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Data Coding Systems

Basic components of the computers


Computer systems consist following units:

Input unit Central Processing unit


Control Unit A.L.U(Arithmetic Logic Unit)

Storage unit Output unit

Key Board

Printer

Punch card

Video Display

Data Coding Systems

1.) Input Unit


Computers need to receive data and instruction in order to solve any problem so they need to input data and instructions. Input can be entered from a keyboard, a mouse pointing device, a USB stick and the various types of photo storage cards used by digital cameras. All input peripheral devices perform the following functions.

Accept the data and instructions from the outside world. Convert it to a form that the computer can understand. Supply that converted data to the storage unit for further processing.

2.) Storage Unit


The storage units hold data and instructions that have been entered through the input unit before they are being processed. They also hold the intermediate and final results before they are sent to the output devices. They also save the data for the later use.

Storage devices are divided into two categories:

1.) Primary Storage: Random Access Memory. (RAM)

RAM is generally used to hold the program being currently executed in the computer, the data being received from the input unit and the intermediate and final results of the program. RAM memory is temporary in nature: the data is lost when the computer is switched off.

2.) Secondary Storage. :Read Access Memory(ROM)

Data Coding Systems

The programs that you run on the computer are first transferred to the primary memory before it is actually run. Whenever the results are saved, again they get stored in the secondary memory. The secondary memory is slower and cheaper than the primary memory. i.e. CD,DVD

Data Coding Systems

3.) CPU[Central Processing Unit]

The brain of a computer system is the central processing unit (CPU). The CPU processes data transferred to it from one of the various input devices. It then transfers either an intermediate or final result of the CPU to one or more output devices. A central control section and work areas are required to perform calculations or manipulate data. It consists of a control Unit, an arithmetic-logic Unit 3.1) Control Unit This controls all the other units in the computer. The control unit instructs the input units where to store the data after receiving it from the user/ the outside world. It controls the flow of data and instructions from the storage units to ALU. It also controls the flow of results from the ALU to the storage units and to the output units which send it to the user/the outside world. 3.2) A.L.U. [Arithmetic Logic Unit] All calculations are performed in the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) of the computer. The ALU can perform basic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc and does logic operations viz, >, <, =, 'etc. Whenever calculations are required, the control unit transfers the data from storage unit to ALU.

Data Coding Systems

once the calculation are done, the results are transferred to the storage unit by the control unit and then it is send to the output unit for displaying results.

Data Coding Systems

4.) Output Unit


The data and instruction are received by CPU from an input device, the result of the processed data are sent from CPU to output device. The result are transfer from the output storage to output devices medium such as, printer, video display All output peripheral devices perform the following functions. Accept output data and instructions from the storage unit. Convert it to a form that the outside world can understand. Supply that converted data to the outside world.

Data Coding Systems

Number System

Number systems are very important to understand because the design and organization of computer depends on the number system.

Bistable Device
o In earlier computers, basic elements are relays & switches. o Basically, they can be either in any one stage( means either on(1) or off(0). They are binary in nature. o In modern computers, transistors are used. They are also working on this principle. o So, this device will always in one of two states, fully conducting or nonconducting.
o

Thus, circuits which having two possible states are called Bistable Devices.

Types Of Number System


o Binary Number System o Decimal Number System o Octal Number System o Hexa-Decimal Number System

Binary Number System


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Data Coding Systems

o The binary system is the one which is used in computer. o Binary Number system, consists of two digit 0 and 1 so, its base is 2. o These binary digits are called BIT o BIT[BInary digiT]:-A binary digit is logical 0 or 1. (101101.1011)2

Data Coding Systems

Decimal Number System


o The decimal number system consists 10 digits namely 0 to 9 so, base/ radix is 10. o A number written using these digits is called decimal numbers. (259)10

Octal Number System


o o

The basic digits in this numbers are 0 to 7. It has 8 symbols so, it has base/radix 8. (123.576)8

Hexa-Decimal Number System


o o

The basic digits in this numbers are 0 to 9 and a-f. It has 16 symbols so, it has base/radix 16. (6A9E83.C5BD)16

Data Coding Systems

Negative Numbers
o In decimal number system, to represent negative number, we just put minus(-) sign symbol before a number. o In binary machines, numbers are represented by a set of bistable devices. o To represent a negative number in binary system, additional bit will be required. o This bit is known as a sign bit & place it before the magnitude of the number. o When the sign bit is 0, the number is treated as positive, & when the sign bit is 1,the number is treated as negative.
o

Set of Storage Devices which represents a Binary number or are handled as entities are known as registers. They are give names such as Register A, Register B, Register C and so on. If Register holds +12
Sign Bit

If Register holds -15 0 1 1 1 1

o In writing a signed number in binary form, the sign bit is set apart from the magnitude of the number by means of an underscore.
o

For ex: 00111 represents +0111 10111 represents -0111

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