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I hereby certify that this project work was carried out under my supervision. I therefore approve that the work is adequate in scope and quality for the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of a Higher National Diploma (HND) in Electrical/Electronics Engineering.




I Tizaa Callistus declares that the work was undertaken whilst in Accra Polytechnic. I further affirm that, this work so far as I know has not been submitted to any institution for the award of any certificate and the source of information has been fully acknowledged





The project in question is a Public Address System meant for Indoor announcement. The project unlike other P.A Systems which have the same output been sheared with the amount of speakers designated for it, this one gives the operator more flexibility to select its recipients at any time without disconnecting a section of speakers.




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4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4


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1.1 INTRODUCTION The public address system for indoor announcement is one of most captivating and the most challenging projects because its expensive but wealth producing. These PA system haves many outputs according to rooms specified. It outputs are sent to rooms and then given speakers of about 10 to 100watts depending on the size of the room and the noise in the environment for example for a forging workshop the speaker have to be powerful to draw the attention of the works and to convey information to the recipients clearly. Announcement can be sent to individual rooms and to many rooms at once depending on the one operating the machine because there is a selector or a switch assigned to each room which allows the operator to select the room that an information have to be sent to.

1.2 BACKGROUND From my own personal research acrross few institutions I know, stedents workers and staffs are more quite than often called together or assemplied whenever general,depatemental or information ment for certain group of people are sopposed to be delivered. The time taken to put all this people together and the stress involves led to this inovation to aid such level of communication needs.



The Public Address System for Indoor Announcement is a unique public address system which has a simple mixer and single powerful amplifier with its speakers having their own output switch turning the speakers on and off. The speakers are wired individually to assure one of total independence. The operator is the only one with the soul honors to select with place is supposed to receive a piece of information.



This project seeks To help reduce the amount money needed to manufacture the mentioned project. To make the delivery of information in institution or a hall easy and fast. To replace the existing ones with a more accessible and user friendly type.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY The significance of this study is to design a public address system which is

Cheep and most of the components are available on our electronics components market which makes it easy to be repaired and maintained. Easy to control or operate. Distortion free and has no or less signal losses.

1.6 METHODOLOGY All important information needed for this project to takeoff was acquired form two main source namely primary and secondary sources. Primary source were sources were the personal interactions with my supervisor and workers of a well equipped and well knowledgeable on this project. Secondary sources were the research was based on information from Carols Advanced Electronics and Training Centre manufactures of Carols brand public address systems and from the internet.

CHAPTER TWO 2.1 Public Address Systems

A public address or "PA" system is an electronic amplification system with a mixer, amplifier and loudspeakers, used to reinforce a given sound (Example a person making a speech, prerecorded music, or message) and distributing the 'sound' to the general public around a building. Simple PA systems are often used in small venues such as school auditoriums, churches, and small bars. PA systems with a larger number of speakers are widely used in institutional and commercial buildings, to read announcements or declare states of emergency. Intercom systems, which are often used in schools, also have microphones in each room so that the occupants can reply to the central office. There is disagreement over when to call these audio systems Sound Reinforcement (SR) systems or PA systems. Some audio engineers distinguish between the two by technology and capability, while others distinguish by intended use

(e.g., SR systems are for live music whereas PA systems are usually for reproduction of speech and recorded music in buildings and institutions). This distinction is important in some regions or markets, while in other regions or markets the terms are interchangeable.


Small PA systems

The simplest PA systems consist of a microphone, a modestlypowered mixer-amplifier (which incorporates a mixer and an amplifier in a single cabinet) and one or more loudspeakers. Simple PA systems of this type, often providing 50 to 200 watts of power, are often used in small venues such as school auditoriums, churches, and small bars. In Ghana, PA systems are also sometimes referred to as "sound reinforcement systems" or simply "sound systems." In colloquial British English, a PA system installed for public address in a building is sometimes referred to as a "Tannoy" system after the company of that name.

Public Address systems typically consist of input sources, preamplifiers and/or signal routers, amplifiers, control and monitoring equipment, and loudspeakers. Input sources refer to the microphones and CD Players that provide a sound input for the system. These input sources are fed into the pre-amplifiers and signal routers that determine the zones that the 'audio signal' is fed to. The pre-amplified signals are then passed into the amplifiers. Depending on a countries' regulation these amplifiers will amplify the audio signals to 50V, 70V or 100V speaker line level. Control equipment monitors the amplifiers and speaker lines for faults before it reaches the loudspeakers.



Large venue PA systems

For popular music concerts, a more powerful and more complicated PA system is used to provide live sound reproduction. In a concert setting, there are typically two complete PA systems: the "main" system and the "monitor" system. Each system consists of microphones, a mixing board, sound processing equipment, amplifiers, and speakers. There is disagreement over when to call these audio systems Sound Reinforcement (SR) systems or Public Address (PA) systems. This distinction is important in some regions or markets, while in other regions or markets the terms are interchangeable. The "main" system (also known as "Front of House", commonly abbreviated FOH), which provides the amplified sound for the audience, will typically use a number of powerful amplifiers driving a range of large, heavy-duty loudspeakers including low-frequency speaker cabinets called subwoofers, full-range speaker cabinets, and high-range horns.


A large club may use amplifiers to provide 1000 to 2000 watts of power to the "main" speakers; an outdoor concert may use 10,000 or more watts. The "monitor" system reproduces the sounds of the performance and directs them towards the onstage performers (typically using wedge-shaped monitor speaker cabinets), to help them to hear the instruments and vocals. In British English, the monitor system is referred to as the "fold back". The monitor system in a large club may use amplifiers to provide 500 to 1000 watts of power to the "monitor" speakers; at an outdoor concert, there may be several thousand watts of power going to the monitor system. At a concert in which live sound reproduction is being used, sound engineers and technicians control the mixing boards for the "main" and "monitor" systems, adjusting the tone, levels, and overall volume of the performance.



Acoustic feedback

All PA systems have a potential for feedback, which occurs when sound from the speakers returns to the microphone and is then reamplified and sent through the speakers again. This generally manifests itself as a sharp, sudden high-volume piercing sound which can damage the loudspeakers' high-frequency horns or tweeters - and audience members' hearing. Sound engineers take several steps to prevent feedback, including ensuring that microphones are not pointed towards speakers, keeping the onstage volume levels down, and lowering frequency levels where the feedback is occurring, using a graphic equalizer, parametric equalizer a combination of both devices, or a notch filter.



Digital signal processors

Small PA systems for venues such as bars and clubs are now available with features that were formerly only available on professional-level equipment, such as digital reverb effects, graphic equalizers, and, in some models, feedback prevention circuits (which electronically sense and prevent feedback "howls" before they occur). These digital signal processing multi-effect devices offer sound engineers a huge range of sound processing options (reverb, delay, echo, compression, etc.) in a single unit. In previous decades, sound engineers typically had to transport a number of heavy "rackmounted" cases of analog effect devices. Amplifiers

A number of PA companies are now making lightweight, portable speaker systems for small venues that route the low-frequency parts of the music (electric bass, bass drum, etc.) to a separately-powered subwoofer. Routing the low-frequency parts of the signal to a separate amplifier and low-frequency subwoofer can substantially improve the bass-response of the system. 14

As well, the clarity of the overall sound reproduction can be enhanced, because low-frequency sounds take a great deal of power to amplify; with only a single amplifier for the entire sound spectrum, the power-hungry low-frequency sounds can take a disproportionate amount of the sound system's power.

Power amplifiers have also become lighter, smaller, more powerful and more efficient due to increasing use of Class D and AB amplifiers, which offer significant weight and space savings as well as increased efficiency and effectively easy to implement alternative to traditional PA systems.



PA speakers

High-end PA speakers have been made lighter by using neodymium speaker magnets, and horns are often wired using protective circuitry such as light bulbs (which illuminate and absorb excess wattage) or poly switches that protect the horn from damage in the event of feedback or a dropped microphone. These new approaches to speaker protection are more convenient than the formerly used approach of fuses because the sound system needs to be turned off to change fuses.

Driver design


The most common type of driver uses a lightweight diaphragm connected to a rigid basket, or frame, via flexible suspension that constrains a coil of fine wire to move axially through a cylindrical magnetic gap. When an electrical signal is applied to the voice coil, a magnetic field is created by the electric current in the coil which thus becomes an electromagnet. The coil and the driver's magnetic system interact, generating a mechanical force which causes the coil, and so the attached cone, to move back and forth and so reproduce sound under the control of the applied electrical signal coming from the amplifier. The following is a description of the individual components of this type of loudspeaker. The diaphragm is usually manufactured with a cone or dome shaped profile. A variety of different materials may be used, but the most common are paper, plastic and metal. The ideal material would be stiff (to prevent uncontrolled cone motions), light (to minimize starting force requirements) and well damped (to reduce vibrations continuing after the signal has stopped). In practice, all three of these criteria cannot be met simultaneously using existing materials, and thus driver design involves tradeoffs. 17

For example, paper is light and typically well damped, but not stiff; metal can be made stiff and light, but it is not usually well damped; plastic can be light, but typically the stiffer it is made, the less welldamped it is. As a result, many cones are made of some sort of composite material. This can be a matrix of fibers including Kevlar or fiberglass, a layered or bonded sandwich construction, or simply a coating applied to stiffen or damp a cone. The basket or frame must be designed for rigidity to avoid deformation, which will change the magnetic conditions in the magnet gap, and could even cause the voice coil to rub against the walls of the magnetic gap. Baskets are typically cast or stamped metal, although molded plastic baskets are becoming common, especially for inexpensive drivers. The frame also plays a considerable role in conducting heat away from the coil. The suspension system keeps the coil centered in the gap and provides a restoring force to make the speaker cone return to a neutral position after moving.


A typical suspension system consists of two parts: the "spider", which connects the diaphragm or voice coil to the frame and provides the majority of the restoring force; and the "surround", which helps center the coil/cone assembly and allows free pistonic motion aligned with the magnetic gap. The spider is usually made of a corrugated fabric disk, generally with a coating of a material intended to improve mechanical properties. Unusually, a German manufacturer, Klangfilm, used bakelite for spiders in some of its early drivers, and another German company currently offers a spider made of wood. The surround can be a roll of rubber or foam, or a ring of corrugated fabric (often coated), attached to the outer circumference of the cone and to the frame. The choice of suspension materials affects driver lifetime, especially in the case of foam surrounds which are susceptible to aging and environmental damage. The wire in a voice coil is usually made of copper, though aluminum, and rarely silver, may be used. Voice coil wire cross sections can be circular, rectangular, or hexagonal, giving varying amounts of wire volume coverage in the magnetic gap space. 19

The coil is oriented coaxially inside the gap, a small circular volume (a hole, slot, or groove) in the magnetic structure within which it can move back and forth. The gap establishes a concentrated magnetic field between the two poles of a permanent magnet; the outside of the gap being one pole and the center post (a.k.a., the pole-piece) being the other. The center post and back-plate are sometimes a single piece called the yoke. Modern driver magnets are almost always permanent and made of ceramic, ferrite, Alnico, or, more recently, neodymium magnet. A current trend in design, due to increases in transportation costs and a desire for smaller, lighter devices (as in many home theater multispeaker installations), is the use of neodymium magnet instead of ferrite types. Very few manufacturers use electrically powered field coils as was common in the earliest designs. The size and type of magnet and details of the magnetic circuit differ, depending on design goals. For instance, the shape of the pole piece affects the magnetic interaction between the voice coil and the magnetic field, and is sometimes used to modify a driver's behavior.


As well, a 'shorting ring' or cap is sometimes used near the magnetic gap to reduce adverse distortion effects of high current in the voice coil. Driver design, and the combination of one or more drivers into an enclosure to make a speaker system, is both an art and science. Adjusting a design to improve performance is done using magnetic, acoustic, mechanical, electrical, and material science theory, high precision measurements, and the observations of experienced listeners. Designers can use an anechoic chamber to ensure the speaker can be measured independently of room effects, or any of several electronic techniques which can, to some extent, replace such chambers. Some developers eschew anechoic chambers in favor of specific standardized room setups intended to simulate reallife listening conditions. A few of the issues speaker and driver designers must confront are distortion, lobbing, phase effects, off axis response and crossover complications. The fabrication of finished loudspeaker systems has become segmented, depending largely on price, shipping costs, and weight limitations. 21

High-end speaker systems, which are heavier (and often larger) than economic shipping allows outside local regions, are usually made in their target market area and can cost $140,000 or more per pair. The lowest-priced speaker systems and most drivers are manufactured in China or other low-cost manufacturing locations. Although the manufacture of drivers has become largely commoditized, the fabrication and subsequent sale of finished speaker systems still carries high profits. Partly for this reason, manufacturers are increasingly combining power amplifier electronics (a typically lower profit item) with finished speaker systems to create powered speakers with an overall higher market value.

Driver types
An audio engineering rule of thumb is that individual electrodynamic drivers provide quality performance over at most about 3 octaves. Multiple drivers (i.e., subwoofers, woofers, mid-range drivers, tweeters) are generally used in a complete loudspeaker system to provide performance beyond 3 octaves. 22

Speaker specifications generally include:
Speaker or driver type (individual units only) Full-range,

woofer, tweeter or mid-range. Size of individual drivers. For cone drivers, this number may be the outside diameter of the frame, the diameter of the surround, or the diameter of the cone. It may also be the distance from the center of one mounting hole to its opposite. Voice coil diameter may also be specified. If the loudspeaker has a compression horn driver, the diameter of the horn throat may be given. Rated Power Nominal (or even continuous) power, and peak (or maximum short-term) power a loudspeaker can handle (i.e., maximum input power before thermally destroying the loudspeaker. It is never the sound output the loudspeaker produces). A driver may be damaged at much less than its rated power if driven past its mechanical limits at lower frequencies (e.g., by bass heavy electronica or theatre organ music). 23

Tweeters can also be damaged by amplifier clipping (lots of high frequency energy in such cases) or by music, or sine wave input at high frequencies. Each of these situations passes more energy to a tweeter than it can survive without damage. Impedance typically 4 (ohms), 8 , etc. Baffle or enclosure type (enclosed systems only) Sealed, bass reflex, etc.
Number of drivers (complete speaker systems only) 2-way,

3-way, etc.



For a smooth construction and of this system four stages has to be fulfilled to obtain a full Public Address System. These stages are: a) Audio Mixing b) Equalization c) Amplification
d) Audio Distribution and Switching




In professional audio, a mixing console, or audio mixer, also called a sound board or soundboard, is an electronic device for combining (also called "mixing"), routing, and changing the level, timbre and/or dynamics of audio signals. A mixer can mix analog or digital signals, depending on the type of mixer. The modified signals (voltages or digital samples) are summed to produce the combined output signals. Mixing console to set microphones for different speakers to the correct level, and can add in recorded sounds into the mix. A major requirement is to minimize audio feedback. Most bands will use a mixing console to combine musical instruments and vocals to the correct level. Radio broadcasts use a mixing desk to select audio from different sources, such as CD players, telephones, remote feeds, or prerecorded advertisements. For this project a three channel mixer would be used to make its operation easy.


Description This mixer is a simple mixer with 2 line inputs and 1 microphone inputs using commonly available parts. The mic inputs are suitable for low impedance 200-1000R dynamic microphones. An ECM or condenser and Dynamic mic can also be used, but must have bias applied via a series resistor. As with any mixer circuit, a slight loss is always introduced. The final summing amplifier has a gain of 2 or 6dB to overcome this. The Input line level should be around 200mV RMS. The mic inputs are amplified about 100 times or by 40dB, the total gain with the mixer is 46dB. The mic input is designed for microphones with outputs of about 2mV RMS at 1 meter. Most microphones meet this standard.




Equalization (EQ) filter is a filter, usually adjustable, chiefly meant to compensate for the unequal frequency response of some other signal processing circuit or system. An EQ filter typically allows the user to adjust one or more parameters that determine the overall shape of the filter's transfer function. It is generally used to improve the fidelity of sound, to emphasize certain instruments, to remove undesired noises, or to create completely new and different sounds. Equalizers may be designed with peaking filters, shelving filters, band pass filters, plop filters or high-pass and low-pass filters.


Using a single op-amp this easy to make equalizer offers three ranges, low frequency, mid frequency and high. With component values shown there is approximately +/-20dB of boost or cut at frequencies of 50Hz, 1 kHz and 10 kHz. Supply voltage may be anything from 6 to 30 Volts. Maximum boost 20dB is only realized with maximum supply voltage.




Class AB amplifier for Multi-frequency Speakers

+35V R5 + C1 C4 input + Q1 PNP R3 Q2 PNP R4 R1 R2 + R6 C2 R7 D2 DIODE Q5 NPN R14 R8 + R9 D1 DIODE Q3 NPN R10 Q6 NPN R12 SPK1 8


R11 Q4 PNP

R13 Q7 NPN -35V



The diagram above Fig.2.0 is a class AB amplifier without an equalizer because it has its own equalizer separate on the front panel. The circuit is a combination of a class A differential amplifier and a class B complimentary push pull amplifier. The first stage which is the class A differential amplifier. This raises the input source to amplitude enough to drive the second stage which is a class B complimentary Push-pull amplifier which does all the major work. Much emphasis should be placed on the second stage because it is responsible for driving the speakers. 30

The second stage could have been used alone. But an audio distortion caused by the crossover between two out-of-phase transistors is annoying. To overcome this defect, the Class B amplifier is modified into the third category called Class AB for most high-fidelity audio sound. To have a more stable performance high quality transistor should be used for the out put transistors thus, Q6 and Q7.




A simple supply using a 25-0-25 transformer will give a peak power of about 75W into 8 ohms, or 60W or so continuous. This is influenced by a great many things, such as the regulation of the transformer, amount of capacitance, etc. For a pair of amps, a 300VA transformer will be enough. Feel free to increase the capacitance, but anything above 10,000uF brings the law of diminishing returns down upon you. The performance gain is simply not worth the extra investment.

Figure 2.2 - Recommended Power Supply


For the standard power supply, as noted above I suggest a 300VA transformer. I choose 220V for primary windings because that is the supply available in Ghana. The supply voltage can be expected to be higher than that quoted at no load, and less at full load. This is entirely normal, and is due to the regulation of the transformer. In some cases, it will not be possible to obtain the rated power if the transformer is not adequately rated. The bridge rectifier should be a 35A type, and filter capacitors must be rated at a minimum of 50V. Wiring needs to be heavy gauge, and the DC must be taken from the capacitors - not from the bridge rectifier.




For audio distributing to the loud speaker each amplifier have a limit of two 8 speakers to make sure that the parallel sum of speakers does not exceed the 4-16 range with respect to the amplifiers impedance. A simple single pole single throw switch is used to do this magic.



COMPONENT T1 U1 BR1 Q1,Q2 D1-D4 S1 C1,C7 C2 C4 VR1-6 C9

35 R1,R7,R11 R4,R9,R10 R2,R14,R15 R16,R17 R8 R12,R5 R3 R13,R18 100 2.2K 10K 47K 22 K 10 18K 0.47 /5W 6 6 6 2 2 4 2 4


10A TIP 41 TIP42 C2580 4 P.A LOUD SPEAKER 103pf

1 4 2 4 2/2 3

C D U 36




The difficulties involved in getting some of the components for this project because of the components were imported from Nigeria Electronics Market and china which took a lot of time to arrive making it difficult to compile study and the construction of the project together. Researches, typing and printing is very difficult to complete because of the frequent power outages.


This circuit was first divided into four stages namely amplifier, power supply mixer, equalizer and each stage was carefully tested with electronics stimulator software and then assembled. Part of the circuit like the amplifier board was assembled on a Vero board (PCB) and then tested with a signal generator and an oscilloscope to check the frequency response. This circuit was finally tested after all he four parts were puts together to check and correct its short falls.

Much consideration was given to meter readings or voltages and frequencies.


An audio source is fed to a volume control to control the total gain of different channels and then to a three band audio mixer which mixes the signal from the three channels into one signal having the same amplitude. After that, the mixing out is connected to combinations of high, mid and low pass filter (equalizer) and then amplified by either an op-amp or a common emitter class A amplifier to compensate signal losses. The out put is then fed to the two amplifiers and then to the loudspeakers via the switches.


To avoid noise at the out put of the system it is important to use the write wire for the connection between the audio sources and the system. The write cable for this job is the screened wire, Shielded cable or microphone cable. Shielded cable A shielded cable is an electrical cable of one or more insulated conductors enclosed by a common conductive layer. The shield may be composed of braided strands of copper (or other metal), a non-

braided spiral winding of copper tape, or a layer of conducting polymer. Usually, this shield is covered with a jacket. The shield acts as a Faraday cage to reduce electrical noise from affecting the signals, and to reduce electromagnetic radiation that may interfere with other devices. The shield minimizes coactively coupled noise from other electrical sources. In single conductor signal cables the shield may act as the return path for the signal and is usually connected only at the signal source. In multi-conductor cables the shield should be grounded only at the source end, and will not carry circuit current. High voltage power cables with solid insulation are shielded to protect the cable insulation and also people and equipment. 40 Signal cables By twisting two conductors of a balanced-line signal circuit into a twisted pair, some cancellation of inductively-coupled noise is obtained. However, a metallic shield layer over the twisted pair provides better suppression of noise. Coaxial cable is used at higher frequencies to provide controlled circuit impedance, but the outer tubular conductor is also effective at reducing coupling of noise into a circuit. Applications

The use of shielded cables in security systems protects them from power frequency and radio frequency interference, reducing the number of false alarms being generated. Microphone or "signal" cable used in setting up PA and recording studios is usually shielded twisted pair cable, terminated in XLR connectors. The twisted pair carries the signal in a balanced audio configuration. The cable laid from the stage to the mixer is often multi-core cable carrying several pairs of conductors. Consumer grade microphones use screened wire with one central conductor in an unbalanced configuration.


In other to arrive at a good and a successful project, the following precautions were taken into consideration: 1. The circuit was built under supervision to ensure accuracy.

The circuit diagram was first tested with schematic circuit stimulator software (crocodile clips) and then mounted on a Vero board and then rechecked for accuracy to prevent damage of any component.

3. Correct soldering techniques were ensured as well as the usage of a correct solder.

4. The right tools and equipment were used for this project. 5. Suitable equivalent replacement of components was ensured at places where the original components were not available. 6. After the completion of this project, care was taken to ensure that one was well vested in the knowledge before he/she was allowed to operate this system.


In conclusion we would say that the project public address system for announcement could go a long way to aid information delivery and also enhance productivity since there would be no need to assemble huge crowds before conveying information to them. It was also realized that it was designed down to earth making it easy to operate and significantly the operator has the option of selecting the group of people supposed to receive particular piece of information.

SUMMARY From the above project it was realized that, Public Address System for announcement is essential to any institution to reduce the amount of time and work involved in delivering general and selective information to a particular group of people. The project was also designed to reduce cost and make it easy to operate unlike the imported ones on the market which users complain that it complicated and difficult to operate and expensive.

43 RECOMMENDATIONS My recommendations were based on research made and are as follows:

1. Firstly, it is highly recommended Hospitals for doctor and

administration communication.
2. Furthermore it is recommended for schools and institutions for

effective delivery of information.

3. it is also essential for publics halls and busy places like the airport for airline operational information. 4. Last but not the least; government must encourage such projects to generate employment for the youth at large.