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YISHUN JUNIOR COLLEGE JC 2 PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION 2009 BIOLOGY
Higher 1 Paper 1 Multiple Choice

8875/01
2nd SEPTEMBER 2009 Wednesday 0800- 0900 1 hour

Additional materials: Multiple Choice Answer Sheet
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READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST
Write in soft pencil. Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid. Write your name, index number and CTG on the Answer Sheet in the spaces provided. There are thirty questions on this paper. Answer all questions. For each question there are four possible answers A, B, C and D. Choose the one you consider correct and record your choice in soft pencil on the separate Answer Sheet. Each correct answer will score one mark. A mark will not be deducted for a wrong answer. Any rough working should be done in this booklet. Calculators may be used. .

This question paper consists of 19 printed pages and 1 blank page.

8875/01/YJC/2009

Which of the following will be responsible for cell adhesion? C D A B 2 The diagram below represents an electron micrograph of a secretory cell from a mammal. If the cell was supplied with certain amino acids containing radioactive sulphur atoms. in which of the following structures would the earliest concentration of radioactivity appear? 8875/01/YJC/2009 2 .1 The diagram below represents a model of the structure of a biological membrane.

3. Which of the following correctly matched the orders of structure with the statements? Statement 1 A B C D Primary Secondary Tertiary Tertiary Statement 2 Tertiary Tertiary Primary Secondary Statement 3 Secondary Primary Secondary Primary 8875/01/YJC/2009 3 . The presence of these microorganisms in a mammal’s digestive system aids in the digestion of which substance? A B C D lactose cellulose glycogen starch 4 The following statements describe three orders of structure of the insulin molecule.3 Some microorganisms produce β–glucosidase enzymes. The amino acids in each chain are coiled into a helix and held in position by hydrogen bonds. 1. The sequence and number of amino acids in each polypeptide chain is known. The molecule consists of two polypeptide chains joined and folded around one another. but mammals do not. 2.

Where would you expect to find these amino acids in a globular protein in aqueous solution? A Both serine and alanine would be in the interior and on the exterior of the globular protein. Both serine and alanine would be in the interior of the globular protein. occupy an allosteric site. occupy the active sites of the enzyme. Serine would be in the interior and alanine would be on the exterior of the globular protein. B C D 6 An essential feature of a non-competitive inhibitor is its ability to A B C D combine with a prosthetic group.5 The R group or side chain of the amino acid serine is –CH 2 -OH. 8875/01/YJC/2009 4 . modify a substrate. The R group of the amino acid alanine is –CH 3 . Alanine would be in the interior and serine would be on the exterior of the globular protein.

with the amount of substrate limited. ATP synthesis. 8875/01/YJC/2009 5 . Rate of reaction against substrate concentration. 8 Co-operation of the two photosystems of the chloroplast is required for A B C D reduction of NADP+. in the presence of excess substrate. C Rate of reaction against enzyme concentration.7 When investigating enzyme/substrate interactions. with the amount of substrate limited. cyclic phosphorylation. D Rate of reaction against enzyme concentration. which one of the following would be expected to show a linear relationship under constant conditions? A B Amount of product against time. oxidation of the reaction center of photosystem I. with the amount of enzyme limited.

9 Carbohydrates were radioactively labelled and their route from a green plant to a herbivore was identified. Which route was identified? in the green plant A B C D glucose → starch glucose → starch starch → maltose starch → maltose → → → → in the herbivore glucose → maltose → starch maltose → glucose → glycogen glucose → maltose → starch starch → glucose → glycogen 10 The figure below shows the effect of increasing light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis at two different CO 2 concentrations. Which label shows the point in which carbon dioxide concentration is limiting for both graphs? 8875/01/YJC/2009 6 .

12 What cellular compartment becomes acidic during mitochondrial electron transport? A B C D mitochondrial stroma cytoplasm directly surrounding the mitochondrion space between inner and outer mitochondrial membrane thylakoid membranes 13 During aerobic respiration. substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis. In complete oxidation of one molecule of glucose. ATP can be formed by oxidative phosphorylation and by substrate level phosphorylation.11 In mechanism. photophosphorylation is most similar to A B C D oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration. carbon fixation. the Calvin cycle. approximately what percentage of ATP is formed by substrate level phosphorylation? A B C D 11% 25% 75% 89% 8875/01/YJC/2009 7 .

The graph shows the mass of DNA within a cell during the cell cycle. Which point in time is represented by the stage shown in the electron microgram? 8875/01/YJC/2009 8 .14 The electron micrograph shows a cell at a particular stage during the cell cycle.

A B C D Genome. nucleotide Nucleotide. nucleotide Gene. chromosome.15 If the nucleus of a human motor neurone contains 6. It has a genetic code similar to that of organisms on Earth except that there are five different DNA bases instead of four and the base sequences are translated as doublets instead of triplets.8 picograms (pg) of DNA. chromosome. genome Chromosome.8 pg 13. genome 17 A new form of life is discovered. genome. from largest to smallest. what mass of DNA is the nucleus of an actively dividing human skin cell likely to contain at the end of interphase? A B C D 3.4 pg 6. gene. chromosome.6 pg 20. How many different amino acids could be coded for by this genetic code? A B C D 25 32 10 64 8875/01/YJC/2009 9 .4 pg 16 Identify the correct order of organisation of genetic material. gene. nucleotide. gene.

guanine 31%. Base pairing rules in this virus probably include adenine:cytosine. The genetic material of this virus is probably single stranded. 3 and 4 8875/01/YJC/2009 10 . 2.18 In studying a virus. cytosine 23%. unexpected base 17%. you find the following proportions of nitrogenous bases present: adenine 23%. 2 and 3 only 1. What statement(s) can you make about this virus? A B C D It probably uses RNA as its genetic material. A and B 19 The initiation of gene expression in prokaryotes involves which of the following mechanisms? 1 2 3 4 10 promoters 35 promoters mRNA splicing to remove introns promoters many kb upstream A B C D 4 only 1 and 2 only 1.

The DNA sequences corresponding to the start codon and the stop codon are included in the diagram. of amino acid in wild-type β-globin protein 146 146 206 206 A B C D 8875/01/YJC/2009 11 .20 The figure below shows the genomic structure of the wild-type human β-globin gene. What is the length (in nucleotides) of the wild-type β-globin primary RNA transcript (pre-mRNA) and how many amino acids are present in the wild type β-globin protein? Length of β-globin primary RNA transcript 1600 620 1600 620 No. The numbers within the boxes indicate the length of nucleotides of each region. inclusive of bases stated in the diagram.

Some examples are listed in the table below. a nematode and flowering mustard plant have the same number of chromosomes. coli. the larger the genome of an organism. puffer fish show greater genetic variety than E.21 Biologists have sequenced the genomes of many organisms. The number of genes found in organisms varies greatly. the greater the number of proteins it produces. From this data it can be concluded that A B C larger organisms have larger genomes. D 8875/01/YJC/2009 12 .

II and V I. while the DNA sequences between them are rich in adenine and thymine. D 23 Which of the following ideas were not part of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection? I II III IV V Acquired variation is inherited. Which of the following best accounts for this observation? A B C Histones protect the DNA helix from denaturation. IV and V 8875/01/YJC/2009 13 . Variation between individuals arises by gene mutation. A B C D I. The genes coding for histones are rich in guanine and cytosine. Only those individuals best adapted to the environment survive and reproduce.22 When a researcher heated the segment of the DNA helix containing the five histones gene. Regions that encode portions of the polypeptide that are vital for structure and function are less likely to incur mutations. Packaging of the DNA with histones strengthens base pair bonding. revealing the location of the histone-coding regions. The genes coding for histones are rich in adenine and thymine. III and V II. III and IV II. while the DNA sequences between them are rich in guanine and cytosine. Organisms produce more offspring than the environment can support. only the DNA sequences between these genes were denatured.

8875/01/YJC/2009 14 . species Z.24 In some Australian insects. One ancestral species has the following haploid set of chromosomes. species M. a number of different species can result from a single ancestral species. ancestral species. species M. Such changes may involve the joining together of chromosomes. species Z. ancestral species. species M. ancestral species. and rearrangement of the genetic material within chromosomes. The most likely order of evolution of these species is A B C D ancestral species. new species have arisen through changes that occurred to chromosomes in an ancestral species. As the changes in chromosomes accumulate. species G. species Z. species Z. the loss of whole or parts of chromosomes. species G. species G. species G. Three species that have evolved from the ancestral species shown above have the haploid sets of chromosomes shown below. species M.

25 Which pattern of mutation rate would be most helpful if one desires to use a gene as a molecular clock to determine evolutionary relatedness of species that are closely related to each other? Rate of mutation Time 8875/01/YJC/2009 15 .

the mosquitoes with the RRRS genotype are the most likely to survive.26 In the mosquito there is a gene locus which has two alleles. From this data it can be concluded that A the frequency of the RS allele is greater than the frequency of the RR allele in 1968. The graphs below show the number of mosquitoes of the 3 phenotypes (and genotypes) collected from 1965. through to 1970. in particular to the insecticide DDT. RR= resistant and RS= sensitive. when DDT was first used. after removal of DDT from the environment in 1968. B C D 8875/01/YJC/2009 16 . which are involved in resistance. two years after the spraying of DDT stopped. many generations after the removal of DDT the RR allele would disappear from the population. between 1967 and 1968 in the presence of DDT in the environment. having the RRRR genotype reduces the chance of survival.

Gene 1 Gene 2 I : no colour production. In some cases a child with achondroplasia is born to parents who have normal height. the genes are close together on the same chromosome. a mutation has occurred in the tissues of the child. there is recombination between the two genes during meiosis. particular combinations of alleles of these genes are always inherited together. 28 Achondroplasia is an autosomal dominant trait in humans that results in a form of dwarfism. This means that A B C D the genes assort independently. The fruit can have three phenotypes: no colour.27 The colour of the fruit in a particular species of plant is under genetic control. B C D 8875/01/YJC/2009 17 . a mutation has occurred in a somatic cell of one of the parents. Each of the genes has two alleles as shown. The most likely reason for the appearance of the child with achondroplasia is that A the parents are carriers and the child has inherited the mutant allele from each parent. a mutation has occurred in a gamete of either the mother or the father. Two genes are involved in the control of fruit colour. i : colour is produced G : yellow fruit . yellow colour or green colour. g : green fruit These two genes are unlinked.

a homozygous black cat to a Siamese cat. nose.29 Coat colour in cats is controlled by many genes. black fur over the whole of their body. Cats homozygous for this allele have pigment only on their extremities. When cats carry the C allele at this locus they have full expression of pigmentation. the tip of the tail. for example. One gene locus has many alleles. for example. one of which is called the Siamese allele (cs). Siamese and black cats would be produced in equal numbers in a cross of A B C D two Siamese cats. two heterozygous black cats. 8875/01/YJC/2009 18 . a heterozygous black cat to a Siamese cat. ears and feet.

the frequency of the A2 allele is 0.5.3. there are a total of 50 alleles in this population. the frequency of the A1 allele is 0. Fifty plants were sampled to see which enzyme was produced. Genotype based on enzyme produced A1A1 A1A2 A2A2 Number of plants of each genotype 20 10 20 From the data above it is possible to conclude that A B C D the total number of A2 alleles is 30. --------------------------. There are two alleles at this locus. each producing a different form of the enzyme. The results are shown below. A heterozygote can produce both forms of the enzyme.30 In phlox plants (Phlox drummondii) a gene locus produces the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase.--End of Paper--------------------------------- 8875/01/YJC/2009 19 . A1 and A2.