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Lecture #1
31st Jan 2007


Centre for Advanced Studies in Engineering

Course objective

„ This course is designed for students without

communication engineering background,
intending to take graduate level courses in

„ This course covers the basics of signal

analysis, basic concepts of communications
and fundamental techniques and
technologies of communications.
Reading material
„ Text:
(1) Communication Systems, Simon Haykin, John Wiley
& sons, 3rd ed.
(2) Digital Communications: Fundamentals and
Applications, B. Sklar, Prentice Hall, 2nd ed.
(3) Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems,
B. P. Lathi

„ Reference:
(1) Discrete-time Signal Processing, Oppenheim &

„ Signals and Systems (recommended)

Basic Concepts
„ Why communicate?
The objective of communication is to transfer information
from a source to a recipient via a medium or channel

„ Source: Microphone, camera, transducers, computer,

„ Information: Analog, digital
„ Channel: Optic fiber, cable, free space (wireless
„ Recipient: Telephone, television, speaker, computer,
Basic Block Diagram

Source Transmitter Channel Receiver Recipient

Applications of Communications
„ News/entertainment
‰ Radio/TV broadcasting
„ Voice communication
‰ Fixed and mobile telephony
„ Information/resource sharing
‰ Internet
‰ Computer networking (LAN, WAN, etc.)
„ Space exploration
‰ Hubble space telescope sends images of space objects to the earth
„ Navigation
‰ An earth-bound Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver calculates its
latitude and longitude using information received from satellites
„ Types of information
‰ Analog: Voice, video, music, etc.
‰ Digital: Data, email, etc.

„ Representation of information
‰ Communication system converts information into electrical
electromagnetic/ optical signals appropriate for the channel.
‰ Analog information can be directly converted to signals that can
propagate through channel (analog systems)
‰ Analog information can also be converted bits or digits that can further
be converted to the signal bound to transmit through channel.
„ Analog signals are converted to bits using A/ D converters
Categories of Communication Systems
„ Based on method of information representation
‰ Analog
„ AM / FM radio
„ TV broadcasting
‰ Digital
„ Computer networks
„ Cellular network
„ Based on type of channel
‰ Wired (LAN, landline telephone, etc.)
‰ Wireless (cellular network, radio, TV, etc.)
„ Based on the direction of communication
‰ Simplex – one way communication (radio, TV, etc.)
‰ Half duplex – two way communication, one way at a time (walkie talkie)
‰ Full duplex – simultaneous two way communication (telephone, LAN,
Fundamental objective

„ At signal level, the fundamental objective is to

recover the analog waveform or bits from the
received signal.
„ This primary objective may demand applying
noise reduction techniques, synchronization
techniques, error detection / correction, etc.
Course Outline

„ Frequency Domain Analysis (Haykin, Oppenheim)

„ Analog Communication systems (Haykin)
„ Random Processes (Haykin)
„ Noise and Communication Systems (Haykin)
„ Information Sources and Source Coding (Sklar)
„ Digital Transmission through AWGN Channels (Sklar)
Grading Policy

„ Assignments: 15%
„ Quizzes: 10%
„ Midterm Exam : 25%
„ Final Exam: 50%
Basic Signals and Functions

„ Unit Impulse Function:

A function having the following properties is a unit impulse function.

⎧0 t≠0
δ (t ) = ⎨ δ( t )
⎩∞ t=0

∫ε δ (t ) dt = 1
− 0 t
Basic Signals and Functions

„ Unit Step Function:

u( t )
A unit step function is defined as
⎧1 t >0
u (t ) = ⎨
⎩0 t<0

0 t

„ Complex exponential signal:

x (t ) = e jω 0 t

Using Euler’s formula this function be decomposed as

x ( t ) = cos (ω0t ) + j sin(ω0t)
Frequency Domain Analysis
What is Frequency Domain?
A signal is usually represented either in time domain or in frequency
Time domain → Instantaneous signal value vs time
Frequency domain → Signal amplitude vs frequency

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 10 20 30 40 50
Time (seconds) Frequency (Hz)
Why Frequency Domain?
„ In frequency domain we get better picture of the frequency contents in a signal.

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 10 20 30 40 50
Time (seconds) Frequency (Hz)

„ Frequency bandwidth of the signal can be calculated/ determined and compared with
the available bandwidth.

0.2 BW = 16 kHz


0 1 2 3 4 0 10 20 30 40
Time (milliseconds) Frequency (kHz)
Why Bandwidth is Critical?

„ The available frequency bandwidth is usually limited. It is

sometimes because of limited channel capacity and
sometimes because of the regulations of a
telecommunication authority.
„ Use of radio frequency bands of the electromagnetic
spectrum, for wireless transmission, is regulated by
governments, in most countries, in a process known as
frequency allocation.