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HKALE 1994 Biology Paper I.......................................................................................7 HKALE 1994 Biology Paper II .....................................................................................8 HKALE 1996 Biology Paper I.......................................................................................

9 HKALE 1994 Biology Paper I.....................................................................................22 HKALE 1994 Biology Paper II ...................................................................................23 HKALE 1996 Biology Paper I.....................................................................................25

Questions HKALE 1989 Biology Paper II

4. (a) Define the term respiratory quotient. (2 marks) (b) What information about the metabolism of an organism can be deduced from the values of the respiratory quotient ? (c) Give an account of the various means by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in the blood of a mammal. Indicate also their relative importance to the total carrying capacity of blood for oxygen and carbon dioxide. (d) Give an account of the factors that exist under physiological conditions to favour (i) (ii) the release of oxygen from blood at the level of the tissue, and the release of carbon dioxide from blood in the lungs. (7 marks) (7 marks) (4 marks)

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HKALE 1990 Biology Paper II

1. (a) What is oxygen debt ? Explain its physiological significance. (5 marks) (b) Explain the effect of an increase in surrounding temperature from 20 the respiration rate of a named terrestrial ectotherm. to 30 on (4 marks)


Explain why aquatic ectotherms using gills for gaseous exchange may be more affected than terrestrial ectotherms by the same increase in surrounding temperature. (2 marks)


Describe how a change in the concentrations of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the inspired air can affect the rate and depth of breathing in man. (4 marks)


With reference to the graph below, explain the relative positions of the three oxygen dissociation curves in relation to the size of the respective animals. (5 marks)

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HKALE 1991 Biology Paper I

4. By means of a flow diagram, briefly outline the three main stages of aerobic respiration with a carbohydrate substrate. Annotate your diagram to show the essential features of each of the three main stages. (N.B. Chemical formulae of individual compounds are NOT required .) (7 marks)

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HKALE 1992 Biology Paper I

10. The ability of cells to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate is coupled with the oxidation of substrates by oxygen. (a) In an experiment to study the effect of potassium cyanide (KCN) on the respiration of yeast cells, 4 tubes (with contents as shown in the table below) were prepared and the corresponding rates of oxygen uptake were measured.

Tube No. 1 2 3 4

Volume of substances added (ml) Buffered yeast suspension 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2M glucose solution 0 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.1M KCN solution 0 0 0.01 0.02

Rate of oxygen uptake (arbitrary units) 6.1 17.8 6.7 2.2


Calculate the final concentrations (in moles per litre) of the following

substances in tube 3 : (1) (2) (ii) glucose KCN (3 marks)

Why was respiration observed in tube 1 even in the absence of added glucose ? What was the result of adding glucose to tube 2 ? (2 marks)


What can you conclude about the effect of KCN on the respiration rate of yeast cells ? (2 marks)


Mitochondria were isolated from the yeast cells and incubated in an isotonic buffer containing a respiratory substrate, ADP and inorganic phosphate. The amount of oxygen uptake and the loss of substrate and inorganic phosphate were measured.


Oxygen uptake (mole)

Loss of substrate (mole) 0.62 1.58 2.94 4.35

Loss of inorganic phosphate (mole) 2.38 5.22 9.39 13.37

5 15 30 45

0.33 0.78 1.49 2.15


Plot the amount of oxygen uptake, consumption of substrate and phosphate loss against time. (4 marks)


Determine, from your graph, the quantitative relationship between (1) (2) oxygen uptake and the consumption of substrate. oxygen uptake and the loss of inorganic phosphate. (2 marks)


How would the relationship in (ii) differ from those when glucose is oxidized in intact cells under aerobic conditions ? Explain your answer. (4 marks)


Explain briefly the functional significance of the cristae membranes of mitochondria. (3 marks)

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HKALE 1994 Biology Paper I

9. With the aid of an oxygen dissociation curve, explain how the relationship between oxygen tension and haemoglobin saturation facilitates oxygen uptake at the respiratory surface and oxygen release in the tissues. (6 marks)

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HKALE 1994 Biology Paper II

2. (a) Describe the three stages of cellular respiration for carbohydrate metabolism. (10 marks) (b) Compare and contrast the products of the metabolic process in (a) in the presence and absence of free oxygen. (3 marks)


What is the role of ATP ? Describe the part ATP plays in three other named metabolic processes and cite an example for each process. (5 marks)


Explain why protein is less efficient for energy production when compared with (i) lipid ; and (ii) carbohydrate. (2 marks)

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HKALE 1996 Biology Paper I

4. The following shows the initial set-up of an experiment performed at room temperature. Readings were taken at specific time intervals.

(a) (b)

Suggest the purpose of this experiment. To achieve the purpose of this experiment, three parameters need to be considered.

(1 mark)

Using these three parameters, construct a formula for such a purpose. (2 ma (1 mark)


State one precaution for this experiment.

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HKALE 1997 Biology Paper I


The figure above shows an experimental set-up used to measure the oxygen consumption rates of animals at room temperature A mouse was placed into the respiratory chamber A syringe was inserted into the inlet hose to inject 10 mL of air into the respiratory chamber The clamp was then closed and the time was noted; this was the starting time of the experiment When the fluid levels in the manometer arms were the same, the time was again noted; this was the ending time. The experiment was then repeated using several grasshoppers A set of the experimental data is presented in the table below:

Mouse Body weight Starting time Ending time 20 g 2 : 00 p.m. 2 : 09 p.m.

Grasshopper 5g 2 : 30 p.m. 8 : 00 p.m.


At the starting time of the experiment, what happened to the fluid levels in the two arms of the manometer ? Account for this observation. (1 marks)


Account for the fluid levels in the manometer arms at the ending time of the experiment. (3
-1 -1



Calculate the oxygen consumption rates (mL O2 h g ) of the mouse and the grasshoppers. (3 marks)


What is the function of the water bath ? State another precaution for this

experiment. (e) How would the oxygen consumption rates of the mouse and the grasshoppers change if the temperature in the respiratory chamber dropped from 25 Explain your answer. (3 marks) Total :13 marks to 5 ?

(2 marts)

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HKALE 1997 Biology Paper II

1. (a) Explain the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in cellular metabolism. (3 marks) (b) Describe how ATP is produced in three biochemical processes in mesophyll cells. In each case, state the site where ATP is formed. (c) List two animal cell types and one plant cell type where abundant ATP is required. How is the ATP requirement related to the functions of these cells ? (3 marks) (13 marks)

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HKALE 1998 Biology Paper II

5. Give a comparative account on how the chloroplast and mitochondrion process energy and discuss the inter-relationship between these two organelles in cellular metabolism. (20 marks)

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HKALE 1989 Biology Paper II

4. (a)
Respiratory quotient (R.Q.) = Volume of carbon dioxide produced volume of oxygen consumed

during the same period of time, under a steady state condition (2) (b) Types of substrate being metabolized : R.Q. = 1 R.Q. = 0.7 for carbohydrates; for fats;

R.Q. = 0.5 0.8 for proteins Occurrence of anaerobic respiration when R.Q. is exceptionally high (>3), Conversion of carbohydrate to fat (R.Q. > 1) Occurrence of carbon dioxide fixation (R.Q. < 0 5) (e.g. plant animal (c) Oxygen : (i) In combination with ferrous ions of the heme groups of haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin (95%), one molecule of haemoglobin when fully oxygenated carries four molecules of oxygen (ii) In physical solution as dissolved gas (5%) (2 Carbon dioxide : (i) As bicarbonate ions (85%) carbon dioxide diffuses into RBC and combines with water to form carbonic acid, catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase from 2 present in RBC. haemoglobin (deoxygenated) accepts hydrogen ions carbonic acid, leaving behind bicarbonate ions. (ii) In combination with amino groups of proteins haemoglobin in RBC (major) (iii) and plasma proteins (minor), to form carbamino 1+1(bonus) 1 compounds(e.g. carbamino haemoglobin (10 20%) In physical solution as dissolved gas and with a small amount as carbonic acid (5%) ) 1 Correct order of relative importance 1 for photosynthesis, for calcareous shell construction) (4) 1) 1) 1) any 2

Correct order of relative importance (4 (d) (i) The factors that reduce the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen are: Increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Bohr Effect) produced from tissue respiration. decreased pH (Bohr Effect) : carbonic acid formed from hydration of carbon dioxide and lactic acid produced from tissue anaerobic respiration. increased temperature due to active tissue metabolism. Steep gradient in the partial pressure of oxygen from blood to tissue. (4) (ii) Oxygenation of haemoglobin releases hydrogen ions which shift the equilibria involving bicarbonate ions; and carbamino 2 compounds to favour respectively the formation and unloading of carbon dioxide (Haldane Effect). Steep gradient in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide from blood to alveolar air. 1 (3) 1 1 1 1 )

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HKALE 1990 Biology Paper II

1. (a) Oxygen debt is a state of oxygen depletion after extreme physical exertion; measured by the amount of oxygen required to restore the system to its original state. During vigorous exercise, the metabolic rate and hence the demand of oxygen of the active muscles increases greatly. The oxygen delivered to the muscle is insufficient to keep pace with the demand and the muscle cells may undergo anaerobic respiration and produce ATP by lactic fermentation. As a result, lactic acid builds up in the muscle and the oxygen deficit resulting from this temporary employment of anaerobic pathway is to be paid off when muscle returns to rest and adequate oxygen is available. At this time, lactic acid is converted back into pyruvic acid. Some of the lactic acid built up is exported to the liver and converted into glycogen. Oxygen debt enables the animal to carry out vigorous exercise beyond the capacity of aerobic respiration AND without having an unnecessary large reserve of oxygen and blood supply. Such exercise may be of great survival value to the animal (e.g. run away, catching preys) (5) (b) An ectotherm may not be able to regulate its body temperature which increases with an increase in ambient temperature. With a 10C rise in body temperature, the metabolic rate (rate of enzymic reactions) and hence the respiration rate will increase / double according to the Q10 rule / explanation of increasing temperature on rate of enzymic reaction. 1 (4) (c) Aquatic ectotherms will be more affected since an increase in water temperature will decrease the solubility of dissolved oxygen in water, making oxygen less available (NOTE : saturated value of dissolved oxygen decreases from 6.19 to 5.27 ml / l in freshwater and from 5.35 to 4.5 ml/l in 30% sea water when water temperature increases from 20 to 30C) while at the same time, the respiration rate (and hence oxygen demand) of the animal will double / increase. (d) The rate and depth of breathing are controlled by a respiratory centre in the medulls, which is responsive directly or indirectly (through chemoreceptors : the aortic and carotid bodies in the walls of major arteries) to changes in 1 (2) 1 1 1 1 2 2

CO2, H and O2 concentrations in blood. An increase in the concentration of CO2 and H in the blood stimulates the respiratory centre which in turn, increases depth of breathing (and vice versa) Lack of oxygen stimulates chemoreceptors in carotid and aortic body and stimulates respiration. Oxygen receptors however, are sensitive only to large changes in blood PO2 (<70 mm Hg) and is little affected by slight changes of oxygen in blood. Since oxygen in blood PCO2 and PO2 normally are proportional to one another, breathing is generally regulated by CO2 in blood. (4) (e) The smaller the animal, the farther its oxygen dissociation curve-is shifted to the right. The haemoglobin of small animals therefore unloads more of its oxygen at any given pressure than does the haemoglobin of a larger animal. Heat loss from an endotherm is proportional to its body surface area. The smaller the animal, the larger is its S.A. / V ratio and hence its rate of heat loss In order to compensate for the higher rate of heat loss to maintain a constant body temperature, the smaller animal needs to have a higher metabolic rate The shifting of the curve to the right allows small animals to obtain more oxygen to sustain their higher metabolic rates at any given oxygen partial pressure. (NOTE : partial pressure of oxygen in air and the lung is normally higher than 100 mm Hg, and animals of all size should have their haemoglobin fully saturated with oxygen at such partial pressure)

1 1

1 (5)

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HKALE 1991 Biology Paper I

4. (Glucose) (C4) SUGARS Phosphorylation of glucose which eventually splits into ( ) GLYCOLYSIS 2 trioses (some ATP production) ( ) PYRUVIC ACID loss of molecule of CO2 to produce a 2C molecule ( ) 2C compound ( ) ( )

4C cpd regenerated and perpetuate the cycle ( ) 4C KREBS / CITRIC ACID / TRICARBOXYLIC ACID CYCLE ( ) ( ) CO2 ( ) reducing power ( ) (progressive transfer of O2 ( ) (as the final electron acceptor) ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN (system) ( ) ( ) ATP electrons from one carrier to another, with the energy released to form ATP.) H2 O ( ) (7) 6C

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HKALE 1992 Biology Paper I

10. (a) (i) Either one of the following formulae can be used : (1) M1V1 = M2V2 M1 =

(M 2 V2 ) V1 Amount of


Final concentration =

dissolved substances Final volume

The final format in both cases are the same.

Glucose concentration =

2M 0.01ml -3 = 0.01M / 9.9 10 M (2 + 0.02) ml

KCN concentration =

0.1M 0.01 ml -4 = 0.0005 M / 4.95 10 M (2 + 0.02) ml

) each, correct equation but wrong answer (1)

N.B. For correct answers (1 each.


In tube 1, respiration observed in the absence of added substrate is due to the presence of endogenous substrate in each yeast cell. 1

In tube 2, the presence of added substrate led to a three fold increase in respiration as reflected by the increase in the rate of oxygen uptake. 1


In tube 3, KCN addition resulted in an inhibition of the respiratory process despite the presence of added substrate. 1

Double the amount of KCN in tube 4 as compared with that in tube 3 resulted in a further decrease in the respiratory process to levels lower than in tube 1 i.e. the inhibition is concentration dependent. 1

(N.B. No marks should be given to a description of the mechanism involved.)



title of graph properly drawn and fully labelled x and y axes curves correctly plotted curves correctly keyed Uptake of oxygen & disappearance of substrate & inorganic phosphate from the medium with time 1 1




Oxygen uptake OR Loss of substrate ( mole)

Oxygen substrate inorganic phosphate










Time (min.)



There is approximately 2 0.5 mole of substrate lost for 1 mole of oxygen uptake.

OR There is approximately 0.5 0.1 mole of oxygen uptake for 1 mole of substrate lost There is 6 0.5 mole of inorganic phosphate lost for 1 mole of oxygen uptake. OR There is 0.17 0.02 mole of oxygen uptake for 1 mole of inorganic phosphate lost. 1 1



In the experiment, only 3 ATPs were generated per molecule of the given substrate oxidized in the mitochondria (suggesting that only 2 electrons were generated in the oxidation of 1 molecule of substrate). 1

In the intact cell, glucose undergoes glycolysis in the cytoplasm; the products of glycolysis enter the Krebs cycle in the mitochondria. 1 Electrons generated in the processes are passed down the. electron transport chain (in the mitochondria) to the final acceptor oxygen. As a result, the total number of ATPs generated is much greater (38) than that in the experiment. / more energy is generated in intact cells (4)


infolding of the cristae membrane increases its surface area thus providing more surface area for the embedding enzyme systems / ATPase these infoldings (cristae) also allow greater access to enzymes present in the matrix mention of the positioning / sequencing of the enzyme systems to facilitate efficient biochemical reactions (20)


1) any 3 1)


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HKALE 1994 Biology Paper I


sigmoid shape curve ( axes named

) with plateau near to 95% ( )

1 1

Haemoglobin on r.b.c. has high affinity for oxygen ( At high oxygen tension (

), e.g. at lung surface: % saturation of ) 2

haemoglobin with O2 is near to 95%, if this facilitates uptake of O2 ( (oxyhaemoglobin at the respiratory surface)

at the tissues, a slight decrease in O2 tension results in rapid dissociation of oxyhaemoglobin. (Steep part of the curve). This allows oxygen to be readily diffused to the tissues. (6) 2

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HKALE 1994 Biology Paper II

2. (a) Respiration involves three distinct stages : glycolysis, Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport chain). Glycolysis ( of hexose phosphate into 2 triose phosphate ( + with the production of NADH / NADH2. and ATP ( decarboxylated into a two-carbon acetyl ( to coenzyme A ( Krebs cycle. Upon entering the Krebs cycle ( ( ), the acetyl group is combined with a four-carbon compound (oxaloacetate) to form a six-carbon compound ) (citrate). In the course of the cycle, two of the six-carbons are ) and a four-carbon compound oxaloacetate is ). NADH / ). ), and 2 5 ). (decarboxylation and ), Energy is also released to form ATP ( oxidized to CO2 ( regenerated ( ). Before entering the Krebs cycle, pyruvate is both oxidized and ) group. A molecule of NADH / NADH2 is produced and the acetyl group is temporarily attached ) (CoA). Acetyl-CoA is the starting substrate for the 1 ) before the conversion into 2 pyruvate ( ) ), it is an anaerobic process ( ) that occurs in the cytoplasm. ( ) 1+ The intermediate stages involve the phosphorylation of hexose ( ), the splitting

NADH2, and FADH / FADH2 are also formed (

dehydrogenation) This occurs in the mitochondrial matrix ( (

In the course of the oxidative phosphorylation / electron transport chain ), hydrogen / electrons are passed down-hill to oxygen ( ). the energy released is used to form ATP from ADP( (b) Similarities Both aerobic and anaerobic respiration yield energy / ATP Differences More ATP is produced in aerobic respiration. In anaerobic respiration (fermentation) in glycolysis, pyruvate is not the end product. In many bacteria, fungi and animal cells ( formation of lactate ( ( (c) ). + (3) ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and Pi, this process liberates energy for energy consuming metabolic processes. 1 ), this anaerobic process may result in the ). ), pyruvate is broken down to ethanol +

In yeast and most plant cells (

Biosynthesis (any 1 example) (

ATP provides bond energy in synthesis e.g. formation of protein from a.a., formation of polysaccharide from monosacchoride, formation of nucleic acids from nucleotide Muscle contraction (any 1 example) ( ) 1 +

ATP provides energy for actin-myosin interaction Active transport (any 1 example) ( )

energy is required for movement of substances across membranes against a concentration gradient e.g. food absorption at the small intestine, reabsorption of NaCl ( ) at the nephron ( ) for + max. (5) (d) (i) (ii) energy yield is less than lipid energy generation is less efficient compared to carbohydrate because it involves more complex metabolic pathway. E.g. deamination of a.a. max. (20) 1 homeostatic control of salt balance, sodium potassium pump in maintenance of resting potential in neurones

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HKALE 1996 Biology Paper I

4. (a) To find out the rate of anaerobic respiration ( ) (rate of carbon dioxide (1) released or rate of fermentation) ( (b) ( mark for each parameter) ) of the yeast suspension.

volume (amount) of gas produced ( ) mass (concentration) of yeast used ( ) taken to collect the volume (amount) of gas ( ) time

correct formula. ( (c) Any one

) )and cooled ( ) (just mention + ) is air-tight ( ) (just mention set-up,


Glucose solution is boiled ( cooled, no mark)

No air trap inside syringe initially (1) Ensure that the set-up ( no mark) + The yeast used is viable (1) (no mark for constant temperature maintenance) (if more than one precaution are given, mark the first precaution only) (Q4 = 4 marks) (1)

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HKALE 1997 Biology Paper I

11. (a) Start : fluid level on the left arm of manometer was higher ( ) (accept (1 ) the reverse description for the right arm of the manometer) Reason : air was injected and air pressure inside the whole system increased (1) (b) Reason : O2 in the chamber is used up / absorbed ( respiration ( reduction of air pressure ( Pressure is equalized ( ( ). ) during ) (3 )

) of the experimental animals resulting in ), CO2 emitted / released ( ).

from respiration is absorbed by soda-lime (

) when 10 mL of oxygen is used up


Mouse : Rate =

10 20 0.15

= 3.33 mL O2 h g



1 1 )] (3) 1

Grasshoppers : Rate = [formula ( (d)

10 -1 -1 = 0.36 mL O2 h g 5 5.5
), correct answer with unit (

), correct data (

To stabilize the temperature during the course of the experiment (1). Another precaution : Allow the animal(s) to acclimatize to the temperature before starting the experiment(1) / To make sure the apparatus is air tight. (2)


Mouse : rate increases (

) ) 1

Grasshoppers : rate decreases (

Mouse : more heat is lost to the environment as temperature gradient between the body and that of the environment increases ( more heat is generated ( maintain constant body temperature ( ) (max. 3) (Total : 13 marks) ), 1 ) by increased respiratory rate to

Grasshoppers : body temperature decreases as the external temperature decreases (

) and this lowe

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HKALE 1997 Biology Paper II

1. (a) ATP is an immediate source of energy / energy carrier ( presence of ATPase ( phosphate bond(s) ( ) can be hydrolysed to liberate energy ( ). In the ) used ) (or suitable enzymes), its terminal high energy ) / coupled to endergonic ) in phosphorylation (3 occurs 1 ) to pyruvate ( ), 1 ) matrix Max. 3 Oxidative phosphorviation ( the mitochondria ( In glvcolvsis ( free oxygen ( ) ), various intermediates are ) will be ) takes place on the cristae ( ) of 1 )

to drive other biochemical reactions ( of substrate ( (b) Glycolvsis ( in the matrix ( ) in cellular metabolism.

reactions. ATP can act as source of phosphate (

) (N.B. accept substrate level phosphorylation) ) of the cytoplasm. ( )

During the conversion of trios phosphate (PGAL) ( energy is liberated to form ATP ( (Also accept Krebs cycle ( ( ).

) from ADP and Pi.

) occurs in the mitochondrial (

) and the Krebs cycle (

dehydrogenated / oxidized generating NADH2, (1). In the presence of ), electrons from NADH2 and FADH2 ( transferred along the electron transport chain ( ). During this process, 4 ) 1 ) this causes the electron in the

there is a step-wise release of energy from the oxidation of electrons and such energy is used to form ATP (1) from ADP and Pi. Photo-phosphorviation ( of chloroplast ( ) ) light reaction in thylakoid / grana (

Chlorophyll absorbs light energy ( chlorophyll ( ) to be excited ( of electron carries ( ATP ( (c)

) which then passes through a chain ) and used to synthesize (13 )

). During this process energy captured in the

electron is released in a step-wise manner ( ) from ADP and Pi. ) mark each Function (

Example ( liver cell muscle cell

) mark each

(2 animal cells and 1 plant cell)

(2 on animal cells and 1 on plant cell) ATP is required for various metabolic processes ATP is required for muscle contraction

sperm cell companion cell cambium / meristematic cell

ATP is required for the motility of the sperm ATP is required for active movement of substances into the companion cells ATP is required for anabolic processes that accompanies cell division (3)

Marker should accept alternatives which are correct. In case of doubt, please consult your C / E or A / E. (Total : 20)

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HKALE 1998 Biology Paper II

5. (a) Energy source : Mitochondria potential / chemical energy in food ( (b) ) Chloroplasts light energy ( )/ sun / photon 1

Process energy release energy by breaking down food (1), in Krebs cycle ( ) capture food ( hydrogen is removed ( intermediates forming NADH( of ) Krebs cycle ) from ( ) energy ) light ), ( ) 6 by 3

photophosphorylation (

) to build up

) in photosynthesis ( absorption is excited carriers of (

after chlorophyll electron

release ( ),

excited electron (

), to a chain of

oxidation-reduction process of carriers release energy (1) used to synthesize ATP ( formed ( electron from NADH passes along the electron transport members of the chain (1) where chain undergo ) from ADP ATP ( ) from ADP ( ), )and NADPH ( ) carrying 6 ), NADPH is also

the energy are used in the dark reaction to synthesize carbohydrate (1) / hexose / starch, thus chloroplast converts light energy to potential / chemical energy ( ) stored in food

oxidation-reduction reactions releasing energy (1)to build up ATP ( ( ( ). ). This is oxidative phosphorylation

Both make ATP (

) involving electron transport chain (

) max. 13 (Overflow : 4)


Inter-relationship between mitochondria and chloroplast (1) (2) The two organelles bridge the flow of biological energy (1). Light energy from the sun (1), together with CO2 (1) and water (1) from products of cellular respiration in mitochordrina are processed in the chloroplast (1) to form carbohydrate (1). (3) The carbohydrate with stored energy (1) and O2 (1) formed in chloroplast are eventually taken up and processed by the mitochondria (1). ATP is liberated (1). Deduct mark for no comparative account, denote as C = 4 Max. 7 5 1


mark for note-form answer, denote as N = -

( Overflow : 3 ) Question Total : 20 Overflow : 7

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