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Acids

An acid is a chemical substance which ionises in water to produce hydrogen ions, H+ / hydroxonium ions, H3O+. H+(aq) + H2O(l) > H3O+(aq) Example: HCl(g) + H2O(l) > H3O+(aq) + Cl -(aq)

Acid Acid name Ions HCl Hydrochloric acid H+, Cl HNO3 Nitric acid H+, NO3H2SO4 Sulphuric acid H+, SO42CH3COOH Ethanoic acid H+, CH3COO Monoprotic acid = acid can produce only one hydrogen ion per molecule in water. (Example: HCl) Diprotic acid = acid can produce two hydrogen ions per molecule in water. (Example: H2SO4) Triprotic acid = acid can produce three hydrogen ions per molecule in water. (Example: H3PO4) Bases / Alkalis

A base is a chemical substance which reacts with an acid to produce a salt and water only. Base(s) + acid(aq) > salt + water (l). Example: NaOH(s) + HCl(aq) > NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) Formula Solubility in water Ions in the aqueous solution Na+, O2Ca2+, O2Na+, OHK+, OHBa2+, OH-

Base

Copper(II) oxide Lead(II) oxide Magnesium oxide Zinc hydroxide Aluminium hydroxide Sodium oxide Calcium oxide Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Barium hydroxide

CuO PbO MgO Zn(OH)2 Al(OH)3 Na2O CaO NaOH KOH Ba(OH)2

Insoluble base Insoluble base Insoluble base Insoluble base Insoluble base Soluble base (alkali) Soluble base (alkali) Soluble base (alkali) Soluble base (alkali) Soluble base (alkali)

The Uses of Acids in Our Daily Life Benzoic acid Carbonic acid Ethanoic acid Hydrochloric acid Its salt are used to preserve food To make carbonated drinks A main compound of vinegar To clean metals before electroplating / household cleaning / leather processing / swimming pool maintenance Nitric acid Production of fertilisers, explosives, etching and dissolution of metals (purification and extraction of gold) Sulphuric acid To make detergent, polymer and fertilisers. Tartaric acid Manufacturing of soft drinks, provide tartness to food, as an emetic (a substance to induce vomiting) The Uses of Bases in Our Daily Life Ammonia Production of fertilisers (ammonium and nitrate salts), used in the manufacture of nitric acid, neutralise the acid (in the petroleum industry) and prevent premature coagulation in natural / synthetic latex. Manufacture other aluminium compound and to make gastric medicine (antacid) To make cement, limewater, neutralise the acidity of soil and application of sewage treatment. Used in the manufacturing of soups, detergents, and cleaners. Suspension of magnesium hydroxide in water are used as an antacid, used as an antiperspirant armpit deodorant and as a non-hazardous alkali to neutralise acidic wastewater.

Aluminium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide Magnesium hydroxide

Chemical Properties

. Acid Alkali In the presence of water, an acid In the presence of water, an alkali . will ionise to form hydrogen ion, will ionise to form hydroxide ion, . . H+. OH -. . Sour in taste Bitter in taste . pH values less than 7 pH values more than 7 . Indicator: Blue litmus paper Indicator: Red litmus paper (Blue) . (Red) . Indicator: Universal indicator Indicator: Universal indicator (Blue . . (Orange and red) and purple) Indicator: Methyl orange (Red) Indicator: Methyl orange (Yellow) . . React with bases to produce salts React with acids to produce salts . and water. and water. . . 2HCl(aq) + CuO(s) > CuCl2(aq) NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) > NaCl(aq) . + H2O(l) + H2O(l) . React with metals (reactive React with an ammonium salt . metal, higher position than H+ in (alkali is heated) to produce . the electrochemical series) to ammonia gas. . produce salts and hydrogen gas. . Ba(OH)2(aq) + 2NH4Cl(s) > . 2HCl(aq) + Zn(s) > ZnCl2(aq) + BaCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 2NH3(g) . H2(g) . React with carbonates to produce React with aqueous salt solutions to . salts, carbon dioxide gas and produce metal hydroxides (as . water. precipitate). . H2SO4(aq) + ZnCO3(s) > ZnSO4(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) 2NaOH(aq) + CuSO4(aq) > Na2SO4(aq) + Cu(OH)2(s) Important Definition for Acids

Monoprotic acid (monobasic acid) is an acid which produce one mole of H+ ion when one mole of the acid ionise in water. Monoprotic acid HCl HNO3 CH3COOH . Monoprotic acid name Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Ethanoic acid

Polyprotic acids Diprotic acid (dibasic acid) is an acid which produce two moles of H+ ios from one mole of the acid in water. Diprotic acid H2SO4 H2CO3 H2CrO4 H2C2O4 Diprotic acid name Sulphuric acid Carbonic acid Chromic acid Ethanedioic acid / Oxalate acid

Triprotic acid (tribasic acid) is an acid which produce three moles of H+ ions from one mole of the acid in water. Triprotic acid Triprotic acid name H3PO4 Phosphoric acid C6H8O7 Citric acid

The pH scale and the Measurement of pH Value of a Solution


pH scale is a set of numbers used to represent the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. pH is a measurement of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the solution. pH value greater than 7: alkaline solution pH value of exactly 7: neutral solution pH value less than 7: acidic solution In an acidic solution = higher in the concentration of the H+ ions, the lower the pH value. In an alkaline solution = lower in the concentration of the H+ ions, the higher the pH value. pH solution can be measured by using universal indicator, pH paper and pH meter.

pH value 0, 1, 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12, 13, 14

Colour of Universal Indicator Red Orange red Orange Orange yellow Yellow Green Greenish-blue Blue Blue Bluish-purple Purple

Concentration of Acids and Alkalis


Quantity of solute can be measured in grams or moles: g dm-3 or mol dm-3. Concentration (g dm-3) = mass of solute (g) / volume of solution (dm3) Concentration (mol dm-3) = number of moles of solute (mol) / volume of solution (dm3)

Relationship between Number of Moles with Molarity and Volume of a Solution


Molarity (mol dm-3) = number of moles of solution (mol) / volume of solution (dm3) M = molarity of solution (mol dm-3), V = Volume of solution (dm3), n = Number of moles of solute (mol) M = n/V

Preparation of Standard Solutions


Standard solution = a solution in which its concentration is accurately known. Standard solution is prepared by using volumetric flask with a fixed volume (100 cm3, 200 cm3, 250 cm3, 500 cm3 and 1000 cm3)

Preparation of a Solution by Dilution Method


Dilution = a process of diluting a concentrated solution by adding a solvent (water) to obtain a more diluted solution. The concentration of the solution decreases after dilution. The number of moles of solute in the solution remains unchanged after dilution. (MaVa) / 1000 = (MbVb) / 1000 Ma = Initial molarity of solution, Mb = Final molarity of solution, Va = Initial volume of solution and Vb = Final volume of solution

Relationship between pH Values and Molarities of Acids or Alkalis


pH values depends on degree of dissociation and molarity / concentration of hydrogen ions, H+/ hydroxide ions, OH- in the solution. The higher the molarity of a strong acid, the lower is its pH value. The higher the molarity of a strong alkali, the higher is its pH value. The molarity of an acid can be changed when (i) water is added, (ii) an acid of different concentration is added and (iii) an alkali is added.