Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 4

A 195kW TWO TRANSISTORS FORWARD CONVERTER USING A NONDISSIPATIVE SNUBBER

C.H.G. Trevko.
A. A. Pereka.

V.J. Farias. J.B.Vieka Jr. (IEEE Member).

L.C. de Freitas (IEEE Member) (*).


(*) Corresponding Author.

Universidade Federal de Uberlhdia Centro de Cihcias Exatas e Tecnologia Departamento de Engenharia Elktrica Campus Santa MBnica - Bloco 3N 38400-902 - Uberliindia - MG - Brazil Fone: (034)236-5099 Fax: (034)236-5099 Email: keitas@ufu.br

I1 THE PROPOSED FORWARD CONVERTER Absrracr This paper will present a 1,5 kW operation with 90% efficiency at full load of a Two Transistors Forward Converter with non-dissipative Fig. 1 shows a simplified schematic circuit of the snubbers. two transistors Forward converter with non-dissipatii The proposed approach allows building a snubber that operates without commutation losses. converter with high frequency operation. A detailed analysis of the operation will be presented. The output voltage is controlled by PWM with a constant frequency. The complete operating principles, theoretical vDc analysis, relevant equations, simulation and experimental results will be presented in this paper. s2 I - INTRODUCTION The power supply unit is the main circuit for almost all electronic equipment, because it provides the necessaries voltages for correct works of these electronic equipments, for it, in the last years, size and weight reduction in the Switching Mode Power Supply (SMPS) design, has been the workhorse of the industry and academic researches. For achieving these features in SMPS it is necessary increasing operating fiequency. The achievement of high-kequency in SMPS requires reduction of switching losses. Conventional Resonant and Quasi-Resonant Converters [2] provide ZCS (Zero-Current Switching) andor ZVS (Zero-Voltage Switching) and the converters can operate with highffequency, but these techniques have limitation of load, because the current andor voltage peaks over the setches and range of fiequency control, making difficult the filter components design. Thus one good way to reach high-fi-equency and high-power operation is to use the non-dissipative structure showed in the Fig. 1. This circuit provide: Soft Switching for full load range; Conduction losses are almost the same as those observed in the hard PWM converter. Fig. 1 Simplified schematic circuit of the a two transistor Forward converter with non-dissipative snubber. I11 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION Following the theoretical analysis for the a tw transistor Forward converter with snubber non-dissipath showed in Fig. 1 will be presented. This converter has seven operating stagc in a switching cycle, these stages are as follows: FIRST STAGE (to, tl) It begins when the switchc SI and Sz are turned on, in the ZCS form by L2. During th stage the C voltage rises from -Vi to VcR1 a resonant ws R in with LR.In this stage i R rises fiom zero to iLRlin a resonai L way too, finishing when the diode D6 is blockaded. Its very quickly stage. SECOND STAGE (t,, t2) - In this stage, the currei in LR rises of iLRl until maximum and decrease until zeri During this stage the power is transferred to transformi secondary. The voltage on the resonant capacitor rises, in resonant way, fiom V,,, to V,. THIRD STAGE (t2, t3) This stage begins when tt voltage on the resonant capacitor reach V, and finish whe SI and SZ are turned off in the ZVS form, due the C capacitor clamped in Vdc.

O-78O3-~55-3/98/$10.00 0 1998 JEEE

VI-470

FOURTH STAGE (t,, 4 ) - This stage begins when S1 and S2 are turned off in the ZVS form, due the CR capacitor clamped in , , In this stage the voltage on the V resonant capacitor decrease linearly, with constant load current, until to reach zero, when finish this stage. (3) FIFTH STAGE (t4, ts) This stage begins when voltage vCR reach 0 (zero). During this stage C oscillates R Fig. 3 show the conversion range g for equations with L, (magnetization inductance) and ends when vcR=above. VW. polarizing D and D2. There is not power transferred to 1 transformer secondary due diode D5 is inverse polarity. SLYTH STAGE (ts, k) In this stage, the voltage vcR is -Vdc The magnetizing current is reset across D1,D2 and VW. This stage finish when the magnetizing current reach g=0,48 zero. SEVENTHSTAGE (t6, t7) This stage begins when the magnetizing current is reset and finishes when the switches S , and Szare turned on beginning a new switching cycle. During this stage VcR= -Vd, . g=o, 1

Fig. 2 shows the theoretical waveforms of one switching cycle.

Fig. 3 - Conversion range of the converter.


How was showed iin the Fig. 3, for a until 0.55, the converter has the conduct like resonant and after 0,55 like e

PWM.
The fig. 4 shows the equivalents circuits for eacl stage.

J - THE CONTROL STRATEGY Y


Fig. 5 shows the block diagram of control strategy fo laboratory implementation.
Fig. 2 Principal waveforms for the two transistors Forward converter with non-dissipative snubber.

The output voltage Vo, can be obtained by the analytical study of the operating stages and with the following assumptions: All components and switches are ideal; The input voltage VW is ripple-fiee; - The magnetization inductance , is very large; . I - The transformer leakage inductance is negligible. - A unity turns ratio transformer is assumed.

where:
Fs = switching frequency; Fo = resonant frequency;

Fig. 5 The Block Diagram of Control Strategy.

VI-47 1

s1

s2

rit s-0

(l0,U)

136.1T6US

138.00UJ5

140.00oUs

142.00OU5

00.03VAC

. . . . .................

. . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . ................................................ . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................... ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fig. 6 - Simulation Results (top trace), and Experimental Results (bottom trace).

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. . .. .. ..

........................................

ov

.
s2

The time interval t2-b (resonant interval) can b made as short as desired, depending of the L R and CRvalues with respect to the switching cycle. So, the converter ci a operate as a conventional hard PWM converter during mo5 part of the cycle, but without commutation losses. The proposed converter shown in Fig. 1, wa

-45uH 9 turns TRANSFORMER CORE EE-65/33/26 THORNTON -PRIMARY 14 turns SECONDARY 4 turns

Fig. 6 shows the efficiency curve of converter.


EFFICIENCY

s2

% s-0 h

( n) 6
'

Fig. 4 Equivalents circuits for each stage.

V - SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

21 8

415 548

666

830 1014 1094 1227 1 3 1498 1 W 39

The proposed Forward converter of Fig. 1, was studied by simulation and a prototype was breadboarded. At simulation

Fig. 7 Efficiency for the structures breadboarded.

m TW E R WR I

and a prototype has been used the following parameters set:


Simulation Parameters

Experimental Paramcten

VI-472

Fig. 8a and 8b show the dynamics responses for load changing fiom 50% to 100% in the fiequency of 100 Hz and

1kHZ.
.03 VAC

................................................ . . . . . . . . .

Fig. 9b Photograplh of the Prototype in the final version

MI - CONCLUSIONS
470mV

Fig. Sa Response Dynamic for 100 Hz with load change of 50% to 100% (750W to 1500W).
l b k m 125kWS
8ACp

00.02

VAC

. . . ................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . .................................................. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L...:.........:....:.... :.... :.... :....:.... . . : . . . . . .

This paper presented a non-dissipative Forward converter working i1 1.5 kW load sitguation. As result the n switching losses are reduced. The proposed approach allows to obtain better operating performances than those alreadj known for the hard- switching PWM operating in higher switching fiequenciea and with wide range of power. The switches are not submitted to over voltages and the peak of current across the switch SI and S2, can tX adjusted by the suitable choose of the resonant capacitor a n c inductor (C, LR).

I.; Switching Power Supply Design McGraw Hill International Editions, Engineerhi Series, 1992, Singapore. Fig. 8b Response Dynamic for 1 kHz with load 121 - Lee, F. C.; Hi,&-Frequency Quasi-Resonant Converte change of 50% to 100% (750W to 1500). Technologies, Proceeding on the IEEE, vol. 76, n* 4 April 1988. 131 de Freitas, L.C.; Farias, V. J.; Vieira Jr., J. B.; Hey, E L. and Cruz, 1. F.; An Optimum ZVS-PWh4 DC-tc ) VI THE LAYOUT AND PROTOTIPE DC Converter Family: Analysis, Simulation an Experimental Results, IEEE Power Electronic Fig. 9a and 9b show the layout and prototype Specialists Conference PESC92 Record, pp. 229-235 photographs of the studied converter. 141 de Freitas, L. C.; Farias, V, J. and Pereira Filhc Nicolau. A Novel Family of DC-DC PWh4 Convertei U i g the Self ]Resonant Principle. PESC94 Record sn pp. 1385-1391. [5] de Freitas, L. C.; Pereira, A. A.; Andres, 3. L. A Hie Operating Self-Resonant - P W M Forward Converter APEC 94. [6] -Pereira, A. A., IFarias, L. C. And Vieira Jimior, J. B., New soft commutated Forward Converter. Midwests - Rio de Janeirlo.
480mV

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................................................ .. . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .

VI11 BIBLIOGRAPHY

[I]

- Pressman, A.

IX ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Fig. 9a Photograph of the layout in the final version.

The authors acknowledge THORNTON INPEC f the ferrite cores suipport and SIEMENS for the capacito support.

VI-473