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amazing astonishing awesome staggering breathtaking miraculous stunning sensational These words all describe things that are very surprising, often because they are greater than usual or normal. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS to be amazing/astonishing/staggering/miraculous that to be amazing/astonishing/staggering how an amazing/an astonishing/an awesome/a staggering achievement an amazing/astonishing/awesome feat an amazing/an astonishing/a miraculous/a stunning/an astounding success an amazing/an astonishing/a stunning victory/result amazing/astonishing/breathtaking/stunning news an amazing/an astonishing/an awesome/a breathtaking/a stunning sight astonishing/awesome/breathtaking/stunning beauty quite amazing/astonishing/awesome/staggering/breathtaking/miraculous/stunning/sensational truly amazing/astonishing/awesome/staggering/breathtaking/sensational absolutely amazing/astonishing/staggering/breathtaking/stunning pretty amazing/awesome/sensational 2.artificial forced laboured contrived strained These words all describe an action, emotion or situation which is not natural or not what it appears to be. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS a forced/strained smile an artificial/a contrived situation/example to sound forced/laboured/contrived/strained rather artificial/forced/laboured somewhat artificial/laboured/strained

3.attend

verb

attend come go come along These words all mean to be present at an event. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS to come/go/come along/make it to sth to attend/come/go/come along with sb to attend/come to/go to/come along to/make it to a meeting/wedding to attend/come to/go to a conference to attend/come to/go to/make it to a party

4.bad

adj.

See also the entry for TERRIBLE 1 bad nasty unpleasant grim lousy wretched ghastly These words all describe sth that is full of problems and/or makes you feel upset, uncomfortable, disappointed or depressed. bad nasty wretched unpleasant grim ghastly lousy PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS a bad/a nasty/an unpleasant/a grim/a ghastly situation a bad/a nasty/an unpleasant/a ghastly experience/feeling bad/nasty/unpleasant/grim/lousy/wretched/ghastly weather a bad/a nasty/an unpleasant/a grim mood a bad/a nasty/an unpleasant taste/smell bad/grim/disagreeable/ghastly news a bad/a grim/a lousy/a wretched day/night/time a nasty/an unpleasant/a grim/a wretched/a disagreeable/a ghastly thought the nasty/unpleasant/grim truth/reality/facts to find sth unpleasant/grim/disagreeable
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very bad/nasty/unpleasant/grim/wretched really bad/nasty/unpleasant/grim/lousy/wretched/ghastly pretty bad/nasty/unpleasant/grim/lousy/ghastly rather bad/nasty/unpleasant/grim/disagreeable/ghastly particularly bad/nasty/unpleasant/grim/ghastly bad/ good nasty/nice unpleasant/pleasant

5.begin

verb

and START begin start open embark on/upon sth take sth up set about sth go about sth commence These words all mean to do the first part of sth, or to do sth or make sth happen or exist for the first time. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS to begin/start/take up/set about/go about/commence doing sth to begin/start to do sth to begin/start sth by doing/with sth to begin/start/open/embark on a/an campaign/enquiry to begin/start/open a discussion/conversation to begin/start/embark on a war/scheme to begin a/start a/commence battle to begin/start/take up/commence work to begin/start/open a story/letter/sentence to begin/start/open a day/year/meeting to begin/start/embark on/take up/commence a career/life to begin/start/embark on a journey/search/relationship to begin/start/take up a/your employment/duties/hobby to begin/start/commence production to immediately begin/start/embark on/set about/commence/launch into sth to have just begun/started/opened/embarked on/taken up/launched into sth 6.blow noun
blow setback hitch hiccup knock These are all words for a problem or other event which has a damaging effect on sth or which delays it. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS a blow/setback to/for sb/sth a setback/hitch/hiccup in sth a serious blow/setback/hiccup a slight/minor setback/hitch/hiccup to suffer a blow/setback/knock

7.boring

adj. interesting

boring dull tedious repetitive monotonous uninteresting dry These words all describe a subject, activity, person or place that is not interesting or exciting. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS to be boring/dull/tedious/uninteresting for sb boring/dull/tedious/dry subjects/books boring/dull/tedious/repetitive/monotonous jobs/work boring/dull/tedious games/lectures/details a boring/dull/tedious evening a boring/dull/uninteresting place a boring/dull man/woman/person rather boring/dull/tedious/repetitive/monotonous/uninteresting/dry very boring/dull/tedious/repetitive/uninteresting/dry pretty boring/dull/tedious/uninteresting

8.busy
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2 adj.

busy hectic full eventful lively These words all describe a period of time that is full of work or activity. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS a busy/a hectic/a full/an eventful day/weekend/week a busy/hectic/full/lively programme a busy/hectic/full schedule/timetable a busy/a hectic/a full/an eventful life very busy/hectic/full/eventful/lively busy-quiet eventful-uneventful

9. cause

verb

PROMPT and STIMULATE

cause result in sth lead (sth) to sth produce bring sth about give rise to sth create make induce These words all mean to make sth happen. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS to cause/result in/lead to/produce/bring about/give rise to a/an change/shift/increase to cause/result in/lead to/produce/bring about a reduction in sth to cause/result in/lead to/produce/give rise to/create problems/difficulties to cause/result in/lead to/produce damage/friction to cause/result in/lead to/bring about the collapse/destruction/demise of sth to cause/lead to/produce/give rise to/create speculation/uncertainty to cause/lead to/give rise to/create discontent/dissatisfaction/resentment to result in/lead to/produce improvements/success to inevitably cause/result in/lead to/produce/bring about/give rise to/create sth induce is often used to talk about the effects that sth such as medicine, disease or injury has on the body: Hearing loss is often induced by exposure to loud noise.

10. certain

adj. UNCERTAIN

certain bound sure definite destined guaranteed assured These words all describe sth that will definitely happen or is definitely true. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS certain/sure/assured of sth certain/bound/sure/destined/guaranteed to do sth certain/definite that I couldn't say for certain/sure/definite. to seem certain/bound to/sure/definite/destined/guaranteed/assured to look certain/sure/definite/destined/guaranteed/assured by no means certain/sure/definite/guaranteed/assured fairly/quite/absoutely certain/sure/definite

11.certainty

noun

certainty inevitability necessity a foregone conclusion a sure thing These are all words for sth that you believe will definitely happen. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS a certainty/an inevitability about sth an absolute certainty/necessity the one/only certainty/necessity

12.chaos

noun

ORDER

See also the entry for MESS 2 chaos confusion mess commotion mayhem havoc shambles pandemonium uproar These are all words for a state of confusion and lack of order. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS in chaos/(the) confusion/a mess/the commotion/the mayhem/a shambles/pandemonium/(an) uproar
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(a) complete/total chaos/confusion/mess/mayhem/shambles/pandemonium general chaos/confusion/commotion/mayhem/pandemonium (a) great confusion/commotion/uproar to cause chaos/confusion/a mess/a commotion/mayhem/havoc/pandemonium/(an) uproar to create chaos/confusion/a mess/mayhem/havoc to bring chaos/mayhem/havoc to sort out the chaos/mess/shambles chaos/a commotion/mayhem/pandemonium/uproar breaks out chaos/confusion/pandemonium reigns There is/was chaos/confusion/a commotion/mayhem/pandemonium

13.compete

verb

compete fight battle take sb on struggle contest vie pit sb/sth against sb/sth These words all mean to try to be more successful or better than sb else who is trying to do the same as you, for example in a competition, contest or election. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS to compete/fight/battle/struggle/vie for sth to compete/battle/struggle/vie with sb to compete/battle/vie to do sth to compete for/battle for/contest/vie for a (first/second, etc.) place to compete/fight/struggle/vie for power to fight/battle/struggle/vie for control to compete/fight/vie for a share of sth to compete/fight/battle/struggle hard to successfully compete for/fight (for)/contest sth

14.competition

1 noun

See also the entry for RACE competition contest quiz These are all words for events in which people compete against each other to win a prize or to find out who is the best at sth. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS a competition/contest between sb a competition/contest for sth in a competition/contest/quiz a/an international/national/sporting competition/contest to enter/take part in/win/have/hold a competition/contest/quiz OTE COMPETITION OR CONTEST? Both of these words can refer to events in which people compete in sports or games, or to show their talent or knowledge, for example in performing, art or writing. Competition is a slightly more general word and can involve teams, groups or individuals competing. A contest is more often between a small number of individuals who are competing against each other to win a prize. In British English, competition , but NOT contest can describe an event that a large number of people enter by post or telephone, including events in which sb wins more by luck than by talent or skill, for example by being the first person to have their name picked out of a hat: Competition : to win an Oxford Mini car, customers must guess how many copies of the Oxford Minidictionary will fit into the car. However, in American English, contest can also be used in this way: To enter the contest, simply send an email to this address

15.competition

2 noun

competition race contest rivalry competitiveness These are all words for a situation in which people or organizations compete with each other for sth that not everyone can have. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS competition/a race/a contest/rivalry for sth competition/a race/a contest/rivalry/competitiveness between people
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in competition/a race/a contest/rivalry with sb/sth competition/a race to do sth (a) fierce competition/contest/rivalry/competitiveness (an) open competition/race/contest international competition/rivalry/competitiveness to enter/win/lose the race/contest. RACE OR CONTEST? Both these words are used about political elections and in many cases you can use either word. However, contest usually refers to the election itself and sometimes the two or three weeks of campaigning just before it; race covers the whole period of campaigning for an election which can last months, especially in the case of US presidential elections. You can say that sb wins/loses a race/contest and that sb leads/is ahead in the race for sth but NOT usually that sb leads/is ahead in the contest for sth. Race , but NOT contest can also be used to talk about the drive to achieve sth, especially before anyone else has achieved it

16.confusing

adj.

confusing incomprehensible puzzling bewildering inexplicable unintelligible baffling These words all describe things or experiences that are difficult to understand. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS confusing/incomprehensible/puzzling/bewildering/inexplicable/baffling to sb confusing/puzzling/bewildering/baffling for sb confusing/incomprehensible/puzzling/bewildering/inexplicable/baffling that a confusing/bewildering experience/variety incomprehensible/unintelligible language a puzzling/baffling problem for some incomprehensible/inexplicable reason totally confusing/incomprehensible/bewildering/inexplicable/unintelligible quite confusing/incomprehensible/puzzling/bewildering/baffling rather/somewhat confusing/puzzling/bewildering/baffling confusing -OPP clear incomprehensible OP--P comprehensible

17.context

noun

context background backdrop setting milieu These are all words for the situation in which sth exists or happens. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS in (a) context/a setting/a milieu against a background/backdrop cultural/historical/economic/political context/background/setting/milieu to provide (sb with) a context/background/backdrop/setting to describe the context/background/setting BACKGROUND OR BACKDROP? Background has a much wider range than backdrop , which is used especially in more literary texts and in the phrase against a backdrop of sth : backdrop information Can you give me more backdrop?

18.crash

verb

crash slam collide smash plough into sth bang into sth wreck write sth off total These are all words that can be used when sth, especially a vehicle, hits sth else very hard. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS to crash/slam/smash/plough/bang into sth to crash/slam/smash sth into sth two vehicles crash/collide two vehicles crash/slam/smash/bang into each other to crash/smash/wreck/write off/total a car/truck/vehicle to crash/collide head-on
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CRASH, SLAM OR SMASH? Crash

is used especially to talk about vehicles and can be used without a preposition: We're going to crash , aren't we? In this meaning slam and smash always take a preposition : We're going to slam/smash, aren't we? They are used for talking about a much wider range of things than just vehicles. Crash can also be used to talk about other things, if used with a preposition: He crashed down the telephone receiver. 19.crisis emergency disaster tragedy catastrophe calamity These are all words for an unexpected situation or event that creates difficulties for sb/sth, kills a lot of people or causes a lot of damage. crisis calamity disaster emergency tragedy catastrophe PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS a crisis/disaster/tragedy/catastrophe/calamity for sb in a crisis/an emergency a major crisis/emergency/disaster/tragedy/catastrophe/calamity a great crisis/disaster/tragedy/catastrophe/calamity a/an awful/dreadful/terrible disaster/tragedy/catastrophe/calamity a potential crisis/disaster/tragedy/catastrophe a national crisis/emergency/disaster/tragedy/catastrophe/calamity an environmental crisis/emergency/disaster/tragedy/catastrophe a/an ecological/personal crisis/disaster/tragedy/catastrophe a/an economic/financial crisis/disaster/catastrophe a nuclear disaster/catastrophe/cataclysm/holocaust to cause a crisis/an accident/a disaster/a tragedy/a catastrophe to bring disaster/tragedy/catastrophe/calamity to deal with/cope with a crisis/an emergency/a disaster to avert a crisis/disaster/tragedy/catastrophe/calamity a disaster/tragedy/catastrophe/calamity happens/occurs disaster/tragedy/catastrophe strikes
DISASTER OR CATASTROPHE? Either

disaster or catastrophe can be used with such words as nuclear , environmental , ecological and economic , but disaster is preferred when you are talking about a famous event in which people were killed: the Chernobyl/Lockerbie/Challenger disaster A calamity is less serious than a disaster or catastrophe and is not usually used for an event in which people die.

20.daily

adj.

See also the entry for MUNDANE daily everyday day-to-day These words all describe things that happen regularly or every day. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS daily/everyday/day-to-day life/existence/experience/activities/business/work/tasks/use/problems/
needs

everyday/day-to-day affairs/matters/situations/things the everyday/day-to-day world

21.debut

noun

debut initiation inauguration introduction induction These are all words for the process of introducing sb to a new job, skill, organization, etc., or a ceremony at which this takes place. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS an initiation/induction into sth a formal inauguration/induction an initiation/inauguration ceremony Induction is often used to talk about people being introduced to their job or course in education. There is often an official induction period when you start a new job or course.
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22.determine

verb

determine shape govern dictate form decide rule These words all mean to control or to influence the way that sth happens or that sb/sth develops. shape govern determine form rule dictate decide PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS to determine/shape/govern/dictate/decide how to determine/govern/dictate/decide what/when/why to determine/dictate that to determine/shape/dictate/decide the outcome/result (of sth) to determine/shape/dictate the course/direction/future (of sth) to determine/shape//form the character of sb/sth to determine/shape/govern behaviour a factor determines/shapes/governs/decides sth a force determines/shapes/governs sth to be largely determined/governed/dictated by sth SHAPE OR FORM? Both these words can be used to talk about the influences on a person's character or ideas: to shape/form sb's character/ideas/attitude/opinions . Shape , but not form can also be used to talk about influencing sb's behaviour or a course of events : Historical events helped to form the town. the power of religion to form behaviour

23.develop

1 verb

See also the entry for IMPROVE 2 develop move evolve progress gain ground advance shape up come on/along mature These words all mean to gradually become bigger, better, stronger or more advanced. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS to develop/move/evolve/progress/mature from sth to develop/move/evolve/progress to sth to develop/evolve/mature into sth to develop/move/evolve/progress/advance towards sth to develop/move/evolve/progress/advance beyond sth an idea develops/evolves/gains ground a style/theory develops/evolves a war/campaign develops/progresses to develop/move/evolve/progress/gain ground/advance/mature rapidly/slowly to develop/move/evolve/progress/gain ground/advance steadily to develop/move/evolve/progress/advance further to be developing/progressing/shaping up/coming on well

24.difficult

2 adj.

difficult tough bad hard adverse rough unfavourable disadvantageous These words all describe sth that is full of problems or causes a lot of problems. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS difficult/tough/bad/hard/unfavourable/disadvantageous for sb tough/hard/rough on sb unfavourable/disadvantageous to sb a difficult/a bad/a hard/an adverse/an unfavourable/a disadvantageous position a difficult/a tough/a bad/a hard/a rough/an unfavourable situation difficult/tough/bad/hard/adverse/rough/unfavourable conditions difficult/tough/adverse/unfavourable circumstances a difficult/tough/bad/hard/rough time/day/week/year a difficult/tough/hard/rough life/childhood a bad/an adverse/an unfavourable/a disadvantageous effect unfavourable ( BrE ) ( AmE unfavorable OPP favourable disadvantageous- advantageous
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25.direction

noun

direction path course road route These are all words for the general way in which sb/sth develops or sb achieves sth, over a period of time. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS a/the path/road/route to sth on a/the path/course/road/route the right/wrong direction/path/course/road/route a new direction/path/course/road/route a different direction/path/course/road/route the future direction/path/course (of sth) a clear direction/path/course/road/route to take a/the direction/path/course/road/route to follow/pursue a/the direction/path/course/route to go down a/the path/road/route to change (a/the) direction/course NOTE PATH, COURSE, ROAD AND ROUTE These words all have literal meanings relating to the way you travel to get somewhere. Many of the collocations used with the literal meanings are shared by the meanings in this group, for example follow this path , change course , go down that road and take that route . NOTE DIRECTION OR COURSE? The direction of a person or thing is usually the way they are developing now or the way they are likely to develop in the future; direction is not usually used if you are looking back at the way things developed in the past : Her career followed a similar direction to her sister's. The course of a person or thing is usually the way they developed over a period of time or have been developing until now; course is not usually used if you are looking forward to the way things are likely to develop in the future : They are debating the future course of the party. Course also has the closely related meaning of a way of acting in or dealing with a particular situation. NOTE PATH, ROAD OR ROUTE? Path is often more personal than road . People talk about your/his/her career path/path in life ( = the one that sb in particular follows ) but the road to stardom/ruin ( = the one that everyone follows if they become a star/are ruined ) . Route may be used to talk about a particular person or people in general: her route to fame the traditional route out of poverty . However, it is usually used when reporting things in a more factual, less emotional way. You can talk about sth being a difficult path to tread or a difficult road to travel (note the different verbs, according to the different literal meanings of path and road ) but such terms are not usually used to describe route in this meaning.

26.disappointing

adj.

disappointing unsatisfactory(satisfactory) wanting discouraging (encouraging) These words all describe sth that is not as good as you hoped or expected. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS disappointing/unsatisfactory/discouraging that a disappointing/an unsatisfactory/a discouraging result/experience a disappointing/an unsatisfactory outcome/performance to find sth disappointing/unsatisfactory/wanting/discouraging

27.disaster

noun

disaster failure(success) catastrophe fiasco debacle flop (hit) washout These are all words for sth that is very unsuccessful, causes a lot of problems or is disappointing. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS a disaster/failure/catastrophe for sb a fiasco/debacle over sth a total disaster/failure/catastrophe/fiasco/flop/washout a complete disaster/failure/catastrophe/fiasco/flop a financial disaster/failure/fiasco/debacle an economic disaster/failure/catastrophe to prove a disaster/failure/fiasco/flop

28.disastrous
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adj.

disastrous devastating catastrophic These are all words to describe events and situations that cause great suffering or damage. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS disastrous/devastating/catastrophic for sb/sth a disastrous/devastating/catastrophic effect/impact/failure/defeat/fire/storm/flood disastrous/devastating/catastrophic consequences/results/events potentially disastrous/devastating/catastrophic particularly/quite/absolutely/utterly disastrous/devastating DEVASTATING OR CATASTROPHIC? Both these words are used to describe the harmful effects of events such as war, fires and floods on the economy, the environment or people's lives. Devastating also describes events and news that deeply affect sb emotionally. Catastrophic also describes defeats and failures in politics.

29.disrupt

verb

disrupt interrupt upset These words all mean to make it difficult for sth to continue in the normal or planned way. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS to disrupt/interrupt services/work to disrupt/interrupt a meeting to disrupt/upset plans to threaten to disrupt/upset sth to badly/completely/totally disrupt/upset sth

30.disruption

noun

disruption turmoil upheaval disturbance turbulence disarray These are all words you can use when sth prevents a situation from continuing in the normal way or when there is confusion. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS disruption/disturbance to sth an upheaval/a disturbance in sth in (a) turmoil/disarray/disorder (a) great disruption/turmoil/upheaval/disturbance/turbulence considerable disruption/turmoil/upheaval/disturbance/turbulence (a) major disruption/upheaval/disturbance economic disruption/turmoil/upheaval/turbulence social disruption/upheaval/turbulence emotional turmoil/upheaval/turbulence to cause disruption/turmoil/an upheaval/(a) disturbance to throw sth into turmoil/disarray a period of disruption/turmoil/upheaval/turbulence a state of turmoil/turbulence/disarray DISRUPTION OR DISTURBANCE? These words are often used when people are being told or promised that sth that is being done will not cause many problems. They are often used with words such as avoid, prevent, minimize, little, minimal and minimum . A disruption usually affects a thing such as work , a service or sb's life ; a disturbance more often affects people or animals, although it can also affect sb's life or the normal way in which things happen

31.do

2 verb

do go perform fare get on/along These verbs are all used to talk or ask about the success or progress of sb/sth. O OR GO? Do can be used to talk about the progress or success of either a person or a thing; go can only be used to talk about a thing. When you use do to talk about a thing, you are interested in how popular or profitable it is, so do is generally used to talk about the success of sth such as a business or other enterprise. Go is more general, used to describe sth that you experience, such as an event, an interview , a test , or things or life in general.
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NOTE PERFORM OR FARE? Perform

is more active than fare : a person or company that performs well is successful because of what they do; a person or group that fares well is successful, or just lucky, because good things happen to them or the conditions are right for them. Both these words are used to talk about people, groups or organizations, but NOT events : The interview performed/fared well. When get on/along is used with an adverb, it is usually well ; it is not common to talk about sb getting on/along badly . The subject of get on/along is usually a person or small group of people in an informal context; it is NOT used to talk about businesses, organizations or events. 32.early adj.
early on time punctual prompt on the dot These words all describe sb/sth that arrives or happens before or at the usual or arranged time. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS to be early/punctual for sth very/always early/punctual/prompt early / OPP late on time phrase OPP late punctual / BrE ; AmE / ( rather formal ) OPP late on the dot idiom ( informal ) exactly on time; at the exact time mentioned The taxi showed up on the dot. ( AmE ) Breakfast is served at 8 right on the dot . ( BrE ) Please tell him I'll call him on the dot of twelve.

33.end

noun

end-beginning. close conclusion finish ending termination finale cessation These are all words for the final part of a period of time, an event, activity or story. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS a/an () end/finish/ending/finale to sth at the end/close/conclusion/finish/finale an abrupt end/conclusion/finish/ending/termination a dramatic end/conclusion/finish/ending/finale a fitting end/conclusion/finale to have a/an () end/conclusion/ending/finale to provide a/an () conclusion/finish/ending/finale to bring sth to an end/a close/a conclusion to come/draw to an end/a close to reach the end/finale 34.end verb
See also the entry for FINISH end finish stop terminate conclude close wind (sth) up These words all mean to come to an end or to bring sth to an end. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS concluding remarks to end/finish/conclude by/with sth to end/finish/conclude/close/wind up a meeting to end/finish/conclude/wind up a speech a play/show/film ends/finishes/concludes a concert ends/finishes a story/letter/note ends/concludes to almost/nearly/effectively end/finish/stop/terminate/conclude to virtually/all but/never end/finish/stop/terminate/conclude to end/finish/stop/terminate/conclude at last/eventually/finally to end/stop/terminate suddenly/abruptly/automatically end / BrE ; AmE / [ I , T ] OPP begin , begin See also end , ending END noun finish / BrE ; AmE / [ I , T ] OPP start See also finish END noun stop / BrE ; AmE / -pp- [ I , T ] OPP start

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NOTE END, STOP, FINISH OR CONCLUDE?

End can be used for things that end in space as well as things that end in time: The road ends here. End , finish and conclude are used especially about things that you do not expect to start again after they have ended: The war ended in 1945, after almost six years of fighting. The concert should finish by 10 o'clock. She concluded her speech with a quotation from Shakespeare. Finish and conclude , in particular, suggest that sth has come to an end because it has been completed. Finish is used more to talk about when sth ends; conclude is used more to talk about how sth ends. Stop is used about things that may or will start again, or that cannot ever be completed: The rain stopped just long enough for us to have a quick walk in the park. close [ T , I ] OPP open , open If a case, investigation or subject is closed , no further investigation or discussion takes place; however, it does not necessarily mean that the case or problem under investigation or discussion has been solved: it may simply have been decided to stop trying to solve it. wind up / BrE ; AmE / wind sth up / BrE ; AmE / phrasal verb OPP kick off to bring sth such as a speech or meeting to an end The speaker was just winding up when the door was flung open. If we all agree, let's wind up the discussion.

35 . endless

adj.

See also the entry for CONTINUOUS endless perpetual never-ending interminable These words all describe things that continue for a long time and seem to have no end. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS the endless/never-ending flow of sth an endless/a never-ending stream/process an endless/a never-ending succession/series an endless/a perpetual/a never-ending struggle/battle endless/interminable discussions/meetings to seem endless/never-ending/interminable seemingly endless/never-ending/interminable

36. event

1 noun

event affair incident experience phenomenon episode business development occurrence proceedings eventuality These are all words for sth which happens. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS the whole event/affair/incident/experience/phenomenon/episode/business/proceedings (a) strange event/affair/incident/experience/phenomenon/development/occurrence (a) terrible event/affair/incident/experience/business (a) dramatic event/incident/experience/episode/development an enjoyable event/affair/experience (an) everyday event/affair/incident/experience/occurrence an isolated event/incident/experience/phenomenon/episode/occurrence a rare/common event/experience/phenomenon/occurrence to witness an event/an incident/a phenomenon/an episode an event/an incident/an experience/a phenomenon/an episode occurs/occur an event/an incident/an experience/a phenomenon/an episode/proceedings takes place/take
place

37.event

1 noun

event affair incident experience phenomenon episode business development occurrence proceedings eventuality These are all words for sth which happens. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS the whole event/affair/incident/experience/phenomenon/episode/business/proceedings (a) strange event/affair/incident/experience/phenomenon/development/occurrence (a) terrible event/affair/incident/experience/business (a) dramatic event/incident/experience/episode/development
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an enjoyable event/affair/experience (an) everyday event/affair/incident/experience/occurrence an isolated event/incident/experience/phenomenon/episode/occurrence a rare/common event/experience/phenomenon/occurrence to witness an event/an incident/a phenomenon/an episode an event/an incident/an experience/a phenomenon/an episode occurs/occur an event/an incident/an experience/a phenomenon/an episode/proceedings takes place/take
place

38.exciting

adj.

exciting dramatic heady thrilling exhilarating stirring These words all describe an event, experience or feeling that causes excitement. exciting thrilling exhilarating dramatic heady stirring PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS exciting/dramatic/heady/thrilling/exhilarating/stirring stuff an exciting/a dramatic/a heady/a thrilling/an exhilarating experience/moment an exciting/a dramatic/a heady atmosphere an exciting/a dramatic/a thrilling/an exhilarating/a stirring performance an exciting/a dramatic/a thrilling/a stirring finish/finale/victory/win an exciting/a dramatic/a stirring tale EXCITING, THRILLING OR EXHILARATING? Exhilarating is the strongest of these words and exciting the least strong. Exciting is the most general and can be used to talk about any activity, experience, feeling or event that excites you. Thrilling is used particularly to talk about contests and stories where the ending is uncertain. Exhilarating is used particularly to talk physical activities that involve speed and/or danger.

39.face

verb

face confront brave These words all mean to have to deal with a problem or difficult situation. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS to be faced/confronted with sth to face/confront a problem/dilemma/challenge/difficulty/crisis/situation a problem/dilemma/challenge/difficulty/situation faces/confronts sb TE FACE OR CONFRONT? If you confront a problem or a situation, you usually actively decide to do sth to deal with it, rather than trying to ignore it. If you face sth, the problem or situation exists and you have no choice but to deal with it.

40.fail

2 verb

fail - succeed go wrong collapse break down get/go nowhere backfire founder fall through come to nothing These words all mean to be unsuccessful, especially after a period of time trying to do sth. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS a plan fails/goes wrong/backfires/founders/falls through/comes to nothing a relationship/marriage fails/goes wrong/collapses/breaks down talks fail/collapse/break down/founder/fall through a project fails/collapses/founders/falls through a deal goes wrong/collapses/falls through to fail/backfire badly to completely fail/break down to go badly/completely wrong

41.failure

noun

failure -success collapse breakdown These are all words for a situation in which sth fails. PATTERNS AND COLLOCATIONS
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a failure/collapse/breakdown in sth a/an complete/total/general/apparent failure/collapse/breakdown (an) economic failure/collapse/breakdown to contribute to/lead to/result in/cause/avoid the failure/collapse/breakdown (of sth) to end in failure/the breakdown (of sth)

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