 620 MVA per unit Experiences with different connections; 3 phase 3 winding 3 phase 2 winding 1 phase 3 winding 1 phase 2 winding
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HVDC transformers, configurations


Number of units / pole and 12 pulse bridge 1

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Transformer application

Transformer application
Three Gorges, China. Single phase 2 winding units; 298 MVA, 500 kV AC, 500 kV DC

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Transformer application Converter valve wall

Agenda, Converter Transformers Introduction Transformer topology and types HVDC application and consequences Design Tests Concepts Impedance, regulation, cooling Seismic withstand Weights Bushings, Tap changers and Oil Summary

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HVDC application and consequences


Current harmonics and DC voltages

Extra losses Winding arrangement Tests Winding insulation Active Part

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Extra load losses


Harmonic currents on the AC side
i1 i1 + i
2

Y Y Y D

i2
i1
T/4 T/2 3T/4

i2

Phase current

i1 + i 2
[%] 10 5 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 [%] 5 11 13 23 25

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In I1

i1 + i2

Secondary windings subjected to DC voltages

Electrically located on 3/4 of the DC line voltage

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Electrically located on 1/4 of the DC line voltage

Agenda, HVDC Transformers Introduction Transformer topology and types HVDC application and consequences Design Tests Concepts Impedance, regulation, cooling Seismic withstand Overloading and Weight Bushings, Tap changers and Oil Summary

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What influences transformer properties? Size, how is it affected by different properties?


Power is the main driver for size, but Voltage, both AC-side and DC-side voltage, heavily influences size, and Frequency also affects size (smaller core at 60 Hz)

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HVDC transformers, tests


Transformer routine tests: Winding resistance. Voltage ratio and phase displacement. Switching impulse test Lightning impulse test Separate source voltage withstand test AC applied voltage test Short circuit impedance and load loss at 50 Hz No load losses and current. Test on OLTC where appropriate. Induced over voltage test with PD measurement
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DC withstand voltage test with PD meas. DC polarity voltage test with PD meas. Cooling equipment power consumption Operation test of on-load tap changer Insulation resistance on magnetic circuit Capacitance and power factor in insulation Insulation test of auxiliary wirings

Transformer type tests: Load losses at 200 Hz Temperature rise test. Acoustic sound level High frequency response analysis (FRA)

HVDC transformer tests


Ratio X / 200 kV 500 kV

= 770 kV

= 550 kV

= 570 kV
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Power transformers , HVDC AC and DC give different stress patterns In AC most of the stress is bound to the oil In steady state DC almost all voltage is across the solid insulation

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Power transformers , HVDC Additional losses from current harmonics need careful assessment

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HVDC transformer heat run test


IEC 31378-2

Heat run test at f1 and f4 to separate these losses

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Most common core types


Single phase cores

2 wound limbs

1 wound limb and 2 side limbs

2 wound limbs and 2 side limbs

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Three phase cores

3 wound limbs

3 wound limbs and 2 side limbs

Core for magnetic flux

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Single phase core with 2 wound and 2 return limbs

Winding arrangement, single phase 3 w


To AC To valve bushing bushing3 To valve To AC bushing1 bushing

Valve Y wdg

Core limb D

Core limb Y

Valve D wdg

Reg. wdg

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To AC neutral bushing

To valve bushing4

To valve bushing2

To AC neutral bushing

Reg. wdg

AC wdg

AC wdg

HVDC transformer regulation

Normal Power transformers HVDC application


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: ~ 15-20 % regulation : ~ 30-35 % regulation

Regulation range affects: Insulation distances Losses and cooling equipment Size of tap changer

Active Part, AC side

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Single phase core with 2 wound and 2 return limbs

Transformer impedance ~ dx value


Impedance and Losses
Losses

Impedance and Transformer Costs


Price

High short circuit currents Load Losses


Mechanical forces: -inside the windings - between the windings

High leakage flux

High short circuit currents


Mechanical forces:

High leakage flux

Hot-spots and cooling impacts

-inside the windings - between the windings Hot-spots and cooling impacts

No-Load Losses

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Impedance

Impedance

Loss evaluation, $/kW

No load losses Core


Magnetic flux density Core mass and quality

Load losses Windings


Current density Winding mass and conductor dimension
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Temperatures
Height Top Oil TT Top of winding Two Average of oil Hot Spot THsp

Average Winding temp TW

Bottom Oil TB Bottom of winding Temperature gradient (K)

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Guaranteed Temperatures Tw (mean winding temp. rise) TT (top oil temp.rise) THsp (winding hot spot temp. rise)

Average yearly temperature 20 C

65 K 60 K 78 K

(85 C) (80 C) (98 C)

THsp = TT + K1 * Two according to IEC

Cooling
Outer Circuit Heat Dissipation Pump optional Inner Circuit Heat Production (Core and Windings)

In principle the larger the losses in the Inner Circuit the larger the size of the Outer Circuit (coolers or radiators) Ambient temperature impacts temp. gradients size of cooling equipment. Overload requirements increase the cooling equipment A 500 MVA unit has about 1000 kW in losses

Fan optional

Oil immersed Tank

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Seismic withstand verification, Pacific Intertie 621 MVA unit

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Seismic withstand verification, Pacific Intertie 621 MVA unit

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Overloading and transformer weight


Height Hot Spot THsp

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Overloading and transformer weight


Transport weight, 1-phase HVDC transformers, 500 kV AC, 500 and 600 kV DC
400 350 Weight (Tons) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0
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100

200

300

400

500

600

Nominal Power (MVA) 33 % overload 2 hours 100 % overload 2 hours

Agenda, Converter Transformers Introduction Transformer topology and types HVDC application and consequences Design Tests Concepts Impedance, regulation, cooling Seismic withstand Weights Bushings, Tap changers and Oil Summary

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ABB Power Technologies Power Systems DC - 39 -

HVDC Bushings on the Transformer, type GGF

GGF Overview

The outer insulator on the air side is a glass fibre reinforced epoxy tube with silicon sheds

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The transformer side has no insulator on the condenser core.

Tap changer, ABB type UC

BIL levels up to 1050 kV Rated currents up to 4500 A Positions up to 35 Contact life up to 500 000 operations Mounted in tank or in separate compartments
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ABB Power Technologies Power Systems DC - 42 -

Oil, inhibited, non corrosive

Agenda, Converter Transformers Introduction Transformer topology and types HVDC application and consequences Design Tests Concepts Impedance, regulation, cooling Seismic withstand Weights Bushings, Tap changers and Oil Summary

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Specifying (HVDC) transformers


- Insulation levels - Regulation type/range Voltage rating Power rating Loss evaluation Impedance

- Overloads - Regulation type/range

- Noise level - Harmonics - Dc Voltage - Dc Currents


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Environmental Mechanical restrictions Requirements

Cooling

Tests

- Surface treatment - Transport (limitation, acceleration) - Seismic loads - Control cubicles - Terminal connections - CT:s - Accessories

- Temp. gradients - Overloads - Redundancy - Cooling type (ONAN/ONAF/OFAF/ODAF)

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