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Vietnam

Page 1 sur 28 return to World Statesmen.org > Vietnam 1802 - 1878, Emperor's flag to

1802 - 1878, Emperor's flag to 1863

> Vietnam 1802 - 1878, Emperor's flag to 1863 1920 - 30 Aug 1945 Annam 22

1920 - 30 Aug 1945 Annam

- 1878, Emperor's flag to 1863 1920 - 30 Aug 1945 Annam 22 Aug 29 Sep

22 Aug 29 Sep 1945 - 20 Dec 1946 Vietnam;

30 Aug 1945 Annam 22 Aug 29 Sep 1945 - 20 Dec 1946 Vietnam; 1878 -

1878 - 1890 Annam (approx. design)

- 20 Dec 1946 Vietnam; 1878 - 1890 Annam (approx. design) 1923 - 9 Mar 1945

1923 - 9 Mar 1945 Protectorate Flag

Annam (approx. design) 1923 - 9 Mar 1945 Protectorate Flag 2 Jun 1948 - 30 Apr

2 Jun 1948 - 30 Apr 1975 Vietnam

Mar 1945 Protectorate Flag 2 Jun 1948 - 30 Apr 1975 Vietnam 1890 - 1920 Annam

1890 - 1920 Annam

Flag 2 Jun 1948 - 30 Apr 1975 Vietnam 1890 - 1920 Annam 9 Mar 1945

9 Mar 1945 - 22 Aug 1945 Vietnam

Vietnam 1890 - 1920 Annam 9 Mar 1945 - 22 Aug 1945 Vietnam Adopted 30 Nov

Adopted 30 Nov 1955

Vietnam

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20 Dec 1946 - 20 Jul 1954 North Vietnam

(from 1954 flag of South Vietnam only)

(flag of North only to 2 Jul 1976)

Map of Vietnam

Hear National Anthem "Tien quan ca" (March to the Front)

Text of National Anthem Adopted 2 Jul 1976

Constitution (15 Apr 1992)

Capital: Hanoi (Phong Chau 2809-258 BC; Co Loa 257-111 BC and 939-965 AD; To Lich 544-602; Hoa Lu 968-980; La Thanh 1980-1010; Hanoi 1010-1802; Hue 1802-1945)

Currency: Dong (VND)

National Holiday: 2 Sep (1945) Independence Day

Population: 85,262,356 (2007)

Ethnic groups: Vietnamese 85%, Han Chinese 3.5%, Hmong (Montagnard) 1.9%, Tho (Tay) 1.6%, Thai 1.5%, Khmer 1.2%, Nung 1.4%, Cham, mountain groups, other 2.9% (2000) Religions: Buddhist 66.7%, Christian (of which Roman Catholic 7.7%, Protestant 1%) 8.7%, Hoa Hao 2.1%, Cao Dai 3.5%,

Exports: $39.9 billion (2006) Imports: $39.1 billion (2006)

GDP: $262.8 billion (2006)

Total Armed Forces: 484,000 (2003) Merchant marine: 267 ships (2006)

traditional beliefs, Muslim, other 19% (1995) International Organizations/Treaties: APEC, ARF, ADB, ASEAN, BTWC, CP, CTBT, EAS, ENMOD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Vietnam Index

Chronology

2809 BC - 258 BC

Socialist

Republic of

Vietnam

(from 1976)

Empire

257

BC

196

BC - 111 BC

111

BC

40 AD - 43 AD

544

AD - 602 AD

679

939

965

- 968

Van Lang kingdom under Hung Voung dynasty. Renamed Au Lac kingdom. Vassal of China. Annexed by China. Brief independence under the Trung sisters.

Van Xuan independent under Le dynasty.

Creation by China of the protectorate general of An Nam.

Ngo Quyen defeated the kingdom of Nam Han; traditional date of Vietnamese independence.

Turmoil, divided into 12 feudal lordships under: Ngo Xoung Xi in Binh Kieu; Do Canh Thuc in Do Dong Giang; Tran Lam in Bo Hai Khau; Kieu

Vietnam

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(1675-1945)

Champa/

Panduranga

(1695-1822)

Pulo Condor

(1702-1705)

968 - 980

1010

1558

- 1777/87

- French Indochina 31 May 1802

1666

9 Jun 1885

(1887-1956)

1804

Annam

(1875-1955)

15 Feb 1839

Sep 1858

Cong Han in Phong Chau; Nguyen Khoan in Tam Dai; Nguyen Nhat Khanh in Doung Lam; Ly Khe in Sieu Loai; Nguyen Thu Tiep in Tien Du; Lu Doung in Te Giang; Ngueyen Sieu in Tay Phu Liet; Kieu Thuan in Cam Khe; and Pham Bach Ho in Dang Chau Renamed Dai Co Viet. Dai Viet Quoc (Great Viet Realm; Viet [Chinese: Yue]) is a geographic concept of a variable China/Vietnam location. Division into north and south by ruling dynasties. Trinh line rules from Hanoi (Tonkin), the Nguyen line rules from Hue (Annam and Cochinchina). Annam a tributary to China. Dai Viet Quoc (Great Viet Realm) restored after defeat of the Tay Son rulers. Viet Nam Quoc (Viet Nam Realm)(name authorized by China). Dai Nam Quoc (literally, "Great South Realm") (name not authorized by China). French occupy Da Nang (Tourane) and Saigon.

Tonkin

(1886-1955)

French Cochinchina

(1858-1946)

North Vietnam

(1945-1976)

18

Feb 1859

French occupy Saigon.

5

Jun 1862

Southern region (Cochinchina) ceded to France.

20

Nov 1873 - 15 Mar 1874 French occupy Hanoi and Haiphong in Tonkin.

15

Mar 1874

Tonkin a French protectorate by Treaty of Saigon.

27

Apr 1882 - 25 Aug 1883 French again occupy Hanoi.

25

Aug 1883

Annam and Tonkin become French protectorates by Treaty of Hué.

9

Jun 1885

China renounces its rights over Annam and Tonkin.

17

Oct 1887

Union of French Indochina formed (Cambodia, Annam,

Oct 1888

Tonkin, and Cochinchina, and from 3 Oct 1893, Laos). Hanoi, Haiphong and Danang are ceded to France.

1900 - 28 Feb 1946

Koung-Tchéou-Wan (Kwangchowan) China leased territory administratively joined to French Indo-China, subordinated to Tonkin.

Vietnam

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South Vietnam

(1946-1976)

16 Jun 1940 - 9 Mar 1945 Administration loyal to Vichy France.

22 Sep 1940

28 Jul 1941

Japanese troops based in northern Indochina.

Japanese troops based in southern Indochina.

9 Mar 1945 - 15 Aug 1945 Japanese occupation.

11 Mar 1945

Emperor Bao Dai proclaims the end of the French protectorate and the restoration of the independence of Vietnam (in full cooperation with Japan).

Viet Nam Empire

End of the empire; subsequently de facto division between North and South Vietnam.

Independence proclaimed (Democratic Republic of Vietnam); controlling North Vietnam only.

France recognizes the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (north) as a free state within the Federation of Indochina and French Union.

Allied occupation of French Indo-China by China above 16th parallel, and Britain below.

Provisional

Revolutionary

Government

(1969-1975)

12

25

2

Map of Ethnic Groups in Indochina

6

1

21

Historical Maps

5

of Vietnam

26

30

Jun 1945

Aug 1945

Sep 1945

Mar 1946

Sep 1945 - Jan/Mar 1946

Jun 1946 - 14 Jun 1949 Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina (in the South).

Jul 1954

Oct 1954

Oct 1955

Apr 1975

Division formalized by Geneva Accords.

The last French troops leave Hanoi.

Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam).

Republic of South Vietnam

2 Jul 1976

Unification as Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

Empire

Capital: Hue (Hanoi [Bac Thanh]

1010-1802)

Imperial Anthem "Dang Dan Cung"

Note: Although the monarchy dealt with imperial China as a tributary state, and the ruler was addressed by the imperial court as "king of An Nam," domestically a full imperial system was established, including era names. The information listed here (there sometimes is even more

Vietnam

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available) is as follows: personal name (ho [family name] + huy [tabooed personal name]) followed by temple name (mieu hieu), posthumous style (dang ton hieu), and era name(s) (nien hieu) initiated during the respective reign; some emperors are often referred to by the nien hieu (e.g., the Bao Dai emperor).

Rulers (from 1806, Emperors [style Dai Viet Hoang De]);

from 1884, imperial title translated by the French as King)

3 Aug 1675 - May 1705

22 May 1705 - Apr 1729

Apr 1729 - Sep 1732

Sep 1729 -

7 May 1735

May 1735 - Jun 1740

Jun 1740 - 10 Aug 1786

1767 - 1769

Aug 1786 - 30 Jan 1789

Le Duy Hiep mieu hieu: Hi Tong / dang ton hieu: Chuong Hoang De nien hieu 31 Jan 1680 - May 1705: Chinh Hoa Le Duy Duong mieu hieu: Du Tong / dang ton hieu: Hoa Hoang De nien hieu May 1705 - 8 Feb 1720: Vinh Thinh nien hieu 8 Feb 1720 - 27 Apr 1729: Bao Thai Le Duy Phuong dang ton hieu: (Hon Duc De) nien hieu Apr 1729 - Sep 1732: Vinh Khanh Le Duy Tuong mieu hieu: Thuan Tong / dang ton hieu: Gian Hoang De nien hieu Sep 1732 - 7 May 1735: Long Duc Le Duy Thin (also called Le Duy Chan) mieu hieu: Y Tong / dang ton hieu: Huy Hoang De nien hieu May 1735 - Jun 1740: Vinh Huu Le Duy Dao mieu hieu: Hien Tong / dang ton hieu: Vinh Hoang De nien hieu Jun 1740 - 18 Feb 1787: Canh Hung (also reputed later to have continued to 31 May 1802) Le Duy Mat (in rebellion) Le Duy Ky

dang ton hieu: Man Hoang De nien hieu 18 Feb 1787 - 1789: Chieu Tong (also reputed later to have continued to 31 May 1802)

30 Jan 1789 - 31 May 1802 rule extinguished by Tay Son rulers

1789 - 1790

Le Duy Chi

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(in rebellion against Tay Son rule)

31

May 1802 -

3 Feb 1820

Nguyen Phuoc Noan

(b. 1762 - d. 1820)

 

mieu hieu: The To / dang ton hieu: Cao Hoang De nien hieu 31 May 1802 - 14 Feb 1820: Gia Long

14

Feb 1820 - 20 Jan 1841

Nguyen Phuoc Hao

(b. 1791 - d. 1841)

 

mieu hieu: Thanh To / dang ton hieu: Nhan Hoang De nien hieu 14 Feb 1820 - 11 Feb 1841: Minh Mang

11

Feb 1841 -

4 Nov 1847

Nguyen Phuoc Toan

(b. 1807 - d. 1847)

 

mieu hieu: Hien To / dang ton hieu: Chuong Hoang De

nien hieu 11 Feb 1841 - 9 Nov 1847: Thieu Tri

10

Nov 1847 - 19 Jul 1883

Nguyen Phuoc Thi

(b. 1829 - d. 1883)

 

mieu hieu: Duc Tong / dang ton hieu: Anh Hoang De nien hieu 5 Feb 1848 - 27 Jan 1884: Tu Duc

19

Jul 1883 -

2 Dec 1883

Regency Council

 

- Tran Tien Thanh (to Sep 1883)

(b. 1813 - d. 1883)

- Nguyen Van Tuong

(b. 1824 - d. 1886)

- Ton That Thuyet

(b. 1835 - d. 1913)

20

Jul 1883 - 23 Jul 1883

Nguyen Phuoc Ung Chan

(b. 1852 - d. 1883)

 

mieu hieu: Cung Tong / dang ton hieu: Hue Hoang De (often referred to by the nickname Duc Duc)

30

Jul 1883 - 29 Nov 1883

Nguyen Phuoc Thang dang ton hieu: Cung Tong Hoang De (often referred to as Hiep Hoa)

(b. 1847 - d. 1883)

2

Dec 1883 - 31 Jul 1884

Nguyen Phuoc Hieu

(b. 1869 - d. 1884)

 

mieu hieu: Gian Tong / dang ton hieu: Nghi Hoang De nien hieu 27 Jan 1884 - 15 Feb 1885: Kien Phuoc

2

Dec 1883 -

2 Aug 1884

Regency Council

 

- Nguyen Van Tuong

(s.a.)

- Ton That Thuyet

(s.a.)

- Prince Nguyen Phuoc Huong Huu, Gia-huong Vuong

(b. 1835 - d. 1885)

2

Aug 1884 -

5 Jul 1885

Nguyen Phuoc Minh

(b. 1871 - d. 1947)

 

nien hieu 15 Feb 1885 - 18 Sep 1885: Ham Nghi (continues in rebellion to Nov 1888)

2

Aug 1884 -

5 Jul 1885

Regency Council

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- Nguyen Van Tuong

(s.a.)

- Prince Nguyen Phuoc Huong Huu, Gia-huong Vuong (to 21 Oct 1884)

(s.a.)

- Prince Nguyen Phuoc Mien Lam, Duke of Hoai Duc (from Nov 1884)

(b. 1832 - d. 1897)

15

Jul 1885 - Jul 1885

Prince Nguyen Phuoc Mien Dinh, Tho-Xuan Vuong -Regent

(b. 1810 - d. 1886)

19

Sep 1885 - 28 Jan 1889

Nguyen Phuoc Bien

(b. 1864 - d. 1889)

 

mieu hieu: Canh Tong / dang ton hieu: Thuan Hoang De nien hieu 7 Nov 1885 - 1 Feb 1889: Dong Khanh

1

Feb 1889 -

3 Sep 1907

Nguyen Phuoc Buu Lan

(b. 1879 - d. 1954)

 

nien hieu 1 Feb 1889 - 5 Sep 1907: Thanh Tai

 

1

Feb 1889 - 27 Sep 1897

Regency Council

 

- Prince Nguyen Phuoc Mien Trinh, Tuy-Ly Vuong

(b. 1820 - d. 1897)

- Prince Nguyen Phuoc Mien Lam, Duke of Hoai Duc

(s.a.)

- Nguyen Trong Hiep

(b. 1834 - d. 1902)

(to 4 Sep 1896 [effectively Mar 1897])

 

- Truong Quang Dan (to Apr 1896)

- Nguyen Than (from Apr 1896)

(b. 1840 - d. 1914)

- Bui An Nien (from Apr 1890)

- Hoang Cao Khai (from Jul 1897)

(b. 1850 - d. 1933)

29

Jul 1907 - 18 May 1916

Truong Nhu Cuong

(b. 1843 - d. 19

)

 

(president of the Regency Council)

5

Sep 1907 -

3 May 1916

Nguyen Phuoc Vinh San

(b. 1900 - d. 1945)

 

nien hieu 5 Sep 1907 - 18 May 1916: Duy Tan

 

18

May 1916 -

6 Nov 1925

Nguyen Phuoc Tuan

(b. 1885 - d. 1925)

 

mieu hieu: Hoang Tong / dang ton hieu: Tuyen Hoang De nien hieu 18 May 1916 - 13 Feb 1926: Khai Dinh

6

Nov 1925 - 10 Sep 1932

Ton That Han (president of the Regency Council)

(b. 1854 - d. 1944)

8

Jan 1926 - 25 Aug 1945

Nguyen Phuoc Vinh Thuy

(b. 1913 - d. 1997)

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nien hieu 13 Feb 1926 - 25 Aug 1945: Bao Dai

Prime ministers

9

Mar 1945 -

7 Apr 1945

Pham Quynh

(b. 1892 - d. 1945)

7

Apr 1945 - 19 Aug 1945

Tran Trong Kim

(b. 1882 - d. 1953)

The Trinh and Nguyen lords

Note: The Trinh family ruled the North from the imperial capital at or near present-day Hanoi; the Nguyen (properly Nguyen Phuoc) family ruled the South (present-day Center) from their capital at or near present-day Hue. The official style of each ruler is chua, but the Trinh are assigned honorifics with the Sino-Viet royal style vuong. The Nguyen rulers not only acquired royal honorifics (thuy hieu) during their reign, but the full royal/imperial temple name and posthumous style, changing in time from Sino-Viet vuong (king) to hoang de (emperor) after the family became the imperial rulers after 1802. This record shows a limited choice of these often very long names and styles.

Rulers

- Trinh family -

1682

- 1709

Trinh Can "Dinh Vuong"

1709

- 1729

Trinh Cuong "An Do Vuong"

1729

- 1740

Trinh Giang "Uy Nam Vuong"

1740

- 1767

Trinh Doanh "Minh Do Vuong"

1767

- 1782

Trinh Sam "Tinh Do Vuong"

1782

Trinh Man

1782

- 1786

Trinh Khai "Doan Nam Vuong"

1786

- 1787

Trinh Bong "An Do Vuong"

- Nguyen Phuoc family -

7

Feb 1691 -

1 Jun 1725

Nguyen Phuoc Chu "Chua Minh"

(b. 1675 - d. 1725)

 

mieu hieu: Hien Tong /dang ton hieu: Minh Hoang De

1

Jun 1725 -

7 Jun 1738

Nguyen Phuoc Tru "Chua Ninh"

(b. 1697 - d. 1738)

 

mieu hieu: Tuc Tong /dang ton hieu: Ninh Hoang De

7

Jun 1738 -

7 Jun 1765

Nguyen Phuoc Khoat

(b. 1714 - d. 1765)

mieu hieu: The Tong /dang ton hieu: Vo Hoang De

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31 Dec 1765 - 1776

Nguyen Phuoc Thuan

(b. 1753 - d. 1778)

mieu hieu: Due Tong /dang ton hieu: Dinh Hoang De

1776 - 1777

Nguyen Phuoc Duong dang ton hieu: (Tan Chinh Vuong)

The Tay Son Rulers

Note: The rule by this family (family name Nguyen, changed from Ho) begins in 1776 in the Central part of the country, restricting the imperial Le line to a small area. On 22 Dec 1788 a brother of the Central ruler proclaims the Le rule extinct and assumes the imperial style. The two lines continue to rule, each in part of the country, until the "imperial" ruler unifies the country in 1793 and rules until Jul 1802.

Ruler (title Vuong; from 1778, Thien Vuong; from Jun 1787, Trung Uong Hoang De)

1776 - Oct 1793

nien hieu 1778 - Oct 1793: Thai Duc Rulers (title Dai Viet Hoang De)

Nguyen Van Nhac (Ho Van Nhac)

(b. c.1752 - d. 1793)

22

Dec 1788 - 15 Sep 1792

Nguyen Van Hue (Nguyen Quang Binh) (b. c.1752 - d. 1792) mieu hieu: Thai To / dang ton hieu: Vo Hoang De nien hieu 22 Dec 1788 - 11 Feb 1793: Quang Trung

15

Sep 1792 - Jul 1802

Nguyen Quang Toan (Nguyen Trac)

(b. 1782 - d. af.1802)

nien hieu 11 Feb 1793 - Jun 1801: Canh Thinh nien hieu Jun 1801 - Jul 1802: Bao Hung

1792 - 1795

Bui Doc Tuyen -Regent

Champa (Panduranga)

Note: Vietnamese sources on Champa dry up at the end of the 17th century. The royal chronicle of Pangdarang (Pali: Panduranga) claims that the polity of this name is the true continuation of Champa, and there is some meager evidence that that is the case, at least for the final portion of the chronicle (which claims to deal with events beginning in 1000).

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Map of Champa

Capital: Pangdarang (Vijaya 986 - 1471; Indrapura 860-986; Simhapura 4th - 860)

Population: N/A

192

Champa Kingdom founded in the southern part of modern day Vietnam.

1145

- 1147

Annexed by Cambodia.

1312

- 1326

Vassal of Annam.

1471/1697

Tonkin/Annam annexes the major portions of the Champa Kingdom.

1697

- 1822

Vassal of Annam.

1822

Kingdom extinguished and incorporated into Vietnam.

Kings

1695

- 1728

Po Saktirai da putih

1728

- 1730

Po Ganvuh da putih

1731

- 1732

Po Thuttirai

1732

- 1735

Vacant

1735

- 1763

Po Rattirai

1763

- 1765

Po Tathun da moh-rai

1765

- 1780

Po Tithuntirai da paguh

1780

- 1781

Po Tithuntirai da parang

1781

- 1783

Vacant

1783

- 1786

Chei Krei Brei

1786

- 1793

Po Tithun da parang

1793

- 1799

Po Lathun da paguh

1799

- 1822

Po Chong Chan

Pulo Condore Island

1799 - 1822 Po Chong Chan Pulo Condore Island http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Vietnam.h tml PDF c reated

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16 Jun 1702

2 Mar 1705

Factor

16 Jun 1702 -

British East India company founds post on the island of Pulo Condor off the south coast of southern Vietnam. Garrison and settlement destroyed.

2 Mar 1705

Allen Catchpoole

(d. 1705)

French Union of Indo-China

1705 Allen Catchpoole (d. 1705) French Union of Indo-China Map of French Indo-China Capital : Hanoi

Map of French Indo-China

Capital: Hanoi (Saigon 1887- 1 Jan 1902)

Currency: French Indochina Piastre (ICFP)

Population: 21,599,582 (1935) (incl. Kwangchowan)

Governors-general

16 Nov 1887 - Apr 1888

Apr 1888 - 31 May 1889

31 May 1889 - Apr 1891

Apr 1891 - Jun 1891 Jun 1891 - 31 Dec 1894 Mar 1894 - Oct 1894

Dec 1894 - Feb 1895

Feb 1895 - 10 Dec 1896 Dec 1896 - 13 Feb 1897

13 Feb 1897 - Oct 1902

Oct 1902 - Feb 1908

18 Feb 1908 - Sep 1908

Sep 1908 - Jan 1910

(b. 1833 - d. 1913)

Étienne Antione Guillaume Richaud (b. 1841 - d. 1889)

Jules Georges Piquet Bideau (acting) Jean Marie Antoine de Lanessan Léon Jean Laurent Chavassieux (acting for Lanessan) François Pierre Rodier (acting) Paul Armand Rosseau Augustin Juline Fourès (acting) Joseph Athanase Paul Doumer Jean Baptiste Paul Beau Louis Alphonse Bonhoure (acting) Antony Wladislas Klobukowski

)

Jean Antoine Ernest Constans

(b. 1839 - d. 1923)

(b. 1843 - d. 1919) (b. 1848 - d. 1895)

(b. 1854 - d. 1913) (b. 1835 - d. 1896)

(b. 1853 - d. 19

(b. 1857 - d. 1932) (b. 1857 - d. 1927) (b. 1864 - d. 1909) (b. 1855 - d. 1934)

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Jan 1910 - Feb 1911

Albert Jean George Marie Louis

(b. 1853 - d. 1917)

Feb 1911 - Nov 1911 Nov 1911 - Jan 1914

Picquié (acting) Paul Louis Luce Albert Pierre Sarraut (1st time)

(b. 1872 - d. 1962)

(s.a.)

)

Jan 1914 -

7 Apr 1915

Joost van Vollenhouven (acting)

(b. 1877 - d. 1918)

Apr 1915 - May 1916 May 1916 - Jan 1917 Jan 1917 - May 1919 May 1919 - Feb 1920

Ernest Nestor Roume Jean Eugène Charles (acting) Albert Pierre Sarraut (2nd time) Maurice Antoine François

(b. 1858 - d. 1941)

(b. 1874 - d. 19

Feb 1920 - Apr 1922

Montguillot (1st time)(acting) Maurice Long

(b. 1866 - d. 1923)

Apr 1922 - Aug 1922 Aug 1922 - Apr 1925 Apr 1925 - Nov 1925

François Marius Baudouin (acting) Martial Henri Merlin Maurice Antoine François Montguillot (2nd time)

(b. 1860 - d. 1935) (s.a.)

18

Nov 1925 - Jan 1928

Alexandre Varenne

(b. 1870 - d. 1947)

Jan 1928 - Aug 1928

Maurice Antoine François Montguillot (3rd time)

(s.a.)

22

Aug 1928 - 15 Jan 1934

Pierre Marie Antoine Pasquier

(b. 1877 - d. 1934)

15

Jan 1934 - Sep 1936

Eugène Jean Louis René Robin

Sep 1936 - 23 Aug 1939

Joseph Jules Brévié

(b. 1880 - d. 1964)

23

Aug 1939 - 25 Jun 1940

Georges Catroux (acting)

(b. 1877 - d. 1969)

25

Jun 1940 -

9 Mar 1945

Jean Decoux

(b. 1884 - d. 1963)

9

Mar 1945 - 28 Aug 1945

Yuichi Tsuchihashi

(b. 1891 - d. 1975)

9

Mar 1945 - 15 Aug 1945

Takeshi Tsukamoto (acting for Tsuchihashi)

(b. 1896 - d. 19

)

Allied Military governors - above 16th parallel -

6 Mar 1946

- below 16th parallel -

6 Sep 1945 - 28 Jan 1946 High Commissioners

9 Sep 1945 -

Lu Han (China)

Douglas David Gracey (U.K.)

(b. 1895 - d. 1974)

(b. 1894 - d. 1964)

23

Sep 1945 -

5 Oct 1945

Jean Marie Arsène Cédile (acting) (b. 1908 - d. 1984)

5

Oct 1945 - 31 Oct 1945

Philippe François Marie de

(b. 1902 - d. 1947)

Hauteclocque, dit Leclerc (acting)

Vietnam

Page 13 sur 28

31

Oct 1945 -

1 Apr 1947

Georges Louis Marie Thierry d'Argenlieu

(b. 1889 - d. 1964)

1

Apr 1947 - 20 Oct 1948

Émile Bollaert

(b. 1890 - d. 1978)

20

Oct 1948 - 17 Dec 1950

Léon Marie Adolphe Pascal Pignon

(b. 1908 - d. 1976)

17

Dec 1950 - 11 Jan 1952

Jean Joseph Marie Gabriel de Lattre de Tassigny

(b. 1889 - d. 1952)

11

Jan 1952 -

1 Apr 1952

Raoul Albin Louis Salan (acting)

(b. 1899 - d. 1984)

Apr 1952 - 27 Apr 1953 Commissioners-general

1

Jean Letourneau

(b. 1907 - d. 1986)

27

Apr 1953 - 17 Aug 1953

Jean Letourneau

(s.a.)

17

Aug 1953 - 10 Apr 1954

Maurice Dejean

(b. 1899 - d. 1982)

10

Apr 1954 -

2 Jun 1955

Paul Henri Romuald Ély

(b. 1897 - d. 1975)

Jun 1955 - 21 Jul 1956

Henri Hoppenot

(b. 1891 - d. 1977)

Japanese Military Commanders in Indochina

7 Sep 1940 -

5 Jul 1941

Takuma Nishimura

(b. 1889 - d. 1951)

1941

Shojiro Iida

(b. 1888 - d. 19

)

1941

- 10 Nov 1942

10

Nov 1942 - 22 Nov 1944

Kazumoto Machijiri

(b. 1889 - d. 1950)

22

Nov 1944 - 15 Aug 1945 Yuichi Tsuchihashi

Annam -Tonkin

French Chargés d'Affaires (at Hué)

1875

- 1876

Pierre Paul Rheinart (1st time)

(b. 1840 - d. 1902)

1876

- 1879

Paul Louis Félix Philastre

1879

- 1880

Pierre Paul Rheinart (2nd time)

(s.a.)

1880

- 1881

Louis Eugène Palasme de Champeaux

1881

- 1883

Pierre Paul Rheinart (3rd time)

(s.a.)

1883

- 1884

François Jules Harmand

Residents-general (at Hué)

11

Jun 1884 - Oct 1884

Pierre Paul Rheinart (1st time) (provisional)

(s.a.)

Vietnam

Page 14 sur 28

Oct 1884 - 31 May 1885

Victor Victor Gabriel Lemaire

31

May 1885 - Jan 1886

Philippe hilippe Marie André

(b. 1827 - d. 1887)

18

Apr 1886 - 11 Nov 1886

Roussel de Courcy Paul Bert

(b. 1833 - d. 1886)

Nov 1886 - Jan 1887

Paulin François Alexandre Vial (interim)

(b. 1831 - d. 1907)

30

Jan 1887 - 23 Jan 1888 Paul Louis Georges Bihouard

(b. 1846 - d. 19

)

1888

Étienne Antoine Guillaume Richaud (s.a.)

Nov 1888 -

9 May 1889

Pierre Paul Rheinhard (2nd time)

(s.a.)

Annam

 

Residents-Superior (at Hué)

 

1886

- 1888

Charles Dillon

1888

- 1889

Séraphin Hector (1st time)

(b. 1846 -

)

1889

Léon Jean Laurent Chavassieux

(s.a.)

1889

- 1891

Séraphin Hector (2nd time)

(s.a.)

Oct 1891 - 1897

Ernest Albert Brière

(b. 1848 -

)

1897

- 1898

Jean Calixte Alexis Auvergne (1st time)

(b. 1859 - d. 1942)

Mar 1898 - 1900 9 May 1901 - 1904

Léon Jules Pol Boulloche Jean Calixte Alexis Auvergne (2nd time)

(b. 1855 - d. 19 (s.a.)

)

1904

- 1906

Jean-Ernest Moulié

1906

- 1908

Fernand Ernest Levecque

(b. 1852 - d. 19

)

1908

- 1910

Élie Jean-Henri Groleau

(b. 1859 - d. 19

)

1910

- 1912

Henri Victor Sestier

(b. 1857 - d. 19

)

1912

- 1913

Georges Marie Joseph Mahé

1913

- 1920

Jean François Eugène Charles

1920

- 1927

Pierre Marie Antonie Pasquier

(s.a.)

1927

- 1928

Jules Fries

1928

- 1931

Aristide Eugène Le Fol

1931

- 1934

Yves Charles Châtel

(b. 1865 - d. 1944)

1943

- 1940

Maurice Fernand Graffeuil

1940

- 1944

Émile Louis François Grandjean

Vietnam

Page 15 sur 28

1944 - Mar 1945

Jean Maurice Norbert Haelewyn

(b. 1901 - d. 1945)

Japanese Resident Mar 1945 - 1945

Yokoyama Masayuki

(b. 1892 - d. 19

)

Commissioners Aug 1945 - 1955

 

the Commissioners of Tonkin

Tonkin

 

Residents-Superior (at Hanoi; subordinated to Annam until 1888)

 

1886

Paulin François Alexandre Vial Jean Thomas Raoul Bonnal Post abolished Eusèbe Irénée Parreau Ernest Albert Brière Léon Jean Laurent Chavassieux François Pierre Rodier Post abolished Léon Jules Pol Boulloche Augustin Julien Fourès Jean-Henri Groleau Louis Alphonse Bonhoure Louis Jules Morel Jules Simoni Léon Louis Jean Georges Destenay

(s.a.) (b. 1847 -

 

1886

- 1887

)

1887

- 1888

 

Apr 1888 - 1889

 

(b. 1842 - (s.a.) (s.a.) (b. 1854 - d. 1913)

)

1889

- Oct 1891

1891

- 1893

1893

- 1895

1895

- 1897

 

1897

(b. 1855 - d. 19 (s.a.) (b. 1859 - d. 19

)

1897

- 1904

1904

- 1907

)

9 Mar 1907 - 1907

(b. 1865 - d. 1909)

1907

- 1909

(b. 1853 - d. 19

)

1909

- 1912

 

15 Dec 1912 -

8 Jun 1915

(b. 1861 - d. 1915)

1915

- 1916

Maurice Joesph Le Gallen

1917

- 1921

Jean Baptiste Édouard Bourcier Saint-Gaffray

(b. 1870 - d. 19

)

1921

- 1925

Maurice Antoine François Monguillot

(s.a.)

1925

- 1930

Eugène Jean Louis René Robin

1930

- 1937

Auguste Eugène Ludovic Tholance

(b. 1878 - d. 1938)

1937

- 1940

Yves Charles Châtel

(s.a.)

1940

- 1941

Émile Louis François Grandjean

Vietnam

Page 16 sur 28

1941 - 1942 1942 - 1944 9 Mar 1945

- Mar 1945 - Aug 1945 Commissioners

1944

Edouard André Delsalle Jean Maurice Norbert Haelewyn Camille Auphelle

Nishimura Kumao -Japanese Resident (b. 1899 - d. 1980)

(b. 1893 - d. 1945) (b. 1901 - d. 1945) (b. 1908 - d. 1945)

18

Aug 1945 - 22 Aug 1945

Pierre Messmer (acting)

(b. 1916 - d. 2007)

22

Aug 1945 - Mar 1946

Jean-Roger Sainteny (1st time)

(b. 1907 - d. 1978)

Mar 1946 - Jun 1946

Jean-Etienne Valluy

(b. 1899 - d. 1970)

Jun 1946 - 17 Aug 1946

Jean Crépin (acting)

(b. 1908 - d. 1996)

17

Aug 1946 -

2 Dec 1946

Louis-Constant Morlière

(b. 1897 - d. 1980)

2 Dec 1948 - 1948

Jean-Roger Sainteny (2nd time) (interim)

(s.a.)

1948 - 1949

1949 - Nov 1950

Yves-Jean Digo

Marcel-Jean-Marie Alessandri

(b. 1897 - d. 1974) (b. 1895 - d. 1968)

24

Nov 1950 - 29 Dec 1950 Pierre-Georges-Jacques-Marie Boyer (b. 1896 - d. 1976)

 

De La Tour du Moulin

29

Dec 1950 - 10 Feb 1951

Raoul-Albin-Louis Salan (interim) (b. 1899 - d. 1984)

10

Feb 1951 - 28 May 1953 François-Jean-Antonin-Marie-Amédée (b. 1897 - d. 1955)

 

Gonzalez de Linarès

28

May 1953 - 1955

René Cogny

(b. 1904 - d. 1968)

Crown Representative for Tonkin (Kinh Luoc Bac Ky)

188. - 18

1890 - 1897

Nguyen Huu Do

Hoang Cao Khai

French Cochinchina

1890 - 1897 Nguyen Huu Do Hoang Cao Khai French Cochinchina Sep 1858 - 9 Mar

Sep 1858 - 9 Mar 1945

Map of Cochinchina

Capital: Saigon

Population: 4,616,000 (1936)

Vietnam

Page 17 sur 28

 

1689

Annexed by Annam from Cambodia.

Sep 1858

French occupy Da Nang (Tourane) and Saigon.

18

Feb 1859

French occupy Saigon and the three southern Vietnamese provinces of Bien Hoa, Gia Dinh and Dinh Tuong.

13

Apr 1862

Territories ceded to France.

1864

French colony of Cochinchina.

1867

Provinces of Chau Doc, Ha Tien and Vinh Long added.

15

Aug 1887

Part of Union of French Indochina.

21

Dec 1933

Spratly Islands are annexed to French Cochinchina.

28

Jul 1941

Japanese troops based in French Cochinchina (de facto occupation).

9

Mar 1945 - 15 Aug 1945 Japanese occupation (see under Indo-China).

15

Aug 1945 - 1946

Nominally part of Empire of Vietnam.

6

Sep 1945 - 28 Jan 1946 British occupation (s.a.).

4

Jun 1949

Cochinchina formally ceded to State of Vietnam by France.

Commander-in-Chief of the Naval Division of Réunion and Indochina, and Commander-in -Chief of the Expeditionary Corps in the Chinese Seas

- in Tourane (Da Nang) - Sep 1858 - 1859

Commander-in-Chief of the Naval Division in the Chinese Seas

Charles Rigault de Genouilly

(b. 1807 - d. 1873)

-

in Tourane (Da Nang) -

19

Oct 1859 - 23 Mar 1860 Théogène François Page

(b. 1807 - d. 1867)

Governors and Commander-in-Chef

-

in Saigon -

18

Feb 1859 - 1859

Charles Rigault de Genouilly

(s.a.)

1859 - Mar 1860

Jean Bernard Jauréguiberry (acting)(b. 1815 - d. 1887)

Mar 1860 -

6 Feb 1861

Théogène François Page

(s.a.)

1

Apr 1860 -

6 Feb 1861

Joseph Hyacinthe Louis Jules d'Ariès (acting for Page)

(b. 1813 - d. 1878)

6

Feb 1861 - 30 Nov 1861

Léonard Victor Joseph Charner

(b. 1797 - d. 1869)

30

Nov 1861 - 16 Oct 1863

Louis Adolphe Bonard

(b. 1805 - d. 1867)

16

Oct 1863 -

4 Apr 1868

Pierre Paul Marie de La Grandière

(b. 1807 - d. 1876)

1865

Pierre Gustave Roze (acting for La Grandière)

(b. 1812 - d. 1883)

4

Apr 1868 - 10 Dec 1869

Marie Gustave Hector Ohier

(b. 1814 - d. 1870)

10

Dec 1869 -

9 Jan 1870

Joseph Faron (acting)

(b. 1819 - d. 1881)

Vietnam

Page 18 sur 28

9

Jan 1870 -

1 Apr 1871

Alphonse Jean Claude René Théodore (b. 1811 - d. 1886) de Cornulier-Lucinière

1

Apr 1871 - 16 Mar 1874

Marie Jules Dupré

(b. 1813 - d. 1881)

16

Mar 1874 - 30 Nov 1874

Jules François Émile Krantz (acting)

(b. 1821 - d. 1914)

30

Nov 1874 - 16 Oct 1877

Victor Auguste, baron Duperré

(b. 1825 - d. 1900)

16

Oct 1877 -

7 Jul 1879

Louis Charles Georges Jules Lafont (b. 1824 - d. 1908)

Governors

 

7

Jul 1879 -

7 Nov 1882

Charles Le Myre de Vilers

(b. 1833 - d. 1918)

7

Nov 1882 - Jul 1885

Charles Antoine François Thomson

(b. 1845 - d. 1898)

Jul 1885 - Jun 1886

Charles Auguste Frédéric Begin

(b. 1835 - d. 1901)

Jun 1886 - 22 Oct 1887

Ange Michel Filippini

(b. 1834 - d. 1887)

23

Oct 1887 -

2 Nov 1887

Jacques-Noël Pardon (acting)

(b. 1854 - d. 1910)

3

Nov 1887 - 15 Nov 1887

Jules Georges Piquet (acting)

(b. 1839 - d. 1928)

Lieutenant governors (subordinated to the Governors-general of Indochina)

Nov 1887 - Apr 1888

Jean Antoine Ernest Constans

(b. 1833 - d. 1913)

Apr 1888 - 1888

Auguste Eugène Navelle

(b. 1846 -

)

1888

- 1889

Post abolished

1889

Julien Auguste Fourès (1st time)

(b. 1853 - d. 1915)

1889

- 1892

Henri Eloi Danel

(b. 1850 - d. 1898)

1892

- 1895

Julien Auguste Fourès (2nd time)

(s.a.)

1895

- 1897

Alexandre Antoine Étienne Gustave (b. 1851 - d. 1907) Ducos

1897

- 1898

Ange Eugène Nicolai

(b. 1845 -

)

1898

- 1901

Édouard Picanon

(b. 1854 - d. 1939)

1901

- 1902

Henri Félix de Lamothe

(b. 1843 - d. 1926)

1902

- 1906

François Pierre Rodier

(b. 1854 - d. 1913)

1906

- 1907

Olivier Charles Arthur de Lalande (b. 1853 - d. 1910) de Calan

29 Jun 1907 -

1909 - 1916

Governors (subordinated to the Governors-general of Indochina)

9 Jan 1909

Louis Alphonse Bonhoure

Jules Maurice Gourbeil

(b. 1864 - d. 1909)

1911

- 1916

Jules Maurice Gourbeil

1916

- 1920

(b. 1873 - d. 1956)

Jun 1918 - Feb 1920

Maurice Joseph La Gallen Georges René Gaston Maspéro (acting for La Gallen)

(b. 1872 - d. 1942)

Vietnam

Page 19 sur 28

1920

- 1921

Maurice Joseph La Gallen (interim) (s.a.)

 

1921

- 1926

Maurice Cognacq

(b. 1870 - d. 1949)

1926

- 1929

Paul Marie Alexis Joseph Blanchard de la Brosse

1929

Auguste Eugène Ludovic Tholance (acting)

(b. 1878 - d. 1938)

1929

- 1934

Jean-Félix Krautheimer

(b. 1874 - d. 1943)

1934

- 1939

Pierre André Michel Pagès

(b. 1893 - d. 1980)

1938

Henri Georges Rivoal (acting for Pagès)

(b. 1886 - d. 1963)

1939

- 1940

René Veber

(b. 1888 - d. 1972)

1940

- 1942

Henri Georges Rivoal

(s.a.)

1942

- 1945

Ernest Thimothée Hoeffel

(b. 1900 - d. 1952)

9 Mar 1945 - 15 Aug 1945 Imperial Delegate

Minoda Fujio

1945 - 25 Aug 1945

Nguyen Van Sam

(b. 18

- d. 1947)

President of the Provisional Executive Committee of the South (Nam Bo)

25 Aug 1945 - 23 Sep 1945

Commissioners

Tran Van Giau

(b. 1911 - d. 2006)

DCSD

23

Sep 1945 -

5 Oct 1945

Jean Marie Arsène Cédile (acting) (b. 1908 - d. 1984)

13

Oct 1945 - 1946

Vacant

1946 - 1948

1948

 

Albert Torel (acting)

(b. 1895 - d. 1987)

1948? - 31 Jul 1951

Charles Marie Chanson

(b. 1902 - d. 1951)

1

Aug 1951 -

9 Apr 1952

Raoul Albert Louis Salan (acting to 1 Sep 1951)

(b. 1899 - d. 1984)

9

Apr 1952 - 1953

Paul Louis Bondis

(b. 1895 - d. 1986)

1953

- 195.

 

Georges Émile LeBlanc

(b. 1896 - d. 1989)

195. - 195.

Gabriel Louis Marie Bourgund

(b. 1898 - d. 1993)

President of the Council of the South (Nam Bo)

1945 - 25 Aug 1945

President of the Consultative Council

Tran Van An

4 Feb 1946 - 30 May 1946

Beziat

(b. 1906 - d. 2002)

South Vietnam

Vietnam

Page 20 sur 28

Vietnam Page 20 sur 28 3 Jun 1946 - 2 Jun 1948 2 Jun 1948 -

3 Jun 1946 - 2 Jun 1948

Vietnam Page 20 sur 28 3 Jun 1946 - 2 Jun 1948 2 Jun 1948 -

2 Jun 1948 - 30 Apr 1975

20 sur 28 3 Jun 1946 - 2 Jun 1948 2 Jun 1948 - 30 Apr

30 Apr 1975 - 2 Jul 1976

Constitution (26 Oct 1956 [suspended

Nov 1963]; 1 Apr 1967-Apr

1975

in Vietnamese)

Population: 19,370,000 (1973)

Hear National Anthem "Thanh niên Hành Khúc" (Call to the Citizens) (14 Jun 1948-30 Apr 1975)

Currency: South Vietnam Dong (VNR); from 22 Sep 1975 Viet Nam South Dong (VNS) Exports: $40 million (1965)

Hear National (NLF) Anthem "Giài phóng mién Nam" (Release the South) (30 Apr 1975 - 2 Jul 1976)

National Holiday: 26 Oct

(1955)

Map of South Vietnam

Capital: Saigon

GDP: $ N/A

Republic Day Ethnic groups: Vietnamese 80%, Chinese, Montagnard, Khmer, Cham, Malay, others 20% (1970)

Religions: majority Buddhist, Roman Catholic 10%, Cao Dai, Hoa Hao, animists, others (1970)

Imports: $300 million (1965) Total Armed Forces (ARVAN): 1,000,000 (1971) U.S. Forces: 525, 000 (1968)

Merchant marine: 39 ships (1974) International Organizations/Treaties: ACCT, ADB, CP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, LORCS, NAM (from 1975), NPT, UNCTAD, UNDP, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

1

Jun 1946

Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina.

8

Oct 1947

South Vietnam

27

May 1948

Vietnam

14

Jun 1949

French associated state (State of Vietnam).

21

Jul 1954

Division formalized by Geneva Accords.

26

Oct 1955

Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam)

27

Jan 1973

Paris Peace Accords.

30

Apr 1975

Republic of South Vietnam (North Vietnamese forces occupy Saigon).

2

Jul 1976

Unification with North Vietnam as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

Presidents of the Provisional Government

Vietnam

Page 21 sur 28

1

Jun 1946 - 10 Nov 1946

Nguyen Van Thin

(b. 1884 - d. 1946)

CDP

15

Nov 1946 -

7 Dec 1946

Nguyen Van Xuan (1st time)

(b. 1892 - d. 1989)

Mil

7

Dec 1946 -

8 Oct 1947

Le Van Hoach

(b. 1896 - d. 1978)

8

Oct 1947 - 27 May 1948

Nguyen Van Xuan (2nd time)

(s.a.)

Mil

President of the Central Government of Vietnam

 

27

May 1948 - 14 Jun 1949

Nguyen Van Xuan

(s.a.)

Mil

Chiefs of state (title Quoc Truong)

 

14

Jun 1949 - 30 Apr 1955

Bao Dai

(b. 1913 - d. 1997)

Non-party

30

Apr 1955 - 26 Oct 1955

Ngo Dinh Diem (acting)

(b. 1901 - d. 1963)

FNS

Presidents

 

26

Oct 1955 -

2 Nov 1963

Ngo Dinh Diem

(s.a.)

CLP

2

Nov 1963 - 30 Jan 1964

Duong Van Minh (1st time)

(b. 1916 - d. 2001)

Mil

 

(chairman Revolutionary Military Committee)

30

Jan 1964 -

8 Feb 1964

Nguyen Khanh (1st time)

(b. 1927)

Mil

8

Feb 1964 - 16 Aug 1964

Duong Van Minh (2nd time)

(s.a.)

Mil

16

Aug 1964 - 27 Aug 1964

Nguyen Khanh (2nd time)

(s.a.)

Mil

27

Aug 1964 - 8 Sep 1964 Provisional Leadership Committee

 

- Duong Van Minh

(s.a.)

Mil

- Nguyen Khanh

(s.a.)

Mil

- Tran Thien Khiem

(b. 1925)

Mil

8

Sep 1964 - 26 Oct 1964

Duong Van Minh (3rd time)

(s.a.)

Mil

 

(chairman Provisional Leadership Committee)

26

Oct 1964 - 14 Jun 1965

Phan Khac Suu

(b. 1905 - d. 1970)

Mil

14

Jun 1965 - 21 Apr 1975

Nguyen Van Thieu

(b. 1923 - d. 2001)Mil;1968 NSDF

 

(chairman National Leadership Committee to 31 Oct 1967)

 

21

Apr 1975 - 28 Apr 1975

Tran Van Huong

(b. 1903 - d. 1982)

28

Apr 1975 - 30 Apr 1975

Duong Van Minh (4th time) (acting) (s.a.)

Mil

30

Apr 1975 -

2 Jul 1976

Huynh Tan Phat

(b. 1913 - d. 1989)

NLF

Chief of the Provisory Government

 

26

Mar 1946 - 30 May 1946

Nguyen Van Thin

(s.a.)

CDP

Prime ministers

 

13

Jun 1949 - 21 Jan 1950

Bao Dai

(s.a.)

Non-party

21

Jan 1950 - 26 Apr 1950

Nguyen Phan Long

(b. 1888 - d. 1960)

DLP

27

Apr 1950 -

6 Jun 1952

Tran Van Huu

(b. 1896 - d. 1984)

Non-party

Vietnam

Page 22 sur 28

6

Jun 1952 - 17 Dec 1953

Nguyen Van Tam

(b. 1895 - d. 1990)

VNQ

12

Jan 1954 - 16 Jun 1954

Pham Buu Loc

(b. 1914 - d. 1990)

Non-party

16

Jun 1954 - 26 Jun 1954

Phan Huy Quat (1st time)(acting)

(b. 1909 - d. 1979)

DVP

26

Jun 1954 - 26 Oct 1955

Ngo Dinh Diem

(s.a.)

FNS

4

Nov 1963 - 30 Jan 1964

Nguyen Ngoc Tho

(b. 1908)

Mil

8

Feb 1964 - 29 Aug 1964

Nguyen Khanh (1st time)

(s.a.)

Mil

29

Aug 1964 -

3 Sep 1964

Nguyen Xuan Oanh (1st time) (acting)

(b. 1921 - d. 2003)

Mil

3

Sep 1964 -

4 Nov 1964

Nguyen Khanh (2nd time)

(s.a.)

Mil

4

Nov 1964 - 28 Jan 1965

Tran Van Huong (1st time)

(s.a.)

Mil

28

Jan 1965 - 15 Feb 1965

Nguyen Xuan Oanh (2nd time) (acting)

(s.a.)

Mil

16

Feb 1965 -

8 Jun 1965

Phan Huy Quat (2nd time)

(s.a.)

DVP

19

Jun 1965 - 31 Oct 1967

Nguyen Cao Ky

(b. 1930)

Mil

31

Oct 1967 - 17 May 1968

Nguyen Van Loc

(b. 1922)

Mil

28

May 1968 -

1 Sep 1969

Tran Van Huong (2nd time)

(s.a.)

1

Sep 1969 -

4 Apr 1975

Tran Thiem Khiem

(s.a.)

Mil

4

Apr 1975 - 24 Apr 1975

Nguyen Ba Can

(b. 1913)

DCP

28

Apr 1975 - 30 Apr 1975

Vu Van Mau

(b. 1914 - d. 1998)

FNR

30

Apr 1975 -

2 Jul 1976

Nguyen Huu Tho

(b. 1910 - d. 1996)

NLF

French High Commissioners

14 Aug 1945 - 27 Apr 1953 the Commissioners of French Indochina

Commissioners-general

27 Apr 1953 - 21 Jul 1956 the Commissioners of French Indochina

Commanders U.S. Military Assistance Command in Vietnam (MACV)

8

Feb 1962 - 20 Jun 1964

Paul D. Harkinss

(b. 1904 - d. 1984)

20

Jun 1964 - 22 Mar 1968

William Childs Westmoreland

(b. 1914 - d. 2005)

22

Mar 1968 - 30 Jun 1972

Creighton Williams Abrams, Jr.

(b. 1914 - d. 1974)

30

Jun 1972 - 29 Mar 1973

Fred C. Weyand

(b. 1916)

Party abbreviations: CDP = Cochinchinese Democratic Party; CLP = Can Lao Party; DCP = Dan Chu Party (Democracy Party); DLH = Dan Lap Hien (Constitutional Party; DVP = Dai Viet Party; FNR = Forces for National Reconciliation; FNS = Front of National Salvation (coalition);

Vietnam

Page 23 sur 28

NLF = National Liberation Front of Vietnam (communist "Vietcong" front); NSDF = National Social Democratic Front (anti-communist, center-right, pro-Van Thieu, est.1969); VNQ = Viet-Nam Quoc Dan Dang (Vietnamese Nationalist Party); Mil = Military

Alternative Government: Provisional Revolutionary Government of Republic of South Vietnam

Revolutionary Government of Republic of South Vietnam 8 Jun 1969 - 30 Apr 1975 8 Jun

8 Jun 1969 - 30 Apr 1975

8

Jun 1969

Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic

30 Apr 1975

of South Vietnam, established in rebellion against the Saigon government. NLF assumes control of South Vietnam.

President

8

Jun 1969 - 30 Apr 1975

Huynh Tat Phat

(b. 1913 - d. 1989)

NLF

Prime minister

 

8

Jun 1969 - 30 Apr 1975

Nguyen Huu Tho

(b. 1910 - d. 1996)

NLF

Party abbreviation: NLF = National Liberation Front of Vietnam (Communist front grouping)

North Vietnam

Vietnam

Page 24 sur 28

Vietnam Page 24 sur 28 29 Sep 1945 - 30 Nov 1955 Adopted 30 Nov 1955

29 Sep 1945 - 30 Nov 1955

Vietnam Page 24 sur 28 29 Sep 1945 - 30 Nov 1955 Adopted 30 Nov 1955

Adopted 30 Nov 1955

Map of North Vietnam

Capital: Hanoi

GDP: $N/A

Hear National Anthem "Tien quan ca" (March to the Front) Currency: (North) Vietnamese Dong (VDD) Exports: $50-60 million (1965) Imports: $110-220 million

(1965)

Text of National Anthem Adopted 1945

National Holiday: 2 Sep (1945) Independence Day

Constitution (1 Jul 1960)

Population: 23,930,000 (1973 est.)

Ethnic groups: Vietnamese, Chinese, Thai

Total Armed Forces (NVA): N/A Merchant marine: 5 ships (1974) International Organizations/Treaties: ICRM, LORCS, WHO, WMO

Religions: Buddhist, Roman Catholic, atheist

2

Sep 1945

Democratic Republic of Vietnam proclaimed.

9

Sep 1945 - 6 Mar 1946 Allied (Chinese) occupation (see under French Indo-China).

President of the Indochinese Communist Party (from May 1951, Vietnam Workers' Party) (officially dissolved 11 Nov 1945, continued in secret to May 1951)

Oct 1930 -

2 Sep 1969

Ho Chi Minh (Nguyen Ai Quoc)

(b. 1890 - d. 1969)

First Secretaries (top party post from 2 Sep 1969)

1941 -

1 Nov 1956

Truong Chinh

(b. 1907 - d. 1988)

1

Nov 1956 - 10 Sep 1960

Ho Chi Minh

(s.a.)

10

Sep 1960 - 20 Dec 1976

Le Duan

(b. 1908 - d. 1986)

Chairman of the Committee of Liberation of the Vietnamese People ("Viet Minh")

25

Aug 1945 - 29 Aug 1945

Ho Chi Minh (in rebellion from 13 Aug 1945)

(s.a.)

DCSD

Chairman of the Provisional government

 

29

Aug 1945 -

2 Mar 1946

Ho Chi Minh

(s.a.)

DCSD

Vietnam

Page 25 sur 28

Presidents

2

3

Mar 1946 - Sep 1969 -

2 Sep 1969 2 Jul 1976

Prime ministers

2 Sep 1945 - 20 Sep 1955

2 Jul 1976

20 Sep 1955 -

Ho Chi Minh Ton Duc Thang (acting to 23 Sep 1969)

Ho Chi Minh Pham Van Dong

(s.a.) (b. 1888 - d. 1980)

DCSD;1951 DLDV DLDV

(s.a.) (b. 1908 - d. 2000)

DCSD;1951 DLDV DLDV

Party abbreviation: DCSV = Dang Cong San Viet Nam (Communist Party of Vietnam, communist, only legal party; Vietnamese Communist Party [DCSV] was original name, from Feb 1930-Oct 1930. Successive names were: Indochinese Communist Party [DCSD], Oct 1930-May 1951, which was officially dissolved 11 Nov 1945 and merged into League for the Independence of Vietnam -"Viet Minh"-, although continued it in secret to 1951); Vietnamese Workers' Party [DLDV], May 1951- Dec 1976; and again DCSV from Dec 1976. Post of president of the party was abolished after death of Ho Chi Minh)

Socialist Republic of Vietnam

2 Jul 1976

Unification as Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

First Secretary of the Vietnam Workers' Party (DLDV)

2 Jul 1976 - 20 Dec 1976

Le Duan

(b. 1908 - d. 1986)

General Secretaries of the Communist Party (DCSV)

20

Dec 1976 - 10 Jul 1986

Le Duan

(s.a.)

14

Jul 1986 - 18 Dec 1986

Truong Chinh

(b. 1908 - d. 1988)

18

Dec 1986 - 27 Jun 1991

Nguyen Van Linh

(b. 1915 - d. 1998)

27

Jun 1991 - 29 Dec 1997

Do Muoi

(b. 1917)

29

Dec 1997 - 22 Apr 2001

Le Kha Phieu

(b. 1931)

22

Apr 2001 -

Nong Duc Manh

(b. 1940)

Presidents

Vietnam

Page 26 sur 28

2

Jul 1976 - 30 Mar 1980

Ton Duc Thang

(s.a.)

DLDV;1976 DCSV

30

Mar 1980 -

4 Jul 1981

Nguyen Huu Tho (acting)

(s.a.)

DCSV

Chairmen of the State Council

 

4

Jul 1981 - 18 Jun 1987

Truong Chinh

(s.a.)

DCSV

18

Jun 1987 - 22 Sep 1992

Vo Chi Cong

(b. 1913)

DCSV

Presidents

 

23

Sep 1992 - 24 Sep 1997

Le Duc Anh

(b. 1920)

DCSV

24

Sep 1997 - 27 Jun 2006

Tran Duc Luong

(b. 1937)

DCSV

27

Jun 2006 -

Nguyen Minh Triet

(b. 1942)

DCSV

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers

2 Jul 1976 - 18 Jun 1987 18 Jun 1987 - 10 Mar 1988

10

22 Jun 1988 -

8 Aug 1991 - 24 Sep 1992 Prime ministers

Pham Van Dong Pham Hung

Vo Van Kiet (1st time) (acting)

Do Muoi

Vo Van Kiet (2nd time)

Mar 1988 - 22 Jun 1988

8 Aug 1991

(s.a.) (b. 1912 - d. 1988) (b. 1922) (s.a.) (s.a.)

DLDV;1976 DCSV DCSV DCSV DCSV DCSV

24

Sep 1992 - 25 Sep 1997

Vo Van Kiet

(s.a.)

DCSV

25

Sep 1997 - 27 Jun 2006

Phan Van Khai

(b. 1933)

DCSV

27

Jun 2006 -

Nguyen Tan Dung

(b. 1949)

DCSV

Territorial Disputes: Cambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; after years of Cambodia claiming Vietnam had moved or destroyed boundary markers, in 2005, after much domestic debate, Cambodia ratified an agreement with Vietnam that settled all but a small portion of the land boundary; establishment of a maritime boundary with Cambodia is hampered by unresolved dispute over offshore islands; in 2004, Laotian- Vietnamese boundary commission agrees to erect missing markers in two adjoining provinces; demarcation of the China-Vietnam boundary proceeds slowly and although the maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries agreements were ratified in Jun 2004, implementation has been delayed; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and possibly Brunei; Paracel Islands occupied by China but claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Vietnam continues to expand construction of facilities in the Spratly Islands; in Mar 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands.

Vietnam

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Party abbreviation: DCSV = Dang Cong San Viet Nam (Communist Party of Vietnam, communist, authoritarian, government party; known as Vietnamese Workers' Party DLDV to Dec 1976)

©2000 Ben Cahoon

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