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Motivation Meaning and definition: The term motivation has its origin in the Latin word mover which

h means to move. Thus, motivation stands for movement. One can get a donkey to move by using a carrot or a stick, with people one can use incentives, or threats or reprimands. However, these only have a limited effect. These work for a while and then need to be repeated, increased or reinforced to secure further movement. The term motivation may be defined as the managerial function of ascertaining the motives of subordinates and helping them to realize those motives. In others words The psychological feature that arouses an organism to action towards a desired goal, the reason for that action." According to Dubin motivation could be defined as the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organisation. Motivation is something that moves the person to action, and continues him in the course of action already initiated.

Types of motivation Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on any external pressure. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards like money and grades, coercion and threat of punishment. Determinants of Motivation Traditionally it is believed that employees are motivated by the opportunity to make as much money as possible and will act rationally to maximize their earnings. The assumption is that money, because what it can buy is the most important motivator of all people. If this is so, why do some employees oppose the introduction of piece rate plans and others refuse to take overtime. Obviously in place of the above monistic approach (men motivated by money alone) a pluralistic explanation is required. According to the pluralistic approach men work to fulfil variety of needs. Three types of forces generally influence human behaviour: (1) Forces operating within the individual (2) forces operating within the organization and (3) forces operating in the environment. The individual: Human needs are both numerous and complex. Some of these needs cannot be described and identified because people hide their real needs under the cover of socially accepted behaviour. Further, each person is different and variety of items may prove to be motivating depending upon the needs of the individual, the situation the individual is in and what

rewards the individual expects for the work done. It is the duty of the manager to match individual needs and expectations to the type of rewards available in the job setting. The organization: The climate in the organization must be conducive to human performance. Climate plays an important part in determining workers motivation. The climate in an organization is determined by a number of variables such as its leadership styles, autonomy enjoyed by members, growth prospects, emotional support from members, reward structure etc. The environment: A worker does not live in two separate worlds, one inside the factory and the other outside it. The troubles and pleasures of off the job life cannot be put aside when reporting for work in the morning nor can factory matters be dropped when returning home after work. On the job experiences and off the job experiences are inextricably interwoven and cannot be separated in to water tight compartments. Culture, norms, customs, images and attributes accorded by society to particular jobs, professionals and occupation and the workers home life all play a strong motivation role. An individual may prefer to do the job of an officer (because it has social status and gives a lot of power) rather than serve as a college teacher (powerless position). In other words factor such as social status and social acceptance play an important role in shaping the motivations of people.

Characteristics of Motivation

Motivation is a psychological Concept: Motivation should come from inside each individual. There are two desiring factors in motivation- (a) Fundamental needs, such as food, clothes and shelter and (b) Ego-satisfaction including self-esteem, recognition from others, opportunities for achievements, selfdevelopment and self actualization which act as powerful though unconscious, motivator of behaviour. Inner motivation can be more decisur for behaviour than any external influence.

2. The whole Individual is motivated, not part of Him:A person's basic needs determine to a great extent what he will try to do at any given time. All these need are inter-related because each individual is an integrated organised whole.

3. Motivation is an unending Process: Man is a social animal. As a social animal he has innumerable wants which induce him to work. If one basic need is adequately satisfied for a given individual it loses power as a motivator and does into determine his current behaviour but at the same time other s needs continue to emerge. Wants are innumerable and cannot be satisfied at one time. It is an

unending process so the process of motivation is also unending to induce the person to satisfy is innumerable wants.

4. Frustration of Basic Needs Makes a Man Sick: If anybody fails in trying to mt a need which the feels is essential for him, he becomes to some extent mentally ill and such frustrated man cannot be motivated any further until his essential need is satisfied.

5. Goals are Motivators: Goals and motives are inseparable. Man works to achieve the goals. A soon as the goal is achieved he would be no longer interested in work. Therefore, it is very essential for the management to know his goal to push him to work.

6. The self-concept as a Unifying Force: According to Geller-man unifying forces run through each individual's history, Unifying force means the drive to actual his image of himself. The outline of a person's self image are fairly well checked in early childhood and thereafter do not act inertly change for example, a child who easily seems himself as a leader, will if possible try to behave that way in later life. Thus, two things that individual is always trying to do are (a) to act like the person, his things he is, and (b) to get what he things, he can.

Theories of motivation 1. Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs. In 1943, Dr. Abraham Maslow 's article "A Theory of Human Motivation " appeared in Psychological Review, which were further expanded upon in his book: Toward a Psychology of Being In this article, Abraham H. Maslow attempted to formulate a needs-based framework of human motivation and based upon his clinical experiences with people, rather than as did the prior psychology theories of his day from authors such as Freud and B.F. Skinner, which were largely theoretical or based upon animal behaviour. From this theory of motivation, modern leaders and executive managers find means of motivation for the purposes of employee and workforce management. Abraham Maslow's book Motivation and Personality (1954), formally introduced the Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow's model indicates that fundamental, lower-order needs like safety and physiological requirements have to be satisfied in order to pursue higher-level motivators along the lines of self-fulfilment. As depicted in the following hierarchical diagram, sometimes called 'Maslow's Needs Pyramid' or 'Maslow's Needs Triangle', after a need is satisfied it stops acting as a motivator and the next need one rank higher starts to motivate.


Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs

Physiological Needs

Self-Actualization Self-actualization is the summit of Maslow's motivation theory. It is about the quest of reaching one's full potential as a person. Unlike lower level needs, this need is never fully satisfied; as one grows psychologically there are always new opportunities to continue to grow. Self-actualized people tend to have motivators such as:

Truth Justice Wisdom Meaning

Self-actualized persons have frequent occurrences of peak experiences, which are energized moments of profound happiness and harmony. According to Maslow, only a small percentage of the population reaches the level of self-actualization. Esteem Needs After a person feels that they "belong", the urge to attain a degree of importance emerges. Esteem needs can be categorized as external motivators and internal motivators. Internally motivating esteem needs are those such as self-esteem, accomplishment, and self respect. External esteem needs are those such as reputation and recognition. Some examples of esteem needs are:

Recognition (external motivator) Attention (external motivator) Social Status (external motivator) Accomplishment (internal motivator) Self-respect (internal motivator)

Maslow later improved his model to add a layer in between self-actualization and esteem needs: the need for aesthetics and knowledge.

Social Needs Once a person has met the lower level physiological and safety needs, higher level motivators awaken. The first level of higher level needs is social needs. Social needs are those related to interaction with others and may include:

Friendship Belonging to a group Giving and receiving love

Safety Needs Once physiological needs are met, one's attention turns to safety and security in order to be free from the threat of physical and emotional harm. Such needs might be fulfilled by:

Living in a safe area Medical insurance Job security Financial reserves

According to the Maslow hierarchy, if a person feels threatened, the needs further up the pyramid will not receive attention until that need has been resolved. Physiological Needs Physiological needs are those required to sustain life, such as:

Air Water Food Sleep

According to this theory, if these fundamental needs are not satisfied then one will surely be motivated to satisfy them. Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are not recognized until one satisfies the needs basic to existence.

Applying Maslow's Needs Hierarchy - Business Management Implications If Maslow's theory is true, there are some very important leadership implications to enhance workplace motivation. There are staff motivation opportunities by motivating each employee through their style of management, compensation plans, role definition, and company activities.

Physiological Motivation: Provide ample breaks for lunch and recuperation and pay salaries that allow workers to buy life's essentials. Safety Needs: Provide a working environment which is safe, relative job security, and freedom from threats.

Social Needs: Generate a feeling of acceptance, belonging, and community by reinforcing team dynamics. Esteem Motivators: Recognize achievements, assign important projects, and provide status to make employees feel valued and appreciated. Self-Actualization: Offer challenging and meaningful work assignments which enable innovation, creativity, and progress according to long-term goals.

Remember, everyone is not motivated by same needs. At various points in their lives and careers, various employees will be motivated by completely different needs. It is imperative that you recognize each employee's needs currently being pursued. In order to motivate their employees, leadership must be understand the current level of needs at which the employee finds themselves, and leverage needs for workplace motivation.

2. Frederick Herzberg hygiene and motivators Frederick Herzberg was a well respected American who has contributed greatly to the way in which managers think about motivation at work. He first published his theory in 1959 in a book entitled The Motivation to Work and put forward a two factor content theory which is often referred to as a two need system. It is a content theory which explains the factors of an individuals motivation by identifying their needs and desires, what satisfies their needs and desires and by establishing the aims that they pursue to satisfy these desires. Herzbergs original research was undertaken in the offices of engineers and accountants rather than on the factory floor and involved interviewing over two hundred employees. His aim was to determine work situations where the subjects were highly motivated and satisfied rather than where the opposite was true and his research was later paired with many studies involving a broader sampling of professional people. In his findings Herzberg split his factors of motivation into two categories called Hygiene factors and Motivation factors. The Hygiene factors can de-motivate or cause dissatisfaction if they are not present, but do not very often create satisfaction when they are present; however, Motivation factors do motivate or create satisfaction and are rarely the cause of dissatisfaction. The two types of factors may be listed as follows in order of importance: Hygiene Factors (leading to dissatisfaction):

Company Policy Supervision Relationship with Boss Work Conditions Salary Relationship with Peers

Motivators (leading to satisfaction):

Achievement Recognition The work itself

Responsibility Advancement Growth

The dissatisfiers are hygiene factors in the sense that they are maintenance factors required to avoid dissatisfaction and stop workers from being unhappy, but do not create satisfaction in themselves. They can be avoided by using hygienic methods to prevent them. It is clear from the lists that the factors in each are not actually opposing i.e. the satisfiers are not the opposite of the dissatisfiers. The opposite of satisfaction isnt dissatisfaction but is no satisfaction. Both lists contain factors that lead to motivation, but to a differing extent because they fulfil different needs. The Hygiene factors have an end which once fulfilled then cease to be motivating factors while the Motivation factors are much more open-ended and this is why they continue to motivate. Herzberg also developed the concept that there are two distinct human needs: 1) Physiological needs: avoiding unpleasantness or discomfort and may be fulfilled via money to buy food and shelter etc. 2) Psychological needs: the need for personal development fulfilled by activities which cause one to grow.

Douglas McGregor Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, developed his theory X and theory Y of human motivation at the MIT Sloan School of Management in the 1960s. It has been used in human resource management, organizational behaviour, and organizational development. They describe two very different attitudes toward workforce McGregor felt that companies followed either one or the other approach. motivation.

He was president of Antioch College from 1948 to 1954. His theories were contained in his book The Human Side of Enterprise published in 1960. More recent studies have questioned the rigidity of McGregors model. They are two opposing perceptions about how people view human behaviour at work and organizational life. Theory X In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can. Because of this workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed. A hierarchical structure is needed with a narrow span of control at each level. According to this theory employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can.

According to McGregor, most managers (in the 1960s) tended to subscribe to Theory X, in that they took a rather pessimistic view of their employees. A Theory X manager believes that his or her employees do not really want to work, that they would rather avoid responsibility and that it is the manager's job to structure the work and energize the employee. The result of this line of thought is that Theory X managers naturally adopt a more authoritarian style based on the threat of punishment. Theory Y In this theory management assumes employees are ambitious, self-motivated, and anxious to accept greater responsibility, and exercise self-control and self-direction. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work activities. It is also believed that employees have the desire to be imaginative and creative in their jobs if they are given a chance. There is an opportunity for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to be their best. A Theory Y manager believes that, given the right conditions, most people will want to do well at work and that there is a pool of unused creativity in the workforce. They believe that the satisfaction of doing a good job is a strong motivation in itself. A Theory Y manager will try to remove the barriers that prevent workers from fully actualizing their potential. In general this gave the false impression that Theory X managers were the bad guys and that Theory Y managers are the best.

Causes of Employee De-motivation:

Lack of Appreciation: An employee feels unappreciated for his efforts. Too much Work: An employee feels overburdened with a disproportionate chunk of work which renders him unable to perform his duties well and punctually. Lack of Clarity in Work: An employee flounders at work due to lack of clarity on his various tasks. Favouritism: These refer to unfair practices that favour one worker over another. Mistrust: This deals with an employee resorting to micromanaging everything, displaying mistrust in a co-workers capabilities. Miscommunication: Free flow of information is withheld or information is provided only on a need-to-know basis. This can be de-motivating as it proves that the boss or organization does not fully trust its employees to share all available information on a project.

Communication Meaning: The word communication has been derived from the Latin word communis which means common. Communication, thus, is the process of sharing facts, ideas and opinions in common. Communication is said to take place when an individual conveys some information to other. The person conveying of sending the information is called the sender or the communicator and the person receiving the information is called the receiver or the communicate. The information conveyed is known as the message. The act of conveying the message is called transmission. The reaction of the receiver to the message is what is called response. Definition

Communication is an intercourse by words, letters, symbols or messages, and is a way that one organization member shares meaning and understanding with another Koontz and ODonnell. Communication is the intercourse by words, letters or messages, intercourse of thoughts or opinions F.G.Meyer. Communication is the process of conveying messages (facts, ideas, attitudes or opinions) by one person to another so that they are understand M.W.Cummin.

Importance of communication Communication plays a key role in the success of any workplace program or policy and serves as the foundation for all five types of psychologically healthy workplace practices. Communication about workplace practices helps achieve the desired outcomes for the employee and the organization in a variety of ways:

Bottom-up communication (from employees to management) provides information about employee needs, values, perceptions and opinions. This helps organizations select and tailor their programs and policies to meet the specific needs of their employees. Top-down communication (from management to employees) can increase utilization of specific workplace programs by making employees aware of their availability, clearly explaining how to access and use the services, and demonstrating that management supports and values the programs.

Examples of communication strategies that can help make your workplace programs successful include:

Providing regular, on-going opportunities for employees to provide feedback to management. Communication vehicles may include employee surveys, suggestion boxes, town hall meetings, individual or small group meeting with managers, and an organizational culture that supports open, two-way communication. Making the goals and actions of the organization and senior leadership clear to workers by communicating key activities, issues and developments to employees and developing policies that facilitate transparency and openness. Assessing the needs of employees and involving them in the development and implementation of psychologically healthy workplace practices. Using multiple channels (for example, print and electronic communications, orientation and trainings, staff meetings and public addresses) to communicate the importance of a psychologically healthy workplace to employees. Leading by example, by encouraging key organizational leaders to regularly participate in psychologically healthy workplace activities in ways that are visible to employees. Communicating information about the outcomes and success of specific psychologically healthy workplace practices to all members of the organization.

Communication process Communication is a process of exchanging verbal and non verbal messages. It is a continuous process. Pre-requisite of communication is a message. This message must be conveyed through some medium to the recipient. It is essential that this message must be understood by the recipient in same terms as intended by the sender. He must respond within a time frame. Thus, communication is a two way process and is incomplete without a feedback from the recipient to the sender on how well the message is understood by him.

Communication Process

The main components of communication process are as follows: 1. Context - Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place. This context may be physical, social, chronological or cultural. Every communication proceeds with context. The sender chooses the message to communicate within a context. 2. Sender / Encoder - Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. A sender makes use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response. For instance - a training manager conducting training for new batch of employees. Sender may be an individual or a group or an organization. The views, background, approach, skills, competencies, and knowledge of the sender have a great impact on the message. The verbal and non verbal symbols chosen are essential in ascertaining interpretation of the message by the recipient in the same terms as intended by the sender. 3. Message - Message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It is a sign that elicits the response of recipient. Communication process begins with deciding about the message to be conveyed. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear. 4. Medium - Medium is a means used to exchange / transmit the message. The sender must choose an appropriate medium for transmitting the message else the message might not be conveyed to the desired recipients. The choice of appropriate medium of communication is essential for making the message effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient. This choice of communication medium varies depending upon the features of communication. For instance - Written medium is chosen when a message has to be conveyed to a small group of people, while an oral medium is chosen when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient as misunderstandings are cleared then and there. 5. Recipient / Decoder - Recipient / Decoder is a person for whom the message is intended / aimed / targeted. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of encoder on decoder. 6. Feedback - Feedback is the main component of communication process as it permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form also in form of memos, reports, etc.

Types of communication Formal communication Formal communication is that which is connected with the formal organizational arrangement and the official status or the place of the communicator and the receiver. It moves through the formal channels authoritatively accepted positions in the organization chart. Formal communication is mostly in black and white. Formal communication can be defined as, A presentation or written piece that strictly adheres to rules, conventions, and ceremony, and is free of colloquial expressions. Informal communication Informal communication arises out of all those channels that fall outside the formal channels and it is also known as grapevine. It is established around the societal affiliation of members of the organization. Informal communication does not follow authority lines as in the case of formal communication. Downward communication Communication which flows from the superiors to subordinates is known as downward communication. In an organization structure, the superiors utilize their abilities to attain the desired targets which mean that they may be engaged in issuing commands, directions and policy directives to the persons working under them (at lower levels). Under downward communication, the superiors anticipate instant recital of a job thats why it is highly directive. Upper communication Upper communication means the flow of information from the lower levels of the organization to the higher levels of authority. It transfers from subordinate to superior as that from worker to foreman, from foreman to company manager, from companys manager to general manager and from general manager to the chief executive or the board of directors. In this way, the upward communication makes a chain Lateral communication Lateral communication refers to messages conversed between people on the same hierarchical level. For example, in terms of the workplace, if two supervisors have a discussion or two board members raise an issue this is known as lateral communication. Diagonal communication Diagonal communication refers to communication between managers and workers located in different functional divisions

External communication External communication covers how a provider interacts with those outside their own organization. This may be with the public, employers, community organizations, local authorities, job centers, careers offices, funding bodies, specialist agencies and other training providers.

Written communication Written communication entails transmission of message in black and white. It mainly consists of diagrams, pictures, graphs, etc. Reports, policies, rules, orders, instructions, agreements, etc have to be conveyed in written form for proper functioning of the organization. Oral communication Oral communication is direct face to face communication between two or more persons. In oral communication, the sender and receiver exchange their thoughts or ideas verbally either in face-to-face discussion or through any mechanical or electrical device like telephone etc. Nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication is usually understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless (mostly visual) messages - i.e., language is not the only source of communication, there are other means also. Messages can be communicated through gestures and touch (Haptic communication), by body language or posture, by facial expression and eye contact.

Co-ordination Meaning The synchronization and integration of activities, responsibilities, and command and control structures to ensure that the resources of an organization are used most efficiently in pursuit of the specified objectives. Along with organizing, monitoring, and controlling, coordinating is one of the key functions of management. Definition According to Mooney and Reelay, Co-ordination is orderly arrangement of group efforts to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common goals. According to Charles Worth, Co-ordination is the integration of several parts into an orderly hole to achieve the purpose of understanding.

Mary Parker Follett has laid out four principles for effective co-ordination;

Direct personal contact according to this principle co-ordination is best achieved through direct personal contact with people concerned. Direct face-to-face communication is the most effective way to convey ideas and information and to remove misunderstanding. Early beginning co-ordination can be achieved more easily in early stages of planning and policy-making. Therefore, plans should be based on mutual consultation or participation. Integration of efforts becomes more difficult once the unco-ordinated plans are put into operation. Early co-ordination also improves the quality of plans. Reciprocity this principle states that all factors in a given situation are interdependent and interrelated. For instance, in a group every person influences all others and is in turn influenced by others. When people appreciate the reciprocity of relations, they avoid unilateral action and co-ordination becomes easier. Continuity co-ordination is an on-going or never-ending process rather than a oncefor-all activity. It cannot be left to chance, but management has to strive constantly. Sound co-ordination is not fire-fighting, i.e., resolving conflicts as they arise.

Importance of Coordination

The need and importance of coordination can be judged from points below:1. Coordination encourages team spirit There exist many conflicts and rivalries between individuals, departments, between a line and staff, etc. Similarly, conflicts are also between individual objectives and organisational objectives. Coordination arranges the work and the objectives in such a way that there are minimum conflicts and rivalries. It encourages the employees to work as a team and achieve the common objectives of the organisation. This increases the team spirit of the employees. 2. Coordination gives proper direction There are many departments in the organisation. Each department performs different activities. Coordination integrates (bring together) these activities for achieving the common goals or objectives of the organisation. Thus, coordination gives proper direction to all the departments of the organisation. 3. Coordination facilitates motivation Coordination gives complete freedom to the employees. It encourages the employees to show initiative. It also gives them many financial and non-financial incentives. Therefore, the employees get job satisfaction, and they are motivated to perform better.

4. Coordination makes optimum utilisation of resources Coordination helps to bring together the human and materials resources of the organisation. It helps to make optimum utilisation of resources. These resources are used to achieve the objectives of the organisation. Coordination also minimise the wastage of resources in the organisation. 5. Coordination helps to achieve objectives quickly Coordination helps to minimise the conflicts, rivalries, wastages, delays and other organisational problems. It ensures smooth working of the organisation. Therefore, with the help of coordination an organisation can achieve its objectives easily and quickly. 6. Coordination improves relations in the organisation The Top Level Managers co-ordinates the activities of the Middle Level Managers and develops good relations with them. Similarly, the Middle Level Managers co-ordinates the activities of the Lower Level Managers and develops good relations with them. Also, the Lower Level Managers co-ordinates the activities of the workers and develops good relations with them. Thus, coordination overall improves the relations in the organisation. 7. Coordination leads to higher efficiency Efficiency is the relationship between Returns and Cost. There will be higher efficiency when the returns are more and the cost is less. Since coordination leads to optimum utilisation of resources it results in more returns and low cost. Thus, coordination leads to higher efficiency. 8. Coordination improves goodwill of the organisation Coordination helps an organisation to sell high quality goods and services at lower prices. This improves the goodwill of the organisation and helps it earn a good name and image in the market and corporate world.

Techniques of co-ordination: The main techniques of effective co-ordination are as follows. 1. Sound planning unity of purpose is the first essential condition of co-ordination. Therefore, the goals of the organisation and the goals of its units must be clearly defined. Planning is the ideal stage for co-ordination. Clear-cut objectives, harmonised policies and unified procedures and rules ensure uniformity of action. 2. Simplified organisation a simple and sound organisation is an important means of co-ordination. The lines of authority and responsibility from top to the bottom of the organisation structure should be clearly defined. Clear-cut authority relationships help to reduce conflicts and to hold people responsible. Related activities should be








grouped together in one department or unit. Too much specialisation should be avoided as it tends to make every unit an end in itself. Effective communication open and regular communication is the key to coordination. Effective interchange of opinions and information helps in resolving differences and in creating mutual understanding. Personal and face-to-face contacts are the most effective means of communication and co-ordination. Committees help to promote unity of purpose and uniformity of action among different departments. Effective leadership and supervision effective leadership ensures co-ordination both at the planning and execution stage. A good leader can guide the activities of his subordinates in the right direction and can inspire them to pull together for the accomplishment of common objectives. Sound leadership can persuade subordinates to have identity of interest and to adopt a common outlook. Personal supervision is an important method of resolving differences of opinion. Chain of command authority is the supreme co-ordinating power in an organisation. Exercise of authority through the chain of command or hierarchy is the traditional means of co-ordination. Co-ordination between interdependent units can be secured by putting them under one boss. Indoctrination and incentives indoctrinating organisational members with the goals and mission of the organisation can transform a neutral body into a committed body. Similarly incentives may be used to create mutuality of interest and to reduce conflicts. For instance, profit-sharing is helpful in promoting team-spirit and cooperation between employers and workers. Liaison departments where frequent contacts between different organisational units are necessary, liaison officers may be employed. For instance, a liaison department may ensure that the production department is meeting the delivery dates and specifications promised by the sales department. Special co-ordinators may be appointed in certain cases. For instance, a project co-ordinator is appointed to coordinate the activities of various functionaries in a project which is to be completed within a specified period of time. General staff in large organisations, a centralised pool of staff experts is used for co-ordination. A common staff group serves as the clearing house of information and specialised advice to all department of the enterprise. Such general staff is very helpful in achieving inter-departmental or horizontal co-ordination. Task forces and projects teams are also useful in co-ordination. Voluntary co-ordination when every organisational unit appreciates the workings of related units and modifies its own functioning to suit them, there is self-coordination. Self-co-ordination or voluntary co-ordination is possible in a climate of dedication and mutual co-operation. It results from mutual consultation and teamspirit among the members of the organisation. However, it cannot be a substitute for the co-coordinative efforts of managers.