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# COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Lecture # 6
17th Feb 2007

Instructor
WASEEM KHAN

## Cen t r e for Ad va n ced S t u d ies in E n gin eer in g

Baseband and Bandpass signals
The message signal generated by a source is called baseband
signal.
Baseband refers to the band of frequencies representing the
message signal.
To comply with the channel, the baseband signal is sometimes
shifted to a band centered at a much higher frequency.
The signal in high frequency band is called bandpass signal.
Baseband signal is shifted to passband through a process called
modulation.
The centre frequency of passband is called carrier frequency.
Typical Analog Communication System

m (t)
Modulation
Generally speaking modulation is the process of shifting
of baseband signal to passband.

Why modulate?
Modulation allows multiple transmitters with different carrier frequencies
Antenna size is inversely proportional to the frequency. Typical required
length is /4. For telephonic signal having bandwidth 4 kHz, antenna
length is /4 = 3x105/(4x4000) = 18.75 km
Translation to a high frequency band makes the antenna realizable. For
carrier frequency 400 MHz, /4 = 3x105/(4x400x106) = 18.75 cm
Modulation
Modulation is the process by which a characteristic property of a
sinusoidal waveform is varied according to the message signal.
The variable characteristics of a sinusoidal waveform are
Amplitude
Phase
Frequency

## These characteristics when changed, declare three major categories

of modulation
Amplitude Modulation (AM)
Phase Modulation (PM or M)
Frequency Modulation (FM)
Amplitude Modulation
If m(t) is the baseband message signal and carrier signal is
c(t) = cos(2 f t + )
then amplitude modulated signal can be written as
x(t) = m(t) c(t) = m(t) cos(2 f t + )

## This type of amplitude modulation is called Double Side

Band Suppressed Carrier (DSB-SC) modulation.
Fourier transform of x(t) is of the form
XDSB( ) = [M( - c) + M( + c)]/2
where M( ) is the Fourier transform of m(t).
DSB-SC Amplitude Modulation
m(t)

|M( )|

0
DSB-SC Amplitude Modulation

x(t)
Amplitude
modulated carrier

## |XDSB( )| Lower sideband

Upper sideband
Ordinary Amplitude Modulation
Ordinary AM DSB-SC AM + carrier
xAM(t) = m(t) c(t) + A c(t) = [m(t) + A] cos(2 f t + )
The spectrum of ordinary AM is given by
XAM( ) = [M( - c) + M( + c)]/2 + A [ ( - c) + ( + c)]

A ( - c) |XAM( )| A ( + c)
Ordinary Amplitude Modulation
Ordinary AM is equivalent to DSB-SC modulation of a non-negative
signal.
xAM(t) = [m(t) + A] cos(2 f t + )

## In case of DSB-SC, zero crossings in the message signal causes

phase reversal of the carrier.
This makes demodulation of DSB-SC difficult at the receiver. (more
details later)
SSB Amplitude Modulation
Single side band AM utilizes half of the bandwidth required by DSB-
SC AM and ordinary AM.
A single side band contains complete information of the message
signal, hence other side band is not necessary.
SSB modulation reduces the bandwidth requirement but at the same
time increases the cost and complexity of the communication
equipment.
|XSSB( )|

-fc fc f
Generation of SSB AM
SSB can be generated by passing DSB through a bandpass
filter.
|XDSB( )|

|HBPF( )|

f
XSSB( )

f
Demodulation of Ordinary AM signal
1.5
Demodulation is the
inverse process of 1 Message
modulation. signal
0.5
This process drags a
bandpass signal back to
0
baseband. 0 0.05 0.1
Time (seconds)
The easiest way of 2
demodulation of ordinary 1
AM is envelope detector. Modulated
0 carrier and
At the receiver, the envelope
modulated signal can be -1

rectified to extract -2
0 0.05 0.1
envelope Time (seconds)
Announcements

## Assignment 1 has been uploaded on

comm_systems_case ( yahoo group for this
case) ------ Due date 28th Feb
(Only hand written submissions acceptable)

## Matlab tutorial on 21st Feb (7:30 - 8:30 pm)

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