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Section 3: Strategies for Language Development

da, Elvia Valdez & Kristine Mortola Gabriela Barre

Total Physical Response: Integrating Movement into Language Acquisition

An approach to second-language acquisition based on first language research Teacher gradually introduces commands, acting them out as he or she says them Initially, the students respond by performing the actions as the teacher demonstrate them. Gradually, the teachers demonstrations are removed and the students respond to the verbal commands only.

Realia Strategies: Connecting Language Acquisition to the Real World Is a term for real things, concrete objects, that are used in the classroom to build background knowledge and vocabulary. Used to provide experiences on which to build and to provide students with opportunities to use all the senses in learning.

Modeled Talk: Demonstrating as You Talk

The use of gestures, visuals and demonstrations as explanations are made. This type of learning can be comforting towards ELLS, seeing that they are able to reflect exact directions and modeled content through observations and activities demonstrated by the instructor.

Vocabulary Role-Play: Building Vocabulary Through Dramatization

Is a strategy used to encourage learners to make connections among their past experiences, the content currently being studied, and vocabulary that is new or being used in an unfamiliar way. Students are introduced to new vocabulary and given an opportunity to discuss and use vocabulary in context through role-playing. In this way, ELLs have an opportunity to see the vocabulary words used in context, as well as demonstrations of several contexts in which the words may be used appropriately.

Leveled Questions: Adjusting Questions Strategies to the Language Levels of Students Used when teachers adapt the way they ask questions so that students can respond to them according to their language acquisition stage.

Collecting and Processing Words: Making Vocabulary of Your Own

Strategy for helping children develop better speaking and writing vocabularies. Allows for student to build a repertoire of words and word meanings that enables them to expand their comprehension of oral language and stories, as well as strengthen their verbal vocabulary along with writing skills. Collecting words consist of gradually jotting words on a chart as students read listen, read stories, or listen to and participate in conversations. The word charts function as record of the words students gain knowledge of as they progressively learn what they are and how they are used. Once they begin to understand the words and the meanings of them, they are to report and demonstrate back to both the teacher and the students how they were able to use the words in speech and writing.

Reporting Back: Verbal Practice in Curriculum Connection

Is a strategy used to support students in bridging the gap between spoken and written language. Can be used as a follow-up after any activelearning experience. The students describe their experience using vocabulary that is connected with the experience, so that the rest of the class has a clear understanding of the materials and sequence of actions were being used. The students then write their reportingback summary to be included in the class daily news, or their daily learning log.

Story Reenactment: Making Stories Come to Life

Strategy that encourages students to act out stories after they have read them or have heard them read. Involves creating props for the student to use in reenacting stories so that they can use the book language they have heard or read, and better comprehend the text by acting it out in sequence.

Language Focus Lessons: Support English Vocabulary and Structure Acquisition

Are lessons in which the emphasis is on English vocabulary and usage, rather than the curricular content. The language selected for language focus lessons is based on a teachers observation and knowledge of the language forms and functions that give ELLs difficulty.

Language Framework Planning: Supporting Academic Language and Context Acquisition

Strategy in which a teacher identifies the academic language necessary for students to be successful in a lesson and plans activities that support the use of the language in multiple functions. The teacher creates a framework prior to the lesson that identifies the topic, activities, language functions, language structures, and vocabulary that will be part of the lesson. By doing so, language and content acquisition are both supported.

Syntax Surgery: Visually Manipulating Grammar

Strategy that allows students to see the relationship of elements within a sentence that may be confusing to understand. ... helpful in refining the students understanding of the elements of writing and speaking that made their English difficult for others to understand... helps them to be more confident in their use of English.

Communication Games: Creating Opportunities for Verbal Communication

Activities made by the instructor for students to engage in with the goal of verbal communication practice. The games allow the students to obtain practice in the use of a particular language function such as giving directions or asking questions and working together to communicate and solve problems.