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AmpGrid

Functional Overview

3 November 2009

AmpGrid Functional Overview 3 November 2009

Version 3.0 1 November 2009

Overview 3 November 2009 Version 3.0 1 November 2009 Silkeborgvej 2 8000 Aarhus C Denmark Phone

Silkeborgvej 2 8000 Aarhus C Denmark Phone +45 8730 4500 Fax +45 8730 4550 www.amplex.dk

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Table of Contents

1. Executive overview

3

1.1. AmpGrid Projects

3

1.2. A ‘Smart Grid’ Solution

4

2. Concept of AmpGrid

5

2.1.1. A distributed system

5

2.1.2. System Components

6

2.1.3. An integrated feature set

6

2.2. Integration

7

2.3. System Overview

7

3. The AmpGrid System

9

3.1. System Overview

9

3.2. The Amplex Platform

9

3.3. Configurability

10

3.3.1. Abstraction Model and Template Configuration

10

3.3.2. Data Collection

12

3.3.3. Analysis and Detection

12

3.3.4. Notification

13

3.3.5. Reaction and Control

13

3.3.6. Ability to Customize for the Circumstances

13

3.4. Display and Overview

14

3.5. Survey and Configuration

18

3.5.1. Inventory and Domain Topology

18

3.5.2. Commissioning

19

3.5.3. Maintenance

19

18 3.5.1. Inventory and Domain Topology 18 3.5.2. Commissioning 19 3.5.3. Maintenance 19

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1. Executive overview

Most customers, in terms of numbers (not by size of load) are connected to the low voltage (LV) network. This means that from an operational perspective, the distribution companies are mainly concerned with quality of supply issues. Whilst at higher voltage levels, network planning and flexible network reconfiguration for maintenance and faults on the system are easier to deal with due to the robust nature of modern transmission and distribution network design. For most consumers, if a power outage occurs, there are not many options available for network re-configuration should the outage be due to a major incident or fault. As most LV networks tend to be made up of mainly underground cables, transient faults are less likely than with overhead lines. Faults that do occur will typically be related to circuit overload or ruptured cables as a result of aging, corrosion or an excavation.

In the above scenarios, faults are not generally identified until/unless a customer calls to report the power failure, this is not the optimum way for any utility to operate. Once reported, the fault could be located at one of several nodes in the network hierarchy; from customer distribution board (DB) to distribution sub-station; identifying the exact point may not always be obvious and could take precious time to locate.

Voltage sage or surges can also be disruptive to customers. In some cases unprotected electronic equipment can be destroyed by a voltage surge or malfunction should the voltage drop beyond a certain point. To protect the customer against these, and other network conditions e.g. frequency variation; standards of service/supply are mandated and monitored by the regulator. Failure to adhere to these standards can result in penalties being applied to the distribution company.

The AmpGrid system is a Low Voltage Network Monitoring System that is designed to address these issues for the distribution company.

1.1. AmpGrid Projects

Some typical goals of an AmpGrid project could include extending the functionality currently offered through the AMR and AmpLight projects to give, in addition:

Aggregation of parent/child (hierarchical) metering points

Network power quality monitoring

Instantaneous values for network modeling/planning

Extended Control Room functionality

The introduction of energy meters at all major nodes, providing quality of supply data as well as consumption data, will, when combined and integrated to the existing portfolio of Amplex projects, provide the following capabilities:

Complete distribution network reconciliation of units purchased against units sold

Accurate identification of unbilled consumption at each major node:

Technical losses

Unmetered supplies (estimations)

Consumption with no account e.g. theft

Ability to monitor power outages and to analyze customer impact enabling prompt and appropriate corrective action

Deliver improvement in customer service through advanced quality of supply monitoring e.g. voltage and frequency

• Deliver improvement in customer service through advanced quality of supply monitoring e.g. voltage and frequency

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Gain a deeper knowledge of the whole distribution network and its ‘pinch points’ based on accurate real- time analysis of captured data

Ability to produce more accurate and reliable forecasting for projected energy demand based on demographic and geographic analysis of customer load profiles

Capture and analyze the effect of customer load on the network e.g. power factor and peak load

1.2. A ‘Smart Grid’ Solution

A ‘Smart Grid’ is a concept for transforming a nation’s electric power grid by using advanced communications,

automated controls and other forms of information technology.

This concept, or vision, integrates energy infrastructure, processes, devices, information and markets into a coordinated and collaborative process which allows energy generated, distributed and consumed more effectively and efficiently.

A ‘Smart Grid’ enables devices at all levels within the grid (from utility to customer) to independently sense,

anticipate and respond to real-time conditions by accessing, sharing and acting on real-time information. The

Amplex product name for this type of technology solution is ‘AmpGrid’ – this also encompasses the products known as AmpLight and AmpMetering (AMR).

This project will see the integration of the ‘AmpGrid’ application with the existing portfolio of Amplex technology solutions to give a total overview for monitoring the entire LV distribution network.

portfolio of Amplex technology solutions to give a total overview for monitoring the entire LV distribution

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2. Concept of AmpGrid

AmpGrid represents the next generation in the management and control of the Low Voltage power grid. is designed to provide insight into all parts of the system, with information about the network’s design and configuration, measurement of its current state, and the ability to control and reconfigure the network as cir- cumstances dictate.

It

2.1.1. A distributed system

In general, AmpGrid is a distributed system with remote data storage and intelligence. It provides the ability to collect, store and analyse data locally on site, and deliver this data as desired for further analysis and supervisory control from a central location.

desired for further analysis and supervisory control from a central location. Figure 2.1. The Amplex technology

Figure 2.1. The Amplex technology platform

desired for further analysis and supervisory control from a central location. Figure 2.1. The Amplex technology

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2.1.2. System Components

An AmpGrid solution is based on an infrastructure of smart meters, and remote controlled circuit breakers that are distributed throughout all assets of the power company’s network. These are augmented with remote intelligence, redundant power and a resilient communications infrastructure.

power and a resilient communications infrastructure. Figure 2.2. A sample installation including low voltage

Figure 2.2. A sample installation including low voltage substations, distribution cabinets, metering, and lighting control

The proprietary Amplex CPU units form the foundation of this system. They provide the power to record and locally analyze the data that is available. The smart meter is the sensor that supplies the rich dataset, through which each location is monitored. The resilient communications channels provide multiple paths to relay criti- cal data back to the main control centre for display and evaluation. Smart breakers provide the ability to measure the exact status of your network, and give the opportunity to manually or automatically reconfigure your network by disconnecting and reconnecting both incoming and outgoing circuits. Finally, redundant power ensures that all of these features continue to function when the underlying power network is compro- mised.

2.1.3. An integrated feature set

All of these features come together into an overall system that

Collects and stores data at various physical locations and at varying levels of detail

Is Configurable

Can analyze the data both locally and centrally

Can notify about problems

Can present an overview

Can react to problems

the data both locally and centrally • Can notify about problems • Can present an overview

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2.2. Integration

Amplex offers a set of integrated solutions that work together and share data. AmpGrid is designed to be tightly integrated with AmpMetering and AmpLight, so that features such as power aggregation can be car- ried out across the complete network, and so that power consumption in lighting can be used to regulate network load.

AmpGrid is also designed to work with other systems in the enterprise, and includes web service interface lay- ers with which to integrate.

web service interface lay- ers with which to integrate. Figure 2.3. Integration of the Amplex systems

Figure 2.3. Integration of the Amplex systems both internally and to external systems.

2.3. System Overview

The foundation for the entire system is the ability to obtain core data from the field about the current status of any installation. In each cabinet a monitoring device (i.e. a Smart Meter) is installed to read data about the cur- rent location.

is installed to read data about the cur- rent location. Figure 2.4. Overview of data collection

Figure 2.4. Overview of data collection and storage of data using Amplex hardware

The digital meter is read by the AmsCPU based on a schedule that has been sent to it from the central server. The data is stored inside the AmsCPU in a local database for a specific length of time as determined by the configuration file. The data series that are captured can then be fed into formulas that perform calculations on the data in the field. These calculations include determining the maximum, minimum and average values over specified time ranges. The results of calculations can also be stored in the local database for specific lengths of time. Any of these time series (or simply select points) can be delivered back to the central server on predetermined schedules.

Sending all data back to the central server from all installations in a network would however be overwhelming, and potentially a waste of communications resources. This is where the power of the AmsCPU comes in.

be overwhelming, and potentially a waste of communications resources. This is where the power of the

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Algorithms can be configured that monitor the data and calculated values in order to generate triggers. These algorithms include simple thresholds, detection of percentage variations, and basic digital filters. The triggers are in turn used to drive actions:

Automated behavior (like turning a capacitor on to reduce the power factor)

Raising alarms

Delivering data back to the main server

This combination of scheduled delivery and local oversight allows the central office to keep tabs on the status of the network, while monitoring circumstances at a fine resolution locally, and delivering critical information when it is needed. If further investigation is required at the central office, detail data can be requested from specific locations when it is needed.

investigation is required at the central office, detail data can be requested from specific locations when

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3. The AmpGrid System

3.1. System Overview

AmpGrid is a generic distributed supervision and control system. It is specifically designed to be able to man- age a large distributed network of thousands of sites. Being able to manage such a network requires more than a simple ability to collect data and customize a configuration. The problem of dealing with thousands of sites requires an ability to:

Generalize the configuration process

Effectively manage the many concurrent installation projects

A means to manage the immense inventory of equipment installed in the field

3.2. The Amplex Platform

AmpGrid is built on a core of proven Amplex technologies that have been providing stable support for street light control and metering. A very extensible platform in its own right, the platform consists of:

The Amplex Module System (AMS); a set of devices that are used to interface with end devices, provide communication, and facilitate remote intelligence and storage.

The Amplex CPU: the core of the AMS devices, is an intelligent ARM based computer running a Linux kernel, that is extensible, both from a software and hardware perspective. Remote logic ensures that the device continues to run, and execute its local control even if there is no communication back to the host server.

A Server Architecture consisting of communication gateways for data gathering and communication with remote devices, a central database, a web based presentation layer, and a web services based integration layer.

Multiple communication paths that ensure that an AmsCPU has the highest possible chance of delivering data and messages it collects.

A communication architecture, AmpCom, that reliably manages the dataflow between server and distributed devices.

An Agent API that allows for the development of new system solutions through remote logic, server logic, and communication protocols.

An auto discovery mechanism that ensures that devices connected to the network are found, reported in to the server, and configured for their assigned tasks

A software management system that manages version control and deployment of software as desired.

their assigned tasks • A software management system that manages version control and deployment of software

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3.3.

Configurability

In order to provide a system that is customizable enough to be configured for whatever monitoring is desired, yet scalable enough to manage configurations across thousands of sites and multitudes of hardware, it is necessary to have a fundamental model that abstracts from the physical sensor hardware, and both general- izes and helps to manage the configuration process. Ease of configuration and long term manageability be- come critical to the platform. The AmpGrid system is based on the following principals and features:

Abstraction between physical measurement devices and logical plant model

Configuration of the system against the logical plant model

Template and type based configuration management

Integrated field tool for survey, installation, commissioning, and maintenance

Remote, programmable calculations

Centralized configuration management and deployment

3.3.1. Abstraction Model and Template Configuration

Various abstraction layers are used to separate the physical hardware installed in the field from the logical model of the process that is actually being managed. Values that are measured, and data series that are col- lected and calculated are associated with a global namespace. With this in place, configuration templates are created that specify what needs to happen on the CPU. These templates can be easily applied to large num- bers of locations, or fine-tuned for specific applications in single locations. Finally, the data that is collected can be mapped to various display tools on the server including status indicators overlaid on maps, graphs of vari- ous relevant data, or schematics of the various locations.

Templates allow for generic configuration of:

The data values to be read, the frequency of collection and the duration of storage

The calculations to be applied to the data, and how these results are to be stored

The triggers that are to be fired by the analysis of the data

The delivery of data back to the server

The various actions that are to be performed when the triggers fire (including data delivery, alarm generation, or automatic/semi-automatic control actions)

In order to ensure that the capacity of the distributed network is not exceeded, the configuration system will estimate the amount of storage and communications bandwidth that is required by various configurations, and warn the user if they are exceeding the capabilities of the system.

that is required by various configurations, and warn the user if they are exceeding the capabilities

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AmpGrid – Functional Overview Version 3.0 Page 11 o 19 Figure 3.1 The configuration model of

Figure 3.1 The configuration model of the AmpGrid system illustrating how physical hardware is abstracted from the logical system representation, and how configuration templates for both data collection and display are applied to this logical view of the system.

and how configuration templates for both data collection and display are applied to this logical view

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3.3.2. Data Collection

As specified earlier, the configuration files dictate the kind of data that is collected in the remote CPUs. This data is kept in non-volatile memory on the CPU, and is kept as long as the profile specifies (up to the memory limit of the CPU – approximately 2 MB in the basic unit). A mapping process in the configuration stage ensures that data collected from various disparate systems and meters can be consolidated and correlated back at the central server.

A specific monitoring point would typically be configured with a set of measurements at varying degrees of

resolution. A high rate of sampling (perhaps every 10 sec) may be performed on certain data. This data would

be kept for a reasonably short time, and would generally be used to detect changes in the state of the system,

or to calculate summary data (max, min, average and standard deviation) that would be logged on longer

intervals. Medium interval data (perhaps every hour) would be collected on particularly sensitive data for regular submission into the central server. Less critical data may be monitored at a medium frequency as well,

but only submitted to the server when it changes beyond a certain level from the steady state.

3.3.3. Analysis and Detection

The real power of the distributed system comes from Amplex’s proprietary CPU. This puts the processing ca- pabilities of a full computer in every location around the network. Having this kind of power distributed throughout ones installations gives the ability to perform analysis both locally and centrally. This also means that larger volumes of data can be collected and analysed locally than could reasonably be delivered to a cen- tral location.

The AmsCPU can be configured to process the data series that are collected at regular intervals. This process- ing can be used to:

Calculate derived values that cannot be measured

Summarize data collected over longer time periods (max, min, average, standard deviation)

Summarize data of the same type (max of phase 1, 2, and 3 voltage)

Filter the data values that are read

Low pass to smooth variation

High pass to detect changes of certain scale or rate

Compression to allow more detail data to be saved or sent to the server on a more regular basis

The analytical algorithms are also used to detect changes in the measured data and fire triggers. These changes can be characterized as:

Exceeding pre-specified absolute or relative bounds

Exceeding certain rates of change

These triggers can be logged, used to initiate various forms of notification (alarms, dynamic data delivery) or to perform automated actions.

A set of predefined, optimized algorithms is included with the system. If more elaborate calculations are

needed, these can be built in code, uploaded into the system and used out in the CPU.

If more elaborate calculations are needed, these can be built in code, uploaded into the system

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Beyond analysis that takes place in the field installations, further analysis is performed on the central server (of the data that is collected centrally). This involves

Alarm management

Power aggregation and supervision

Data summarization

Trend monitoring

3.3.4. Notification

Having collected the data, one of the most important functions of the system is to generate relevant and use- ful notification of what is going on in the network. For this reason the system is built with a sophisticated trig- ger and alarm management system.

As mentioned previously, the system is monitored both centrally and remotely, looking for preconfigured conditions. When these conditions are detected, triggers are fired and logged (again, both centrally or re- motely depending on where the monitoring is taking place).

In the remote CPUs, the Triggers can be configured to raise Alarms, which are logged and delivered immedi- ately to the central server. The triggers can also be used to initiate the immediate delivery of data updates, so that the server is made aware of a critical state change.

Where applicable, this data that it delivered dynamically, is integrated with data that is delivered on a sched- uled basis, so that displays and user interfaces are kept up to date with the latest information.

Triggers and alarms that are captured from the remote installations are integrated with those that are gener- ated centrally. The alarms are summarized so that only the most critical data is present upon first inspection. Detail data is still maintained and available upon deeper inspection.

3.3.5. Reaction and Control

The data that is collected, and the triggers that are fired are used to make decisions about the network. Such decisions could be actions initiated by an operator based of specific alarms, or simple review of the network. These actions could also be initiated through intelligence in the AmpGrid system.

The AmpGrid system can be configured to look for specific changes of state both on a local level and on a global (central) level. Actions could be implemented as automatic switching and load shedding, or as simple suggestions that must be acted upon either manually or through remote control by an operator of the system. Those actions that can be suggested locally and acted upon locally could be programmed to occur automati- cally, and could even occur when the local system has lost communication with the central network.

3.3.6. Ability to Customize for the Circumstances

The structure of the AmpGrid system allows for a large and complex system to be configured and managed with in a standard way with relative ease. When situations present themselves that require extra attention and monitoring in specific locations, the default configurations can be overridden. This would allow specific locations to be monitored for different data, or at a higher rate, with all data submitted to the central server for permanent storage.

be monitored for different data, or at a higher rate, with all data submitted to the

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3.4. Display and Overview

On the central server, the data received from the field equipment is stored in a central database. This data is used to drive an integrated web platform, which can be used for supervision, trouble analysis, reporting and control. The system is meant to be visualized in three different environments: On a control room big-screen, on a dual monitor workstation by control room operators, and on a standard workstation or laptop.

room operators, and on a standard workstation or laptop. Figure 3.2 Different interfaces for the AmpGrid

Figure 3.2 Different interfaces for the AmpGrid system

The desktop / laptop interface, AmpWeb, is a web based environment that allows for browsing and naviga- tion of the network based on an intuitive node based hierarchy. This is supplemented with a map-based overview that allows for the navigation of the installations based on the physical network topology. Both mechanisms drive down to a set of pages that present:

Textual displays of current readings

Aggregation summaries for all data collected below the given node

Graphs to display historical views of the above data

summaries for all data collected below the given node • Graphs to display historical views of

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Schematics to view the equipment within a specific site, and some of the states or measured values on this equipment

The ability to fetch detail data from the remote node, that is not normally delivered to the central server

Detailed map views that show local relationships to the current node

Alarm overviews, to allow for searching and filtering alarms

Configurations, to manage data collection, data display, and to edit network topology or inventory

data display, and to edit network topology or inventory Figure 3.3: Graphs of historical data Figure

Figure 3.3: Graphs of historical data

network topology or inventory Figure 3.3: Graphs of historical data Figure 3.4 Heat map view of

Figure 3.4 Heat map view of control cabinet voltage

network topology or inventory Figure 3.3: Graphs of historical data Figure 3.4 Heat map view of

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AmpGrid – Functional Overview Version 3.0 Page 16 o 19 Figure 3.5 Connection between sites A

Figure 3.5 Connection between sites

A system dashboard can also be configured to provide an overview of the most relevant issues affecting the system at the moment. This can be configured by user role and provides the operator with a starting point to identify trouble areas on the network.

The control room interface is designed around a map, with the possibility of configuring smaller display areas on the side to display other pertinent information. This mapping interface is designed to let the user pick pa- rameters of interest and have them easily displayed as values, graphics, or heat maps, for all points across the entire network. Again, this serves as a supervisory mechanism to help identify areas requiring attention.

The workstation interface integrates the two, with the intention of displaying the map on one monitor and the AmpWeb interface on another. The two will work together to provide overview, navigation and detail informa- tion to a single user.

As with the data collection, the visual display of data is configured through a set of templates that allow for easy application of standard configurations across the assets of the network.

Beyond the modes of interacting with the system, there is also a rich user rights system that allows control over which data can be viewed and edited by which user groups in the system.

The combination of the above-mentioned features allows for the fully integrated Amplex products to be run from one control room, or it can be distributed over multiple control rooms. Since the interface is completely web driven, there is no requirement for the control room or the control room operators to be located in the same location as the servers.

is no requirement for the control room or the control room operators to be located in

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AmpGrid – Functional Overview Version 3.0 Page 17 o 19 Figure 3.6: Possible configurations of server

Figure 3.6: Possible configurations of server room, workstations and desktops to address different operational requirements

As an example, a large utility may be responsible for a region that includes a major city and several smaller suburbs. They have responsibility for the distribution grid, metering and light control. They have two server centers, one for the city and one for the suburbs. For the actual operations, they use three control rooms. There are two in the city, where one is focused on grid and lighting in the downtown core only, while the other takes care of the outlying regions, as well as metering for the entire city. The two control rooms are able to take over for each other if necessary. In the suburbs, they have a single, smaller control room where they run eve- rything; AmpGrid, AmpLight, and AmpMetering. The Control room displays can be configured to either show an overview of all information (AmpGrid, AmpLight, and AmpMetering), or have three views that could be switched between as needed. The actual detail work would be done by dedicated control room staff with multi display work stations that allow them to work with both a map based overview and the AmpWeb inter- face simultaneously, as it pertains to their area of expertise and focus.

both a map based overview and the AmpWeb inter- face simultaneously, as it pertains to their

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AmpGrid – Functional Overview Version 3.0 Page 18 o 19 Figure 3.7: A Sample setup for

Figure 3.7: A Sample setup for a medium sized utility

3.5. Survey and Configuration

The low voltage network is a large distributed system with a significant number of locations that would prove difficult to configure and maintain in a conventional SCADA system. The AmpGrid system addresses this through an intelligent data and topology abstraction model, a straightforward templating and configuration system, and software designed to be used by field personal on handheld devices while they are on site.

The field software, AmpField, is designed to improve the process of initial survey, commissioning, and mainte- nance.

3.5.1. Inventory and Domain Topology

It is important that the AmpGrid system is aware of the topology of the network as it relates to the customer electricity network, and not as it relates to the communication network that brings the data home. It can also be important to understand the inventory of equipment that is installed in each site. Capturing this data on paper or other means in the field and keying it in an office is a process that is destined for errors. The AmpField tool allows this data to be gathered on site by a person familiar with the equipment in question.

More importantly, having these capabilities in the field tool also allows the field personal to update this data when they are out performing maintenance, so that the data in the system is not outdated before it is even used.

this data when they are out performing maintenance, so that the data in the system is

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The AmpField tool is designed to collect data about:

The location of sites

How they are connected to other sites

The inventory of equipment located in the site

Pertinent details about the site (configurable from project to project using a simple XML configuration file)

project to project using a simple XML configuration file) Figure 3.8 Screens from handheld survey tool:
project to project using a simple XML configuration file) Figure 3.8 Screens from handheld survey tool:
project to project using a simple XML configuration file) Figure 3.8 Screens from handheld survey tool:

Figure 3.8 Screens from handheld survey tool: site overview, location, and connections

survey tool: site overview, location, and connections Figure 3.9 Screens from handheld survey tool: site details
survey tool: site overview, location, and connections Figure 3.9 Screens from handheld survey tool: site details

Figure 3.9 Screens from handheld survey tool: site details and inventory

3.5.2. Commissioning

The field tool is specifically designed to interface with Amplex equipment in the field to set configuration in- formation into a newly installed site, and to collect information for archival purposes as well as for automated setup on the server.

3.5.3. Maintenance

The AmpField software includes a set of features for use in the maintenance process. In addition to the ability to maintain an updated catalogue of information while performing the work, AmpField also contains a set of diagnostic tools to facilitate the location of communication faults, updating of drivers, and recording the re- placement of devices.

tools to facilitate the location of communication faults, updating of drivers, and recording the re- placement