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Objective: To determine the grading and particle size distribution of a sample soil Theory: Sieve analysis is the process of dividing a sample of aggregate into fraction of the same size. Aggregate is being divided into fractions of the same size with a purpose of determining the grading or size distribution which is important to find out whether the aggregate pile in concern is good for the intending purpose such as being good mix material or not or the usability of it as filter material in the filtration chamber of water treatment plant and in dam construction site. The grading of the aggregate usually affects the workability of the fresh concrete and it is also an indication of aggregate suitability for selection for sub-base material in road pavement construction. Apparatus: the apparatus needed for the experiment are: i. Set of British Standard sieves of 2.36mm, 1.18, 600 micron, 425, 300, 212, 150 and 75 or 63 micron ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Lid and receiver Balance readable and accurate to 0.1 gm Drying oven Evaporating pans Sieve brush and Mechanical shaker

Procedure: 200g of an oven dried cohesionless sample was weighed to nearest 1g. the sieve were arranged with the larger size (2.36mm) at the top and descending in decreasing order of sieve size. The receiver was placed beneath the bottom sieve The weighed specimen was transferred to the topmost sieve and the lis was placed on. The whole set up was placed on mechanical shaker and was agitated for 15 minutes. The assemblage of the sieves with their soil content was carefully separated and each sieve with the soil retained in it was weighed. The result is presented in the Table below.


The plot

SEIVE ANALYSIS Percentage Passing



80 Percentage Passing 60



0 100 10 1

ii. iii.

Computation of coefficient of concavity Five uses of grain-size distribution test are: a) The gradation of the soil often controls the design and quality control of drainage filters, and ground-water drainage. b) The gradation (particle-size distribution) curve is used to calculate the coefficient of uniformity and the coefficient of curvature. c) Selection of filter materials for filtration chamber of water treatment plant is based on particle size distribution. d) Selection and acceptance of fill materials are often based on gradation. For example, highway embankments, backfills, and earthen dams ma y have gradation requirements. e) Selection of options for dynamic compaction and grouting is related to gradation of the soil.

iv. v. This experiment is significant as a means of soil identification and classification in that it help to calculate the parameters in which soil identification and classification are based.


Objective: To determine the natural water content, the liquid and plastic limits, and hence the liquidity and plasticity indices of a clay sample. Theory: Consistency of fine grain soil containing clay minerals changes with moisture contents. At very low moisture content, soil behaves like a solid. When the moisture
content is very high, the soil and water may flow like a liquid. Hence, on an arbitrarily basis, depending on the moisture content, the behavior of soil can be divided into four basic state; solid, semisolid, plastic and liquid state. The moisture content, in percent, at which the transmission from solid to plastic state is the plastic limit, and from plastic to liquid state is the liquid limit. These parameters are known as atterberg limits.

Apparatus: the apparatus used for experiment are: i. ii. iii. iv. Casagrande Liquid Limit device (as shown in Figure 2a) Grooving tool (as shown in Figure 2b) Wash bottle and Moisture content cans

Procedure: A. Liquid Limit (L.L): the casangrande liquid limit device was first adjusted so that the cup drops 10mm when raised to its maximum height. Then an oven-dried soil sample of about 120 grams was thoroughly mixed with sufficient water to form a thick paste. The cup was filled so that the surface of the paste is level with the rim of the cup when it is resting on its base and the paste surface leveled so that it is parallel to the base. The grooving tool, carefully held and maintained perpendicularly to the cup, was used to form a groove along the diameter through the centre of the pivot of the cup. The handle of casangrande tool was rotated at a rate of two revolutions per second and the number of bumps required to close the base of the grove of (13mm) was counted. Small sample, about 10 grams, of the soil in the cup around the vicinity where the groove was closed was taken and placed in weighing tin for water content determination. The soil

remaining in the cup was returned to the mixture on the glass pate and more water was added and the soil re-mixed thoroughly. The cup was refilled and the test was repeated. This procedure was repeated four times adding a little water each time so that the number of bumps required to close the groove reduced each time. B. Plastic Limit (P.L). About 20 grams of soil was thoroughly mixed by kneading with the fingers into a ball which was then rolled out on a glass plate by hand until it became a thread 3mm in diameter. The process of kneading and rolling was repeated until it was found that the 3mm diameter thread began to crumble as it was rolled. The portion of the thread ware gathered up and their water content determined. The results of the experiment are tabulated below. C. Plasticity Index (P.I) = L.L. P.L.

From the graph, L.L = 27.7 i.e the moisture that corresponding to 25 number of blows on the graph) Plasticity Index (P.I) is the difference between liquid limit and plastic limit. i.e. P.I = L.L P.L (where L.L = 27.7 from the graph) P.I = 27.7 12.9 = 14.8 D. Liquidity Index (L.I) L. I= m P.L = 27.25 - 12.9 = 14.35

E. This experiment is significant as means of classifying and identifying soil because the plasticity index of different soil help in their classification relative to plasticity state as shown below. plasticity index of a soil between 0 5 simply signify that the soil is a cohesionless soil

(sand), plasticity index (P.I) between 5 - 10 means low plastic i.e. it very small amount of clay is present. But if P.I is > 40, it is highly plastic i.e. the clay content is very high or it is a clay soil. P.I 0 5 5 10 10 20 20 40 40 50 >50 Description Non Plastic Slightly Plastic Low Plastic Medium Plastic High Plastic Very high Plastic

F. Another method of determining Liquid limit of a soil is with use of Cone penetrometer method. The type of penetrometer employ is shown blow.


Objective: the objective is to determine shear strength of a specimen tested in undrained compression without the measurement of pore water pressure. Theory: The knowledge of shear strength of soil is required in the solution of problems concerning the stability of soil masses. If at a point on any plane within a soil mass the shear strength stress becomes equal to the shear strength of the soil, failure will occur at this point. The shear strength of soils is largely a function of the effective normal stress on the shear plane, which equals the total normal force less the pore water pressure. The shear strength, s, can be expressed in terms of the total normal pressure, , or the effective normal pressure, , by

parameters determined from laboratory tests or, occasionally, estimated from correlations with index properties. The Shear strength equation is given as s = c + tan where s = Shear strength of the soil c = cohesion of the soil = total normal pressure = angle of internal ffriction Undrained shear strengths apply where there is no change in the volume of pore water (i.e., no consolidation) and are measured in the laboratory by shearing without permitting drainage. Apparatus: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Triaxial Compression Machine Triaxial cell, piston and non- Perspex discs Sampler extruder (for 100mm diameter and 38mm specimen) Rubber membrane stretcher and metal straightedge Split mould and wire saw A balance and accurate to 0.5g An apparatus for applying the desire cell pressure.

Procedure: Undisturbed specimen of 38mm diameter were extrude from 100mm tube into 3 No. triaxial sampling tube of 38mm diameter with the aid of the 38mm extruder. The samples were push into split-tube fixed at its opposite end. The samples were carefully cut normal to the axis of the extruder with each sample trimmed to have length of 76mm.

The mass of each sample was measured and placed centrally on the pedestral of the triaxial machine. The rubber membrane was then placed inside the membrane stretcher with the end of the membrane rolled over the end of the tube. The sample was then enclosed in the rubber membrane with non -porous discs placed at each end. The rubber membrane was sealed at the cap and base with O-rings. The cell was assembled with the loading ram initially clear the top of the specimen. Water, the operating fluid, was admitted and the air releases valve was closed as the water was expelled. The cell pressure was then raised to 100kN/m2 and kept constant. Thus, the sample was initially subjected to cell pressure of 100kN/m 2 acting in all direction. The axial load was applied through the proving ring at a constant rate of strain until the sample failed. The cell was then drained of its water and dismantled. The removed specimen was weighed and the moisture content determined. The remaining two samples were tested by the same procedure with their cell pressure increased to 200 and 400 kN/m 2 respectively. The results are shown in the Table below. RESULTS: Sample size: 38.1 mm x 76.2 mm Depth: 4.5 m Sample No: 1/7 Description of sample: Very Stiff Reddish Brown Lateritic Sandy Silty Clay.



MASS MOISTURE OF DRY CONTENT SAMPLE (%) (gm) 147.8 148.1 147.9 16.4 16.4 16.4




164.2 164.5

18.69 18.72 18.70

100 200 400








TEST 1 000 25 50 100 150 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 0 27 38 49 57 68 77 88 97 118 128 131 134 134 131

TEST 2 0 15 22 32 41 53 67 76 81 93 118 133 157 162.5 164.8 164.8 160

TEST 3 0 19 27 36 47 63 89 118 128 143 167 188 200 208 219 222 225 221 0.00 0.33 0.67 1.33 2.00 2.67 4.00 5.33 6.67 8.00 9.33 10.67 12.00 13.33 14.67 16.00 17.33 18.67





400 Strain (%) Load/ Area Strain (%) Load/ Area 300 Strain (%) Load/ Area



0 0 5 10 STRAIN 15 20

100kN/m2 P=(1 + 2)/2 vs q=(1 - 3)



150 100kN/m2 P=(1 + 2)/2 Linear (100kN/m2 P=(1 + 2)/2)



200kN/m2 P=(1 + 2)/2 vs q=(1 - 3)





200kN/m2 P=(1 + 2)/2 Linear ( 200kN/m2 P=(1 + 2)/2)









0 400kN/m2 P=(1 + 2)/2

0 50.09 70.95 93.96 121.85 162.2 226 295.99 316 348.02 400.54 444.23 465.55 591.52 494.32 493.3 492

400kN/m2 P=(1 + 2)/2 vs q=(1 - 3)

Objectives: i. ii. To determine the pressure-void relation To determine the rate of change of void with pressure hence to determine the coefficient of consolidation.

Theory: The two most important properties of soil required in the design of foundation are: a) The bearing capacity and b) The settlement characteristic of soils The bearing capacity is determined by means of shear tests while the settlement characteristics are determined by means of a consolidation test. In this change in volume of the soil due to the drainage of the water from a sample induce by static load is measured. Consolidation can therefore be defined as the gradual reduction in volume of a fully saturated soil of low permeability due to drainage of some of the pore water, the process continuing until the excess pore water set up by an increase in total stress has completely dissipated. If the coefficient of compressibility, m v and coefficient of consolidation, c v of soil can be determined the these values can then be theoretically used to compute the expected total settlement and rate of settlement of a given foundation respectively. Apparatus: the apparatus required for the test are: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. An oedometer ( Bishop type) consolidation cell Clock Filter paper 2 number of porous sintered disc each with fine-grain surface Non-ferrous consolidation ring Large glass each watch A balance of 250 g capacity and accurate to 0.01g A large drying oven at a controlled temperature of 105 to 110 degree centigree ix. A desiccators complete with silica gel granules

Procedure: The dimension of the non ferrous consolidation ring was measured and noted. The sample was extruded and the sample was carefully trimmed until the ring just slide over the soil, the last fraction of the soil being pared away by the cutting edge of the ring as it was slowly and evenly pushed down the sample. The top and bottom surfaces of the sample were trimmed off by the use of a sharp thin bladed knife until they flushed and leveled with the top and bottom of the ring. The sample, plus the ring, was then weighed and the density of the soil calculated. Parings of the soil obtained in the cutting of the sample were weighed and their moisture content determined. The sample retained in the ring was placed on top of a porous stone in the consolidation cell. The second porous stone attached to a loading plate was placed on top of the specimen. The cell was then filled with water. The assemble cell was positioned on the loading frame and the cantilever loading (lever arm ratio 1: 11) was balanced for zero load. The dial gauge was adjusted to register the relative movement of the base of the consolidation cell and the loading cap and the reading noted. The load was applied on a doubling us basis starting from 1kg, then the load increase of 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16kg. Each load was allowed to remain for 24 hours. The dial gauge was read at 16 seconds, 1 minute, 2 , 4, 6 , 9, 12 , 16, 25, 36, 64, 81, 100, 121, 144 and 24 hours. The Unloading stage followed after the heaviest test load has been utilized. The swelling of the sample was measured when the load was removed to 8kg, 4, 2 and finally to zero. The amount of swelling was measured on the dial gauge for each stage of unloading after 24 hours. When the conclusion of unloading was reached, the assembly was dismantled and the water was drained from the consolidation cell. The specimen and ring was reweighed wet and the dried to constant weighed and the moisture content at the time of removal from the oedometer was determined.

CALCULATIONS Sample Calculation From Graph, for the first Load ( Pressure (kN/m2) Initial Height Hf = Ho H Change in Height H = H - Hf Change in void ratio e=H/ Ho -0.00366 -0.01022 -0.02126 -0.03832 -0.06108 +0.05387 +0.04011 Void Ratio e = eo - e Coeff.of compressibility Mv = e/ (1+ eo) 0.002654 0.007411 0.01541 0.02779 0.04429 0.03906 0.02909

0.3790 0-25 25-50 50-100 100-200 200-400 400-50 50-0

18.60 18.53 18.41 18.20 17.89 17.46 17.60 17.85

-0.068 -0.190 -0.402 -0.712 -1.136 -1.002 -0.746

0.3790 0.3753 0.3651 0.3435 0.3052 0.2441 0.2980 0.3381

RESULTS Where, Ho= 18.6mm Experimentally, Compression index from the test; Determination of : i) Compression Index (Cc) for the soil is given as; Cc = e/ logP From graph, e = , logP = , = 0.94 0.82/ (800 400) = 0.12/400 = 0.0003 Liquid limit, L.L : Cc = 0.009(L.L 10%) but, Cc = 0.0003 Substituting 0.003 for Cc and making L.L subject of the formulae


0.0003 = 0.009(L.L 0.1) 0.0003 = 0.009L.L 0.0009 0.0003 + 0.0009 = 0.009L.L L.L = 0.1333100 = 13.3

Determination of Primary and Secondary consolidation ratio; Pry Consolidation ratio = rp = Primary compression / Total compression (H) = as a100/ af ao Initial Compression ratio = ro = Initial Compression / Total compression = as ao / af ao Secondary Compression ratio = 1- (ro + rp) For 25kN/m2; Initial compression = 35 0 /(84 0) = 0.417 (1 : 2.4). Primary Compression = 72.5 35 / (84 0) = 0.446 (1 : 2.24). Secondary Compression = 1 (0.417 + 0.446) = 0.317. For 50kN/m2 Initial compression = 104 84 /(144 84) = 0.333 (1 : 3). Primary Compression = 135 104 / (144 84) = 0.517 (1 : 1.94). Secondary Compression = 1 (0.333 + 0.517) = 0.153. For 100kN/m2; Initial compression = 188 144 /(232 144) = 0.500 (1 : 2). Primary Compression = 219 188 / (232 144) = 0.350 (1 : 2.84). Secondary Compression = 1 (0.500 + 0.350) = 0.150. For 200kN/m2; Initial compression = 324.5 232 /(360 232) = 0.723 (1 : 1.38). Primary Compression = 351.5 324.5 / (360 232) = 0.211 (1 : 4.74). Secondary Compression = 1 (0.723 + 0.211) = 0.066.

Question. Calculate the Settlement of this clay stratum of 4m, which when subjected to a pressure Increase of 200kN/m2 to 400kN/m2. And Calculate the Time it will take to achieve the above. H = 4m, p= (400 200) = 200kN/m2 Settlement () = mv X p X (H) But, mv = - p/ (1 + e) p = dh/ (h X p) = mv = 1.002(18.6 X 200) 0.00026935 m2/kN

Settlement () = 0.00026935 m2/kN X 200kN/m2 X 4m =0.215m Settlement () = 0.215m (or 215mm)

Time it will take to achieve the above. For time of settlement (t) = (Tv d2) / Cv but t90 =5.29min (Tv = 0.848) = (T90 d2) / Cv =0.848 X (4 X 0.5)2 / 55.45 =0.06117mins