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The Implementation Possibilities of Renewable Energy

in the rural areas of Suriname


Maarten Mangnus

Lake Brokopondo

Hydropower project Palumeu

Palumeu

Panato creek

PV Raleighvallen Hydropower project Palumeu

Hydro laboratory AdeKUS Rainforest Suriname


Implementation possibilities of renewable energy
in the rural areas of Suriname

Written by Maarten Mangnus

Address Utrecht University


Copernicus Institute
Heidelberglaan 2
3584 CS Utrecht
The Netherlands

Date August 2006

Curriculum Science and Innovation Management

Supervisors Prof. dr. ir. R.E. Smitsa


Dr. W.G.J.H.M. van Sarkb
Dr. S. Naipalc
C. de Rooijd

Reportnr. NWS-I-2006-25
a
Utrecht University – Copernicus Institute,
Department of Science and Innovation Management.
b
Utrecht University – Copernicus Institute,
Department of Science, Technology and Society.
c
Anton de Kom University of Suriname –
Department of Technology and Infrastructure.
d
United Nations Development Programme
Preface
This report is a result of a nine months research fulfilling the last stage of the Master, Science and
Innovation at the University Utrecht. The report was constructed with contribution of the
Department of Innovation Studies (Utrecht University), the Department of Science, Technology
and Society (Utrecht University), the Anton de Kom University of Suriname and the United
Nations Development Programme. The research was mainly carried out during my internship at
the department of Technology and Infrastructure (Anton de Kom University of Suriname) from
September 2005 to March 2006.

At first and foremost I would like to thank my supervisor at the Anton de Kom University of
Suriname, Sieuwnath Naipal. His knowledge and dedication on renewable energy and related
subjects where a great support to this report and research. Even more important was his
experience and enthusiasm on field expeditions. Thanks to dr. Naipal I was able to experience the
construction of two renewable energy projects in the inland of Suriname. It was an extraordinary
experience to work and (try) to communicate with the local people of the different inland
villages.
I would also like to thank my supervisors of the University Utrecht, Ruud Smits and Wilfried van
Sark for their useful comments and motivating words. Ruud Smits, thank you for your sharp
analytical advice and motivating words on the innovation part of this research. I also would like
to thank Christine de Rooij from the United Nation Development Programme who made this
research project possible. Christine, thank you for your ideas and perseverance on the realization
of this research. Without your dedication I would have missed a fantastic experience. Last but not
least special thanks to my family and girlfriend who supported me in every possible way during
my stay in Suriname.

Warm regards,

Maarten Mangnus

Anton de Kom University Utrecht University United Nations Development


of Suriname Programme, Suriname
Abstract
The majority of scientists, international organizations and governments worldwide agree on the
latest evidence of human-induced climate change, its impacts and the predictions of what is to
come. There is strong evidence that an increase in carbon dioxide concentration could be a cause
of the significant global warming in the coming decades. Effects of global warming will be
catastrophic for a country like Suriname. A sea level rise of 50 cm forecasted for the next 100
years will have direct consequences for the entire country and especially along the coastline where
about 85% of the population is concentrated. Suriname is presently developing the institutional
capacity and knowledge to deal with the threats of global warming. Utilization of renewable
energy (RE) technologies can be a suitable solution to solve these problems; however the
implementation of these technologies is slow. These options should be able to compete with
conventional technologies, be compatible with the existing energy supply system and should be in
line with the ratified international Conventions. One of the most important obstacles in reaching
an increase in renewable energy is the lack of human and financial capital. An interesting action
for the Republic of Suriname could be the ratification of the Kyoto protocol because of its Clean
Development Mechanism that could assist in (partly) overcoming certain barriers, especially the
barrier related to RE finance.

This research will focus on the implementation possibilities of the renewable energy in the rural
areas of Suriname. Herewith an overview of the RE possibilities for the energy sector of
Suriname becomes available. Subsequently an insight is created of how to overcome the different
barriers. The overview is created by a technological and economical analysis of different RE
alternatives that can be implemented in the Suriname. These possibilities are linked to energy
need and the availability of natural resources in the rural areas of Suriname. Furthermore a social
and policy analysis of the energy sector in Surname is fulfilled in order to gain a supportive
system of RE actors that can achieve a successful implementation of the RE alternatives.

The result of the quantitative analysis of the different RE alternatives on the rural areas resulted
in an overview of the possibility and feasibility of the renewable energy technologies (RETs) in
Suriname. The RETs possible in Suriname are: PV energy, hydro energy and biomass energy.
Wind energy is no option in this research because the daily average wind speed is very low and
therefore not suitable for large, community supporting, electricity production. Tidal energy could
also be an interesting option for Suriname but due a lack of data it was not possible to investigate
this RE option. The PV, Hydro and Biomass alternatives are examined on a wide range of
different criteria, but the main distinction for a feasible RE alternative is given in the Multi
Criteria Analysis (MCA). The criteria analyzed in the MCA are based on the design of a
technological system as proposed by Hughes (1987). The RE alternative most feasible as a
technological system is the PV-Biomass alternative. Other RE alternatives maybe cheaper or may
have other advantages. The PV-Biomass system is the most complete system in all the rural areas
of Suriname. This system is also able to compete with the current energy supply system in these
areas.

The energy sector in Suriname is not clearly organized and has no focus on RE activities and RE
related policy. The main reason for the lack of or ineffective RE policy in Suriname is the
inadequate relations between different sectors, because an overview of RE activities does not
exist. Moreover, although the participants are aware of their role in the RE system, there is no
clear overall policy that may guide, support and coordinate their actions, because the different
participants do not share or exchange information on experiences and knowledge. These to
reasons makes it complicated to create successful implementation strategies for the RE
alternatives.
To overcome these obstacles two new sectors were added besides the existing sectors involved in
RE activities (Government, Public sector, Private sector, Bilateral and Multilateral agencies and
organizations and Non-governmental Organizations). The ‘National RE Board’ and the ‘RE
platform for knowledge and experience’. These sectors do not exist, but need to be implemented
in the RE system of Suriname to achieve a well functioning and successful innovation system.
One of the main steps to create a successful RE system in Suriname is to ratify the Kyoto
protocol. This protocol can attract new players, which eventually can come along with financial
support through the CDM. However before the protocol can be ratified a number of actions
need to be undertaken. One of these actions concerns the role of the government of Suriname. If
they want a stable and successful RE system they have to stimulate the right policy and
communication. The government of Suriname (especially the Ministry of Natural Resources) can
have a main role and effect on the development process towards RE. When the government of
Suriname formulates goals towards the ratification of the Kyoto protocol it will encourage
national and international (new) players to participate and invest in RE in Suriname and Suriname
becomes an interesting country participation in the Clean Development Mechanism.
Besides the ratification of the Kyoto protocol other strategies (supported by theories of Smits
and Kuhlmann (2004) and Tsoutsos and Stamboulis (2005)) towards a successful innovation
system are:
ƒ The experienced participants have to guide and instruct other actors on RE know-how.
ƒ The experienced participants have to lead the RE platform.
ƒ The government has to create regulations for favorable circumstances on the
development of RE know-how.
ƒ The National RE Board has to create awareness of the advantages of RE within the RE
system.
ƒ Development of a set of coherent and realistic goals towards a RE oriented Suriname.
ƒ The government and the bilateral/multilateral agencies and organizations have to take the
lead in the financial control of the RE system.

In short, there are a lot of opportunities for the implementation of RE the rural areas of
Suriname. However an important step to accomplish an implementation of a RET is a well
organized infrastructure of the participants involved in the RE sector of Suriname. Subsequently
with the right knowledge and experience on technological, economical, social and political
aspects the RE system is feasible and the RE alternatives can be successfully implemented in the
rural areas of Suriname.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 COUNTRY INFORMATION ................................................................................................... 1
1.2 CLIMATE CHANGE ............................................................................................................. 2
1.3 OVERALL ENERGY ............................................................................................................. 3
2 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION & RESEARCH QUESTIONS ............................................ 4
2.1 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION ..................................................................................................... 4
2.2 KYOTO PROTOCOL ............................................................................................................. 5
2.3 BARRIERS TO RENEWABLE ENERGY USE ............................................................................ 7
2.4 STAKEHOLDERS ................................................................................................................. 8
2.5 OBJECTIVES AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS ........................................................................... 9
3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK .................................................................................... 10
3.1 TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS .............................................................................................. 10
3.2 SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONS AND USER - & INNOVATION- ORIENTED POLICY ............................ 12
3.3 CONCEPTUAL MODEL....................................................................................................... 16
4 METHODOLOGY.............................................................................................................. 17
4.1 DEMOGRAPHICAL-ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS ..................................................................... 17
4.2 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS ............................................................................................... 18
4.3 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS .................................................................................................. 20
5 CASE DESCRIPTION ....................................................................................................... 24
5.1 POPULATION ANALYSIS ................................................................................................... 24
5.2 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ...................................................................................................... 25
5.3 ENERGY ANALYSIS .......................................................................................................... 26
5.4 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................... 27
6 MODELING FRAMEWORK ........................................................................................... 28
6.1 LOCATION IDENTIFICATION ............................................................................................. 28
6.2 SPECIFIC ENERGY ANALYSIS ............................................................................................ 29
6.3 NATURAL RESOURCES ..................................................................................................... 31
6.3.1 Wind ........................................................................................................................ 31
6.3.2 Solar ........................................................................................................................ 33
6.3.3 Water ....................................................................................................................... 34
6.3.4 Biomass ................................................................................................................... 35
6.4 TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION............................................................................................. 35
6.4.1 Photovoltaic energy................................................................................................. 35
6.4.2 Hydro energy........................................................................................................... 40
6.4.3 Biomass energy ....................................................................................................... 42
6.4.4 Wind energy............................................................................................................. 44
6.4.5 Tidal energy............................................................................................................. 44
6.5 ALTERNATIVES AND CRITERIA ......................................................................................... 45
6.5.1 Business as usual..................................................................................................... 45
6.5.2 PV system ................................................................................................................ 45
6.5.3 Hydropower system ................................................................................................. 45
6.5.4 Hybrid PV – Hydro – Biomass energy system ........................................................ 46
6.6 ECONOMICAL DESCRIPTION ............................................................................................. 47
6.6.1 System costs............................................................................................................. 47
6.6.2 Additional costs ....................................................................................................... 48
6.6.3 Annual costs ............................................................................................................ 49
6.6.4 Environmental costs ................................................................................................ 49
7 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS .......................................................................................... 51
7.1 COASTAL REGIONS .......................................................................................................... 51
7.2 INLAND REGIONS ............................................................................................................. 55
7.3 RE OPPORTUNITIES IN THE RURAL AREAS OF SURINAME ................................................. 62
8 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS ............................................................................................. 63
8.1 SYSTEM OF RE ACTORS ................................................................................................... 63
8.2 POLICY DIRECTION 1: DEVELOPMENT OF FOCUSED LEARNING......................................... 65
8.3 POLICY DIRECTION 2: ENCOURAGEMENT OF NEW TYPES OF PLAYERS.............................. 66
8.4 POLICY DIRECTION 3: FLEXIBLE FINANCING MECHANISMS .............................................. 67
8.5 STRATEGIES FOR A RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEM ........................................................... 68
9 CONCLUSION.................................................................................................................... 69
10 DISCUSSION & RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................... 71
10.1 DISCUSSION ................................................................................................................... 71
10.2 RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................................................................................... 73
REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................... 74
APPENDIXES ........................................................................................................................ 76
Appendix A ....................................................................................................................... 76
Appendix B ....................................................................................................................... 77
Appendix C ....................................................................................................................... 79
1 Introduction
The temperature of the earth has increased significantly in the last decades, as a result of a surplus
of CO2 in the atmosphere [IPCC, 2001]. This ‘global warming’ can result in sea level rise and
climate change. These effects can have disastrous consequences for a country as Suriname, which
has a very vulnerable and populated coastline. The coastline of Suriname is not highly populated,
however, the coastal zone, in particular the young coastal zone, which is very low and flat is
vulnerable for rises of sea level. Moreover, the coastal zone is fertile and inhabits complex
ecosystems offering good conditions and opportunities for the population to live. The
consequences will not only concentrate on the environment and ecology, but also on the
economy and indirectly on the health situation. Currently the Republic of Suriname has little or
no capacity to withstand or minimize the effects of global warming. Besides capacity the change
in the earth’s temperature can be minimized by limiting the fossil fuel use and stimulating
renewable energy technologies (RETs), but also increasing sinks, which means to retrieve CO2
from the atmosphere. Limiting the use of fossil fuels will lead to a decline of CO2 in the
atmosphere. Suriname can contribute in this by implementing RETs. The use of renewable
energy technologies (RETs) can also be interesting for Suriname, especially with an increasing oil
price and an abundant potential of renewable energy sources. Up till now Suriname has made a
few attempts in the implementation of RETs. Examples are a PV project for the inland village
Kwamalasumutu and a hydropower project near the village Puketi.

1.1 Country information


The republic of Suriname is a country
in the north-east part of South
America, between 6° and 2° N and
57° and 54° W. The republic of
Suriname is bordered by two rivers,
the Corantijne river at the west
(Guyana) and the Marowijne river at
the east (French Guyana). Suriname
has a coastline of about 350
kilometers; the distance from north to
south is about 450 kilometers. The
surface area of Suriname is 164,000
square kilometers [Leeuwsha, 2005].
Most of the population lives along the
coastline in the cities Paramaribo,
Nickerie, Moengo; in total 492,829
people live in Suriname [ABS, 2005].
Suriname has a high variety of human
races. The population is a mixture of
Hindustan’s, Javanese, Indians,
Africans, Chinese and Europeans.
Due to the fluctuating history of
colonialism (the French, the English Figure 1, Districts of Suriname [Buursink, 2005].
and the Dutch), slavery and migration
has created an extraordinary mixed and integrated population. Suriname is divided into 10
districts 7 along the coastline and 3 more inland (Figure 1). The largest district is Sipaliwini
covering more than 70 per cent of the total surface of Suriname while most of its area consists of
tropical forest. Despite the large area only 7 % of the total population lives in Sipaliwini.

1
The colonization of Suriname by the Dutch started between 1665 and 1667 when the ‘States of
Zeeland’ defeated the English. After almost 300 years of colonization the ‘States of Suriname’
became independent on 25 November 1975. On the 25th of February 1980 a coupe d’état took
place in the new Republic of Suriname and in 1986-1989 the Internal war. The political agitation
remained until the elections of 1991, where after the situation stabilized [Leuwsha, 2005].

1.2 Climate change


“Long-term data sets for global temperature indicate a clear and consistent increase in global temperatures,
particularly since the industrial revolution in western countries. Large variations, resulting from events such as
volcanic eruptions, can make the short term trend in global temperature change difficult to establish, but the long
term data sets available allow the bigger picture to be seen. Much of the argument surrounding climate change
hinges not on whether global warming is occurring, but rather whether this warming is a result of human activity.
Natural causes, such as sun-spot activity, have been invoked by some to explain the accelerated rate of global
warming in recent decades. In recent years though, even those previously skeptical of human-induced global warming
have largely recognized the important role our greenhouse gas emissions are playing in climate change. As
concentrations of the main greenhouse gases have risen in our atmosphere, global temperatures have increased at a
similar rate” (see Figure 2) [Evidence of Global Warming, 2005].
The majority of scientists, international organizations and governments worldwide agree on the
latest evidence of human-induced climate change, its impacts and the predictions of what is to
come. The temperature in the world is increasing due to an increasing concentration of
greenhouse gases, especially since the industrial revolution [Evidence of Global Warming, 2005].
There is strong evidence that an
increase in carbon dioxide
concentration could be a cause of
the significant global warming in
the coming decades [Duié, 2001,
I]. Via the so-called greenhouse
gas effect, climate change may
lead to sea level rise that would
negatively affect coastal
communities, wildlife habitat,
agriculture, and fisheries
[Glenmarec, 2004].
The consequences of global
warming can be disastrous for a
country as Suriname, especially
the effect of sea level rise. The
republic of Suriname is currently
unprotected against any form of
climatologically changes. The only
precaution taken is a dyke in
Nickerie, west Suriname. Besides
the effects of global warming
Suriname has to contend with
erosion and sedimentation. Due to
the oceanographic currents along
the north of South Americas
coastline, sediments are swept
away and the vegetation at the
coastline is destroyed.
Figure 2, Variations of the Earth's surface temperature [Evidence of
Global Warming, 2005].

2
Besides the Corantijne and the Marowijne rivers mentioned in the previous paragraph there are at
least four more rivers with an open sea connection. The estuaries of these rivers are influenced by
the tides of the sea. This influence can be noticed almost 50 kilometers upstream. Although the
republic of Suriname is not an island, the effects of sea level rise are noticeable all across the
country.

Moreover, the capital of Suriname, Paramaribo, being the largest city of Suriname containing
more than 60% of the total population of Suriname, only rises three meters above sea level.
Hypothetically any rise of water level could have catastrophic effects on the lives of the people of
Suriname. As mentioned earlier, climate change and its sea level rise negatively affect the wildlife,
habitat, agriculture, and fisheries. The republic of Suriname is a developing country and as a
consequence, the economy is dominated by agriculture and fisheries. Negative effects on these
sectors have adverse consequences for the local and national economy.

1.3 Overall energy


Presently the energy supply system of Suriname exists for more than 70% out of fossil fuels.
These fossil fuels are consumed by the main energy supplier of Suriname the Energie Bedrijven
of Suriname (EBS). The EBS has about ten diesel generators stationed at the Saramacca street,
which is almost at the center of Paramaribo. These generators supply the city and the
surrounding areas. However the capacity of the EBS is not enough to supply all electrical energy
to these areas. Therefore the EBS buys energy from Suralco. Suralco is a large aluminum
company. They have built a large hydropower plant at Lake Brokonpondo, but do not need the
total capacity for the aluminum business. A part of the produced energy can be sold to the EBS,
to take care of the capacity shortage. About 26% of the total energy supply is generated through
the hydropower system at Lake Brokopondo.
The use of energy is mainly concentrated in Paramaribo and its surroundings, followed by the
region Nickerie. In the country’s energy supply system there is an overall (known) shortage of a
least 106 GWh/year (20% of the annual consumption) and the energy is unequally distributed
[Naipal, 2005, Tractabel, 2000]. In the inland and other less developed parts, wood is used as
main energy source. Electricity in these parts can only be generated if barrels of diesel are flown
in. Remarkably, these barrels are completely paid for by the Suriname government.
Besides the richness of fossil resources in Suriname, as timber and bauxite, Suriname, given its
climate, has a high potential for renewable energy resources. In contrast with developments on
renewable energy in foreign countries, Suriname has not yet succeeded in the full exploitation of
this potential [Naipal, 2005].

3
2 Problem description & research questions
Up till now Suriname has no policy on RETs and although it has a number of renewable
resources at her disposal. Subsequently there are financial limitations in implementing RETs. In
this regard climate change taken in consideration and since the whole world is working towards
the mitigation of the climate change problem, Suriname can use the opportunities offered by the
developed countries. There are a number of opportunities for RETs in Suriname; however there
is no clear overview of the country’s resources and possibilities in the utilization of RETs.

2.1 Problem description


Effects of global warming will be catastrophic for a country like Suriname. A sea level rise of 50
cm forecasted for the next 100 years will have direct consequences for the entire country and
especially along the coastline where about 85% of the population is concentrated [NIMOS, 2006,
CBB, 2005]. Examples of consequences of sea level rise are submerged beaches, inundated
coastal lands, salinisation of coastal aquifers and saltwater intrusion into mangroves and estuaries
[Tompkins et al., 2005]. Another effect of global warming is climate change. Examples of climate
change are shifted and intensified rain and dry periods, which directly affect the biodiversity and
agriculture. In summary, the most important consequences of global warming for Suriname are
[NIMOS, 2006]:
ƒ Flooding: a combination of sea level rise, intensive rainfall and high tides decrease the
water outlet causing almost 15 kilometer inland (permanent) flooding.
ƒ Erosion: higher, intensive and powerful waves as a consequence of stronger winds cause
beach submersion in East-Suriname and land erosion in West Suriname
ƒ Mangroves degradation: a sea level rise has severe impacts upon the wealth of the
mangrove forest. A degradation of the mangrove forest negatively impacts the fish and
bird habitats.
ƒ Fresh water decline: during extreme dry periods the fresh water supply for the use of
agriculture purposes and drinking water can be critical. But also the water level in the
rivers can drop enormously, obstructing the water transport, which is the main
transportation in the inland of Suriname.
ƒ Health risk: climate change create better circumstances for tropical diseases as malaria,
dengue, yellow fever etc.
ƒ Capital destruction: A sea level rise of one meter would cause a loss of 2.2% of the
coastal zone with a value of 400 million US$. Not even taken the threat to the population
and the loss of agricultural production in account.
To fight these changes the Republic of Suriname was among the 156 countries that signed the
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, see Box 1) in 1992 and
ratified it in October 1997 [Earth Trends, 2003]. In April 2005 a proposal for ratifying the Kyoto
protocol was prepared by the Ministry of Labor, Technological Development and Environment
in cooperation with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and submitted for
ratification by the National Assembly. The Kyoto protocol, which aims to reduce the harmful
effects of greenhouse gas emissions, holds a set of targets for emission limitation agreed upon by
industrial countries, the so-called Annex I (Appendix A). An important aspect of this Kyoto
protocol is the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities: Climate change is a global
problem that will affect everyone and requires efforts from all countries. According to the Kyoto
protocol, these countries will have to limit their annual greenhouse gas emission in 2012 till
below or slightly above their 1990 emission levels.

4
Box 1, UNFCCC

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) refers to the
international agreement that targets industrial and other emission of greenhouse gases such as
carbon dioxide. The UNFCCC is the centerpiece of global efforts to combat global warming.
Initially adopted in 1992 at the Rio de Janeiro “Earth Summit”
(http://www.un.org/geoinfo/bp/envio.html), the Convention entered into force on March 21,
1994. The ultimate objective of the UNFCCC is the “stabilization of greenhouse gas
concentration in the atmosphere at a level that would event dangerous anthropogenic (human-
made) interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time-
frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food
production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed n a sustainable
manner.”

2.2 Kyoto protocol


The Kyoto protocol is a supplement of the UNFCCC and mainly focused on limiting Annex I
countries’ emission of greenhouse gases. By limiting the greenhouse gases emission, their
atmospheric concentration can stagnate or even decrease, which prevents dangerous disruptions
in the climate system. This process must be undertaken cautiously so that the ecological systems
can adapt in a gradual and natural way. To gain stability in the concentration of greenhouse gases
in the atmosphere, the climate pact of 1992 called industrial countries to reduce their emission in
the year 2000 to the level of the year 1990. After the climate pact of 1994 the negotiations started
as a response to this appeal by changing voluntary into binding agreements. The next step is
making the binding agreements count for the countries that will ratify or ratified the Kyoto
protocol [PCCC, 2005]. The Kyoto protocol would become effective when more than 55
countries, together representing more than 55% of the 1990 Annex I carbon dioxide emissions
would ratify the protocol. When the Kyoto protocol would become effective the Annex I
countries that have ratified the protocol would be legally obliged to meet the agreed targets
[Ecofys, 2003]. The United States of America did not want to ratify the Kyoto protocol;
therefore ratification of Russia became decisive. Finally, on 15 February 2005 the Kyoto protocol
went into force, exactly ninety days after the UN received the signed documents from Russia
[NIMOS, 2006]. In the Kyoto protocol it is stated that the Annex I countries have to decrease
their greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2008 – 2012 with an average of 5.2% compared to
1990. The greenhouse gas emission is not only caused by carbon dioxide (CO2) but also by
methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydro fluorcarbons (HFCs), per fluorcarbons (PFCs) and
sulphur hexafloride (SF6) [Ecofys, 2003]. These greenhouse gases do not have a similar impact on
the global warming and are therefore recalculated by their attribution in CO2 – equivalents, which
are further explained in Box 2.
Countries which find it to expensive to invest in emission reduction systems at home can pay for
emission cuts elsewhere. The Kyoto protocol holds three mechanisms for Annex I countries to
obtain part of their required emission reductions outside their national boundaries [UNEP, 2002]:
ƒ Emission Trading (ET), industrialized countries that limit or reduce emissions more than
the required amount determined by the Kyoto protocol will be able to sell these
emissions to other industrialized countries that find it more difficult or more expensive to
meet their own agreement.
ƒ Joint Implementation (JI), an industrialized country can invest in low-emission
technologies in another country in exchange for emission reduction credits. The investing
country receives emission reduction while the other country gets foreign investment and
advanced technology.

5
ƒ Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), governments and private operations will transfer
clean technologies and promote sustainable development by providing credit for
financing emission-reducing or emission-avoiding projects in developing countries.
Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) will be the credits earned by the investing
industrialized country.

Box 2 Greenhouse gases by the UNDP, 2004.

The Kyoto Protocol addresses mitigation of the six gases believed to be the main contributors
to the climate change effect, which is associated with an increase in the global temperature and
disturbed climatic patterns. The relative impact caused by the release of greenhouse gases into
the atmosphere is measured by the global warming potential or GWP. The global warming
potential is an index defined as the cumulative radiative forcing between the present and some
chosen time horizon caused by a unit of mass of gas emitted now, expressed relative to a
reference gas such as carbon dioxide. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is
responsible for setting and adjusting the indices based on the most current scientific
knowledge. The three greenhouse gases most frequently found in nature are:
ƒ Carbon dioxide (CO2), a naturally occurring gas released as a by-product of fossil fuel
combustion, selected industrial processes and changes in the patterns of land-use,
particularly deforestation. In terms of gross volume of emissions, it is by far the most
important greenhouse gas. Carbon dioxide is given the base global warming potential value,
1.
ƒ Methane (CH4), a gas released in coal mining, landfill operations, raising livestock and
natural gas/oil drilling (among other processes). Methane has a global warming potential of
21 (in other words, it is 21 times more potent in terms of global warming effect than
carbon dioxide).
ƒ Nitrous oxide (N2O), a gas emitted during fertilizer manufacturing and fossil fuel
combustion. The transportation sector is usually a significant contributor to N2O
emissions. N2O has a global warming potential of 310.
Human activity clearly contributes to the increased concentration for CO, CH and NO in the
atmosphere, but they can also be released through natural processes. In addition to these
greenhouse gases, there are three additional classes of engineered gases, which occur on a very
limited basis in nature.
ƒ Hydrofluorcarbons (HFCs), a group of gasses emitted in selected manufacturing processes
and frequently used in refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. HFC-23, HFC-12,
HFC-134a and HFC 152a have global warming potentials of 11700, 2800, 1300, 140,
respectively.
„
Perfluorcarbons (PFCs), silimar to HFCs, PFCs were developed and introduced as an
alternative to ozone depleting CFCs and HCFCx. They are emitted in a variety of
manufacturing processes. Their global warming potential ranges form 6500 for CF4 to 9200
for C2F6.
„
Sulphur hexofluoride (SF6), the most potent greenhouse gas, released in very limited
number of manufacturing processes where it is used as a dielectric fluid. The global
warming potential of SF6 is equal to 23900, and one molecule of SF6 has the atmospheric
lifetime of 3200 years. Hence, SF6 represents the most dangerous group of anthropogenic-
induced greenhouse gas emissions.

6
The Clean Development Mechanism
(CDM) is the only mechanism that can be
applied on Suriname. The CDM aims to
direct private-sector investment into
emission-reduction projects in developing
countries while promoting sustainable
development in these countries. The
investing party can use (part of) the
resulting emission reductions to reach its
own emission target [Ecofys, 2003]. In other
words, an Annex I country invests in a
renewable energy project in a developing
country which ratified the Kyoto protocol.
The investment is paid back in Certified
Figure 3, Climate change 'supermarket' [UNEP,
Emission Reductions (CERs) [Duić et al., UNFCCC, 2002].
2001, II].

2.3 Barriers to renewable energy use


Suriname is presently developing the institutional capacity and knowledge to deal with the threats
of global warming [Duić et al., 2001, I]. However this development encounters different barriers
which are specified by research of the Caribbean Community Secretariat (CARICOM)1.
The Caribbean Renewable Energy Development Programme (CREDP), a research project by
CARICOM1 (2000), which included the Republic of Suriname pointed out that: “Caribbean
countries currently heavily depend on conventional methods of electricity production through fossil fuels plants, which
are the primary source of greenhouse gas emissions, and are a major cause of balance payments problems. At the
same time, the expansion of electricity generation is a key aspect to economical development in the Caribbean
countries” [CARICOM, 2000]. Utilization of renewable energy (RE) technologies can be a suitable
solution to solve these problems; however the implementation of these technologies is slow.
According to the CARICOM, 2000 this is caused by a number of barriers, or in other words:
“Despite the Caribbean’s substantial renewable energy resources, exploitation lags far below their potential, due to
policy, financing, capacity and awareness barriers” [CARICOM, 2000]. In Table 1 the different barriers
identified by the CREPD research are presented. On the basis of this overview of barriers,
required actions can be taken in order to increase the contribution of RE technologies in the
different countries. For the Republic of Suriname this concerns specific actions for off-grid RE
systems for rural electrification [CARICOM, 2000]. An interesting action for the Republic of
Suriname could be the ratification of the Kyoto protocol because of its Clean Development
Mechanism that could assist in (partly) overcoming certain barriers, especially the barrier related
to RE finance.

1Other participating institutions where: Caribbean Energy Information System (CEIS), United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP) and the Global Environmental Facility (GEF).

7
Table 1, Barriers and indicators to renewable utilization [CARICOM, 2000].
Barriers Indicators
Policy related ƒ Lack of commitment on the part of governments.
ƒ Lack of human resources for overcoming these defects.
ƒ Lack of interest and commitment of utilities.
ƒ Discriminating taxation of RE products and other financial
disincentives for RE technologies.
Related to RE finance ƒ Insufficient acceptance of RE.
ƒ Lack of project developers.
Related to human and ƒ The existing capacity building activities and opportunities in
institutional capacities RE are scattered and fragmented in the Caribbean region.
Existing opportunities lack continuation, regional co-
coordination and possibly integration.
ƒ There are few RE training opportunities in the region for
officers/decision makers, technicians of ministries utilities
and local industry. Training opportunities offered to this
group are often “donor driven” and not sustainable, and do
not reflect the priority needs (energy policy, project
development, formulating bankable projects).
Awareness and ƒ The lack of awareness of and confidence in the technology
information is the key barrier to the commercial application of RE
technologies. A critical number of key persons is needed to
be aware of RE, for the technologies and strategies to
become accepted by society.
ƒ Most decision-makers would prefer to actually see
functioning demonstration projects before investing in RE
technologies.
ƒ Insufficient availability and management of relevant energy
data. Strengthening and improving the existing Energy
Information System in the Caribbean is crucial for the
success of any regional energy projects in general, and for
RE projects in particular
ƒ Lack of systematic RE resources assessment.
Legislative barriers ƒ High level threshold barriers to overcome towards getting
involved in Renewable Technology.
ƒ Legislative barriers between different countries getting
assistance in finance, technological training etc.
Availability of the ƒ Insufficient and impropriate RET availability.
appropriate technology ƒ Available technology is very expensive and not attractive up
till now in relation to conventional ones.
ƒ Less support from the Developed Countries.

2.4 Stakeholders
Today, the Suriname energy sector is mainly controlled by Energie Bedrijven Suriname (EBS)
supported by the aluminum company Suralco. The EBS provides diesel-generated electricity for
the Paramaribo region and surroundings. The Suralco supports the EBS by selling electricity
provided by their large hydropower plant. In April of the year 2006 Staatsolie Suriname entered
the market.

8
An important stakeholder in the energy sector is the government of the Republic of Suriname.
The governmental department of the Ministry of Natural Resources (Natuurlijke Hulpbronnen,
NH) is responsible for the development and execution of energy policy. Other governmental
departments involved in the development of a sustainable energy policy are the Ministry of
Labor, Technological development and Environment (Arbeid, Technologische ontwikkeling en
Milieu, ATM) and the Ministry of Regional Development (Regionale Ontwikkeling, RO). The
Ministry of Labour, Technological Development and Environment is besides for work and
technology also responsible for the environment of Suriname. A healthy environmental policy for
Suriname anticipates issues as global warming. Therefore the Ministry of Labour, Technological
Development and Environment prepared a proposal for ratifying the Kyoto protocol in order to
encounter the effects of global warming on the Republic in Suriname. The Ministry of Regional
Development is responsible for the inland of Suriname. Where as the inland of Suriname is not
connected to the national grid and a lot of villages can not even be accessed by road, these areas
can be identified as rural areas and their development therefore belongs to the domain of the
Ministry of Regional Development.
The EBS, Staatsolie and the government are among the important stakeholders in the current
energy sector. When specializing towards the renewable energy sector, there is no clear overview
of stakeholders besides the government.

2.5 Objectives and research questions


In this research the question how the use of renewable energy sources in Suriname can be
enhanced is put central. To answer this question it is important to analyze the different barriers
for the exploitation of renewable energy technologies at technological, financial, social and
political level. This analysis should result in developing recommendations on how to stimulate
the awareness by stakeholders with regard to options to increase the application of renewable
technologies. These options should be able to compete with conventional technologies, be
compatible with the existing energy supply system and should be in line with the ratified
international Conventions. One of the most important obstacles in reaching an increase in
renewable energy is the lack of human and financial capital. On the one hand the required capital
to invest in renewable energy development cannot be satisfied, while on the other hand the price
of electricity from renewable energy till now is not competitive with that of fossil resources. This
research will focus on the financial barriers and how to reduce these. More in particular, the main
objective of this project is to find an answer to the question how the CDM-regulation can help to
successfully develop and exploit renewable energy in specific areas. In order to meet this
objective, the following research question is formulated.

Research question:
What are the implementation possibilities of renewable energy in the rural areas of Suriname?

Before starting the research for possibilities of RE in specific regions, it is important to know the
current status of Suriname’s energy system. Therefore the research will start by mapping the
present supply and demand for energy per region. To answer the research questions the
following sub questions are formulated.

Sub questions:
1. Which regions in Suriname can be distinguished that are not connected to the national grid and thus are
in need of and offer opportunities for the development of renewable energy?
2. What are the technological and economical possibilities for renewable energy technologies per region type?
3. Which implementation strategies are possible and feasible for the successful development and exploitation
of renewable energy system per region type?

9
3 Theoretical framework
The theories described below will address the development of the socio-technical system as well
as policies to manage this system and by this will help to answer the research questions. The
technological systems approach of Hughes (1987) will be used to describe the development of
the system. Smits’ and Kuhlmann’s (2004) theory on systemic instruments will be used for the
second part, the management of the system. In that section Tsoutsos and Stamboulis (2005)
contribution will be used to focus policies more precisely on energy orientated issues.

3.1 Technological systems


According to Hughes [Hughes, 1987] a technological system consists of two different kind of
artifacts, the physical and the non-physical. The physical artifacts in our case are the sun, wind,
generators or transmission lines and the non-physical artifacts are banks, universities,
governmental agencies and other relevant actors and institutions like regulations. Physical
artifacts are more or less tangible and non-physical artifacts are organized around the physical
artifacts to utilize or produce them. For a further specification of the technological system,
Hughes (1987), has split the physical artifacts in natural resources and physical artifacts and the
non-physical artifacts in organizational arrangements and legislative artifacts (see Table 2).
Table 2, General and specific artifacts in a technological system.
General Artifacts Specific Artifacts (examples)
Physical Artifacts ƒ Natural resources (sun, wind, oil reserves)
ƒ Physical artifacts (generator, transmission line, hydro turbine)
Non-physical Artifacts ƒ Organizational arrangements (banks, universities,
manufacturing firms)
ƒ Legislative artifacts (country policy, laws, subsidy regulations)

Altogether, these specific artifacts form the basic elements of a technological system. In a
technological system the artifacts are components of a functioning technological system (see
Figure 4). A technological system has input and output. A possible input as crude oil may
produce an output as for instance unleaded fuel. The input is distributed and/or converted
through the interaction of the components of the technological system. This interaction produces
output aiming at achieving the system goal, or in Hughes’ words:
“An artifact –either physical or non-physical-- functioning as a component in a system interacts with other
artifacts, all of which contribute directly or through other components to the common system goal” [Hughes,
1987].
A technological system, consisting of such interactions will need time to develop. Hughes
distinguishes in the evolution of a technological system the following phases: invention,
development, innovation, transfer and
growth, competition, and consolidation.
The invention occurs during the first
phase of system development (invention
phase). When the invention in this phase
does not correspond to the existing
technological system it is radical of
character because it inaugurates a new
system. Radical inventions contrast with
incremental inventions. The latter can be
conceived as small changes of the
invention during the implementation Figure 4, The holistic view: interactions amongst the elements
of a technological system [Tsoutsos et al., 2005].
process or during use. Implementing an

10
invention can be seen as the core of an innovation process. The basics for the social, economical
and political parts of the technological system arise in the development of the innovation
(development phase). By trial and error and by experimenting the inventions’ artifacts are
harmonized and adjusted to each other creating a functional environment. According to Hughes:
“Radical inventions, if successfully developed, culminate in technological systems” [Hughes, 1987].
After the development phase the invention can be brought into use, turning into an innovation.
In the innovation phase, all factors necessary to complete the utilization are combined. The
experimental functional environment of the development phase has to be put into practice, by
combining aspects as manufacturing, communication, sales, etc. Further developing in the
transfer phase in which the technological system has to adapt the invention to the characteristics
of its environment in order to make successful use possible. When a technological system has
passed these phases, growth, competition, and consolidation take over. Although this seems a
logical sequence these phases do not necessarily occur in this (linear) order, or as Hughes states:
“There can be feedback loops during the evolution of the technological system to synchronize the technological system
with its goals by making adjustments in the artifacts which influence the different phases” [Hughes, 1987].
Such a feedback loop can occur when the development of the system stagnates because of a
component in the system falling behind or being out of pace with the others. This is called a
reverse salient [Hughes, 1987]. A reverse salient can occur at any time during the evolution of the
technological system. Therefore it is important to recognize and analyze the reverse salients and
analyze and solve the underlying problem(s) that block a further development of the
technological system.

The shift from a conventional to a renewable energy (RE) system is only radical for the core
technology. The surrounding characteristics of such systems, as for instance the transportation of
electricity are similar for both systems, conventional as well as renewable. In other words, the
output of the systems (electricity) is equal, while the input (renewable instead of conventional
resources) is totally different. The core renewable energy technologies (RETs) differ radically
from the technologies that are used in the current energy system. The consequence of a shift
from conventional to renewable energy is that a new system has to be developed where the input
consists of renewable resources. Such a system can be analyzed using the concepts as introduced
by Hughes in the previous section. In Hughes’ model, all the different artifacts of the RET
system and their interactions have an impact on the technological, economical and environmental
feasibility of the RET system in the regions (see Table 3). The impact of the different artifacts will
be indicated through an ‘indicator’. The artifact ‘natural resources’ reflects the regional conditions
for the application of the different RETs. The physical artifacts focus on the economical
characteristics of the RETs clarifying the specific financial consequences of each technology. The
non-physical artifacts take into account the environmental and organizational characteristics of
the RETs to sort out the advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of RET in a
specific region. These indicators and thereby the concepts of the technological system will
contribute in to answering sub question three: “What are the opportunities for renewable energy
technologies per region type?”
Table 3, Indicators of the technological system artifacts.
Artifacts Indicators
Natural resources The availability and usefulness of the natural resources for the application
of RETs in energy output (kWh/year).
Physical The profitability of the RETs as a result of the Cost Of Energy ($/kWh).
Legislative The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by the replacement of the
conventional diesel generators for RETs (tCO2/year).
Organizational The organization of energy supply and demand by RETs in excess
electricity (kWh/year).

11
The evolution of a technological system and the identification and handling of possible reverse
salients are of special importance for the further analysis of the development of a technological
system. These concepts are less interesting for the analysis as technological and economical
feasibility, because factors as market influence and competition do not play a role in this phase.
They become important when the RE technology system develops further. Therefore these
concepts will be used in the analysis of the development and implementation possibilities of the
RETs in Suriname in order to help to identify and tackle the barriers that come along with this
further development. For each phase of the evolution of the RE technological system we will
look for reverse salients.

3.2 Systemic functions and user - & innovation- oriented policy


Traditionally innovation meant technology push as described in the linear model of Rogers
(1995). Nowadays however, it is recognized that innovation is a complex multi-actor process with
a lot of feedback. The user is not just a receiver anymore but plays an active part in the initiation,
development and diffusion of innovations. The interaction of users and innovators brings about
useful information that can contribute to the innovation process. The interesting part of this for
the innovators is the insight in the needs and wishes of the users. Policy makers should stimulate
this cooperation through (helping to) creating interfaces between users and innovators [Smits &
Kuhlmann, 2004].
Besides the interaction of users and innovators, innovating companies no longer innovate
without looking at the activities of the other innovators. Through rising costs, the resulting need
to acquire complementary knowledge and because of the many non-technical aspects relevant to
turn innovation processes into a success, innovating is becoming more and more a network
activity. As a consequence the innovation system in which firms operate becomes increasingly
important. It is an important responsibility for the government to contribute to a high level
innovation system and more particular to remove possible systemic failures [Smits & Kuhlmann,
2004].
Innovating is also a matter of optimizing conditions in a more or less planned way. Uncertainty is
inherent to innovation. Due to the complexity of the innovation system, uncertainties arise.
Because of this complexity, combined with the bounded rationality of people, actors in the
innovation system are not able to gain complete and unbiased knowledge of the system. Mistakes
in the innovation process are the consequences of this lack of knowledge. In other words:
“Innovation is not a matter of optimizing performance under ‘neo classical’ conditions but a process of trial and
error in which various types of learning (learning by doing, learning by using, learning by interacting and learning
on system level) play an important role” [Smits & Kuhlmann, 2004].
Policy-makers can anticipate this trend through supplying the actors with information and/or
support the actors with instruments and facilities [Smits & Kuhlmann, 2004].
The contribution of innovation policy to stimulate innovation no longer solely consists of
correcting market imperfections and stimulating R&D by individual players [den Hertog, Smits,
2004]. Innovation policy has to anticipate on and participate in these developments. Such an
approach will result in a broader innovation policy, more actors and involves factors as managing
and organizing the innovation process and system.

These changes in the innovation strategy imply that innovation is a process of learning and
adaptation of actors. Through interactions with all different facets of innovation, the innovation
system widens causing the complexity of the system to increase. In order to be able to
understand, analyze and manage an innovation system in a successful way, Smits and Kuhlmann
(2004), identified five so called systemic functions that should be fulfilled in innovation systems
and which are hardly addressed by the existing ‘traditional’ instruments. These five functions
stimulate alignment, demand articulation and learning at system level. The five functions are
[Smits & Kuhlmann, 2004]:

12
ƒ Management of interfaces. Manage interfaces cutting across subsystem borders and
superseding tunnel visions and dead-locks of narrow negotiation arenas, stimulating the
debate.
ƒ (de-) Construction and organizing (innovation) systems. Facilitate construction and
deconstruction (creative destruction) of (sub) systems, initiate discourse, alignment, and
consensus. Prevent lock-in, identify and facilitate prime movers and ensure that all
relevant actors are involved. All these are part of this function.
ƒ Providing a platform for learning and experimenting. Create conditions for various forms
of learning such as: learning by doing, learning by using and learning by interacting.
ƒ Providing an infrastructure for strategic intelligence. Identify sources (Technology
Assessment, Foresight, Evaluation, Bench Marking), build links between sources,
improve accessibility for all relevant actors and stimulate the development of the capacity
to produce strategic information tailored to the needs of actors involved.
ƒ Stimulating demand articulation, strategy and vision development. Stimulate and facilitate
the search for possible applications, develop instruments that support discourse, vision
and strategy-development.

The theory of Hughes (1987) describes the functioning of a technological system. However
accomplishing a successful technological system not only depends on components and their
interactions, also important is the management of the whole system. Managing a developing
technological system is an innovative process with interactions of different aspects as learning,
innovating and adapting a strategy. In other words, to accomplish a successful system, there is a
need for an overall strategy that combines the different aspects of an innovation system.
Although technological systems involving RETs are not entirely new for Suriname, the
management, organization and other aspects of an innovation system are. Projects on RETs in
Suriname are isolated and do not consider other developments. To achieve a sophisticated
innovation system these technological systems need to broaden their view. The systemic
instruments of Smits and Kuhlmann (2004) cover all parts of a functioning innovation system.
When the five systemic instruments are addressed, it will be possible to develop and manage a
successful innovation system which encompasses the technological system. The systemic
instruments will therefore contribute to answering sub question three: “Which implementation
strategies are possible and feasible for the successful development and exploitation of renewable energy supply system
per region type?”

The introduction of a new technological system with RETs cannot be undertaken without a
strategic policy process. The systemic instruments can help to carry out the task of managing and
organizing the innovation system needed for RETs. Tsoutsos and Stamboulis (2005) have created
a theory on user- and innovation oriented policy that is focused on stimulating RE. They
combine the RETs with innovation-focused policy. Whereas Smits’ and Kuhlmann’s systemic
instruments fulfill the functioning of the innovation system, the user- and innovation- oriented
policy of Tsoutsos and Stamboulis (2005) can contribute to that system with policy directions for
stimulation of RE. Tsoutsos and Stamboulis (2005) focus on an approach “Which integrates the
supply- and demand-side perspectives, arguing that a successful policy for a speedy deployment of renewables should
focus on the systemic innovation processes that characterize the development and sustainable diffusion of
renewables” [Tsoutsos, Stamboulis, 2005].

13
Tsoutsos and Stamboulis (2005) is based on the creation of ‘protected spaces’ for the
development and use of new technologies because of advantages as: interactive learning,
integration of supply and demand, combination of technological development with institutional
and organizational changes and other integration and participation of different actors. This focus
can be created through a user- and innovation- oriented policy where social and political effects
are important for the diffusion [Tsoutsos, Stamboulis, 2005]. This user- and innovation-
orientated policy focuses on three directions (see Figure 5). The ‘development of focused
learning mechanisms’ aims at the learning process across the value chain from the initial
equipment producers to the end users. In this process users and suppliers can develop the needed
know-how about the technology through different learning processes. The second direction, ‘the
encouragement of new types of
players’, focuses on the creation of a
new socio-economic structure involving the potential actors. It has to be noticed that this
direction also includes public awareness. In the third direction, ‘flexible financing mechanisms’,
the adaptation to the characteristics of individual applications is important, but also the
evaluation of an environmentally consistent economy. Hereby a total overview of all the different
costs of the technology is a necessary condition, so that indirect forms of subsidy and the
external costs and benefits are accounted for [Tsoutsos, Stamboulis, 2005].

The conventional technologies that currently provide some rural areas of Suriname with energy,
can not easily be replaced with RETs. Although conventional- as well as RE technologies result
in the same energy output, the path to deliver this energy output is totally different. RETs differ
in technology and application. Therefore RETs also need another approach regarding the
organizational, structural, economical and social aspects. The user- and innovation oriented
policy of Tsoutsos and Stamboulis (2005) supported by the systemic instruments of Smits and
Kuhlmann (2004) can create the concepts and instruments needed for the implementation of
RETs. As the current energy system of Suriname lacks sufficient energy supply especially in the
rural areas, an user- and innovation- orientated policy can be useful because it focuses on a policy
for RE [Tsoustos, Stamboulis, 2005]. The user- and innovation- oriented policy therefore
especially contributes to answering the subject of ‘the implementation strategies’ in sub question
three: “Which implementation strategies are possible and feasible for the successful development and exploitation
of renewable energy supply system per region type?”
The user- and innovation- oriented policy provides three policy directions for stimulating RE..
The three policy direction all contribute to an acceleration of RE. For example, a performance
improvement of the RET (development of focused learning mechanisms), result in cost
reduction (flexible financing mechanisms). These improvements increase the interest of actors in
RE (encouragement of new types of players). Or; if more players are attracted, the financial
support increases, resulting in a performance improvement of RE. One way or the other, the
different policy directions stimulate one another when one of the direction is improved. The
policy direction can make a contribution to the acceleration of RE, but need to be organized by
the systemic functions in order to create a well functioning RE system. Policy directions as
encouragement of new players and the development of focused learning mechanism can be
managed by systemic functions as constructing a system and providing a platform for learning
and experimenting. A the development of focused learning also needs a well constructed system
in order to function properly. In other words, each direction has to be supported by using the
systemic instruments from Smits and Kuhlmann (2004). However, an overlap of systemic
functions is inevitable. For instance the systemic functions as managing interfaces and
constructing and organizing system can be applied on all actors in the system independent of the
policy directions. A precise overview of the different aspects that overlap is currently not clear.
The five systemic instruments will be used per direction of the user- and innovation- oriented
policy. In chapter 8 ‘Qualitative analysis’ the overlap of systemic functions per direction will

14
become clear. The combination of the theories of Smits and Kuhlmann (2004) and Tsoutsos and
Stamboulis (2005) provide a complete answer to sub question three: “Which implementation strategies
are possible and feasible for the successful development and exploitation of renewable energy supply system per region
type?”

Currently there is no policy what so ever in the development of RE in the rural areas of
Suriname. As well as there is no particular policy to stimulate the technological, environmental
and social development of these technologies in Suriname. There are a few projects initialized by
individuals or companies. The government of Suriname has no policy supporting RETs. It is
therefore important that the five systemic functions are fulfilled to create an environment in
which the development, diffusion and implementation of RETs can take place. The system
functions have to be converted into ‘actions’ that need to be taken to accomplish a successful RE
system. They will be used to make adjustments and create possibilities in order to stimulate the
(energy) innovation system. By developing and applying these systemic functions, a better
functioning innovation system and by this a better balance between technological, social and
economic aspects will be obtained. The ‘actions’ of the five systemic functions (see Table 4) lay
the foundations for a sustainable innovation system. The actions are specified per systemic
instrument per policy directions resulting in numerous actions. As mentioned before, the policy
directions stimulate each other and overlap is inevitable. Therefore it is possible that different
actions have similar effects on management and organization of the RE system. This similarity
will become clear in chapter 8 ‘Qualitative analysis’.
Table 4, Actions of the systemic instruments of per direction.
Directions with systemic functions Actions
Development of focused learning
Managing interfaces Interlinking the main actors on RE in Suriname.
(de-)Construction and organizing Structure learning and experience processes to topics as
(innovation) systems RETs and global warming.
Providing a platform for learning and Building on information through experience on RETs in
experimenting rural areas of Suriname or other comparable regions
throughout the Caribbean and Southern America area.
Providing an infrastructure for strategic Create policy instruments for research and development,
intelligence knowledge building etc. on RE.
Stimulating demand articulation, strategy Creating awareness through education on public,
and vision development business and political level.
Encouragement of new types of players
Managing interfaces Organization of existing stakeholders and developing a
view on participation and awareness of RE technologies.
(de-)Construction and organizing Creating an interesting network for other players to
(innovation) systems participate and experience RE development.
Providing a platform for learning and Organize a center for interaction of information between
experimenting (new) players on RE on local country and global level.
Providing an infrastructure for strategic Create policy instruments to make RE attractive for new
intelligence players.
Stimulating demand articulation, strategy Approaching and stimulating of potential players in
and vision development climate change on country or global level.

15
Table 4, Actions of the systemic instruments of per direction.
Directions with systemic functions Actions
Flexible financing mechanisms
Managing interfaces Interlinking different financial supporters of RE in
Suriname.
(de-)Construction and organizing Design networks between financial pillars in Suriname and
(innovation) systems abroad.
Providing a platform for learning and Educating, training and working on RE technologies
experimenting through financial opportunities from climate change pacts.
Providing an infrastructure for strategic Create policy instruments to make RE financially attractive.
intelligence
Stimulating demand articulation, strategy Creating interesting projects on RE in Suriname to finance
and vision development by external actors.

3.3 Conceptual model


In this section the different theories are schematically linked in order to get a clear overview. The
three directions of the user- and innovation oriented policy function as an input for the
technological system. The systemic functions which make the directions functional can make a
RE system applicable. Besides the policy impacts the technological system functions through the
interactions of its components. The combination of developing a system at system level and
within the system should provide successful strategies for the implementation of RE system and
simultaneously opportunities for the RETs. Hereby the conceptual model (see Figure 6) can be
used to answer the research question.

The encouragement Development of Flexible financing


of new types of focused learning mechanism
players mechanisms

Natural Physical
resources artifacts

Organizational Legislative
agreements artifacts

Implementation Opportunities for


strategies for renewable energy
renewable energy technologies
systems

Figure 6, Conceptual model.

16
4 Methodology
The method of analysis is divided into three parts: demographical-economical analysis,
quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis. The first analysis provides a clear overview of the
status and development in the country Suriname on aspects directly or indirectly related to the
energy system. The quantitative and qualitative analysis researches the opportunities of RETs in
Suriname for the regions not connected to the national grid.

4.1 Demographical-economical analysis


The demographical-economical analysis focuses on Suriname as a country and is divided into a
population-, economic- and energy analysis. The population and the state of the economy directly
or indirectly influence the energy consumption. This analysis is the basis for a projection of the
future energy needs of Suriname, more in particular of the regions that are not connected to the
grid.

The first step in the demographical analysis consists of an analysis of the population. An
overview of the (development of the) population is given on the following levels: country level,
district level and regional level. These levels are analyzed by looking at the birth/death rate, the
emigration and immigration data and, if possible, the migration rates between the different
districts or regions. The different levels and their names are:
1. Country level: Suriname.
2. District level: Nickerie, Coronie, Saramacca, Paramaribo, Wanica, Commewijne, Marowijne,
Para, Brokopondo, Sipaliwini.
3. Regional level: Specification of the different districts into smaller regions.
The second part of the demographical-economical analysis focuses on the economical
development of Suriname. This economical development will be based on the Gross Domestic
Product (GDP) of Suriname. Furthermore an economical partition of Suriname will provide an
overview of the important sectors in the Suriname economy. Hereafter the utilization of the
electrical energy in Suriname over the last decades will be analyzed. Next to the energy baseline
over these years it is also important to have an overview of the energy use during the day. These
figures are well presented in load-duration curves, which present an overview of the fluctuation
of the energy use. The duration of the load curves can be given in hours, days or months, making
clear the energy use in the country or district during different parts of the day, week or year.
Similar to the demographical data the energy baseline will also be specified as much as possible
into the levels mentioned above. Besides distinguishing different levels, energy demand can be
split according to different types of users. These users are categorized into three different kinds
of customers of electricity [Tractabel, 2000]:
1. The domestic demand, the consumption of electricity by the population.
2. The industrial demand, the consumption of electricity by the main industrial sectors.
3. The tertiary demand, the consumption of electricity by the commercial (banks, shops) and
non-commercial (schools, hospitals) sectors.
One has to take into account that these figures of electricity consumption mainly are based on
the capacity and the distribution network of the current electricity production system.

When all data are collected a future outlook on energy consumption can be derived.
Extrapolating the electricity demand of the last decades, by using demographical projections will
provide a forecast of the future development of the demand for energy. In contrast to the
previous part of this section the outlook will focus on those districts that are not connected to
the electricity grid. This outlook will describe the energy demand of the different districts or
regions in Suriname for the next ten years. A more extended outlook could be given but would
not be appropriate because of the possible changes in the political situation and the energy

17
system. If, for instance, a large multinational starts to invest in Suriname, this will have immediate
consequences for this small sized economy and the energy consumption. The Brokopondo lake
(a large water reservoir the size of the province Utrecht in the Netherlands) created for
hydropower by utilization Suralco (Suriname Aluminum Company), is a clear example of the
impact large companies can have on energy, economy but also on environmental level.

The demographical-economical analysis is an important first step of the total research because it
will provide an introduction of the subjects related to the energy system of Suriname. An even
more important result of this analysis is the overview of the related development of these
subjects and how they have influenced the energy system. This analysis will contribute to the
answer of sub question one: “Which type of regions in Suriname can be distinguished that are not connected
to the national grid and thus are in need of and offer opportunities for the development of renewable energy?”.
Table 5 gives an overview of the different parts of the analysis and the methodologies that are
used to gather information. The demographical-economical analysis will be presented in chapter
5 ‘Case description’.
Table 5, Schematic overview of the demographical-economical analysis.
Analysis Approach Methodologies
Analysis of the ƒ Birth/death figures per year Visiting databanks,
development of ƒ Emigration/immigration figures per year interaction with the
the population ƒ Movement between different regions per stakeholders and desk
year research2.
Economical ƒ Gross Domestic Product per year Visiting databanks,
analysis ƒ National Income per head per year interaction with the
ƒ Productive activity per year (mining, stakeholders and desk
timber, agriculture and tourism) research.
Energy analysis ƒ Load curves Visiting databanks,
ƒ Energy consumption per region per year interaction with the
ƒ Energy consumption per productive stakeholders, site
activity per year visiting3 and desk
ƒ Installed energy production units research.
Overall analysis Combing the population, economical and Desk research.
and prediction energy analyses.

4.2 Quantitative analysis


The quantitative analysis will point out the technological and economical possibilities of RETs in
‘selected regions’. The ‘selected regions’ are selected at district or regional level and are not
connected to the national grid of Suriname. The regions are also selected on population density
and industrial/commercial activity.
The indicated artifacts of the Hughes technological system are operationalized to gather the
practical data needed for this research (see Table 6). At first the artifact, natural resources,
provides a clear overview of the sources and the possible RETs in Suriname. The natural
resources will point out environmental conditions of Suriname focused on their usability for
applying RETs. If for example the wind conditions in the coastal zone meet the necessary
amount of wind needed to generate wind energy, this RET can be further analyzed. The physical
artifact covers the economical perspective of the RETs. Before, abstracting the profitability of
the RETs, boundaries on the application of these technologies have to be constructed. This
construction is achieved by creating different RE alternatives per selected region, further

2 Desk research: internet, library, reports and other different kind of useable data.
3 Visiting the different projects currently running in Suriname.

18
explained in chapter 6 ‘Modeling framework’. Calculating the different alternatives per selected
region will result in an overview of their net present cost (NPC) and cost of energy (COE). The
third artifact is more directed towards the environment and climate change issue. The alternatives
also provide an indication of the amount of not emitted or reduced greenhouse gases for the
RETs. By the comparison of the current energy alternative with the RE alternatives per selected
region, a number of CO2-equivalents can be saved. The not emitted greenhouse gases given in
CO2-equivalents can be used as input in negotiations within the framework of the UNFCCC and
Kyoto protocol. The organizational artifact is focused on how to enhance RE alternative
possibilities to achieve an organized supply and demand of energy. For instance by constructing
hybrid systems with PV and biomass generators instead of diesel generator, considering the
advantage and disadvantage in the application of a RET.
Table 6, Questions for the operationalization of the technological system artifacts.
Artifacts Indicators and questions
Natural resources The availability and usefulness of the natural resources for the application
of RETs in energy output (kWh/year)
ƒ What are the regions’ environmental conditions? (meteorological,
hydrological, biomass, marine)
ƒ What are the regions’ favorable conditions?
ƒ Which RETs would be applicable in what type of region?
Physical The profitability of the RETs as a result of the Cost Of Energy ($/kWh).
ƒ What are the (investment) costs4 of the different RETs?
ƒ What are the costs for operation and maintenance and training?
ƒ What is the equipment’s lifetime?
ƒ What are the costs of electricity?
Legislative The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by the replacement of the
conventional diesel generators for RETs (tCO2/year).
ƒ What amount of emissions can be reached in CO2 equivalents?
ƒ How much CO2 reductions can be reached?
ƒ How much CO2 equivalents are needed for the Kyoto protocol’s
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)?
Organizational The organization of energy supply and demand by RETs in excess
electricity (kWh/year).
ƒ Can different technologies be combined?
ƒ What are the most important barriers of the specific regions?
ƒ How much conventional fuels can be saved through RETs?

The quantitative analysis will provide a technological and economical description of the RETs
based on the technological system’s approach as described by Hughes. The technological system
is translated in a set of indicators that have to be quantified. At first these data, as for instance
diesel price, average solar insolation, battery power etc are gathered. Secondly the data are used in
the computer program HOMER [Lambert, 2006]. The Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric
Renewables (HOMER) can simulate a variety of applications for energy systems. Simulation of
an energy system takes place through calculating the energy balance for each of the 8760 hours in
a year. The energy balance compares the demanded energy per hour of the year with the energy
that can be supplied by the system in that hour. The demand side in this research is the
population and their activity, now and in the near future. The supply side consists of RETs and
their use of natural resources. Further specification will be explained in chapter 6 ‘Modeling

4 Investment costs: costs of equipment, costs of buildings for housing the equipment, costs of the land, engineering costs,
installation costs and others, like operator training costs and transaction costs.

19
framework’. In short, HOMER evaluates each alternative and calculates the quantitative values of
the RE alternatives. This gives a clear overview of the technological and economical necessity of
the development of a RET system. However HOMER does not compare different alternatives in
a selected region. To achieve an overview of the opportunities of the different RE alternatives
per region, the computer program BOSDA (BeslissingsOndersteunend Systeem voor Discrete
Alternatieven) is used. BOSDA literally translated means Decisions Supporting System for
Discrete Alternatives [Janssen et al. 2000]. The computer program BOSDA will be used to apply
a multi-criteria analysis. This analysis will be used to compare the different RE alternatives
(alternatives) per region on the technological system components. Each RE alternative is
compared on natural resources, physical artifacts, organizational agreements and legislative
artifacts. The multi-criteria analysis will rank the different RE alternatives per region. The RE
alternatives are ranked on the scores of the different components. These scores will be
standardized and weighted with the so-called ‘weighted summation’ method. The ‘maximum’
standardization is chosen in this multi-criteria analysis and the different components are equally
weighted [Alphen van, 2004]. The results of this quantitative analysis are an answer to sub
question three: “What are the opportunities for renewable energy technologies per region type?” Table 7 gives
an overview of the analysis and the methodologies that are used to gather information.
Table 7, Schematic overview of the approach quantitative analysis.
Analysis Approach Methodologies
Analysis of the natural The environmental conditions per Desk research, interviews,
resources region, from meteorological, project participation5 and
hydrological, biomass and marine data. interaction with different
stakeholders.
Technological and The conditions for the RETs. Desk research, interviews,
economical preparation project participation and
of the RETs interaction with different
stakeholders.
Development of Combining the favorable conditions Desk research, interviews,
alternatives of regions and RETs. project participation and
interaction with different
stakeholders.
Technological and Evaluation of the data and the Desk research, interviews
economical analysis different alternatives through and interaction with
computer program HOMER. different stakeholders. The
use of computer program
HOMER.
Multi-criteria analysis Ranking the RE alternatives through Desk research, The use of
computer program BOSDA. computer program BOSDA.

4.3 Qualitative analysis


The qualitative analysis focuses on the societal and political barriers and incentives of RETs in
the selected regions. Whereas the quantitative analysis focuses on technological and economical
aspects, the qualitative analysis focuses on the different aspects of an innovation system, which
are relevant for a successful development of a RET system. The theory on systemic instruments,
encompassing social, organizational, strategic and policy aspects will be used here. These systemic
instruments form the basis for the user- and innovation oriented policy. The policy directions
stimulate each other towards the acceleration of RE as described in the previous chapter. To
manage and organize the RE system the policy directions are supported the systemic instruments.

5Project participation: working and visiting the different projects currently running in Suriname. Setting a basis for
further development of RETs and all the factors involved in this process.

20
Fulfilling the five systemic functions is necessary for a well functioning innovation system. In
other words, the policy directions stimulate a RE system and the systemic functions support
these directions to achieve a well function RE system. Therefore each systemic instrument has to
be developed per direction in the form of an action. The first direction, ‘development of focused
learning’, concentrates on collecting and sharing knowledge and information on RETs in
Suriname. These actions concentrate on building experience with RET in Suriname or
comparable countries and on the actors who can provide and educate the knowledge and
information of RETs. It must be noted that it is also important to involve other actors in this
learning process. Participation of actors in the learning and educating process must be organized
on community, regional, district and country level. By this awareness on RE can be created. The
second direction ‘encouragement of new players’ focuses on participation. In an innovation
system it is important to have insight into the structure of the system in which the actors
involved in RE participate. Momentarily there is no organization structure for RE development
in Suriname. A network of actors is the basis to encourage other actors to participate. The actions
in this direction will therefore first focus on network building. When such a structure is realized
and organized the focus can shift to the involvement and encouragement of new actors. Besides
this development it is also interesting to focus on the global topic of climate change and its
implications for Suriname. The third direction ‘flexible financing mechanisms’ is very important
for a developing country as Suriname. Also in this case the countries abilities have to be sort out
and organized , but it is also interesting to focus on global pacts as the UNFCCC and the Kyoto
protocol, which pursue certain issues that could be important and stimulating for the
implementation and development of RE in Suriname. For example, the Kyoto protocol holds a
financial mechanism called the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) where Annex I countries
trade CO2 equivalents from projects in developing countries for financial support. Each function
and the related ‘actions’ are further operationalized in a set of questions specific for the RE
environment of Suriname (see Table 8). It must be noted that the RE system of Suriname still
hardly exists.
Table 8, Questions for the operationalization of systemic functions.
Directions with systemic functions Actions and questions
Development of focused learning
Managing interfaces Interlinking the main actors on RE in Suriname.
ƒ In what way is climate change information transferred
between actors?
(de-)Construction and organizing Structure learning and experience process to topics as
(innovation) systems RETs and global warming.
ƒ To what extent are the existing actors educated
and/or instructed on the climate change topic?
Providing a platform for learning and Building on information through experience on RETs in
experimenting rural areas of Suriname or other comparable regions
throughout the South America.
ƒ What is the history of experience on RE in Suriname
and in other comparable countries?
ƒ Is there a central point for information?
Providing an infrastructure for Create policy instruments for research and development,
strategic intelligence knowledge building etc. on RE.
ƒ What are the possibilities through policy to create
workplaces, training and education on RE?
Stimulating demand articulation, Creating awareness through education on public, business
strategy and vision development and political level.
ƒ To what extent are the existing actors involved in the
climate change topic?

21
Table 8, Questions for the operationalization of systemic functions.
Directions with systemic functions Actions and questions
Encouragement of new types of
players
Managing interfaces Organization of existing stakeholders and developing a
view on participation and awareness of RETs.
ƒ Who are the current actors and are they aware of the
RE potential?
ƒ Do these actors communicate with each other or other
potential actors?
(de-)Construction and organizing Creating an interesting network for other actors to
(innovation) systems participate and experience RE development.
ƒ Is there a network for actors or how can this be
constructed?
ƒ What actors have to participate in a RE network?
Providing a platform for learning and Organize a center for interaction of information between
experimenting (new) actors on RE on local country and global level.
ƒ Is there an information center?
ƒ How is the platform organized in other countries or on
other level?
ƒ Are important actors who are not yet attracted?
Providing an infrastructure for strategic Create policy instruments to make RE attractive for new
intelligence actors.
ƒ In what way can extern actors be approached and
attracted?
ƒ What baselines need to be provided to attract external
actors?
Stimulating demand articulation, Approaching and stimulating of potential actors in climate
strategy and vision development change on country or global level.
ƒ Can the existing actors be stimulated to further
investment in RE?
Flexible financing mechanisms
Managing interfaces Interlinking different financial supporters of RE in
Suriname.
ƒ Which actors in Suriname or abroad can support RE
projects?
(de-)Construction and organizing Design networks between financial pillars in Suriname and
(innovation) systems abroad.
ƒ What actors participate and how to create a financial
basis?
ƒ How can this basis be used for the CDM?
Providing a platform for learning and Educating, training and working on RE technologies
experimenting through financial opportunities from climate change pacts.
ƒ What are the financial opportunities within the current
policy and its view towards climate change?
Providing an infrastructure for strategic Create policy instruments to make RE financially attractive.
intelligence ƒ What financial opportunities bring the Kyoto protocol
with CDM and how can this mechanism be applied in
Suriname?
Stimulating demand articulation, Creating interesting projects on RE in Suriname to finance
strategy and vision development by external actors.
ƒ What other financial relief’s can attracted on local,
country and/or global level?

22
The qualitative analysis complements the analysis of the quantitative analysis and offers insights
in opportunities to create or stimulate the development of an innovation system necessary for the
implementation and exploitation of RET’s. The analysis will result in a clear view on the structure
of the innovation system and on the actions that need to be taken to achieve a successful RE
system in the rural areas of Suriname. The three theoretical perspectives are first guidelines for
the development of such a system. The results of the qualitative analysis constitute the answer to
sub question two: “Which implementation strategies are possible and feasible for the successful development and
exploitation of renewable energy system per region type?” Table 9 gives an overview of the analysis and the
methodologies that are used to gather information.
Table 9, Schematic overview of the approach qualitative analysis.
Analysis Approach Methodologies
Constructing the Evaluating the participation of the current actors Desk research,
directions through and other important facets of a RE system. interviews, project
the five system Creating a basis for an RE innovation system. participation and
functions. interaction with
different stakeholders.

23
5 Case description
In order to achieve a clear outlook of energy system developments in Suriname it is necessary to
analyze the history of the major factors influencing the sectors involved in the energy branch. It
concerns the following sectors: population, economy and energy. By analyzing the development
and attribution of these sectors to the consumption and use of electricity in Suriname an outlook
on the energy consumption can be created.

5.1 Population analysis


The rough and turbulent history, as Development population of Suriname
1972-2002
described in chapter 1 ‘Introduction’, has 475
certainly left its trails in the development 450

number of people
of the population of Suriname. Figure 7 425

(x1000)
clearly shows large declines in the 400
375
population in 1974/1975 and around 350
1980. These declines are caused by 325
emigration. The first emigration wave was 300
Average population

a result of Surinamers who preferred the 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

prosperity of the Netherlands to the years

unemployment and poverty in Suriname. iFigure 7, Development


l of thef population
l i in iSuriname,
i 1972-
The declaration of the independence of 2003 [CBB, 2003].

250
Population per district in Suriname
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
Number of people (x1000)

200

150

100

50

0
e

i
o

ie

ca

do
a

ra

in
ie

ij n

ijn
ib

ic

on

liw
Pa
ac
ke

on
ar

an

ew

ow
or

pa
ic
m

op
W

ar
N

ra
ra

Districts
Si
ok
om

M
Sa
Pa

Br
C

Figure 8, Population per district in Suriname, 1998-2002 [CBB, 2005].


the Republic of Suriname on 25
Inland migratoin
November 1975 made an end to
this emigration wave. The second 1500

wave was caused by economic 1000


2001 2002

reasons and the coupe d’état in


Number of people

1980 [Leuwsha, 2005]. Figure 7 500

clearly shows a stable increase of 0


the population of Suriname after
Marowijne
Wanica

Nickerie

Coronie

Para

Brokopondo

Sipaliwini
Paramaribo

Saramacca

Commewijne

stabilization of the political -500

situation. In this period the -1000


population growth per year varies District
between 0.5 % and 1.5 %.
Figure 9, Inland migration of Suriname, 2001, 2002 [CBB, 2005].

24
Suriname is about six times larger than the Netherlands; its population is concentrated in and
around the capital, Paramaribo. Almost 50 % of the population lives in the district Paramaribo
(see Figure 8).
When the neighboring district Wanica is included this number increases to 70% of the total
population. The growth rate at country level is almost similar at district level. The inland
migration is not equally divided over the different districts, especially the district Wanica is
popular (see Figure 9). It must be noted that the number of people who migrate between
different districts in Suriname is too small to make the inland migration significant for the
distribution of the population in Suriname.

5.2 Economic analysis


The political instability during the last decades Inflation
of the 20ste century had a clear impact on the 400,0%
economy of Suriname. In the seventies, the Inflation
300,0%

Inflation (%)
exchange rate between the Dutch florin and the
Surinamer guilder was 1 to 1. In the year 2003 200,0%
the exchange rate had exploded to, 1 (euro) for
100,0%
3200 Surinamer guilders. The introduction of
the Surinamer dollar (SRD) on 1ste of January 0,0%
2004 changed the exchange rate to 1 euro for 1990 1995
years
2000 2005

3.20 SRD [Leuwsha, 2005]. Specific economic


data on community, regional or district level Figure 10, Inflation in Suriname, 1990-2005 [ABS, 2005].
over the last 20 to 25 years is not available. The GDP at market prices (formal+informal sector)
political impact on the economy can be noticed 5500
over the last 15 years in Figures 10 and 11. The
5000
enormous increase in inflation in the early
GDP in million SRG
(SRG 1990=100)

nineties was caused by a struggle between the 4500


Surinamer and the Dutch government (see 4000
Figure 10). This struggle was about the
Structural Adaptation Program (SAP), a 3500
GDP
program to clean up the economy. However the 3000
government of Suriname did not agree with 1990 1995 2000 2005
these measures of SAP, causing the economy to years

collapse. Figure 11, GDP in Surinamer guilders at market prices,


1990-2005 [ABS, 2005].
Agriculture, animal husbandary and forestry
Macro economic indication
Fishery
2% 6% Mining and quarrying
3% Manufacturing
5% 1% 7%
6% Gas, water, electricity
Construction
10% Wholesale and retail trade
12% Restaurants and hotels
Transport, storage, communication
Financial Intermediation
Real estate, renting and business services
8% Public administration, defence
5%
Education (Government)
5% Health and social work (Government)
15%
2% 13% Personal, social & other community services

Figure 12, Macro economic indication of Suriname, 2005 [ABS, 2005].

25
The last 10 to 15 years the political environment is stabilizing, positively affecting the overall
economy. The growth rate of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) fluctuates between –2 and 8
% per year. The increase of 8 % is only a tendency of the last few years (see Figure 11). The main
sector providing this improvement is the tertiary sector, especially the commercial part. The
commercial sub sector transport, storage and communication is responsible for 40% of the
increase since 1990. Other sub sectors which increased significant are: restaurants and hotels, real
estate, renting and business service from the tertiary sector, manufacturing from secondary sector
and fishery; mining and quarrying from the primary sector. Further specifications are shown in
Figure 12.

5.3 Energy analysis


There are two large electrical energy producers in Suriname and a third one is on its way. Most
important is Energie Bedrijven Suriname (EBS) stationed at the Saramaccastreet in central
Paramaribo. The EBS provides the capital and the surrounding areas with electricity produced by
nine diesel generators with a total available power of 51.6 MW [Tractabel, 2000]. The second
producer of electricity is the aluminum company, Suralco. Around 1963 Suralco build a dam of 2
kilometers long and 54 meters wide, creating a reservoir of 1560 square kilometers for a
hydropower production plant with a maximum capacity of 180 MW [Leuwsha, 2005]. The
produced electricity is used by the Suralco aluminum factory located 70 kilometers north of the
lake Brokopondo. Seventy percent of the 140 MW generated by Suralco is produced with
hydropower. Currently 65 MW of produced electricity is transported to Paramaribo to support
the energy demand that cannot be supplied by the EBS [Tractabel, 2000]. The third party is
Staatsolie Power Company. This company made its introduction on the energy market in April
2006 with a 15 MW production unit costing over 16 million US$ [De ware tijd, 2006]. The
districts Paramaribo, Wanica, Commewijne and the communities between Afobakka and
Paramaribo receive their energy from these producers and can therefore be described as ‘the
national grid’. All other districts and communities have to produce electricity with small
equipment. This equipment mainly consists of diesel generators, but sometimes solar energy is
applied on a small scale. Still a lot of villages in the inland of Suriname rely on wood as their main
energy source.
Tractabel Energy Engineering (2000) studied the energy consumption of Suriname, using the
following classifications: three categories of customers, domestic (national population), industrial
(main industrial sectors have been identified by a geographical zone) and tertiary (commercial and
non-commercial sector); and geographical zones EPAR (Paramaribo and Wanica), ENIC
(Nickerie), DE (other districts), ‘Auto-production’ (main industries). Their results are presented
in Table 10.
Table 10, Electricity consumption in Suriname and average growth rate, 1990-1999, part I [Tractabel, 2000].
(in GWh/year) 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Average
growth rate
EPAR sales
Domestic 124.8 132.3 143.7 141.0 138.4 148.0 163.0 176.0 193.7 199.3 5.43 %
Industrial 84.9 84.0 84.3 82.7 79.6 79.7 85.7 88.5 94.6 93.9 1.19 %
Commercial 56.9 60.3 63.5 61.0 57.7 59.7 66.7 76.9 90.0 93.1 5.88 %
Public lighting 7.5 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.2 7.0 7.4 7.5 7.4 7.4 -0.12 %
Miscellaneous (1) 34.6 37.1 39.2 38.7 38.0 42.8 49.3 56.3 65.2 106.4 14.54 %
Total 308.7 321.1. 338.1 330.8 320.9 337.2 372.1 405.2 450.9 500.1 6.63 %
ENIC sales
Domestic 8.9 9.2 9.8 10.1 10.5 11.1 12.2 13.4 15.3 15.1 6.14 %
Industrial 7.6 9.2 10.0 11.0 8.9 9.3 10.4 10.2 10.1 10.4 4.12 %
Commercial 3.5 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.4 5.0 5.7 5.5 5.4 5.28 %
Public lighting 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 2.78 %
Miscellaneous (1) 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.2 2.0 12.28 %
Total 21.2 24.0 25.4 26.6 25.1 26.2 29.1 30.9 32.5 33.4 5.30 %

26
Table 10, Electricity consumption in Suriname and average growth rate, 1990-1999, part I [Tractabel, 2000].
(in GWh/year) 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Average
growth
rate
DE sales (5)
Domestic 10.8 11.6 12.5 12.5 13.3 15.4 17.4 19.5 22.0 23.2 8.97 %
Industrial 3.3 3.6 3.8 3.8 3.4 3.9 5.4 6.7 8.2 9.2 12.88 %
Commercial 2.4 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.8 3.2 4.0 4.9 5.1 9.17 %
Public lighting - - - - - - - - - - -
Miscellaneous 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.2 2.56 %
Total 17.5 18.9 20.1 20.0 20.3 23.1 27.3 31.4 36.2 38.7 9.39 %
AUTO-production
Suralco
Auto-cons. (2) 1109.0 952.0 970.0 917.0 925.0 968.1 1178.4 1188.7 989.4 821.6 -2.59 %
Staatsolie
Auto-cons. ref. (3) 2.5 5.7 6.8 73.65 %
Oil-wells 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 8.02 %
Other districts
DEV (Min. of NH) (4) 10.0 10.4 10.8 11.2 11.6 12.1 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 3.81 %
Private units (4) 20.0 20.9 21.9 22.9 24.0 25.1 26.2 27.4 28.7 30.0 4.61 %
Small gold mining (4) 15.0 16.5 18.1 19.9 21.9 24.0 26.4 29.0 31.9 35.0 9.87 %
Total auto-production 1155.5 1001.4 1022.5 972.9 984.5 1031.5 1245.9 1263.2 1072.0 910.4 -2.02 %
Total 1402.9 1365.4 1406.1 1350.3 1350.8 1418.0 1674.4 1730.7 1591.6 1482.6 0.16 %
(1) Includes EBS auto-consumption and for EPAR: sales to surrounding areas connected to EPAR.
(2) Auto-consumption. Source: 1990 to 1994: Bauxite Institute, 1995 to 1999: Suralco.
(3) Auto-consumption refinery beginning of operation in mid-1997.
(4) Estimation of consumption based on installed capacity in 1999.
(5) Official figures divided by 2 to avoid double count with EPAR sales figures.

5.4 Conclusion
The development of the economy, population and energy, excluding the influence of main
industries, the AUTO-production (see Table 10), is quite similar. Noticeable in the previous
paragraphs is the effect of the enormous inflation in the years 1993 and 1994. Electricity
consumption in all sectors was affected by this economical development. However the
population growth hardly was influenced. The growth of the population and the economy
positively effected the electricity consumption. The electricity consumption increased with 6.85%
(domestic average growth rate per year), the population with 1.09% (average growth rate per
year) and the economy by 2.1% (average growth rate per year). In general, the energy
consumption will increase more or less parallel to the average energy growth rates presented by
Tractabel (2000) in Table 10.

27
6 Modeling framework
The modeling framework describes the different alternatives for RETs in Suriname. In chapter 3
‘Theory’ the artifacts of the technological system of Hughes were indicated. The resulting
indicators are applied on the different RE alternatives that are described and designed in this
chapter.

6.1 Location identification


Chapter 5 ‘Case description’ showed the distribution of the population over the different districts
in Suriname. Subsequently Suriname’s ‘national grid’ was outlined in the energy analysis. The
national grid of Suriname covers the districts Paramaribo, Wanica and Commewijne, a number of
villages in the district Para (La Vigilentia, Zanderij, Meursweg, Onverwacht and Paranam) and the
district Brokopondo (Afobakka, Brownsweg and Brokopondo) [Tractabel, 2000]. These regions
and districts are connected to the national grid and therefore not included in this research. The
remaining regions are selected on their population density (see Table 11 and Table 12). The
‘selected’ nine regions are displayed in Figure 13. These regions will be analyzed for the
opportunities of RETs on the basis of different RE alternatives per region. These RE alternatives
will be described and analyzed in the following paragraphs.

Figure 13, Selected regions in Suriname, numbered 1 to 9.


The selected regions can be divided into two groups; the coastal zone: numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4 and
the inland zone, numbers 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. Apart from the communities of the national grid a
number of communities in the Sipaliwini district are not selected, because of their small size (and
widespread communities) and the lack of information about their natural resources, especially
hydrological. The not selected regions are located upstream the Upper Coppename river, the
Upper Saramacca river and the Marowijne river. An exception, however, is made for Palumeu
(region 8), a small community with only 230 inhabitants. The reason for this exception is the fact

28
that a hydropower system that is currently being constructed in this region. This hydropower
system will be used as an example for other regions with hydropower potential.
The selected regions and their population are displayed in Table 11. The numbers on population
per region are lower than those in chapter 5 ‘Case description’, because not all people live in the
neighborhood of their villages and therefore can hardly be connected to a possible RE system.
Table 11, Selected regions with population numbers [CBB, 2005].
Region District Classified region Number of
Number people
1 Nickerie Nickerie and surroundings villages 36,500
2 Coronie Totness and surroundings villages 2,900
3 Saramacca Jarikaba and surrounding villages 15,900
4 Marowijne Moengo and Albina 16,600
5 Sipaliwini Upper Suriname river
12,000
6 Sipaliwini Gran Rio, Pikin Rio
7 Sipaliwini Tapanhony river
3000
8 Sipaliwini Palumeu
9 Sipaliwini Kwamalasamutu 1300

The population density in the Sipaliwini district is the lowest of Suriname. The inhabitants of this
district are mainly concentrated in villages along a few large rivers. The village agglomerations are
shown in Table 12. Region number 6 is divided into three different parts because of differences
in hydropower potential per village agglomeration (see Table 18). As mentioned before, near
Palumeu a hydropower project is under construction, making this region perfect for focused
research that can be extrapolated to the other areas.
Table 12, subdivision of selected region by river. [CBB, 2005; Naipal, 2003].
Region River Village agglomeration Number of
Number people
5 Upper Suriname Abenaston, Laduwani, Gunsi, Nieuw Aurora 2000
6 Gran Rio Cajana, Stonhuku, Djumu, Asidonhopo 4000
6 Gran Rio Tapawatra ( 14 small villages) 2000
6 Pikin Rio Dangogo 1, Dangogo 2 180
7 Tapanahony Drietabiki, Puketi, Kisai 1700
8 Tapanahony Palumeu 230
9 Sipaliwini Kwamalsamutu 1300

6.2 Specific energy analysis


For an accurate implementation of RETs and particularly for the optimization of a RE system, a
clear evaluation of the electricity use is indispensable. Daily load curves provide the best
information on the fluctuations of electricity use per region. A load curve describes the demand
in kW for each hour of the day. Special attention must be paid to a peak load, because it indicates
the maximum electricity demand. A peak load often occurs in the evening, when people come
home from work and lights, television etc. are switched on. The data on electricity use are
significant for the fine-tuning of the RETs in the different areas. For example: a solar power
system does not generate electricity during the evening/night because its resource (the sun) is
absent. Therefore batteries are needed to meet the energy demand during this period.
To achieve realistic values of a load curve the computer program HOMER synchronizes the
available data with typically load profiles. By adding randomness the load data becomes more
realistic. The randomness, called noise, can be added in two different ways, daily and hourly. The
daily noise perturbs the load curve through variations in the size of the profile (amount of kW

29
consumed in a day). The hourly noise perturbs the shape of the load curve (consumption
behavior in a day). The added noise is calculated by multiplying the energy demand for each hour
with the factor α (Equation 1) from the assembled yearlong array (8760 hourly values). The
added daily (δd) and hourly (δh) noise applied in this research are 15% and 20% respectively.

Equation 1: α = 1 + δd + δh

δd = daily perturbation factor, δh = hourly perturbation factor


Data on load curves is particularly hard to gain in Suriname and do not exist for many parts of
the inland. Currently load curve data is only available for the Nickerie region [Tractabel, 2000],
but this is already five years old. Nevertheless, a load curve for 2005 is calculated, as shown in
Figure 14 (calculated on the basis of a population growth of 5.8% from 2000 to 2005). This load
curve will be used as a baseline for all load curves of the coastal regions [CBB, 2005], assuming
that the shape did not change over these past five years.

Load Profile
8,000

6,000
Demand (kW)

4,000

2,000

0
0 6 12 18 24
Hour
Figure 14, Load curve for the Nickerie region, corrected for ‘noise’ [Tractabel, 2000].
The inland regions (Sipaliwini district) are developed in a lesser degree. People in this part of the
country live in cottages and use wood as their main energy source. It must be noted that some
villages have some sort of electrical infrastructure powered by a generator. These generators
however are often out of order because of a lack of diesel (which has to be transported from the
capital) or due to mechanical problems. The electricity consumption in these regions mainly
focuses on the daily housekeeping activities, including cooling of food and medicine, lighting,
personal use (music, television, freezer etc.) and use of small systems on telecommunication,
tourism, wood processing etc. [Naipal, 2003].
At the moment there is no constant electricity network in Palumeu. The electrical products
currently present, as for instance radio, light, music, use electricity produced by small private
diesel generators. The data on the consumption of electricity in Palumeu are gathered by
fieldwork. This field work consisted of the construction of a map for the transmission lines and
for the energy demand of the village. This energy demand was determined by questioning the
local people (per clan) about what their electrical belongings are. After the data were collected the
resulting load curve was constructed by dividing it more or less into three parts. First the
constant electricity use (base load of 2 kW) during day and night (refrigerators), second the daily
use (about 1 kW existing of wood processing, telecommunication, music) and third the surplus in
the evenings (2 kW: lights, television). The load curve in Figure 15 describes the current
electricity use (including ‘street’ lightning) of Palumeu if constant electricity would be offered.
Another aspect of importance is the future energy demand. If Palumeu is supplied with constant
electrical power the local people will buy, televisions, DVD’s, computers etc. from their savings.

30
If there would be a constant electricity supply (as there will be, because of the hydropower
project under construction) the energy demand will double. The patterns of energy use per day
will be equal to Figure 15. The current and future load curves of Palumeu will be used to
determine the other load curves of the inland villages. It must be noted that this load curve does
not represent the real energy demand of Palumeu, but it is a good approximation of it. In chapter
7 ‘Research analysis’ the RE possibilities of the inland regions will be analyzed for the current and
future load curves. The main reason for this approach is this: if a RET is installed in a village,
which in this way has a constant supply of electricity, the change from the current to a future load
curve can be achieved within a year or two.

Load Profile (from Palum eu usual.txt)


5

4
Demand (kW)

0
0 6 12 18 24
Hour
Figure 15, Current load curve Palumeu, corrected for 'noise'.

6.3 Natural resources


Due to Suriname’s turbulent history a lot of meteorological stations set up in the 1960s are
destroyed and data were lost. Nowadays there are only a few stations and up to date data only
scantily exist. Nevertheless this paragraph analyses the following natural resources: meteorology
(wind and solar radiation), hydrology (river-run-off, marine currents), and bio-activity (biomass).
The input from these natural resources will lead to an indication of the artifact ‘natural resources’.

6.3.1 Wind
The wind speed data were collected in cooperation with the Meteorologische Dienst Suriname
(MDS). The main goal of the MDS is to supply reliable weather and climate information [Becker,
2006]. The hourly data of the MDS present detailed information. An example of the data from a
meteorological station in Jarikaba is shown in Figure 16.
Other data were gathered with the help of information from the website of the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration, the NASA (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/). This
resulted in an overall overview presented in Table 13 and Table 14. It must be noted that the
wind speed in the inland regions is almost nil and therefore excluded from this analysis.

31
W in d S p e e d m /s
24 1 6 .0

1 4 .4

1 2 .8
18 1 1 .2

9 .6
Hour of Day

8 .0
12
6 .4

4 .8

3 .2
6
1 .6

0 .0

0
Ja n Fe b Mar A pr May Ju n Ju l A ug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Day o f Ye ar
Figure 16, Wind speed in hour of the day in Jarikaba over the year 1999 [Meteorological Service of Suriname,
2005].

Figure 16 clearly shows the intensity of the wind energy during the day over a period of a year
(part of the month May is excluded because of unavailable data). During nighttime the figures
color dark or even black, as a result of a low wind speed. Noticeable is the difference in rain
(April to August and December to February) and dry season (February to April and August to
December) and night and day. These differences can be meteorologically founded. When the sun
begins to rise, the earth warms up, but the land warms up quicker than the sea, resulting in a
temperature difference. This temperature difference is the source of the wind energy rise, peaking
around noon and in the afternoon. During the rain season the land does not warm up much
because of showers, causing the wind speed to decline in these periods. Further explanation is
given in Box 3. The maximum wind speed often occurs in the late afternoon, the rest of the day
and night the wind speed is very low (see Figure 16). This results in a low average wind speed
(see Table 13 and Table 14).
Table 13, Monthly average wind speed in the coastal zone at 10 m height in m/s [NASA, 2005].
District Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
Nickerie 2.84 2.85 2.72 2.71 2.46 2.18 1.84 1.71 1.87 1.99 2.10 2.54
Coronie 2.84 2.85 2.72 2.71 2.46 2.18 1.84 1.71 1.87 1.99 2.10 2.54
Saramacca 3.10 3.10 2.90 2.89 2.71 2.38 1.93 1.79 1.95 2.10 2.22 2.80
Marowijne 3.60 3.59 3.32 3.33 3.12 2.74 2.14 2.01 2.17 2.33 2.46 3.22

Table 14, Monthly average wind speed in the coastal zone at 50 m height in m/s [NASA, 2005].
District Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
Nickerie 3.60 3.61 3.44 3.43 3.11 2.76 2.33 2.17 2.37 2.52 2.66 3.22
Coronie 3.60 3.61 3.44 3.43 3.11 2.76 2.33 2.17 2.37 2.52 2.66 3.22
Saramacca 3.92 3.93 3.67 3.66 3.43 3.01 2.44 2.26 2.47 2.66 2.81 3.54
Marowijne 4.56 4.55 4.20 4.22 3.95 3.47 2.71 2.54 2.75 2.95 3.12 4.07

32
Box 3, Meteorological background wind speed.

On the world map Suriname is on the northern hemisphere, but meteorologically Suriname is
partly in the northern hemisphere and partly in the southern hemisphere(see Figure 17). During
the short dry season, February - April (in Figure 17, KDT) and long dry season, August –
December (in Figure 17, GDT) the Northern and respectively Southern Ocean Pacific blow.
The rest of the months when the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is passing
Suriname are the long and short rain season (GRT, KRT). In the ITCZ the overall wind speed
declines because of a compensation of the northern ocean pacific and the southern ocean
pacific. This wind speed decline during the passing of ITCZ is also noticeable in Figure 16. The
decline in wind speed is not the only effect the ITCZ brings along when passing over
Suriname. A logical consequence of a rain season is a decline in the average insolation due to
cloudy skies.

Figure 17, Movement of the ITCZ above Suriname [SPS/OAS, 1988].

6.3.2 Solar
The meteorological background on wind speed in Box 3 also explains the fluctuation of the
average insolation given in Table 17. As the data on solar insolation could not be collected from
the Meteorological Service of Suriname, the data presented in the following tables comes from
the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in the United States and the NASA. The
data are presented for the different regions along the coastal and inland zone. The solar data
from the region Drietabiki will also be representative for the other inland regions, that are not
shown in Table 15.

33
Table 15, Monthly average insolation incident on a horizontal surface in kWh/m2/day [NASA, 2005; NREL, 2005].
Selected region Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
Nickerie 4.21 4.67 5.05 5.05 4.82 4.80 5.07 5.36 5.71 5.48 4.93 4.43
Coronie 4.21 4.67 5.05 5.05 4.82 4.80 5.07 5.36 5.71 5.48 4.93 4.43
Saramacca 4.14 4.63 5.07 5.08 4.78 4.78 5.12 5.42 5.87 5.61 4.97 4.47
Marowijne 4.14 4.63 5.07 5.08 4.78 4.78 5.12 5.42 5.87 5.61 4.97 4.47
Gunsi 4.38 4.72 5.09 5.09 4.90 4.98 5.30 5.63 6.05 5.81 5.18 4.76
Tapawatra 4.38 4.72 5.09 5.09 4.90 4.98 5.30 5.63 6.05 5.81 5.18 4.76
Drietabiki 4.25 4.62 5.02 5.00 4.80 4.92 5.34 5.66 6.05 5.84 5.25 4.73
Palumeu 4.26 4.53 4.80 4.92 4.75 4.91 5.19 5.50 6.00 5.75 5.14 4.71
Kwamalasamutu 4.51 4.67 4.88 4.92 4.62 4.74 5.05 5.38 5.97 5.91 5.34 4.87

Another important meteorological parameter is the number of no-sun days per month (see Table
16). The no-sun days are the hypothetical number of sequential days6 for which no solar
insolation is available [NASA, 2005]. The lack of insolation is important for the size of the
batteries in a photovoltaic system. This will be further explained in the paragraph 6.4
‘Technological description’. The bold numbers point out the month with highest amount of no-
sun days.
Table 16, No-sun days per region in Suriname [NASA, 2005].
Selected region Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. Jun. Jul. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
Nickerie 2.79 3.75 3.57 2.95 3.76 1.82 2.49 2.11 1.57 2.35 2.13 2.75
Coronie 2.79 3.75 3.57 2.95 3.76 1.82 2.49 2.11 1.57 2.35 2.13 2.75
Saramacca 3.21 4.19 2.94 3.10 4.71 2.42 2.29 2.04 1.17 2.20 2.56 1.92
Marowijne 3.04 3.36 3.17 3.30 4.32 2.77 1.45 1.77 1.04 2.12 2.23 1.88
Gunsi 3.07 3.02 2.78 2.80 3.26 2.50 2.52 1.93 1.63 2.55 2.14 2.15
Tapawatra 3.07 3.02 2.78 2.80 3.26 2.50 2.52 1.93 1.63 2.55 2.14 2.15
Drietabiki 2.53 4.01 2.36 3.83 2.58 2.07 2.34 1.76 1.98 1.76 1.83 3.11
Palumeu 2.26 2.39 2.73 2.45 2.51 1.90 2.24 2.39 2.18 3.27 2.59 2.06
Kwamalasamutu 3.05 1.87 2.43 2.40 2.80 3.04 3.52 2.68 1.86 3.00 2.56 2.50

6.3.3 Water
Data on the natural resource water are very hard to collect because almost all hydrological
stations were destroyed during the political regime of Desi Bouterse. Furthermore, the
hydrological situation in Suriname is very diverse and complex. Daily fluctuations in water level,
constant transport of sediment, changes in stream and depths, tide influence in the coastal zone,
etc. An example of water level fluctuations is given in Figure 18. All these variable conditions
make it very difficult to find suitable locations for hydropower in the rivers of Suriname.
Nevertheless, the University of Suriname has come forward with a couple of locations in the
neighborhood of inland villages, where electricity is also required. These potential sites are given
in the paragraph 6.5 ‘Alternatives and criteria’. Currently two micro hydropower projects are
under construction, one in Palumeu, an Indian village in the far inland and another one at Gran-
ola-sula a location in the neighborhood of Drietabiki, a Maroon village. These projects will be
used as examples for other potential hydropower sites in Suriname.

6Definition NASA, 2005: Equivalent number of no-sun days over a consecutive-day period (1,3,5,7,14 and 21 days):
Hypothetical number of days for which no solar insolation is available.

34
Wate rs tande n v an de Suriname riv ie r van he t jaar 198 2

600

500
Waterstanden in cm

400
wate r le ve ls at s tation
N ie uw A u rora
300

200

100 wate r le v e ls at s tatio n


pok igron
0
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360

Tijd in dag e n

Figure 18, Water levels in cm of the Suriname river per day during the year 1982 [Naipal, 2003].
There is no information at all about tidal currents along the coastal zone and in the rivers.
Although data on the tides exist, a clear view of the current and the effects does not exist. This
makes it difficult to gain a sufficient overview on this natural resource. An analysis of the
(possible) energy production of tidal currents in the estuaries of coastal zone is not feasible. In
addition there is little experience on this energy production method throughout the world.
Nevertheless it could be a possible source of energy for Suriname that has seven rivers with an
open connection to sea: Marowijne, Commewijne, Suriname, Saramacca, Coppename, Nickerie
and Corantijne.

6.3.4 Biomass
The main part of Suriname is covered with rainforest.
Wood is often the only energy resource for the people.
Wood can be used as an energy resources for RE, but
the rice sector also provides a biomass energy resource
(especially in the Nickerie region). Before rice can be
used as food, the rice has to be disposed of its chaff;
this chaff can be used to make biogas. An analysis of
the potential biomass in Suriname that could be useful
for RE is too complex. Therefore an analysis of the
availability of biomass as natural resources will not be a
Figure 19, Pile of chaff in Nickerie region
part of this research. Biomass energy, however, will be (Jan., 2005).
used as RET in this research, but not as one of the
main technologies. Instead biomass energy function as
supportive technology in other RET systems.

6.4 Technology description


The data from the previous paragraph is important for the input of the artifact ‘natural
resources’. Based upon the availability of resources RETs can be selected creating RE alternatives
per region. The various RETs for the RE alternatives will be described and designed on
technological level and further in this chapter on economical level.

6.4.1 Photovoltaic energy


Photovoltaic (PV) systems, also called solar electric systems are used at very different scales all
over the world. In Suriname there have also been different applications of photovoltaic systems:
most of them deliver energy on a small scale, for instance to power up a radio station or a water

35
pumping system. Only in the region of Kwamalasamutu a PV project was launched and
completed. Currently this energy supply system does not function anymore. PV technology is in
general easy to install and simple to operate and maintain, but a lack of instruction, maintenance
and training of the inhabitants caused the system to malfunction.

6.4.1.1 Theoretical background


Solar energy is collected by solar cells that absorb
sunlight and convert it into electricity. The energy from
the absorbed light is transferred to electrons in the
atoms of the PV cell, making the electrons escape from
their normal positions in the atoms of the
semiconductor PV material and become part of the
electrical flow, or current, in an electrical circuit. This
conversion is called the photovoltaic effect [Wikipedia,
2006]. The semiconductor is the key element for a solar
energy conversion system. In a solar cell there are two
types of semi conductors: n-type and p-type crystalline
silicon. Their main constituent is the silicon (Si) atom
Figure 21, Photovoltaic effect
(group IV of the periodic table); each Si atom has 4 [natuurwetenschappen, 2005].
valence electrons in its outer shell. The difference
between the n-type and the p-type is the added “dopant” atoms. The p-type is doped with small
amounts of atoms from group III, where each atom has 3 valence electrons and the n-type is
similarly doped with atoms from group V with 5 valence electrons per atom. The added groups
III and V atoms take up locations in the Si crystal lattice. Both types are electrically neutral, but in
the n-type negative charges can move around likewise in the p-type material positive (see Figure
20) [Wikipedia, 2006]. A solar cell is a large area semiconductor p-n junction, consisting of a thin
n-layer on top of a p-layer. An imbalance of
charge across the junction results in an electrical
field. The n-p junction forms a diode allowing
the current to flow in only one direction. This
direction is the opposite of the flow created by
sunlight. Sunlight consists of high energy
photons. A photon can pass through the entire
solar cell, it can be reflected or absorbed. When
absorbed the photon transfers its energy to an
electron in the valence band, which is tightly
bound to covalent bonds between Si atoms in
Figure 20, Absorbotion of photon, creating an crystal lattice. The electron can freely move
electrical current [Wikipedia, 2006]. around the semiconductor, in the conduction
band. The electron that left the covalent bond
leaves a hole for electrons of neighbouring atoms to move in leaving a hole, in this way the hole
can move to the lattice. In other words, photons create mobile electron-hole pairs. The
previously mentioned diode allows electrons to pass from the n-side to the p-side and holes from
the p-side to the n-side. Since the charge on electrons and hole is opposite, conventional current
may only flow in one direction. When connected to external electrical devices, power can be
extracted (see Figure 21) [Wikipedia, 2006].

6.4.1.2 Technological application


A PV cell is the key for renewable energy production, but it is far from applicable as a RET
system. A PV power system is made up of interconnected components. The system consists of
the following components [Sunwize, 2005]:

36
Solar modules: A PV or solar module is built from connecting several solar cells in series and/or
parallel in a regular pattern to yield an operating voltage between 12 and 24 V. There are a
number of different materials used for PV cells. The most common material for solar cells is
crystalline silicon. Crystalline silicon solar cells are manufactured as wafers, meaning that a
module is formed by soldered self-supporting wavers between 180-240 micrometers thick, mostly
in the form of modules. The second type of solar cells is the thin film cells. The thin films
modules are manufactured by coating the substrate module with the desired layers (amorphous
silicon (a-Si) or copper indium selenide (CIS)) and then the individual cells are separated by a
laser scribe [Wikipedia, 2006]. A further outline of the different solar cells available on the market
is presented in Box 4.

Charge controllers: Although charge controllers can be purchased with many optimal features, their
main function is to maintain the batteries at the proper charge level and to protect them from
overcharging. Charge Controllers or regulators come in different sorts and sizes, however their
main functions are: optimising the electrical current from the PV cells to the batteries and/or
load current, controlling the charging and discharging of the storage system (battery bank).
Furthermore controllers fulfil the task of overcharge and over discharge protection and some
controllers even include temperature compensated charging.

Battery Bank: The battery banks contains one or more deep cycles batteries, connected in series
and/or parallel depending on the voltage and current capacity needed. The batteries store the
power produced by the solar array and discharged when required.
Only during daytime a PV system can produce electricity, however the energy demand reaches its
peak in the evening. Another problem occurs during cloudy days when the sun insolation is
widely scattered and a PV system cannot produce enough electricity to fulfil the electricity
demand. To prevent these problems a battery system must be installed along the PV system. The
determination of the size and other specifications of a battery system or battery bank depend on
a number of battery characteristics [Sunwize, 2005]:
ƒ Battery size. How much storage a battery system must provide is often expressed in ‘days
of autonomy’, because it is based on the number of days a power system is expected to
provide electricity without receiving input from the solar array. A parameter for the days of
autonomy can thus be the maximum number of no sun days (Table 16) days in the region.
ƒ Temperature effects. The battery’s storage declines with a descent in temperature, but a
high temperature will shorten the batteries lifetime (although the rated capacity increases).
Especially in climates with winter and summer periods it is important to correct the battery
size for temperature effects.
ƒ Rated capacity. The capacity of a battery is defined as the amount of energy that can be
withdrawn from it starting from a fully charged state {NREL, 2005]. However the capacity
depends on the rate of energy withdrawal. The rated capacity of a battery is usually
specified in the ampere-hour capacity together with a standard hour reference. A simple
example from Sunwize (2005): suppose a battery is rated at 100 ampere-hours and a 20-
hour reference is specified. This means if the battery is fully charged it will deliver a current
of 5 amperes for 20 hours. If the discharge current is lower, for example 4.5 amperes, the
capacity will go to 110 ampere-hours.
ƒ Depth of discharge. Depth of discharge is the percentage of the rated battery capacity that
is withdrawn from the battery. There are shallow and deep cycle batteries. The first are
small, light, less expensive batteries with a short lifetime. The deep cycle batteries have large
thick electrolyte plates that can withstand daily discharge up to 80% of their rated capacity
and are therefore suitable for use in PV systems.

37
ƒ Lifetime. The lifetime of a battery is
10,000 1,000
determined by the number of (dis)charge
cycles and the dept of these cycles a

Lifetime Thrpt. (kWh)


8,000 800

Cycles to Failure
battery can withstand before it needs
replacement. Figure 22 clearly shows that 6,000 600
the lifetime plotted as cycles to failure
sharply decreases with an increasing depth 4,000 400
of discharge. Also plotted in Figure 22 is
2,000 200
the lifetime throughput, which is
calculated for each point in the lifetime 0 0
curve using the following equation 0 20 40 60 80 100
Depth of Discharge (%)
[NREL, 2005]: Cycles Throughput

Qlifetime,i =fi (di/100)(qmaxVnom/1000) Figure 22, Factors of influence on batteries lifetime


[NREL, 2005].
Qlifetime,I : lifetime throughput in kWh, fi : number of cycles to failure, di : depth of discharge,
qmax : maximum capacity in Ah, Vnom : nominal voltage.
ƒ Maintenance. Batteries require periodic maintenance. The batteries must be checked on
connections and indication of overcharging. The connection must be tight and possible
corrosion (especially in the tropics) must be removed to maintain an optimal electricity
flow. Flooded batteries need to keep the distilled water level well above the plates which
are covered with electrolytes. Lead-acid batteries do not require liquid refills.

Inverter: An inverter is required to convert the direct current (DC) produced by the solar array into
120 or 240 Volt alternating current (AC). AC power is the standard for almost all home
appliances. It usually also contains a maximum power point tracker which ensures maximum
power extraction from the modules at every level of incident light.

Balance of System: These supportive components provide the interconnections and standard safety
features required for any electrical power system. These include: array combiner box, properly
sized cabling, fuses, switches, circuit breakers and meters.

Figure 23, PV panels in Raleighvallen, Suriname (Dec., 2005).

38
Box 4, Solar cells, Wikipedia, 2006.

Crystalline silicon cells:


Single crystal or monocrystalline silicon wafers are made using the Czochralski process. Most
commercial monocrystalline silicon cells have efficiencies on the order of 16–17%; cells
manufactured by SunPower have higher efficiencies, around 20%. Single-crystal cells tend to
be expensive, and because they are cut from cylindrical ingots, they cannot completely cover
a module without a substantial waste of refined silicon. Most monocrystalline panels have
uncovered gaps at the corners of four cells.
Poly or multi crystalline silicon is made from cast ingots - large crucibles of molten silicon
carefully cooled and solidified. These cells are cheaper than single crystal cells but are less
efficient (typically ~15–16%). However, they can easily be formed into square shapes that
cover a greater fraction of a panel than monocrystalline cells, and this compensates for their
lower efficiencies.
Ribbon silicon, formed by drawing flat thin films from molten silicon and having a
multicrystalline structure. These cells have lower efficiencies (~13.5–15%), but there is an
additional cost saving since there is very little silicon waste, as this approach does not require
sawing from ingots.

Thin film cells:


Amorphous silicon films are fabricated using chemical vapor deposition techniques, typically
plasma enhanced (PE-CVD). These cells have low efficiencies of around 8%, however they
are much less costly to produce. Amorphous silicon has a higher bandgap (1.7 eV) than
crystalline silicon (c-Si) (1.1 eV), which means it is more efficient to absorb the visible part of
the solar spectrum, but it fails to collect an important part of the spectrum : the infrared. As
nanocrystalline Si has about the same bandgap as c-Si, the two material can be combined by
depositing two diodes on top of each other creating a layered cell called a tandem cell. The
top cell in a-Si absorbs the visible light and leaves the infrared part of the spectrum for the
bottom cell in nanocrystalline Si, as pioneered by the Sanyo HIT cell. A patented silicon thin
film technology being developed for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) is semi-
transparent solar cells which can be applied as window glazing. These cells function as
window tinting while generating electricity.
CIS stands for general chalcogenide films of Cu (InxGa1-x) (SexS1-x) 2. While these films
can achieve 11% efficiency, their costs are still too high.
Dye-sensitized solar cells sometimes called photoelectrochemical cells or Graetzel cells.
These cells were initially conceptualized to mimick the process of photosynthesis. The dye-
sensitized cell depends on a layer of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide, using a metalorganic
dye (Ru-centered) as a light-absorbing material. The photogenerated electrons are passed on
to the n-type TiO2 and the holes are passed to an electrolyte on the other side of the dye.
The circuit is completed by a redox couple in the electrolyte, which can be liquid or solid.
These types of cell allows a more flexible use of materials, and typically are manufactured by
screen printing, with cost advantages over the more expensive manufacturing techniques and
equipments used for traditional and thin film solar cells, and significantly less embodied
energy. However, the dyes in these cells also suffer from degradation under heat and UV
light, and the cell casing is difficult to seal due to the solvents used in assembly. In spite of
the above, this is a popular emerging technology with some commercial impact forecasted
within this decade.

39
6.4.2 Hydro energy
Currently 26% of the energy supply in Suriname comes from hydropower [Naipal, 2005]. The
large hydropower plant produces electricity at the Afobakka dam in the province of Brokopondo
since 1965 [Arcengel, 2005]. The Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA), in Suriname
SURALCO, build this dam for $150 million, creating a lake of 1550 square kilometres, making it
one of the largest artificial lakes in the world. The central hydroelectric power generator annually
produces 1030 million kilowatt-hours. The aluminium smelter in Paranam up to 1981 consumed
all this energy. Since then, 65 MW is transported over 100 kilometres for the public use in the city
Paramaribo [Webster et al., 2001, Tractabel, 2000].

6.4.2.1 Theoretical background


The hydropower resource can be determined according to the available amount of power (energy
per time unit). The power potential of a site depends on the flow and the available head. The
flow (Q) is the amount of water that passes across a section in a certain amount of time. The
head (H) is the vertical difference between the water level in the reservoir or river and the
turbine.
The theoretical power available for a water level is in exact proportion to the head and the flow.
The hydro turbines can convert the available potential power in mechanical power (Equation 2).
The theoretical maximum amount of power that can be extracted is [Hydropower, 2005]:

Equation 2: P = Q * H * ρwater * g * η

Where: P= water power; Q = flow rate (m3/s); H = head (m); ρwater = specific mass of water
(1000 kg/m3); g = gravity (9.81 m/s2), η = overall efficiency.
In practise, however, the generation of power through water streams is far more difficult. The
output of the turbine depends on factors as shape, angle and surface of a blade, but also the
number of blades on a turbine. All these factors have an impact on the rotating velocity of the
turbine and therefore the amount of water that can pass the turbine. Another factor of
complexity is the turbulence of the water inside a shaft before, during and after ‘hitting’ the
turbine. And when the previously mentioned head changes, the effect of the hydrological system
has yet another impact on the power generation system. However all these complicated
theoretical factors or equations will not be further explained and applied in this research. The
next paragraph will simply describe some turbines.

6.4.2.2 Technological application


Whereas a PV system can be quickly put up and into practise a hydropower system often claims
much more attention, because of its size and/or impact in the natural environment. A hydro
energy system is a robust system. The proportion of civil techniques needed to create the height
difference causes the robustness of such a system. Due to this robustness the lifetime of a
hydropower system can easily reach 40 or 50 years. A hydropower system mainly consists out of
the following components:

Dam: To achieve a difference in water level (head) and a regulated input a dam must be
constructed. The construction of a dam is one of the most difficult parts of a hydropower system
(Figure 25). The construction must be very robust because it has to withstand a huge pressure
from the water that is preserved in the water ‘basin’. Before the construction of a dam can begin,
the side has to be cleared from water that can be very difficult in a river. The dam has to be
constructed on a good foundation not allowing water to pass under or through the dam. The
construction of the dam can be done in all kind of sizes; from one side of the river to the other
or just small dam in a certain part of the river. The goal of the dam is to get a good head.

40
Turbine(and supporting materials): The turbine is the
key element of the hydropower system, because it
converts the power of the water into kinetic
energy. The supporting materials consist out of
the turbine inlet and the pipes where the turbine
is placed in and a hatch that controls the water
inlet.
There are different types of turbines: they can be
classified into two types: the impulse type and the
reaction type. The main difference between these
two types of turbines is that the impulse turbine
operates in air. Jets of water hit the blades at
atmospheric pressure where as the reaction
turbine blades are surrounded by water. Table 19
in addition points out that the impulse turbines are Figure 24, Head-flow ranges of small hydro
used for high heads and the reaction turbines for turbines [Paish, 2002].
low heads. The main elements of a reaction turbine are the rotating blades that are fully
immerged in water and are enclosed in a pressure casing. These runner blades are more are less
shaped like aircraft wings; pressure differences across their profile impose lift forces, which cause
the blades to rotate. Through this rotation, power can be generated. Further characteristics are
shown in Table 17 and Figure 24. Taking into account these characteristics for the application in
Suriname reactions turbines are favoured. These turbines are more suitable for actual
implementation because in Suriname the water level change in rivers is not of more than 10
meters, while large discharge rates may be present.
Table 17, Impulse and reaction turbines [Paish,2002].
Turbine type Head classification
High ( > 50 m) Medium ( 10 – 50 m) Low (< 10 m)
Impulse Pelton Crossflow Crossflow
Turgo Turgo
Multi-jet Pelton Multi-jet Pelton
Reaction Francis (spiral case) Francis (open-flume)
Propeller
Kaplan

Powerhouse: The powerhouse is often placed around, under or above the turbine (see Figure 25).
In the powerhouse the gear for the generator and the charge controller are placed. The generator
is often very close to the turbine to achieve as less power loss as possible when converting the
kinetic energy from the turbine rotation into electrical energy.

Generator: The generator converts the kinetic energy into electricity. The generator delivers power
by the rotating turbine and works in a similar way as a dynamo (generating electricity which is
induced by the rotation of magnets).

Charge controller: The charge controller in a hydro system fulfils the same function as in a PV
system.

Balance of system: The supportive components needed for a proper application and safety of the
hydro energy system, transmission lines, switches, etc. The balance of a hydropower system is
almost entirely equal to a PV system however mounting gear for placing the solar cells is of
course excluded.

41
Figure 25, Small hydropower system in Palumeu; left, dam under construction (Nov., 2005), right finished
dam and powerhouse (Jan., 2006).

6.4.3 Biomass energy


In contrast to the other RETs the production of energy with biomass causes carbon dioxide (and
other gases) to emit. This emission is not counted as contributing to the greenhouse effect
because the emitted CO2 is extracted from the current atmosphere and not from an atmosphere
thousands of years ago which is the case with fossil fuels. During the lifetime of a plant, carbon
dioxide is removed from the atmosphere, for its photosynthesis process. The net emission of
carbon dioxide will be zero as long as plants continue to be replenished for biomass energy
purposes. Biomass energy also reduces NOx and SO2 emissions [DOE, 1997]. Special energy
crops as fast-growing trees and grasses are called biomass feedstocks. The use of biomass
feedstocks can also increase profits for the agricultural industry [NREL, 2005]. Biomass is an
interesting technology for development countries, especially for rural areas since it is often their
only accessible and affordable resource for energy. Three biomass technologies alternatives are:
co-firing, gasification and direct fire combustion. Gasification is an alternative suitable for this
research, because it is ‘particularly appropriate in developing or rural areas without cheap fossil fuels or having
a problematic transmission infrastructure’ according to the U.S. Department of Energy, DOE (1997).
The first application of biomass energy (co-firing) is practised at existing generators although it is
a low cost alternative it is not an option for this research. The co-firing system mainly uses fossil
fuel as most important energy source and therefore is not fully renewable. The latter alternative
of direct fire combustion will also not be used in this research because it is applied in retrofits of
existing facilities to improve process efficiency. Furthermore this alternative is not suitable
because it is based on direct use of biomass.
As the theoretical background on biomass energy system is a complex system of chemical and
physical reactions this part will be left out of this research. However a brief indication of a
gasification system is provided in the next section 6.4.3.1 ‘Technological application’.

6.4.3.1 Technological application


The technological application will concentrate on the gasification system. It will not be split into
all different components as previously done with the solar and hydro energy system. A
specification of all the different components and gasification systems nowadays available or
under development would be too complicated for this research, as biomass energy is used as a
supporting energy system. An example of a gasification system is given in Box 5.

42
Box 5, Gasification system by DOE, 1997.

Figure 26, Biomass gasification combined cycle (BGCC) system schematic [DOE, 1997].
The conversion of biomass to a low- or medium-heating-value gaseous fuel (biomass
gasification) generally involves two processes. The first process, pyrolysis, releases the volatile
components of the fuel at temperatures below 600°C (1,112°F) via a set of complex
reactions. Included in these volatile vapors are hydrocarbon gases, hydrogen, carbon
monoxide, carbon dioxide, tars, and water vapor. Because biomass fuels tend to have more
volatile components (70 - 86% on a dry basis) than coal (30%), pyrolysis plays a
proportionally larger role in biomass gasification than in coal gasification. The by-products of
pyrolysis that are not vaporized are referred to as char and consist mainly of fixed carbon and
ash. In the second gasification process, char conversion, the carbon remaining after pyrolysis
undergoes the classic gasification reaction (i.e. steam + carbon) and/or combustion (carbon
+ oxygen). It is this latter combustion reaction that provides the heat energy required to drive
the pyrolysis and char gasification reactions. Due to its high reactivity (as compared to coal
and other solid fuels), all of the biomass feed, including char, is normally converted to
gasification products in a single pass through a gasifier system.

43
6.4.4 Wind energy
Windmills are being used for mechanical power and wind
turbines are being used for generating electrical power.
Both utilize the kinetic energy in flowing air masses
[EERE, 2005]. A wind turbine consists of a post, a
nacelle and rotor blades (see Figure 27). Through the
shape of the rotor blades the kinetic energy in the wind
can be converted into a rotating movement. This
movement is accelerated in the nacelle where a generator
is driven to create electricity. The nacelle also holds a Figure 27, Nacelle [Windpower, 2005].
component to measure wind direction so the rotor blades
can be turned into the wind [ODE, 2005].

The previous paragraph on natural resources clearly described the trends of wind in Suriname.
The wind speed is very low and only peaks during the late afternoon. The averages per month do
not exceed 5 m/s, which is a minimum requirement for the present wind energy systems (see
Table 13, Table 14 and Figure 28). The applicability of wind turbines is too low to be used basic
energy supply system. Wind energy in Suriname will only be functional as a supportive energy
system and even then on a very small scale. Therefore it will not be further analyzed in this
research.
Power Curve Power Curve Power Curve
300 0.6
1.6
Power (kW)

Power (kW)

Power (kW)
1.2 200 0.4
0.8
100 0.2
0.4
0.0 0 0.0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 6 12 18 24
Wind Speed (m/s) Wind Speed (m/s) Wind Speed (m/s)
Figure 28, Power output for different wind turbine models: bwa1500, WES30, Windside 2A [NREL, 2005].

6.4.5 Tidal energy


To generate tidal energy, different kinds of technologies have
been developed over the last decades. These technologies are:
tidal/marine currents, wave energy, OTEC (ocean thermal
energy conversion) and tidal barrages. The only technology
applicable for Suriname would be the tidal/marine currents.
The tidal/marine currents are driven by the rise and fall of the
tides under influence of gravitational field of the sun and the
moon. This kinetic energy can be converted into a movement
in the same way as the mechanism of a wind turbine. The
technology is similar to the wind turbine but is driven through
the current instead of the wind [Eurec Agency, 2002]. Figure 29, tidal turbine [Eurec
However, due to the lack of data on the natural resources along Agency, 2002].
the coastline and in the estuaries this technology will not be
further analyzed. If Suriname would decide to give tidal energy a try, the focus should be on the
marine current technology. This will include placing turbines underwater for transformation of
the flow current occurring during the rise and fall of tides into electricity. These turbines can
selectively be put into estuaries of the six rivers, but issues as water transport and fisheries have
to be considered. An advantage for Suriname is that most cities or villages in the coastal zone are
located at these possible sites, lowering cost for transport of electricity, storage and operation and
maintenance.

44
6.5 Alternatives and criteria

In this section the boundaries per RE alternative are set by a number of criteria. These criteria
represent the borders per RE alternative between which the RETs have to function. The coastal
regions have two different RE alternatives and a business as usual (BAU) alternative. The inland
regions have four different RE alternatives and a BAU alternative.

6.5.1 Business as usual


The BAU alternative is important, especially for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The
BAU includes a first estimate of the produced CO2 equivalents. Energy supply with RETs can
decrease the amount of CO2 equivalents. These reductions (the non-emitted greenhouse gases)
can be certified in the Kyoto protocol as Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). The CERs
produced in the developing countries can be sold to interested companies from Annex I
countries. In other words, CDM activities must generate emission reduction additional to any
those produced in the absence of these activities, in other words, produced in the BAU-
alternative in which no RETs are applied. [UNDP, 2003].
The electrical energy supply in the rural areas of Suriname mainly consists of diesel generators.
The data on these generators are collected from the Tractabel (2000) research. In the BAU
alternative the diesel generators will be used to meet the daily load. Although some regions do
not have (enough)(functional) diesel generators to cover the daily load, the energy that should be
provided by diesel generators will be used as BAU.

6.5.2 PV system
In order to design a functional PV system some criteria have to be developed. A PV system
should meet the following criteria:
ƒ The solar array size (taken into account a battery charge factor7 of 1.1 and a derating factor8
of 0.7 (1.1/0.7 * 100%=157%)) should be 157 % of the daily load for the month with the
minimum amount of solar energy [Sunwize, 2005, NREL, 2005, Sark van, 2006].
ƒ The size of the battery bank depends on the ‘days of autonomy’, in other words on the
maximum number of no-sun days in a month [Sunwize, 2005]. Experimenting with the
figures from Table 16 in HOMER resulted in battery bank that was too small. Therefore
the battery bank in the coastal and inland regions will be set on six ‘days of autonomy’.
ƒ The capacity of a battery used in HOMER is 7.6 kWh (Surrette 4KS25P).
ƒ The inverter should at least have a capacity equal to the peak load otherwise the system is
not able to fulfil the energy demand during a peak. A normal efficiency of a inverter is 90%.
[Alphen van, 2004].

6.5.3 Hydropower system


The technology for hydropower requires conditions completely different compared to those for
photovoltaic power. A PV system can be installed almost everywhere, whereas hydropower asks
for a location that meets specific conditions. The Anton de Kom University of Suriname
(AdeKUS) performed a research on the possibilities for hydropower in the inland. Their effort
resulted in alternatives for the application of micro hydropower in the Upper Suriname River, the
Tapanahony river and the Sipaliwini River. The possible locations are presented in Table 18. In
this context it is important to know that the AdeKUS carried out its research during the long dry
period. In this period the rivers are at their lowest level at which a minimum amount of power

7 The battery charge factor compensates for system losses during battery charge/discharge cycles [Sunwize, 2005].
8 The rated output of PV modules corresponds to 1 kW/m2 of solar radiation at test conditions. Higher ambient
temperatures, different operating voltages, and soiling of the panels can cause the PV array to produce less than its
rated output. The derating factor is meant to account for these losses [NREL, 2005].

45
(displayed in Table 18 as ‘Min. Power’) can be produced by the river9. Table 18 also presents the
‘Useful Power’. This is the amount of energy that can be extracted from a hydropower system in
the dry period. During the rain seasons the amount of power produced by the river can be twice
the ‘Min Power’. However this analysis will only use the ‘Useful Power’ as maximum throughout
the whole year for the hydropower systems. The hydropower systems must have the capacity of
the peak load in order to fulfil the energy demand during a peak. However this capacity can not
exceed the maximum set in the ‘Useful power’.
Currently two hydropower projects are under construction in the Tapanahony river. One in the
small side stream of the Tapanahony river, called Panato creek, near the village of Palumeu (10
kW). Another hydropower project is started further downstream near the village Drietabiki, at
Gran-olo-sula(300 kW). These projects will be used as basis for other hydropower systems.
Besides the two micro hydropower projects in Drietabiki and Palumeu the locations from Table
18 will be used as potential sites for hydropower systems.
Table 18, Potential location for hydro energy systems [Naipal, 2003 I, Naipal, 2003 II].
Location River Stream Head Min Power Useful Turbine
flow (m3/s) (m) (kW) Power (kW) type
Tapawatra Gran Rio 14.3 4.2 354 200 Kaplan
Gran Dan Gran Rio 17.7 6.0 625 530 Kaplan
Dangogo Pikin Rio 4.9 1.2 35 25 Propeller
Felusie (Afobasu) Suriname 5.0 1.6 47 40 Kaplan
Felusie (Mindrihati) Suriname 15.0 3.1 274 250 Kaplan
Boespapja Sipalawini 3.1 1.2 21 15 Kaplan
De Karina Ituru Kutari 3 2.2 39 25 Kaplan
Sir Walter Raleigh val Coeroni 6 -10 5.0 206 150 Propeller

Design criteria on the hydropower systems cannot be as clear–stated as for instance PV systems.
As mentioned in paragraph 6.4 ‘Technological application’ of hydropower system each
construction site is unique and needs a different approach for construction. An analysis of the
different conditions per location is was not feasible in this research, since there is no detailed
information per site.

6.5.4 Hybrid PV – Hydro – Biomass energy system


Biomass energy can be added to the PV or hydro system. An important condition for biomass
energy systems is the amount of biomass needed for the production of energy. In this research
the biomass feedstock will not be analysed because creating an overview of the available biomass
feedstock per selected region would require another study. Instead, we assume the demanded
amount of biomass to be present.
The criteria for the hybrid systems are:
ƒ The PV-Biomass systems will be designed on the basis of the solar system and anticipates
mainly on the load during day time. The criteria for this alternative are: a battery size of
65% of the daily load, an inverter size of 50% of the peak load and a solar array of 35% of
the daily load [Alphen van, 2004]. The biomass generator must have a capacity to cover the
peak load when there is no insolation.
ƒ In the PV-Biomass system the biomass fuelled generator is switched off one hour after
sunrise, 8 o’clock a.m. and switched on, one hour before sunset, 6 o’clock p.m.
ƒ If the stand alone hydro power system can not deliver enough energy to meet the demand,
a biomass system can be added to cover the gap.

9The AdeKUS used the concept of implementation of micro hydropower systems, by which is meant to avoid dam
constructions in the rivers as much as possible, but to only use the flow of the rivers.

46
6.6 Economical description
Besides the technological criteria per alternative it is also important to have an overview of the
different costs per technology. The economical description will provide an overview of the
different RETs costs: the investment costs, the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs, the
replacement costs, the training costs etc. The major indicator of the physical artefact is the cost
of energy. The costs of the different RE systems are discussed in the following paragraphs. In the
next chapter the costs of the alternatives will be compared to the benefits, regarding electricity
costs, diesel savings and CERs. It must be noted that all the costs are in current prices and can
fluctuate over time.

6.6.1 System costs


The system costs focus on the costs of the RET and its additional components. The system
costs10 per kW per RE component determine the investment costs and the replacement costs of a
alternative. In the following section each technology will be split up in costs per component. The
costs per component will give a general indication of the costs when a certain RET would be
implemented in Suriname. The costs are not specified per selected region. The PV technology is
the only technology where the different components can be translated into cost per components
similar to the PV paragraph 6.4.1.2 ‘Technological application’. The costs of the other RETs can
not be calculated in such detail because of lack of data.
The first system costs that will be calculated are the investment costs for a system based on diesel
generators, the business as usual alternative. A number of generators from different sizes and
prices were compared. This resulted in the following function of the trend line (see Figure 30):

Equation (3) Cost generator = $125*(kWgenerator) + $10.000

This function is used to determine the investment costs of the generator.

Generator costs in $/kW

350
Generator costs (1000*US$)

300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Kilowatt (kW )

Figure 30, Generator cost in US$ per capacity in kW [America’s Generators, 2006].

Second the costs of a PV system are presented in the Table 19. It clearly shows the high
investment costs for a PV module. However the costs have declined considerably compared to
10 years ago [Solarbuzz, 2006]. The other data on the components of the solar system are
collected from different solar energy suppliers. The charge controller and battery bank have
different capacity units and are therefore presented per kWh. The inverter costs are presented in

10The interest rate is set on 10%.

47
kW of delivered alternative current (AC). And the ‘balance of the system’ is calculated with a cost
of 60 US$/module. The average module size of a project at the Raleighvallen in Suriname was
100 Wp. This results in a ‘balance of system’ of 600 US$/kWp.
Table 19, Costs per component of photovoltaic system [Solarbuzz, 2006, Sunwize, 2005].
System components Costs US$ Unit
PV module 5320 kWp
Charge controller 10 kWh
Battery Bank 200 kWh
Inverter 800 kW (AC)
Balance of System 600 kWp

Third, the hydropower costs. Data on the system costs of hydropower are very hard to collect.
Even if data are available the applications per location are so diverse that an accurate cost analysis
is not feasible. However a micro hydropower system under construction in Drietabiki (the Gran
olo sula project, 300kW) provides an insight in the costs of a micro hydropower system in
Suriname. Therefore the Gran olo sula project will be used as basis for the hydropower costs in
other regions. The costs of the hydropower system can not be calculated per component, but will
be presented per section. These system sections are: civil technical, hydrological and electrical.
The civil technical section comprises costs of sand, gravel, cement, building materials, etc., all the
material needed to construct the dam and powerhouse. The hydrological section includes all the
material to control water flow and the turbine and convert it into kinetic energy. The electrical
section focuses on the equipment to transform the kinetic energy from the turbine into electricity
and equipment for the balance of the system. The hydropower system costs are presented in
Table 20.
Table 20, Costs per development section of a hydro energy system [Naipal, 2005].
System section Costs US$ Unit
Civil technical 277 kW
Hydrological 503 kW
Electrical 350 kW

In contrast to the hydro energy system costs, the costs for a biomass gasification system can be
given per component. Such a specification however would be complicated and not comparable
with the previous technologies. The costs of the biomass system (presented in Box 5) are
displayed in Table 21. The biomass fuel needed for this system is considered free.
Table 21, Costs of a biomass plant [DOE, 1997].
Biomass system Costs US$ Unit
Total capital requirement 1650 kW

6.6.2 Additional costs


Additional costs for the installation of RET include: installation, training and transport cost.
These costs are also important for the implementation of a RET, especially in the rural areas of
Suriname where local people need to be trained to fix malfunctions or other simple technical
problems. Hiring an expert is far more expensive. But the installation and transportation costs are
also higher as the areas are often only accessible by korjaal (local boot) or small airplane.
However additional costs could not be specified per selected region per technology. In order to
keep the different RE alternatives comparable the additional costs will not be included in this
research.

48
6.6.3 Annual costs
Besides the system costs it is important to analyze the costs per year for diesel and the operation
and maintenance of the different components throughout the lifetime of a project. It must be
noted that all RE alternatives have a time horizon of 25 years accept for the alternatives that
include hydropower. The (civil) technologies used in hydropower can easily last for 40 years and
therefore the lifetime of these alternatives is set at 40 years.
The diesel costs are a sensitive subject in Suriname for the last six months. Until the beginning of
September 2005 the government subsidized the diesel price to achieve a constant price and did
not take the global oil market developments into account. But with highly increasing oil prices
the government of Suriname could no longer afford keeping diesel price at a low level. As a
reaction on the oil market they lowered the subsidy causing the diesel price at the gas stations to
increase with one hundred percent. Nowadays the price for one liter of diesel in Paramaribo is
2,58 Suriname Dollar [De ware tijd, 2006], similar to 0.93 $/L [CBvS, 2006]. In the inland these
prices can easily be twice or three times larger [Naipal, 2005].
To reach the lifetime set for the RE alternatives it is important that the technologies are
adequately operated and maintained. Maintenance of technologies includes a diverse set of
activities; from components performance control to, for instances painting the powerhouse. The
operation part focuses on a sufficient balance between the electricity production and the
electricity consumption. These operation and maintenance (O&M) costs are not the same for the
different RETs. A PV system is easier to manage than a hydropower- or biomass system. A PV
system differs in O&M because the energy input does not have to be and cannot be regulated.
The input from the sun, although variable, cannot be controlled and is just collected. The most
important factor of O&M for the PV systems is checking the batteries performance and the
distilled water level. In contrast for a hydropower or biomass system the input must be regulated
continuously in order to achieve the necessary water flow to drive the turbine or the amount of
biomass needed for powering the generator. The operation and maintenance costs of the
different RETs are presented in Table 22.
Table 22, Percent of O&M cost in investment per RET [Alphen van, 2004, Larson, 2000].
RET Operation & Maintenance
(% of investment)
Solar energy 2%
Hydro energy 3%
Biomass energy 4%

6.6.4 Environmental costs


RET systems have a great advantage over a fossil energy production system. Most of the
technologies do not emit any greenhouse gases. However this does not account for energy
produced by biomass. This system emits greenhouse gases. However biomass still can be seen as
a RE because the greenhouse gases emitted when electrical energy is produced are subtracted
from the current atmosphere contrary to the greenhouse gases produced by fossil fuels as
explained before.

49
The Kyoto protocol is based on the reduction of
greenhouse gases in order to prevent global warming.
The Kyoto protocol provides a mechanism to
exchange these greenhouse gases with Annex I
countries. The functioning of this system is already
explained in chapter ‘1 Introduction’. The greenhouse
gases are all calculated in CO2-equivalents. The CO2-
equivalents can also be seen as the not-emitted gases
when a diesel generator is replaced by a RET. The
European market price in June 2006 was 16.18 euro
per ton CO2-equivalent (19.24 $/tCO2) [Point Carbon,
2006]. This price will be used for in this research. One
must keep in mind that the carbon price is influence by market changes and differs daily (see
Figure 31). At the moment the government of Suriname has not ratified the Kyoto protocol and
is therefore unable to use the CDM and sell CO2-equivalents to Annex I countries. If the
protocol is ratified and the CO2 can be sold it will result in a decrease in the cost of energy of the
RE alternatives. This will be shown in the next chapter 7 ‘Quantitative analysis. The CDM
process of CO2-equivalents that can be gained and eventually be sold, because RE systems are
used instead of conventional systems is an advantage for the RE alternatives. This advantage for
a technological system is indicated by the legislative artifacts.

50
7 Quantitative analysis
The following section provides a clear technological and economical overview of the renewable
energy possibilities in selected regions. The overview will give an answer to research question
two: “What are the technological and economical opportunities for renewable energy technologies per region type?”
The distinction between coastal and inland regions will be maintained. The alternatives and
criteria described in chapter 6 ‘Modeling framework’ will be put into practices, per alternative and
per region, in order to achieve a clear overview of the differences per RE alternative.
The quantitative analysis is divided in the paragraphs ‘coastal regions’ and ‘inland regions’. The
results of regions Coronie (coastal region) and Gunsi (inland region) are explained and shown in
detail, with performance graphics of the different technologies. The other coastal and inland
regions show similar patterns. Their specifications are therefore put in Appendix B (coastal
regions) and Appendix C (inland regions). Each region will be tested on the functionality of the
technological system by Hughes (1987) in the multi criteria analysis (MCA). The indicators for
this technological system are: energy output (kWh/year), Cost Of Energy ($/kWh), CERs
(tCO2/year), excess electricity (kWh/year). A high energy output and/or CERs has a positive
influence on the technological system, but a high cost of energy and/or excess electricity has a
negative influence. Herewith the MCA will rank the RE alternatives per region resulting in the
feasibility of a RE alternative as a technological system in the rural areas of Suriname.

7.1 Coastal regions


Table 23, System input and output for the different alternatives in the Coronie region; selected region 2.
Coronie BAU PV PV- Unit
Biomass
Systems boundaries
Daily load 10,800 10,800 10,800 kWh/day
Peak load 1,065 1,065 1,065 kW
Generators 380, 300, 300 - - kW
Generator eff. 26, 26, 29 - 35 %
Diesel price 0.93 - - $/L
Min. insolation - 4.21 4.21 kWp/m2/d
PV size - 4,032 1,540 kWp
Max no-sun days - 4 - days
Battery bank - 140,400 7,020 kWh
Inverter - 1,183 533 kW
Biomass generator - - 1,065 kW
Energy output
Generator 3,954,822 - 2,675,135 kWh/year
PV Panel - 5,134,455 1,962,352 kWh/year
Biomass feedstock - - 8,212 t/year
Excess electricity 141 251,224 229,376 kWh/year
Unmet elec. load 458 96,928 177,871 kWh/year
Diesel use 1,556,691 - - L/year
CERs - 32,089 32,089 tCO2/year
Costs
Investment 152,500 38,423,840 12,774,650 $
Replacement 48,611 733,651 549,321 $/year
O&M 23,543 768,476 247,947 $/year
Diesel costs 1,447,723 - - $/year
CDM credits - 617,419 617,419 $/year
COE 0.39 1.49 0.57 $/kWh
COE with CDM - 1.33 0.41 $/kWh

51
Coronie is the least populated
coastal region resulting in the
lowest daily and peak load. The
current energy system of Coronie
exists of three diesel generators
of respectively, 380 (Cor1), 300
(Cor2) and 300 (Cor3) kW
[Tractabel, 2000]. Unfortunately
the actual use of these generators
in terms of diesel use and
operating hours is not known.
The output of the generators is
calculated with HOMER’s
optimized operating mode. This
mode calculates the optimal use
of the three generators that
results in a minimum amount of
fuel costs.
Figure 32 provides a clear
overview of the generators
performances. Generator three is
fully exploited. The other two
generators have supportive
functions. Generator one (Cor1)
is mainly put into action to
satisfy the peak load in the early
evening. This can be identified
through the amount of red
around 19.00 hours in the second
graphic of Figure 32. The
performance of the generators
results in an unmet electrical load
of 458 kWh/year, which is close
to zero percent of the total
Figure 31, System characteristics BAU alternative Coronie.
served load.
The PV alternative is presented in Figure
33. The periods of higher power in the first
graphic of Figure 33 indicate the short and
long dry period. In these periods with a high
insolation the average battery state of charge
is also higher. In general the batteries
function efficiently enough to fulfil the
energy demand of the region. The unmet
electrical load is only 2% of the total load
served. Only sometimes during the long rain
period the battery bank cannot be charged
enough to fulfill the demand (black spots in
Fig 33). On the other hand the excess
electricity of the PV alternative is 5%, this is
3% higher than the unmet load, indicating
that the PV system is powerful enough.
Figure 32, System characteristics PV alternative Coronie.

52
In the PV-Biomass alternative the
amount of unmet electrical load is
about 4% of the total load served,
and there is an excess electricity of
229,376 kWh/year (5%). The
unmet load is caused by the energy
demand peak that sometimes
cannot be met during the early
evening. In Suriname this is the
whole year around about seven
p.m., just after sunset. The excess
electricity is ‘produced’ when the
batteries are fully loaded during the
day and the extra-generated energy
cannot be stored. Figure 35
provides specified details for the
PV-biomass energy alternative on
electric production, PV output,
biomass generator output and
battery bank state of charge. The
reasons for the unmet electrical
load and the excess electricity are
visible in third graphic. The
intensity of the PV output at the
end of the day declines to its
lowest levels whereas the electrical
demand increases in this period. In
other words, the PV output stops

Figure 33, System characteristics PV-Biomass alternative Coronie.

around 5 p.m., but the biomass generator only starts at 6 p.m.


herewith a gap of one hour is created. However shifting the
functioning of the biomass generator from 6 p.m. to 5 p.m. in
HOMER does not result in a significant improvement. At last
the cost analysis of the different alternatives; an important
factor to compare the different alternatives is the cost of
energy (COE) in $/kWh. There is a large difference between
the investment costs of PV and PV-Biomass which translates
itself in the COE of both alternatives. The costs of the PV
alternative are almost three times higher than PV-Biomass,
but the PV-Biomass system is not cheaper than the BAU,
however becomes close with CDM support. The multi-
criteria analysis (MCA) also shows the positive effect of lower
cost of energy (physical artifacts) and excess electricity
(organizational agreements) for the PV-Biomass alternative
(see Figure 34). According to the MCA the PV-Biomass
alternative is the best RE technological system for the
Figure 34, MCA Nickerie.
Coronie region.

53
Unfortunately it was not possible to perform calculations on the PV alternatives for the other
coastal region. A bug in the HOMER program made it impossible to work with large amount of
batteries. There is a limit to the number of batteries that can be used in HOMER. An attempt to
enlarge the capacity of batteries resulted in unreal battery outputs and costs for a PV system. The
only result that can be more or less indicated from these attempts is the cost of energy (COE).
The COE of the PV alternative in the coastal regions is very high since the capacity of the battery
bank has to be enormous. At last, due to the limits of the HOMER program it is also impossible
to do a multi criteria analysis between the different RE alternatives per region as there is only one
RE alternative in the remaining coastal regions (Nickerie, Saramacca and Marowijne).
The quantitative results of the coastal regions are summed up in Table 24. The results are quite
similar because the load curve of the regions is based on the Nickerie region. Moreover, the
energy demand is calculated with the relative difference in population between the different
coastal regions. The independent variable factors are the solar insolation (see Appendix B) and
the emitted CO2-equivalents. The latter factor can be very interesting for the COE. The
remaining coastal regions will be shortly discussed according to the sequence of Table 24.
Table 24, System characteristics for the different coastal regions.
Alternative Indicators Nickerie Coronie Saramacca Marowijne Unit
BAU Daily load 138,000 10,800 60,000 62,000 kWh/day
Peak load 13.500 1.065 5,900 6,100 kW
Emitted CO2-eq 306,137 32,089 164,250 148,173 tCO2/year
COE 0.30 0.39 0.37 0.31 $/kWh
PV Biomass Energy output 58,984,302 4,637,487 25,871,894 26,906,996 kWh
Excess electricity 2,963,953 229,376 1,410,109 1,535,821 kWh/year
Unmet electricity 2,210,587 177,871 938,301 1,054,420 kWh/year
Investment 163,064,960 12,774,650 71,765,320 74,034,880 $
COE 0.58 0.57 0.58 0.58 $/kWh
COE with CDM 0.45 0.41 0.43 0.45 $/kWh

The Nickerie regions energy demand is fulfilled with four 2.1 MW diesel generators. Two of
these generators operate almost at one hundred percent throughout the whole year. The other
generators have supportive functions and are brought into actoin during the early evening.
The BAU alternative for the Saramacca region is different than the Coronie region. The data in
Tractabel (2000) only showed that there where two generators (210 kW and 150kW) in the
Saramacca region. This is far too less to serve the energy demand of this region. Therefore an
extra generator of 3.2 MW was added to this alternative. The large extra generator functions as
main generator in this BAU alternative.
The Marowijne region is very similar to the Saramacca region in almost all system boundaries.
Their daily and peak loads are a little higher than the Saramacca region. No extra generators have
to be added to the BAU alternative. The generators can provide the region with enough energy
although once in a while during the peak load they are have a little capacity shortage, which only
results in an unmet electrical load of 1%.
The PV-Biomass alternative shows similar results for all the regions. In each region the energy
demand is fulfilled with an excess electricity of 5% and an unmet electrical load of 4%.
The PV-Biomass alternative is the best, but only RE alternative for the coastal regions in the
research. The low COE is mainly caused by the total investment price. Noted must be that the
costs for the biomass feedstock is not taken into account. In short, the PV-Biomass alternative
gives the most feasible opportunities to be implemented in the coastal regions of Suriname as a
technological system.

54
7.2 Inland regions
Table 25, System boundaries, energy output and costs for the different alternatives in the Upper Suriname region; selected region 5.
Gunsi BAU PV PV-Biomass Hydro Unit
Systems boundaries Current Future Current Future Current Future Current Future
Daily load 630 1,574 630 1,574 630 1,574 630 1,574 kWh/day
Peak load 71 177 71 177 71 177 71 177 kW
Generators 60, 40 60, 40 - - - - - - kW
Generator eff. 31, 31 31, 31 - - (-) (-) - - %
Diesel (1.5*0.93) 1.395 1.395 - - - - - - $/L
Min. insolation - - 4.38 4.38 4.38 4.38 - - kWp/m2/d
PV size - - 226 566 86 216 - - kWp
Battery bank - - 3,780 9,444 410 1,023 - - kWh
Inverter - - 79 197 36 89 - - kW
Biomass generator - - - - 71 177 - - kW
Stream flow - - - - - - 3,900 9,700 L/s
Head - - - - - - 3.1 3.1 m
Useful power - - - - - - 71 177 kW
Energy output
Generator 230,646 559,830 - - 171,105 385,713 - - kWh/yr
PV Panel - - 299,168 748,507 113,731 285,650 - - kWh/yr
Hydro system - - - - - - 529,916 1,317,950 kWh/yr
Biomass feedstock - - - - 653 1,250 - - t/year
Excess electricity 696 16 14,644 38,702 31,699 28,104 300,038 743,688 kWh/yr
Unmet elec. load 0 14,688 5,400 12,653 2,423 24,037 116 316 kWh/yr
Diesel use 88,122 198,256 - - - - - - L/yr
CER’s - - 1,816 4,087 1,816 4,087 1,816 4,087 tCO2/yr
Costs
Investment 32,500 17,500 2,194,920 5,492,357 741,170 1,856,800 80,230 200,010 $
Replacement 7,757 8,716 42,504 106,284 31,554 78,593 0 0 $/year
O&M 1,713 3,280 43,899 109,846 114,243 35,708 2,407 6,000 $/year
Diesel costs 122,930 276,567 - - - - - - $/year
CDM credits - - 34,974 78,633 34,974 78,633 34,974 78,633 $/year
COE 0.59 0.52 1.46 1.46 0.58 0.58 0.05 0.05 $/kWh
COE with CDM - - 1.31 1.32 0.42 0.44 -0.11 -0.09 $/kWh

55
Gunsi is a small maroon village at the
upper Suriname River. As mentioned
before this location as well as the
other inland locations are chosen
because of their hydro energy
potential. Gunsi and its surrounding
villages are located in the
neighborhood of two rapids named
Afobasu and Mindrihati. Besides the
hydropower alternative the region is
also analyzed for the options PV and
Biomass. In Table 25 the system
boundaries and results are presented.
Before analyzing the results, the
system boundaries on energy
demand reveal differences between
the energy demand of the coastal
regions from the previous paragraph
and the inland regions. The energy
demand of the population of Gunsi
is far smaller per capita than with the
coastal regions, because the
population size is smaller and the
village has a development arrear. As
the following paragraphs will show
Figure 35, System characteristics current BAU alternative Gunsi. this smaller demand is also noticeable
in the other inland regions and for
similar reasons.
Gunsi has two generators. If
optimally used, as in the HOMER
program, this results in an unmet
electrical load of zero and excess
electricity close to 6%. The 60 kW
generators is only switched on during
the peak load and occasionally has to
function maximal. The 40 kW
generator easily covers most of the
load during the day (see Figure 36).
The future alternative withholds a
totally different energy operating
system of the two generators. Instead
of a low functional level of generator
one in the current alternative, the
future alternative puts generator one
into maximum practice to meet the
daily load (see Figure 37). Generator
two has a secondary supportive
function. Sometimes the generators
do not meet the daily electrical load,
but this only occurs for 3% of the
Figure 36, System characteristics future BAU alternative Gunsi.
year.

56
The energy development during the year
of the PV alternative is presented in
Figure 38. It shows a peak in electrical
production in the months September and
October. The increase is not a
consequence of a higher demand but is
caused by a higher solar intensity because
of the long dry season. A similar pattern
only on smaller scale is noticeable during
the short dry season from February to
April. The higher monthly average electric
production in the long dry period is the
main reason for an excess electricity of
5%, because the battery bank state of
charge is often 100% during the
afternoons of this period. This can be
indicated from the red fields in second Figure 37, System characteristics current PV alternative Gunsi.
graphic of Figure 38. The black fields
represent a discharged battery, but
they only result in an unmet electrical
load of 2%. The future alternative for
the PV system shows similar effects
with an excess electricity of 5% and
an unmet electrical load of 2%.
The greatest disadvantage of these
PV systems is the cost. Although the
current and future alternatives do not
differ very much in cost of energy,
this number is often two to three
times higher than the other RETs. It
would even not be enough if the
alternatives where supported by
CDM credits, because the
replacement and O&M costs exceed
this finance source.
The effects of the meteorological
seasons in Suriname are smaller in
the current and future PV-Biomass
alternatives. This can be noticed from
the first graphic of Figure 39. This
graphic shows that if the energy
production of the PV panels
increases, the energy production of
the biomass generator decreases.
Where as the PV-Biomass
alternatives in the coastal regions left
a gap between the transition from PV
to biomass during 6 p.m. this
alternative only has an unmet
electrical load of 5% and an the
Figure 38, System characteristics current PV-Biomass alternative Gunsi.
excess electricity is 11%. However

57
this does not occur for this future alternative with 4% for the unmet electrical load as well as the
excess electricity. For the economical part the PV-Biomass alternative is favorable over the PV
alternative, because its COE is only 0.58 $/kWh for the current and future alternative. The
average of the PV alternatives is 1.46 $/kWh.
An aspect not taken into account
in the is the fluctuation in the
river level, therefore the monthly
average electric production and
the hydro output always function
for 100% at the peak load level in
this region (see Figure 40). The
hydropower alternative can easily
supply the people of Gunsi with
the demanded electricity. This
alternative even results in an
excess electricity of 56% in the
current and the future hydro
alternative of Gunsi.
Hydropower is from economical
perspective the best RET for the
inland region Gunsi. It has a
COE of 0.05 $/kWh for the
Figure 39, System characteristics hydro alternative Gunsi.
current and future alternatives. Surprisingly this
alternative could even be profitable with CDM
(see Table 25). The reason for the low costs in
this alternative is the solid construction that
lengthens the lifetime and results in replacement
costs of zero. The other RE alternatives have a
lifetime of 25 years, but for hydro power this is
can easily extended with 15 years to a total of 40
years.
The multi criteria analysis is in favor of the
future Hydro Biomass alternative before the
hydropower alternative and the PV alternative
for the future. The future alternatives are better
because of their advantage on legislative
artifacts (tCO2/year). As noticeable the PV
alternatives have a very low score on the
physical artifact ($/kWh), because of their high
costs of energy. The hydropower alternative has
to much excess electricity resulting in a low
score on organizational agreements. Thus, the
PV-Biomass alternative is most feasible as
technological system Figure 40, MCA Gunsi.

58
Table 26, System characteristics for the different inland regions (current situation).
Alternative Indicators Gunsi Cajana Dangogo Tapawatra Drietabiki Palumeu Kwamalasumutu Unit
BAU Daily load 630 1,259 57 595 535 73 729 kWh/day
Diesel costs 122,930 426,499 101,001 218.802 174,699 40,699 254,175 $
Emitted CO2-eq 1,816 4,727 1,119 246,333 1,937 301 1,878 tCO2/year
COE 0.59 0.98 5.44 1.08 0.97 1.84 1.06 $/kWh
PV Energy output 299,168 600,226 27,119 284,258 260,306 36,103 329,273 kWh
Excess electricity 14,644 33,893 1,586 8,219 17,925 3,002 10,173 kWh/year
Unmet electricity 5,400 12,599 545 635 3,998 361 13,687 kWh/year
Alternatives with current energy demand

Investment 2,194,920 4,465,538 201,820 2,085,700 1,899,223 265,726 2,494,220 $


COE 1.46 1.49 1.50 1.44 1.48 1.52 1.48 $/kWh
COE with CDM 1.31 1.29 0.43 1.22 1.29 1.30 1.34 $/kWh
PV Biomass Energy output 284,836 537,901 24,261 257,870 230,225 31,060 307,664 kWh
Excess electricity 31,699 1,000 1,058 12,600 11,281 919 10,102 kWh/year
Unmet electricity 2,423 23,893 874 6,875 7,876 1,093 11,579 kWh/year
Investment 741,170 1,509,070 68,460 706,740 646,000 89,060 834,310 $
COE 0.58 0.59 0.59 0.58 0.59 0.60 0.57 $/kWh
COE with CDM 0.42 0.38 -0.49 0.36 0.39 0.38 0.43 $/kWh
Hydro Energy output 529,916 1,051,781 47,863 533,813 2,300,883 52,594 604,798 kWh
Excess electricity 300,038 592,580 27,173 316,714 2,105,651 26,211 338,882 kWh/year
Unmet electricity 116 262 10 101 0 81 153 kWh/year
Investment 80,230 159,330 7,232 80,230 339,000 7,910 91,530 $
COE 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.23 0.04 0.05 $/kWh
COE with CDM -0.11 -0.15 -0.99 -0.17 0.04 -0.18 -0.09 $/kWh
Hydro Energy output - - - - - 52,811 - kWh
Biomass Excess electricity - - - - - 26,347 - kWh/year
Unmet electricity - - - - - 0 - kWh/year
Investment - - - - - 11,210 - $
COE - - - - - 0.05 - $/kWh
COE with CDM - - - - - -0.17 - $/kWh

59
Table 27, System characteristics for the different inland regions (future situation).
Alternative Indicators Gunsi Cajana Dangogo Tapawatra Drietabiki Palumeu Kwamalasumutu Unit
BAU Daily load 1,574 3,149 142 1574 1338 181 1,810 kWh/day
Diesel costs 276,567 786,560 101,060 381,211 332,775 66,797 648,230 $
Emitted CO2-eq 4,087 8,717 1,120 4,225 3,688 494 4,789 tCO2/year
COE 0.52 0.71 2.18 0.71 0.72 1.17 1.03 $/kWh
PV Energy output 748,507 1,500,165 68,464 748,373 650,236 86,498 819,486 kWh
Excess electricity 38,702 85,012 4,483 38,714 45,297 6,214 27,963 kWh/year
Unmet electricity 12,653 29,695 1,121 12,736 9,878 2,314 32,536 kWh/year
Alternatives with future energy demand

Investment 5,492,357 11,161,181 507,876 5,492,358 4,743,641 641,516 6,201,242 $


COE 1.46 1.49 1.50 1.46 1.48 1.50 1.48 $/kWh
COE with CDM 1.32 1.34 1.07 1.32 1.33 1.35 1.33 $/kWh
PV Energy output 671,363 1,346,081 61,433 671,911 574,560 77,773 763,362 kWh
Biomass Excess electricity 28,104 59,983 3,120 28,257 27,327 3,908 25,874 kWh/year
Unmet electricity 24,037 48,645 2,029 23,655 20,067 2,989 29,557 kWh/year
Investment 1,856,800 3,770,560 176,440 1,856,800 1,609,080 219,700 2,084,520 $
COE 0.58 0.59 0.60 0.58 0.59 0.59 0.57 $/kWh
COE with CDM 0.44 0.44 0.16 0.43 0.44 0.44 0.43 $/kWh
Hydro Energy output 1,317,950 2,692,535 118,871 1,323,508 2,300,883 52,594 1,117,578 kWh
Excess electricity 743,688 1,480,904 67,166 749,273 1,812,557 3,853 465,431 kWh/year
Unmet electricity 316 662 27 293 0 17,362 8,488 kWh/year
Investment 200,010 398,890 17,967 200,010 339,000 7,910 169,500 $
COE 743,688 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.09 0.02 0.03 $/kWh
COE with CDM 0.09 -0.10 -0.38 -0.10 -0.05 -0.17 -0.11 $/kWh
Hydro Energy output - - - - - 80,284 1,133,867 kWh
Biomass Excess electricity - - - - - 14,198 473,378 kWh/year
Unmet electricity - - - - - 16 146 kWh/year
Investment - - - - - 27,710 256,950 $
COE - - - - - 0.18 0.05 $/kWh
COE with CDM - - - - - 0.03 -0.09 $/kWh

60
Table 28, Excess (Ex.) and Unmet (Un.) electricity per alternative in the inland regions in kWh/year.
Alternative Ex. Un. Ex. Un. Ex. Un. Ex. Un. Ex. Un. Ex. Un.
Cajana Dangogo Tapawatra Drietabiki Palumeu Kwamala.
PV current 6 3 6 3 3 0 7 2 8 1 3 5
PV future 6 3 7 2 5 2 7 2 7 4 3 5
PV-Biomass cur 4 4 4 4 5 3 5 4 3 4 3 4
PV-Biomass fut 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 3 4
Hydro current 56 0 57 0 59 0 92 0 50 0 56 0
Hydro future 56 0 57 0 57 0 79 0 7 26 42 1
Hydro-Bio cur - - - - - - - - 50 0 - -
Hydro-Bio fut - - - - - - - - 18 0 42 0

Cajana is a maroon village high upstream the Suriname River at the Gran Rio. The energy
demand is the largest for the inland regions. The main reason is the large ‘agglomeration’ of
villages around Cajana. There is also a high hydropower potential near the village since some
large rapids are present. Before the RE alternatives are analyzed the BAU alternative will be
examined. Currently Cajana does not use any generators. To create comparable situations and the
resulting emission values, the current and future energy demand for the BAU is met by a 150 kW
and 200 kW diesel generator. The main difference with the BAU of Gunsi is the higher cost of
energy. The diesel price in the inland regions differs and is one and a half (Gunsi), two (Cajana)
or three (Kwamalasumutu) times higher compared to the coastal regions because of the difficult
transport of diesel barrels. As for the RE alternatives, there are no significant differences between
Cajana and Gunsi.
In the first paragraph of the chapter 6 ‘Modeling framework’ the regions were selected on
population agglomeration. Later on the selected region number six, was split up in three potential
sites for RE alternative, with their hydro potential as main reason. This also resulted in the area
around the village Dangogo. Dangogo is a very small village and has the least amount of energy
demand, even less than the pilot region Palumeu. The results in Dangogo especially differ from
other regions in two aspects. The first aspect is the capacity of the generator, 40 kW. It is far too
large for this small village. The use of such a generator results in a high diesel costs and thus high
cost of energy for the BAU alternative. The second aspect is the amount of emitted CO2-
equivalents. The difference between the current and future alternatives is only one tCO2/year,
which is only about 16 $/year if the Clean Development Mechanism would be used.
The regions of Drietabiki and Tapawatra do not differ very much from each other. Besides the
difference in absolute numbers caused by the proportions of energy demand and insolation the
relative numbers are more or less equal to Cajana.. Although there are some small differences in
unmet electrical load and excess electricity in the PV alternative (see Table 28). The largest and
significant difference, however, is in the excess electricity of the hydropower alternative (see
Table 28). The reason for this high amount of excess electricity is the use of the 300 kW
hydropower project near Drietabiki (currently under construction) instead of adapting these
system boundaries to the energy demand.
It must be noted the previously analyzed regions where all maroon villages. The next regions
Palumeu and Kwamalasumutu are inhabited by the Indians, the indigenous people of South
America They differ in cultural and other habits, but the influence of these differences on their
energy demand is not known and will therefore be equal to the previous inland regions. The RE
alternatives PV and PV Biomass of the following regions are similar to the previous inland
regions. The cost of energy for the BAU alternative is a higher because these regions are located
further in the inland and therefore have higher diesel costs. The interesting part are the
hydropower alternatives. In contrast to the previous hydropower systems the future hydropower
systems of Palumeu and Kwamalasumutu do not have enough capacity to fulfill the energy
demand of the population. Especially Palumeu; the future hydropower alternative has an unmet
electricity of 26%. This results from a capacity shortage of the hydro system during the peak load.

61
The 7% excess electricity are
produced when the energy demand
is low and the hydro system still
produces electricity, for instance
during the night. Due to the limited
capacity of the hydropower
alternatives of Palumeu and
Kwamalasumutu, the hydro-biomass
alternative becomes interesting. The
alternatives are more expensive than
the hydropower alternative, but their
cost of energy is far below that of
the PV-Biomass alternative.
The feasibility of the RE alternatives
as a technological system is
presented in the MCA. The
hydropower alternatives are more
favorable than the alternative with
PV. The main reason lays in the
natural resources and physical
artifact components. The PV (PV-
Biomass) alternatives produce less
energy and are much more
expensive than the hydropower
alternatives. The cost of energy is
the main reason for the PV
alternatives to be the overall least
favorable alternative in the MCA.
In short, the future PV-Biomass
alternatives are the overall favorable
technological systems in the inland
regions followed by the future
hydropower alternatives. The future
alternatives are more favorable
compared to the current alternatives
because the COE is lower due to an Figure 41, MCA inland regions, respectively Cajana, & Dangogo,
increase in CDM finance. Tapawatra & Drietabiki, Palumeu & Kwamalasumutu.

7.3 RE opportunities in the rural areas of Suriname

The result of the quantitative analysis of the different RE alternatives on the selected regions
resulted in an overview of the possibility and feasibility of the RETs in Suriname. Although the
different tables provide a lot of different outcomes the main distinction for a possible successful
RE alternative is given in the MCA. The criteria analyzed are based on the design of a
technological system as proposed by Hughes (1987). The RE alternative most feasible as a
technological system is the PV-Biomass alternative. Other RE alternative’s maybe cheaper or may
have other advantages. The PV-Biomass system is the most complete system in the coastal as
well as the inland regions. This system is also able to compete with the BAU alternative in all
regions.

62
8 Qualitative analysis
In the inland village Drietabiki, a micro hydropower project has started September 2005. The
main driver of this project was the ministry of Regional Development (RO). The main goal of the
ministry of RO is to develop and support the inland regions. This includes the development of
the energy sector in these regions. The ministries, Natural Resources (NH) and Labor,
Technological Development and Environment (ATM), only became interested in participation
after the Drietabiki project started successfully. This example shows inefficiency on aspects as
communication and interaction between the different ministries. One of the major causes of the
lack of RE policy is the organization of the government of Suriname. Although there is a clear
distinction between the mandates of governmental departments, the policies of these
departments often overlap. One of the main tasks of the ministry of Natural Resources (NH) is
the development of a clear energy policy including coastal as well as inland regions. However, the
ministry of Natural Resources (NH) is currently not the main driver of RE projects in the inland.
If the organization of the different ministries is not efficient, it is hard to develop clear strategies
for a successful innovation system that stimulates RE development. The following paragraphs
will explore possible actions different actors could carry out to promote a RE system in the rural
areas of Suriname, and analyses what has to be done to make these actions possible. By this an
answer is given on sub question three: “Which implementation strategies are possible and feasible for the
successful development and exploitation of renewable energy system per region type?”.
To develop a clear overview the three different policy directions discussed in the chapters 3
‘Theoretical framework’ and 4 ‘Methodology’ and the five systemic functions will be used to
develop and systematize the proposed actions and measures. The ‘actions’, inline with the five
systemic functions as proposed by Smits and Kuhlmann (2004), focus on improving the
management and organization of the innovation system of Suriname. To stimulate the
development of the innovation in such a direction, the three policy directions proposed by
Tsoutsos and Stamboulis (2005) are used. In other words, for each user- and innovation oriented
policy direction the possible ‘actions’ that can be taken in order to perceive a RE supporting
innovation system will be discussed in terms of the five systemic functions. Hereby an overlap in
systemic functions per direction is inevitable because the systemic functions focus the innovation
system as a whole. In other words, different directions maybe served with the same systemic
function. In the following first the architecture (actors, relations, institutions) of the RE
innovation system will be discussed. Hereafter an analysis is presented of the systemic functions
per policy direction needed to stimulate the further development of such a system.

8.1 System of RE actors


The example in the previous paragraph displays the mismatch in the organization of RE in
Suriname. To prevent such mismatches, a policy is needed that takes the whole system into
account. An important goal of such a more systemic policy is the build up of the RE innovation
system. Currently there is no clear, organized system. Actors involved in activities related to RE
have little acknowledge of each others RE activities. They also are not aware of the intentions of
the government regarding RE subjects. In short, the actors involved in RE activities are not
adequately organized in a system that provides the support and relations to communicate and
make joint action possible. The main goal of this paragraph is to contribute to the development
of a more integrated system. The first step towards such a system is to gain an overview of the
different actors, and their relations, involved in activities or subjects related to RE (see Table 4).
Second, the roles of these different actors in RE will be analyzed. The third and last question
focuses on the failures in the system that prevents coordinated action.

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Table 29, Actors in renewable energy sector of Suriname [UNDP, 1999].

Sector Actors
Government Ministry of Natural Resources (NH)
Ministry of Regional Development (RO)
Ministry of Labor, Technological development and Environment (ATM)
Public sector National Institute for Environment and Development (NIMOS)
University of Suriname (AdeKUS)
Staatsolie N.V.
Energie Bedrijven Suriname (EBS)
Private sector Suriname Aluminium Company (Suralco)
N.V. Biliton Maatschappij Suriname
KPMG
Consulting Partners N.V.
Bilateral/Multilateral Embassies (the Netherlands, USA, Belgium, Germany)
agencies and European Union (EU)
organizations Inter American Development bank
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
World Bank
Non-governmental Conservation International – Suriname (CI)
Organizations Environmental Union
Foundation for a clean Suriname
National Women’s movement
NGO Forum
Association of indigenous village chiefs
Organizations of indigenous people in Suriname
Village foundations

The actors currently involved in RE are spread over five different sectors (see Table 29). First,
the government sector. The main actor in this sector is the ministry of Natural Resources. This
department is responsible for the energy sector, which includes renewable energy. This actor
should function as the ‘director’ of the RE system by guiding other actors and developing policies
that aim to stimulate improvements in the RE system. The other ministries are indirectly related
to the RE subject, but it is not their main goal. The ministry of Regional Development (RO) and
the ministry of Labor, Technological development and Environment (ATM) have to play a
supportive and not a dominant role in RE.
The actors in the public and private sector fulfill a more operational role regarding RETs. They
have specific knowledge about the different fields of RE expertise. The University of Suriname is
well experienced in project management of hydropower projects, where as Conservation
International, Bilition N.V. and Consulting Partners N.V. posses’ specific knowledge on how to
perform PV energy projects. Besides technological expertise it is also important to have specific
knowledge about the different areas and the social circumstances in these areas. The Non
Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Suriname often possess this knowledge and are well
embedded in these (rural) areas.
The actors within the sector ‘Bilateral/Multilateral agencies and organizations’ are all
internationally linked and therefore play a slightly different role. Since these actors contribute to
the development of Suriname, but have to observe their international regulations. Therefore they
are limited in their actions. The UNDP, for instance, can only make such contribution if it
resembles their goals: ‘Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger’, ‘Ensure environmental
sustainability’, ‘Improve maternal health’ etc [UNDP, 2005]. These actors often play a role as a
sponsor, because Suriname does not (always) have sufficient financial means.

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The main reason for the lack of or ineffective RE policy in Suriname is, as mentioned before, the
inadequate relations between different sectors/actors. Moreover, although the actors are aware of
their role in the RE system, there is no clear overall policy that may guide, support and
coordinate their actions. Two causes are responsible for this situation. First, there does not exist
an overview of the activities of the different RE actors (lack of a systems perspective). Second,
the different actors do not share or exchange information on experiences and knowledge
(inadequate or lacking relations within the system). The first obstacle can be overcome by
introducing a ‘National RE Board’ to manage and organize the different RE activities and link the
right actors. The second one can be decreased by inserting a ‘RE platform for knowledge and
experience’. This platform should stimulate the build up of effective relations and by this
stimulate the exchange in RE related information. By this the efficiency of, for instance,
executing RE projects could be enhanced.
The system of RE actors is presented in the Figure 43. The National RE Board has to connect
the right actors from the different sectors to execute this RE policy. The proposed relations
stimulate the exchange between the actors and by this facilitate the actor s to fulfill their role in
the RE system The ministry of Natural Resources is the main driver/director of the RE system
through RE oriented policy and financial support.

Ministry of Natural
Resources
Ministry of Ministry of
RO ATM

Bilateral/Multilateral National RE Board


agencies and organizations

Private sector Public sector NGOs

RE platform for
knowledge and
experience

Figure 42, RE system of actors in Suriname.


In the next paragraph this RE system will be developed further by creating suitable strategies for
the implementation of RETs. In the development of these strategies for each policy direction,
systemic functions will be defined.

8.2 Policy direction 1: Development of focused learning


The first policy direction ‘Development of focused learning’ concentrates on collecting and
sharing knowledge and information on the RE-system. The main goal is to develop the know-
how necessary to successfully implement and apply RE in Suriname.
Currently there are only a few actors that posses the information needed to implement RET in
the rural areas of Suriname. These actors gathered experiences with the hydro and PV projects in
the inland. Consulting Partners NV has executed a PV project for the village Kwamalasumutu
and the AdeKUS are currently constructing hydropower systems for the villages Palumeu and
Drietabiki.

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In order to achieve the development of know-how in this policy direction we will discuss the
possible contribution of the five systemic functions and their related ‘actions’ (see Table 4). The
‘action’ related to the first systemic function ‘managing interfaces’ is interlinking the main actors.
The main actors are those with experiences on RE: Consulting Partners NV and AdeKUS. For
an efficient development of know-how these actors will have to play a guiding role in the ‘RE
platform’ of the system of RE actors. Their role is to instruct and inform the other actors in the
RE platform with less experience.
The ‘action’ related to the second function ‘constructing and organizing systems’ is developing
learning processes. This systemic function overlaps strongly with the first function in this policy
direction. This also accounts for the ‘action’ of the third systemic function ‘providing a platform
for leaning and experimenting’, building on experiences gathered on RE. This ‘action’ will be
fulfilled when the RE platform is realized.
The ‘action’ of the fourth systemic function ‘providing an infrastructure for strategic intelligence’
is the creation of policy instruments for research & development, knowledge build up etc. To
fulfill this ‘action’ the ministry of Natural Resources has to develop stimulating regulations for
RETs. Examples are subsidy for actors that develop technology on RE or creating funds for RE
projects. In other words, the government has to participate in the development of know-how by
creating favorable circumstances for RE actors to gain experiences and knowledge by research on
RETs.
The ‘action’ of the fifth systemic function ‘stimulating demand articulation, strategy and vision
development’ focuses on stimulating awareness by the participants. To successfully perform RE
projects in Suriname all involved actors, from government to local organizations of indigenous
people, have to be aware of the advantages and consequences of RE application. The task of
informing the RE system of the advantages of RET can best be performed by the National RE
Board. This actor has the most connections in the RE system and therefore should have
acknowledge about the status of awareness per actor.
In short, the main goal of the policy direction ‘development of focused learning’ is building and
sharing knowledge and experiences. Herewith the RE actors can learn from each other in order
to increase the success of implementing RETs. However to achieve this interaction of actors it is
necessary to perform the following strategies in this policy direction:
ƒ The experienced actors have to guide and instruct other actors on RE know-how.
ƒ The experienced actors have to lead the RE platform.
ƒ The government has to create regulations for favorable circumstances on the development
of RE know-how.
ƒ The National RE Board has to create awareness of the advantages of RE within the RE
system.

8.3 Policy direction 2: Encouragement of new types of players


The second policy direction ‘Encouragement of new types of players’ focuses on the involvement
of potential actors. Figure 44 presents the actors currently involved in RE related. If these actors
are guided and organized successfully, it is much more interesting for other actors to participate
in the RE system of Suriname than currently. These actors can be national or international. In
this policy direction the five systemic functions will be used to achieve strategies to attract new
players. The five functions are translated into five ‘actions’ (see Table 4).
The first ‘action’ is: develop a view on participation and awareness of the current RE actors. This
‘action’ elaborates on the previous policy direction. The actors currently involved in RE activities
need to have an idea how they want their RE system to evolve. This action can best be
performed by the National RE board in cooperation with the government. They can set goals on
involvement of RE in the future energy system of Suriname. For instance: the energy supply
systems in the region Sipaliwini must have a renewable fraction of 35% by the year 2010.

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The second ‘action’ is the organization of an incentive system that will interest external actors to
participate in RE development. The RE system of Suriname can become interesting if there are
opportunities to invest in technologies, knowledge and experiences with RETs. Creating these
opportunities is the result of a successfully performed policy direction 1: ‘Development of
focused learning’. A next step towards the build up of an attractive system is the ratification of
the international climate pact, the Kyoto protocol. The Kyoto protocol withholds the Clean
Development Mechanism (CDM). This mechanism makes investments interesting and therefore
can attract external actors. Further details on the CDM will follow in the next paragraph 8.4
‘Policy direction 3: Flexible financing mechanisms’.
The third ‘action’ is the organization of a center for interaction of information between (new)
actors. This action is fulfilled by the creation of the National RE board and the RE platform. In
both sectors, the new actors will be able to find enough information and contacts for an efficient
start in the RE system of Suriname.
The fourth ‘action’ is: create policy instruments to make RE attractive for new actors. This
‘action’ overlaps with the fourth ‘action’ in the previous policy direction 1: ‘Development of
focused learning’.
Approaching and stimulating potential actors in climate change on country and global level is the
fifth ‘action’. This ‘action’ overlaps with the second ‘action’ only its view is broader because it is
focused on climate change instead of RE.
When the government of Suriname formulates goals towards the ratification of the Kyoto
protocol it will encourage national and international (new) actors to participate and invest in RE
in Suriname. The overview of RE possibilities given in the technological and economical analysis
provides alternatives for possible RE projects that can be used to trigger new actors. An
attractive environment, stimulating participation in a RE system in Suriname can be very
interesting for new actors if the following strategies are performed:
ƒ Development of a set of coherent and realistic goals towards a RE oriented Suriname.
ƒ Ratification of the Kyoto protocol.

8.4 Policy direction 3: Flexible financing mechanisms


An important and often decisive aspect in developing countries is the lack of financial support to
start, develop and/or execute a RE project. The main concerns in developing countries are the
first necessities of life as food and shelter. In the rural areas of Suriname these needs are more or
less satisfied, although it remains a daily task to maintain these necessities. Developing RE
projects in these rural areas is technological feasible, but the lack of financial support is a great
barrier. The third policy direction ‘Flexible financing mechanisms’ concentrates on financial
impulses to support the RE system. Currently financial support for RE projects is mainly coming
from the government and the bilateral/multilateral agencies and organizations. This support
generally concerns onetime investments. The investments are not embedded in an overall, longer-
term RE strategy. As was pointed out before, such an overall policy is a necessary condition to
proceed. If such a policy is developed, instruments and actions can be developed to overcome
the financial barriers. Hereby the Kyoto protocol and its Clean Development Mechanism can be
of great help.
The first ‘action’ is directed towards the interlinking of the sponsors of RE in Suriname. As
mentioned before these actors mainly can be found in the bilateral/multilateral sector, but the
government of Suriname also can provide financial support. The bilateral/multilateral and the
government sector have to direct the financing of the RE system. This role could be fulfilled by
the National RE Board. In this way it can become clear what the financial possibilities are and
how and where the financial support could be used.
The second ‘action’ is the design of a network between sponsors in Suriname. This ‘action’ is
identical to the previous action and will therefore not be discussed. The third and fourth ‘action’
overlap with the ‘actions’ in policy direction 1: ‘Development of focused learning’. In those

67
actions the RE is stimulated by creating favorable circumstances through financial opportunities
in the form of subsidy or funds for know-how.
The fifth ‘action’, finance of RE projects in Suriname by external actors, is possible if CDM can
be used through the ratification of the Kyoto protocol. Ratification of the Kyoto protocol makes
it possible to invest in RE projects in Suriname. Herewith developed countries that ratified the
Kyoto protocol will be able to buy CO2-equivalents from RE projects in Suriname through the
CDM. The CDM makes it possible that continuity is realized in the financing of the RE projects.
The technological and economical analysis in chapter 7 ‘Quantitative analysis’ has already shown
the potential of RE sources that can be explored in the rural areas of Suriname. The UNDP has
the most (international) experience on the Kyoto protocol and CDM and therefore should take a
leading role in the ratification process of Suriname.
In short, stimulating the RE system by financial impulses can be performed if the following
strategies are performed:
ƒ The government and the bilateral/multilateral agencies and organizations have to take the
lead in the financial control of the RE system.
ƒ RE projects can be financed by CDM if the Kyoto protocol is ratified.
ƒ The UNDP have to take the leading role in the CDM.
As has been said, a necessary pre condition to implement these actions is the development of an
overall, longer-term oriented RE policy.

8.5 Strategies for a renewable energy system


The previous paragraphs have explored and systematized the actions and developments of the
different actors in a RE system. Herewith an answer can be given to sub question three: “Which
implementation strategies are possible and feasible for the successful development and exploitation of renewable
energy system per region type?” When the RE system in Suriname is well managed and organized,
further exploitation of RETs and their application in the different areas of Suriname becomes
easier because of an increase in knowledge, experience and increase in financial means. To realize
such a successful system of RE actors in the previous paragraphs a number of strategies is
proposed. These strategies are summarized in Table 30.
Table 30, Application of the systemic functions in Suriname.
Systemic function Strategies in policy directions
Managing interfaces ƒ The experienced actors have to guide and instruct other
actors on RE know-how (policy 1).
ƒ Develop a set of goals towards a RE oriented Suriname
(policy 2).
(de-)Construction and organizing ƒ Ratify the Kyoto protocol! (policy 2).
(innovation) systems ƒ The government and the bilateral/multilateral agencies and
organizations have to take a lead in the financial control of
the RE system (policy 3).
ƒ The UNDP have to take the leading role in CDM (policy
3).
Providing a platform for learning ƒ The experienced actors have to lead the RE platform
and experimenting (policy 1).
Providing an infrastructure for ƒ The government has to create regulations for favorable
strategic intelligence circumstances on the development of RE know-how
(policy 1).
Stimulating demand articulation, ƒ The National RE Board has to create awareness of the
strategy and vision development advantages of RE within the RE system (policy 1).
ƒ RE projects can be financed by CDM if the Kyoto
protocol is ratified (policy 3).

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9 Conclusion
This research focuses on the implementation possibilities of the renewable energy in the rural
areas of Suriname. An overview of the RE possibilities for the energy sector of Suriname is
created. Subsequently implementation strategies are developed to overcome financial, social,
political and capacity barriers. The overview of different RE alternatives that can be implemented
in the Suriname is created by a technological and economical (quantitative) analysis. These
possibilities are linked to energy need and the availability of natural resources in the rural areas of
Suriname. Furthermore a social and policy (qualitative) analysis of the energy sector in Surname is
fulfilled in order to gain a supportive system of RE actors that can achieve a successful
implementation of the RE alternatives. Herewith an answer can be given to the research question
stated in the problem description: “What are the implementation possibilities of renewable
energy in the rural areas of Suriname?” Founded by the quantitative and qualitative analysis,
the research question is answered from different perspectives (in sub questions) in the following
sections.
In the first sub question: “Which regions in Suriname can be distinguished that are not connected to the
national grid and thus are in need of and offer opportunities for the development of renewable energy?” the
country’s rural areas are identified and analyzed on natural resources. There are currently only a
few regions connected to the national grid. The districts Paramaribo, Wanica, Commewijne and
the communities between lake Brokopondo and Paramaribo receive their energy from the main
energy system in Paramaribo and can therefore be described as ‘the national grid’. Before an
attempt is made towards the possibilities of renewable energy, the regions not connected to the
national grid are divided into coastal and inland regions. The coastal regions differ significantly
from the inland regions in the development of population, economy and wealth.
Before renewable energy technologies (RETs) can be analyzed, the availability of natural
resources as wind, water, sun and biomass is investigated. There is no wind in the inland regions
and in the coastal regions the average wind speed is very low and therefore not suitable for large,
community supporting, electricity production. Subsequently there is a lack of information on tidal
streams in the coastal regions. The RE alternatives, wind energy and tidal/marine energy are thus
not included in this research. The inland regions offer possibilities for hydropower in contrary to
the coastal region. The coastal regions have a smaller variety of natural resources at their disposal.
There are no useful streams available for hydropower. Besides these natural resources all regions
offer opportunities for PV and biomass energy In short, the different regions in Suriname except
Paramaribo and the surrounding communities offer possibilities for the application of RE
alternatives as PV energy, Hydro energy and Biomass energy.
In the second sub question: “What are the technological and economical possibilities for renewable energy
technologies per region type?”, the different regions and natural resources are used to analyzed the
feasibility of the RE alternatives as a technological system. A highly feasible technological system
has to have a high energy output (indicator of natural resources), low costs of energy (indicator of
physical artifacts), high CDM support (indicator of legislative artifacts) and low excess electricity
(indicator of organizational agreements). The coastal regions offer opportunities for PV and
biomass energy. Unfortunately the HOMER program has a limit to the number of batteries in a
renewable system and therefore the PV calculations in the regions Nickerie, Saramacca and
Marowijne could not be performed. Only for the coastal region Coronie a PV alternative could
be worked out. This PV alternative is more expensive than the PV-Biomass alternative.
Therefore the PV-Biomass alternative is the most feasible technological system. In other words,
the hybrid system of PV-Biomass has the best (and only) perspectives for a successful
implementation in the coastal regions.
In the inland region there are possibilities for hydropower, PV and the hybrid systems of PV-
Biomass and Hydro-Biomass. For all regions the PV system is the most expensive option, even if
CDM support could be gained. The hydropower alternative has the lowest cost of energy (COE)

69
and is herewith the cheapest RE alternative for the inland regions. It is even cheaper than the
BAU. Surprisingly, the hydropower alternative can even be profitable if CDM support (with the
current CO2 price) is included. Therefore hydropower is a very interesting RE alternative. The
downside of these hydropower alternatives is the large amount of excess electricity. A large
amount of excess electricity has a negative influence on the feasibility of a technological system.
The PV-Biomass system has the best perspectives on all four indicators of the technological
system. The PV-Biomass alternative is a more complete technological system in comparison with
the hydropower alternative. This concludes that the PV-Biomass alternative has the best
opportunities to be successfully implemented in the inland regions of Suriname.
The third sub question: “Which implementation strategies are possible and feasible for the successful
development and exploitation of renewable energy system per region type?” is the most difficult to answer.
The energy sector in Suriname has no organization at all, which makes it complicated to create
successful implementation strategies for the RE sector. Therefore a RE system of actors was
created in chapter 8 ‘Qualitative analysis’. Besides the existing sectors involved in RE activities,
two new sectors were added. The ‘National RE Board’ and the ‘RE platform for knowledge and
experience’. These sectors do not exist, but need to be implemented in the RE system of
Suriname to achieve a well functioning and successful innovation system. The National RE
Board is focused on strengthening the links between the different actors. Therefore this sector
has to have an clear overview of all the RE activities per actor. The RE platform is focused on
the collecting and sharing knowledge on RE. This platform should stimulate the build up of
effective relations and herewith stimulate the exchange in RE related information. Herewith the
efficiency of, for instance, executing RE projects could be enhanced. With this system of RE
actors successful implementation strategies are created with the three opposed policy directions
supported by the five systemic functions.
The main goal of the policy direction ‘development of focused learning’ is building and sharing
knowledge and experiences. Herewith the RE actors can learn from each other in order to
increase the success of implementing RETs. The second policy directions ‘encouragement of new
players’ can best be performed when the government of Suriname formulates goals towards the
ratification of the Kyoto protocol. This will encourage (new) national and international actors to
participate and invest in RE in Suriname. The overview of RE possibilities given in the
technological and economical analysis provides alternatives for possible RE projects that can be
used to trigger new actors. The third policy direction ‘flexible financing mechanisms’
concentrates on financial impulses to support the RE system. A successful instrument can be the
Kyoto protocol. Through the ratification of the Kyoto protocol Suriname can become an
interesting country for investments due to the Clean Development Mechanism!
To realize such a successful system of RE actors a number of strategies is proposed in chapter 8
have to be followed (see Table 30).

In short, there are a lot of opportunities for the implementation of RE the rural areas of
Suriname. The PV-Biomass alternative is most feasible RET for all the researched regions. The
hydropower alternative also has promising perspectives as technological system for the inland
regions. However an important step to accomplish implementation of RETs is a well organized
infrastructure of the actors involved in the RE sector of Suriname.
With the right knowledge and experience on technological, economical, social and political
aspects the RE system can be expanded in the future in two ways. First by attracting more RE
national and especially international RE related actors. Second, by increasing the amount of RE
projects. In other words, the acquired knowledge stimulates the application of RETs and can be
more effective, efficient and inexpensive.

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10 Discussion & Recommendations
10.1 Discussion
The results of this report can be used as a guideline for further research, but the data and
assumptions not always represent the real situation in Suriname. The results from the analyses
provide an overall view of the different situations. In other words, the results give only an
indication of the costs, energy output, feasibility etc. of the possible RE alternatives. The data on
which these results were created was not always accurate or up to date and some pieces of data
were not available at all. Due to inaccurate and old data it was necessary to make certain
assumptions. The pieces of inaccurate and old data are described in the following sections.

The energy analysis of the chapter 5 ‘Case description’ lacks of up to date data in comparison
with the demographical and economical analysis. The population of Suriname was counted
during the beginning of the year 2005; this resulted in a report in August of 2005. It gave a
precise indication of the population and population density all over Suriname. The economical
data was also more or less up to date; a disadvantage however was its generality. It only provided
data on the total economical activity in the country. More specific data on the development of
the economical activity per district or region was not available. Data on for instance increasing
economical activity could have been interesting for the different rural areas, since a growth in
economical activity often causes an increase in the energy demand. The energy part of the
chapter 5 ‘Case description’ has the most inaccurate and old data of this chapter. The intention
was to give a specific overview of the energy development per district throughout the last twenty
to thirty years in Suriname. However the most up to date report on energy consumption and
production was the Tractable report, published in 2000. The main focus of this report was
Paramaribo and its surrounding communities (the ‘national grid’). The rural areas of Suriname,
interesting for this research, where hardly described. Besides the lack of information in that
report, information could not be gained from the main energy supplier of Suriname, Energie
Bedrijven Suriname (EBS). The EBS is disorganized and has no clear overview of the energy
consumption and demand in Suriname. The organization lacks financial means and the energy
capacity is minimal. For example, most households in Suriname can not exceed a certain amount
of electrical consumption. They are limited to fixed consumption. This results in large amount of
hidden energy demand that cannot be measured and thus not taken into account in this research.
Possible large changes in industrial, economical or energy development could also not be
included in this research because of the lack of insight in the industrial and economical policies.
Due to these gaps it was not feasible to evaluate the impact of the economic growth on the
industrial and domestic energy consumption over the last five years and subsequently give a
specific outlook per category and/or geographical area.

Chapter 6 ‘Modeling framework’ sets the main boundaries for the technological and economical
analysis. The boundaries are set starting from assumptions regarding the available data. These
assumptions should receive further explanation on their credibility.
The paragraph 6.2 ‘Specific energy analysis’ lacks of sufficient and up to date data. The load
curves of the coastal region have identical patrons, because the only available load curve was
from the Nickerie region provided by the Tractabel report. Although the energy amount of the
load curve was corrected for 2005 on the basis of the population development, changes in other
factors as economy and wealth where not taken into account. On the other hand, it is very
complex to indicate a factor as wealth. Unfortunately no other energy data was available. Another
point of discussion in the pattern of the load curves of the coastal region. All other regions are
assumed to be identical to Nickerie corrected for their population size. However the coastal
regions do differ in the population mixture of human races. The Nickerie region is mostly
populated with Hindustan’s whereas the region of Marowijne consists of a mixture of Indians

71
and Africans. The different groups have different habits but these life patterns have not been
taken into account in the set up of the load curve. In the most ideal situation, all different
districts or even regions would have had data on their energy consumption throughout the day
over a long period of time (a few years). Another point of discussion is the energy consumption
in the inland regions. These regions are so underdeveloped that constant electricity supply is
scarce. This makes it even harder to create a realistic load curve than in the coastal regions. The
load curve of the inland regions is similar to the coastal regions, converted for population size
based on the load curve experimentally measured in Palumeu. However Palumeu (and
Kwamalasamutu) are Indian villages and the other inland regions are Maroon villages. As
mentioned before, the differences in habits and culture come along with difference in human
race. These differences may have consequences for the energy consumption, but are not known
and therefore cannot be applied in this research. It must be noted that the Maroon villages are
considered wealthier than the Indian villages.
The next part of chapter 6 ‘Modeling framework’ is the paragraph 6.1 ‘Natural resources’. The
data collection on the solar radiation and wind speed is mainly based and calculated using data
and computer programs from the NREL and the NASA. Sufficient data from the meteorological
service of Suriname could not be gained. The wind speed data from the meteorological service
was not up to date and months, even entire years were missing. On the other hand the scarce
available data was very specific. The meteorological service of Suriname had no data on solar
insolation. It would be ideal if each selected region had a collection of figures on solar insolation
and wind speed. This also counts for the hydrological data. The used hydrological data was a
result of onetime measurements in the different rivers during the long dry period. Another
shortcoming of the hydrological data is the lack of data on the water level. As show in Figure 17
the differences between the long dry period and long wet period are large. A specification of
these figures would have provided realistic view of the potential of hydro power at the selected
regions. It must also be noted that there are still a lot of unexplored sites in Suriname.
A difficult part of chapter 6 ‘Modeling framework’ was the cost analysis of the RETs. The costs
presented in this report only give a global indication of the real costs. There are so many factors
involved in the construction of a realistic cost baseline, that it was not feasible to create a
sophisticated cost analysis per RET. For example, the costs of the hydro energy system presented
in Table 20 are based on the Gran holo sula project, the 300kW hydropower central under
construction near the village Drietabiki. The cost analysis does not take into account aspects as:
air transportation, food for workers, fuel for boats, etc. Subsequently the costs for this
hydropower system are very specific because calculations are based on the specific factors in the
project area. Any other hydropower location, however, differs in soil composition, the amount of
sand and grind in the neighborhood (needed for the dam), the transportation of sediments in the
river, etc. Another remarkable factor in the costs of the Gran holo Sula project are the costs for
the electrical section. In this project the transmission lines, transformers etc. are taken into
account under the section electrical, since the hydro energy system is not placed in the direct
neighborhood of the village These parts are not included in the other RET costs.

The main point of discussion regarding the technological and economical analysis of the chapter
7 ‘Quantitative Analysis’ is the minimal differences in RE alternatives. The most coastal and
inland regions are very similar. The differences between the figures are relative small and results
in similar outcomes on the multi criteria analysis (MCA). Another disadvantage is of course the
limits of the HOMER program that made it impossible to give a MCA’s of three coastal regions
(Nickerie, Saramacca and Marowijne).
The social and political analysis was difficult because of the complex and badly organized
structure of the RE system in Suriname. Subsequently the theory on systemic functions is
constructed based on situations in developed countries. Application of this theory on a
developing country as Suriname is very difficult and maybe a bit inappropriate. A country as

72
Suriname cannot be compared to a developed country in for instance Europe. There is a large
gap in economical, technological, political, financial and organizational development. The
Republic of Suriname is on many levels badly organized and has no clear structure on energy
policy. Specification of a RE system on the basis of a highly organized system through fulfilling
the five systemic functions maybe feasible. However not within a few years. The user- and
innovation oriented policy describes three policy direction that are important for the
implementation of a new technology as RE. But how well these policy direction can make a real
and direct contribution to the RE situation in Suriname is questionable.

In short, the most important barrier of this research was collecting of data. There is a lack of data
on RE and if the needed data was available it was not up to date. Therefore the technological and
economical analyses of the different RE alternatives per region are not very precise. Subsequently
there was no clear overview of the actors involved in the RE system and therefore the analyzed
system can be incomplete.

10.2 Recommendations
One of the main steps to create a successful RE system in Suriname is to ratify the Kyoto
protocol. This protocol can attract new players, which eventually can come along with financial
support through the CDM. However before the protocol can be ratified a number of actions
need to be undertaken as discussed in the social and political analysis. One of these actions
concerns the role of the government of Suriname. If they want a stable and successful RE system
they have to fulfilling the five systemic functions described in Table 30. In this way the
government of Suriname (especially the Ministry of Natural Resources) can play a controlling role
and positively effect the implementation of renewable energy in the rural areas of Suriname.
It is also recommended that the technologies and fabrics for the RETs are, as much as possible,
developed in Suriname. This will eventually be cheaper and it creates and increases the needed
practical knowledge. Developing the technology has a number of advantages. The transportation
costs are much lower compared to technologies that have to be imported. There is no need to
import an expert or material for installation and operation and maintenance because all the
expertise is build up in Suriname. And the generated knowledge can perhaps in a later stadium be
exported.
The analyzed ‘possible renewable energy systems’ are potential RE projects and to support these
technological opportunities there has to be a good understanding of the different levels and
actors involved. The local people have to be able to see advantages of the possibilities on RETs
in their community. A good interaction between the local people and other actors is essential for
a successful implementation of a RET.

73
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75
Appendixes
Appendix A
The table provides an overview of the countries included in Annex I and their respective emission targets
under the Kyoto protocol. The Kyoto protocol lists a target for the first commitment period of 92%
compared to 1990 for the European Community as a whole as well as for all its Member States. However,
in 1997 EU Member States officially agreed to differentiate targets under a jointly fulfilled common target,
as allowed under the Convention. Both targets are shown in the table.

Country Commitment Country Commitment


1990=100 1990=100
Australia 108 Latvia 92
Austria 92 (87) Liechtenstein* 92
Belarus *** Lithuania 92
Belgium 92 (92.5) Luxembourg 92 (72)
Bulgaria 92 Monaco* 92
Canada 94 Netherlands 92 (94)
Croatia* 95 New Zealand 100
Czech Republic* 92 Norway 101
Denmark 92 (79) Poland 94
Estonia 92 Portugal 92 (127)
European Community 92 Romania 92
Finland 92 (100) Russian Federation 100
France 92 (100) Slovakia* 92
Germany 92 (79) Slovenia 92
Greece 92 (100) Spain 92 (115)
Hungary 94 Sweden 92 (104)
Iceland 110 Switzerland 92
Ireland 92 (113) Turkey ***
Italy 92 (93.5) Ukraine 100
Japan 94 UK 92 (87.5)
Kazachstan** To be negotiated USA 93
* Added to Annex I at ** Added to Annex I in *** No limit specified.
COP-3 2001 (at COP-7) only Belarus and Turkey had
for the purpose of the not ratified the
Kyoto protocol Convention when the
Kyoto protocol was
adopted
Table 1, shows Annex I countries and their commitment under the Kyoto protocol (for EU Memeber States the differentiated
commitments agreed in 1997 are shown parentheses). Commitments are expressed relative to 1990/1995 emissions and include
the six greenhouse gases [Ecofys B.V., 2003].

The Kyoto protocol enters into force when more than 55 countries, together representing more than 55%
of the 1990 Annex I CO2 emissions (so without the other five gasses) ratify the protocol. When the Kyoto
protocol enters into force the Annex I countries that have ratified the protocol will be legally obliged to
meet the agreed targets. With the recent ratification by the hundredth country the requirement of
ratification of the Kyoto protocol by 55 has already been met. However, 55% of Annex I CO2 emissions
are not yet covered, although this situation will be resolved with the ratification of Russia, which is
expected to happen in 2003.
[Ecofys B.V., 2003, Corporate Carbon Strategies Outlook to 2012: Opportunities in the European emissions trade
market]

76
Appendix B
Table 31, System input and output for the different alternatives in the Nickerie and Coronie region; selected region 2 and 3.
Nickerie BAU PV PV- Unit Coronie BAU PV PV- Unit
Biomass Biomass
Systems boundaries Systems boundaries
Daily load 138,000 138,000 138,000 kWh/day Daily load 10,800 10,800 10,800 kWh/day
Peak load 13,500 13,500 13,500 kW Peak load 1,065 1,065 1,065 kW
Generators 4*2,100 - - kW Generators 380, 300, 300 - - kW
Generator eff 4*36 - 35 % Generator eff. 26, 26, 29 - 35 %
Diesel price 0.93 - - $/L Diesel price 0.93 - - $/L
Min. insolation - 4.21 4.21 kWp/m2/d Min. insolation - 4.21 4.21 kWp/m2/d
PV size - 51,511 19,668 kWp PV size - 4,032 1,540 kWp
Max no-sun days - 4 - days Max no-sun days - 4 - days
Battery bank - 1,794,000 89,700 kWh Battery bank - 140,400 7,020 kWh
Inverter - 15,000 6,750 kW Inverter - 1,183 533 kW
Biomass generator - - 13,500 kW Biomass generator - - 1,065 kW
Energy output Energy output
Generator 49,600,528 - 33,924,360 kWh/year Generator 3,954,822 - 2,675,135 kWh/year
PV Panel - ? 25,059,942 kWh/year PV Panel - 5,134,455 1,962,352 kWh/year
Biomass feedstock - - 103,838 t/year Biomass feedstock - - 8,212 t/year
Excess electricity 22 ? 2,963,953 kWh/year Excess electricity 141 251,224 229,376 kWh/year
Unmet elec. load 594,290 ? 2,210,587 kWh/year Unmet elec. load 458 96,928 177,871 kWh/year
Diesel use 14,851,417 - - L/year Diesel use 1,556,691 - - L/year
CER’s 306,137 306,137 tCO2/year CER’s - 32,089 32,089 tCO2/year
Costs Costs
Investment 1,080,000 ? 163,064,960 $ Investment 152,500 38,423,840 12,774,650 $
Replacement 490,501 ? 6,481,897 $/year Replacement 48,611 733,651 549,321 $/year
O&M 277,386 ? 3,165,863 $/year O&M 23,543 768,476 247,947 $/year
Diesel costs 13,811,818 - - $/year Diesel costs 1,447,723 - - $/year
CDM credits ? 5,890,408 $/year CDM credits - 617,419 617,419 $/year
COE 0.30 ? 0.58 $/kWh COE 0.39 1.49 0.57 $/kWh
COE with CDM ? 0.45 $/kWh COE with CDM - 1.33 0.41 $/kWh

77
Table 32, System input and output for the different alternatives in the Saramacca and Marowijne region; selected region 3 and 4.
Saramacca BAU PV PV- Unit Marowijne BAU PV PV- Unit
Biomass Biomass
Systems boundaries Systems boundaries
Daily load 60,000 60,000 60,000 kWh/day Daily load 62,000 62,000 62,000 kWh/day
Peak load 5,900 5,900 5,900 kW Peak load 6,100 6,100 6,100 kW
Generators 210, 150, 3200 - - kW Generators 2*1,900, 370 - - kW
Generator eff 25, 26, 31 - 35 % Generator eff. 35, 35, 39 - 35 %
Diesel price 0.93 - - $/L Diesel price 0.93 - - $/L
Min. insolation - 4.14 4.14 kWp/m2/d Min. insolation - 4.15 4.15 kWp/m2/d
PV size - 22,776 8,696 kWp PV size - 23,477 8,964 kWp
Max no-sun days - 5 - days Max no-sun days - 5 - days
Battery bank - 780,000 39,000 kWh Battery bank - 806,000 40,300 kWh
Inverter - 6,556 2,950 kW Inverter - 6778 3,050 kW
Biomass generator - - 5,900 kW Biomass generator - - 6,100 kW
Energy output Energy output
Generator 21,586,718 - 14,699,434 kWh/year Generator 22,674,608 - 15,461,420 kWh/year
PV Panel - ? 11,172,460 kWh/year PV Panel - ? 11,445,576 kWh/year
Biomass feedstock - - 45,157 t/year Biomass feedstock - - 47,425 t/year
Excess electricity 20,247 ? 1,410,109 kWh/year Excess electricity 296 ? 1,535,821 kWh/year
Unmet elec. load 326,567 ? 938,301 kWh/year Unmet elec. load 124,688 ? 1,054,420 kWh/year
Diesel use 7,968,137 - - L/year Diesel use 7,188,216 - - L/year
CER’s - 164,250 164,250 tCO2/year CER’s - 148,173 148,173 tCO2/year
Costs Costs
Investment 475,000 ? 71,765,320 $ Investment 551,250 ? 74,034,880 $
Replacement 263,097 ? 2,837,585 $/year Replacement 243,233 ? 2,969,293 $/year
O&M 140,278 ? 1,391,394 $/year O&M 135,301 ? 1,439,294 $/year
Diesel costs 7,410,367 - - $/year Diesel costs 6,685,040 - - $/year
CDM credits - ? 3,160,344 $/year CDM credits - ? 2,851,013 $/year
COE 0.37 ? 0.58 $/kWh COE 0.31 ? 0.58 $/kWh
COE with CDM - ? 0.43 $/kWh COE with CDM - ? 0.45 $/kWh

78
Appendix C
Table 33, System boundaries, energy output and costs for the different alternatives in the Gran & Pikin region; selected region 6.
Cajana BAU PV PV-Biomass Hydro Unit
Systems boundaries Current Future Current Future Current Future Current Future
Daily load 1,259 3,149 1,259 3,149 1,259 3,149 1,259 3,149 kWh/day
Peak load 141 353 141 353 141 353 141 353 kW
Generators 150 150, 200 - - - - - - kW
Generator eff. 31 31, 31 - - (-) (-) - - %
Diesel (2*0.93) 1.86 1.86 - - - - - - $/L
Min. insolation - - 4.26 4.26 4.26 4.26 - - kWp/m2/d
PV size - - 465 1,162 177 442 - - kWp
Battery bank - - 7,554 18,894 818 2047 - - kWh
Inverter - - 157 393 71 177 - - kW
Biomass generator - - - - 141 353 - - kW
Stream flow - - - - - - 4000 10000 L/s
Head - - - - - - 6 6 m
Useful power - - - - - - 141 353 kW
Energy output
Generator 469,770 1,150,022 - - 309,390 775,450 - - kWh/yr
PV Panel - - 600,226 1,500,165 228,511 570,631 - - kWh/yr
Hydro system - - - - - - 1,051,781 2,692,535 kWh/yr
Biomass feedstock - - - - 1,000 2,509 - - t/year
Excess electricity 37,235 640 33,893 85,012 23,893 59,983 592,580 1,480,904 kWh/yr
Unmet elec. load 0 3 12,599 29,695 19,629 48,645 262 662 kWh/yr
Diesel use 229,301 422,882 - - - - - - L/yr
CER’s - - 4,727 8,717 4,727 8,717 4,727 8,717 tCO2/yr
Costs
Investment 28,750 63,750 4,465,538 11,161,181 1,509,070 3,770,560 159,330 398,890 $
Replacement 15,929 18,204 85,645 214,092 62,993 158,124 0 0 $/year
O&M 5,956 7,648 89,310 223,224 29,054 72,638 4,780 11,967 $/year
Diesel costs 426,499 786,560 - - - - - - $/year
CDM credits - - 90,943 167,724 90,943 167,724 90,943 167,724 $/year
COE 0.98 0.71 1.49 1.49 0.59 0.59 0.05 0.05 $/kWh
COE with CDM - - 1.29 1.34 0.38 0.44 -0.15 -0.10 $/kWh

79
Table 34, System boundaries, energy output and costs for the different alternatives in the Gran & Pikin Rio region; selected region 6.
Dangogo BAU PV PV-Biomass Hydro Unit
Systems boundaries Current Future Current Future Current Future Current Future
Daily load 57 142 57 142 57 142 57 142 kWh/day
Peak load 6.4 15.9 6.4 15.9 6.4 15.9 6.4 15.9 kW
Generators 40 40 - - - - - - kW
Generator eff. 31 31 - - (-) (-) - - %
Diesel (2*0.93) 1.86 1.86 - - - - - - $/L
Min. insolation - - 4.26 4.26 4.26 4.26 - - kWp/m2/d
PV size - - 21 53 8 21 - - kWp
Battery bank - - 342 852 38 92 - - kWh
Inverter - - 7.1 18 3.2 8 - - kW
Biomass generator - - - - 6.4 16 - - kW
Stream flow - - - - - - 910 2260 L/s
Head - - - - - - 1.2 1.2 m
Useful power - - - - - - 6.4 15.9 kW
Energy output
Generator 105,108 105,235 - - 13,927 34,306 - - kWh/yr
PV Panel - - 27,119 68,464 10,334 27,127 - - kWh/yr
Hydro system - - - - - - 47,863 118,871 kWh/yr
Biomass feedstock - - - - 45 109 - - t/year
Excess electricity 84,413 53,514 1,586 4,483 1,058 3,120 27,173 67,166 kWh/yr
Unmet elec. load 0 0 545 1,121 874 2,029 10 27 kWh/yr
Diesel use 54,301 54,333 - - - - - - L/yr
CER’s - - 1,119 1,120 1,119 1,120 1,119 1,120 tCO2/yr
Costs
Investment 15,000 15,000 201,820 507,876 68,460 176,440 7,232 17,967 $
Replacement 8,311 8,311 3,873 9,720 2,826 6,835 0 0 $/year
O&M 1,577 1,577 4,037 10,158 1,322 3,379 217 539 $/year
Diesel costs 101,001 101,060 - - - - - - $/year
CDM credits - - 21,486 21,534 21,486 21,534 21,486 21,534 $/year
COE 5.44 2.18 1.50 1.50 0.59 0.60 0.05 0.05 $/kWh
COE with CDM - - 0.43 1.07 -0.49 0.16 -0.99 -0.38 $/kWh

80
Table 35, System boundaries, energy output and costs for the different alternatives in the Gran & Pikin Rio region; selected region 6.
Tapawatra BAU PV PV-Biomass Hydro Unit
Systems boundaries Current Future Current Future Current Future Current Future
Daily load 595 1574 595 1574 595 1574 595 1574 kWh/day
Peak load 71 177 71 177 71 177 71 177 kW
Generators 80 80, 30 - - - - - - kW
Generator eff. 31 31, 31 - - (-) (-) - - %
Diesel (2*0.93) 1.86 1.86 - - - - - - $/L
Min. insolation - - 4.38 4.38 4.38 4.38 - - kWp/m2/d
PV size - - 215 566 81 216 - - kWp
Battery bank - - 3570 9444 387 1023 - - kWh
Inverter - - 79 197 36 89 - - kW
Biomass generator - - - - 71 177 - - kW
Stream flow - - - - - - 2900 7190 L/s
Head - - - - - - 4.2 4.2 m
Useful power - - - - - - 71 177 kW
Energy output
Generator 246,333 567,127 - - 150,771 386,313 - - kWh/yr
PV Panel - - 284,258 748,373 107,099 285,598 - - kWh/yr
Hydro system - - - - - - 533,813 1,323,508 kWh/yr
Biomass feedstock - - - - 494 1,251 - - t/year
Excess electricity 29,158 483 8,219 38,714 12,600 28,257 316,714 749,273 kWh/yr
Unmet elec. load 0 7,866 635 12,736 6,875 23,655 101 293 kWh/yr
Diesel use 117,636 204,952 - - - - - - L/yr
CER’s - - 2,425 4,225 2,425 4,225 2,425 4,225 tCO2/yr
Costs
Investment 20,000 33,750 2,085,700 5,492,358 706,740 1,856,800 80,230 200,010 $
Replacement 11,081 13,159 40,303 106,284 30,993 78,672 0 0 $/year
O&M 3,153 3,568 41,714 109,847 13,542 35,713 2,407 6,000 $/year
Diesel costs 218.802 381,211 - - - - - - $/year
CDM credits - - 46,658 81,287 46,658 81,287 46,658 81,287 $/year
COE 1.08 0.71 1.44 1.46 0.58 0.58 0.05 0.05 $/kWh
COE with CDM - - 1.22 1.32 0.36 0.43 -0.17 -0.10 $/kWh

81
Table 36, System boundaries, energy output and costs for the different alternatives in the Drietabiki region; selected region 7.
Drietabiki BAU PV PV-Biomass Hydro Unit
Systems boundaries Current Future Current Future Current Future Current Future
Daily load 535 1338 535 1338 535 1338 535 1338 kWh/day
Peak load 60 150 60 150 60 150 60 150 kW
Generators 60, 90 60, 90 - - - - - - kW
Generator eff. 31, 31 31, 31 - - (-) (-) - - %
Diesel (2*0.93) 1.86 1.86 - - - - - - $/L
Min. insolation - - 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 - - kWp/m2/d
PV size - - 198 494 76 189 - - kWp
Battery bank - - 3210 8028 348 870 - - kWh
Inverter - - 67 167 30 75 - - kW
Biomass generator - - - - 60 150 - - kW
Stream flow - - - - - - 15000 15000 L/s
Head - - - - - - 3.5 3.5 m
Useful power - - - - - - 300 300 kW
Energy output
Generator 207,415 488,566 - - 130,189 325,786 - - kWh/yr
PV Panel - - 260,306 650,236 100,036 248,774 - - kWh/yr
Hydro system - - - - - - 2,300,883 2,300,883 kWh/yr
Biomass feedstock - - - - 421 1,053 - - t/year
Excess electricity 12,140 196 17,925 45,297 11,281 27,327 2,105,651 1,812,557 kWh/yr
Unmet elec. load 0 0 3,998 9,878 7,876 20,067 0 0 kWh/yr
Diesel use 93,925 178,911 - - - - - - L/yr
CER’s - - 1,937 3,688 1,937 3,688 1,937 3,688 tCO2/yr
Costs
Investment 17,500 38,750 1,899,223 4,743,641 646,000 1,609,080 339,000 339,000 $
Replacement 9,681 10,837 36,384 90,969 26,599 66,518 0 0 $/year
O&M 2,367 3,214 37,984 94,873 12,420 30,951 10,170 10,170 $/year
Diesel costs 174,699 332,775 - - - - - - $/year
CDM credits - - 37,261 70,961 37,261 70,961 37,261 70,961 $/year
COE 0.97 0.72 1.48 1.48 0.59 0.59 0.23 0.09 $/kWh
COE with CDM - - 1.29 1.33 0.39 0.44 0.04 -0.05 $/kWh

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Table 37, System boundaries, energy output and costs for the different alternatives in the Palumeu region; selected region 8.
Palumeu BAU PV PV-Biomass Hydro Hydro Biomass Unit
Systems boundaries Current Future Current Future Current Future Current Future Current Future
Daily load 73 181 73 181 73 181 73 181 73 181 kWh/day
Peak load 8.13 20 8.13 20 8.13 20 8.13 20 8.13 20 kW
Generators 10 10, 5 - - - - - - - - kW
Generator eff. 31 31, 31 - - (-) (-) - - (-) (-) %
Diesel (2*0.93) 2.79 2.79 - - - - - - - - $/L
Min. insolation - - 4.26 4.26 4.26 4.26 - - - - kWp/m2/d
PV size - - 28 67 10 26 - - - - kWp
Battery bank - - 438 1086 48 118 - - - - kWh
Inverter - - 9 23 4.1 10 - - - - kW
Biomass generator - - - - 10 20 - - 2 12 kW
Stream flow - - - - - - 1,200 1,200 1,200 1,200 L/s
Head - - - - - - 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 m
Useful power - - - - - - 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 kW
Energy output
Generator 30,324 65,902 - - 18,151 44,207 - - 217 27,690 kWh/yr
PV Panel - - 36,103 86,498 12,910 33,566 - - - - kWh/yr
Hydro system - - - - - - 52,594 52,594 52,594 52,594 kWh/yr
Biomass feedstock - - - - 63 141 - - 1 131 t/year
Excess electricity 3,862 2 3,002 6,214 919 3,908 26,211 3,853 26,347 14,198 kWh/yr
Unmet elec. load 0 202 361 2,314 1,093 2,989 81 17,362 0 16 kWh/yr
Diesel use 14,588 23,941 - - - - - - - - L/yr
CER’s - - 301 494 301 494 301 494 301 494 tCO2/yr
Costs
Investment 11,250 21,875 265,726 641,516 89,060 219,700 7,910 7,910 11,210 27,710 $
Replacement 6,233 7,260 5,047 12,266 3,935 8,812 0 0 (-1) 7,866 $/year
O&M 394 495 5,314 12,831 1,705 4,078 240 240 245 828 $/year
Diesel costs 40,699 66,797 - - - - - - - - $/year
CDM credits - - 5,785 9,498 5,785 9,498 5,785 9,498 5,785 9,498 $/year
COE 1.84 1.17 1.52 1.50 0.60 0.59 0.04 0.02 0.05 0.18 $/kWh
COE with CDM - - 1.30 1.35 0.38 0.44 -0.18 -0.17 -0.17 0.03 $/kWh

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Table 38, System boundaries, energy output and costs for the different alternatives in the Kwamalasumutu region; selected region 9.
Kwamalasumutu BAU PV PV-Biomass Hydro Hydro Biomass Unit
Systems boundaries Current Future Current Future Current Future Current Future Future
Daily load 729 1,810 729 1,810 729 1,810 729 1,810 1,810 kWh/day
Peak load 81 203 81 203 81 203 81 203 203 kW
Generators 40 40, 85 - - - - - - - kW
Generator eff. 31 31, 31 - - (-) (-) - - (-) %
Diesel (2*0.93) 2.79 2.79 - - - - - - - $/L
Min. insolation - - 4.51 4.51 4.51 4.51 - - - kWp/m2/
d
PV size - - 254 632 96 240 - - - kWp
Battery bank - - 4374 10860 474 1177 - - - kWh
Inverter - - 90 226 41 102 - - - kW
Biomass generator - - - - 81 203 - - 53 kW
Stream flow - - - - - - 2300 4250 4250 L/s
Head - - - - - - 6 6 6 m
Useful power - - - - - - 81 150 150 kW
Energy output
Generator 252,292 650,795 - - 183,167 452,417 - - 16,289 kWh/yr
PV Panel - - 329,273 819,486 124,497 310,945 - - - kWh/yr
Hydro system - - - - - - 604,798 1,117,578 1,117,578 kWh/yr
Biomass feedstock - - - - 590 1,463 - - 75 t/year
Excess electricity 334 10 10,173 27,963 10,102 25,874 338,882 465,431 473,378 kWh/yr
Unmet elec. load 14,128 9,866 13,687 32,536 11,579 29,557 153 8,488 146 kWh/yr
Diesel use 91,102 232,341 - - - - - - - L/yr
CER’s - - 1,878 4,789 1,878 4,789 1,878 4,789 4,789 tCO2/yr
Costs
Investment 15,000 35,625 2,494,220 6,201,242 834,310 2,084,520 91,530 169,500 256,950 $
Replacement 8,311 14,224 48,767 121,151 36,623 91,072 0 0 1,762 $/year
O&M 1,577 3,879 49,884 124,025 16,091 40,165 2,746 5,085 5,419 $/year
Diesel costs 254,175 648,230 - - - - - - - $/year
CDM credits - - 36,134 92,153 36,134 92,153 36,134 92,153 92,153 $/year
COE 1.06 1.03 1.48 1.48 0.57 0.57 0.05 0.03 0.05 $/kWh
COE with CDM - - 1.34 1.33 0.43 0.43 -0.09 -0.11 -0.09 $/kWh

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