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CHAPTER 9-TRANSPORT IN PLANTS Xylem Functions: 1) Transports water and dissolved minerals salts from roots to stem and

leaves. 2) Provide mechanical support for the plant. Adaptations: 1) Has an empty lumen with no cross wall/protoplasm. This reduces resistances of water flowing through the xylem. 2) Walls thickened with lignin. Prevent collapse of the plant. Phloem Functions: 1) Transports manufactured food substances like sucrose and amino acids from leaves to other parts of the plants. Adaptations: 1) Companion cells have mitochondria which provide energy needed by companion cells to load sugars from mesophyll cells into sieve tube cells by active transport. 2) Holes in sieve plates allow rapid flow of manufactured food substances through the sieve tubes. Entry of water into plant Mineral ions are actively transported from soil into root hair cells, resulting in concentrated cell sap to have lower water potential. Low water potential results in water to osmosize down a water potential gradient from the soil into the root hair cells. Higher water potential in the root hair cells compared to neighbouring cortex cells result in water to osmosize down a water potential gradient into cortical cells. Osmosis of water from one cortical cell to another occurs until water reaches the xylem tissue. Water gathering at the xylem creates some root pressure, so water moves into the xylem. Root pressure is also due to mineral salts being actively pumped into xylem from cortical cells. In narrow xylem vessel, water moves up by capillary action due to adhesion-cohesion forces. Transpiration creates the greatest suction force which pulls the whole column of water up the xylem as a continuous stream.

Root hair cells Adaptations: 1) Thin cell wall: Allow faster rate of absorption of water and mineral salts. 2) Large cell sap vacuole: Store as much water and mineral salts. 3) Long and narrow: Increase SA:VOL for faster absorption Transpiration: Definition: Loss of water vapour from aerial parts of the plant, especially through stoma of the leaves. Process of transpiration: Water continuously evaporates from cell surface of mesophyll cells. Air spaces become saturated with water vapour. Concentration of water vapour is higher in the leaf than the atmosphere. Thus, water vapour diffuses down a concentration gradient out of the leaf through the stomata. As mesophyll cells lose water by evaporation, water potential in their cell sap decreases. So mesophyll cells begin to absorb water from xylem vessels by osmosis. This creates a great suction force which pulls the whole column of water up the xylem from the roots. Importance of transpiration: Pulls up water and mineral salts from roots to stem and leaves. Removes latent heat of vapourisation, prevent being scorched by hot sun. Keep cells turgid. Factors affecting transpiration: 1) Temperature: Higher temperature, faster rate of transpiration. 2) Humidity: Low humidity, water vapour diffuses more rapidly out of leaf, faster rate of transpiration. 3) Wind: When theres wind, air surrounding the leave is less humid, hence faster rate of transpiration. 4) Light: When theres light, stoma open and become wider, faster rate of transpiration. Wilting In sunlight, when the rate of transpiration is greater than the rate of absorption of water through the roots. This causes the cells to lose their turgor. They become flaccid and the plant wilts.

Advantages: Rate of transpiration decreases as the leaf folds up, reducing the SA exposed to sunlight. Guard cell becomes flaccid and stoma closes. Disadvantages: Rate of photosynthesis decreases as water becomes the limiting factor. As stoma closes, carbon dioxide entering the leaf decreases, photosynthesis decreases as carbon dioxide becomes the limiting factor.