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Temporals & occipitals smaller than A. afarensis supraorbital ridge (browridge) unlike chimp less facial prognathism in lower face than chimps, but considerable mid-face projection foramen magnum (endocranial opening of hypoglossal canal) placed more anteriorly relative to the internal auditory meatus temporomandibular joint w/out definable articular eminence (very flat) lacks the broad flaring zygomatics (cheekbones) of later australopithecines


Ardipithecus ramidus
Timespan: Region: Specimens: Discovered: 4.4 mya Ethiopia 17 fossils, skull & postcranial White 1994 Holotype: Lineage: Environment: Diet: ARA-VP-6/1 descendent of Ar. kadabba Woodland Omnivorous

smaller than most A. afarensis, but larger than AL-288-1; humeral head 30% larger elliptical humeral head blunt, proximally extened ulnar olecranon process shared with w/ a straight dorsal upper shaft profile hominins anteriorly oriented trochlear notch anteriorly facing ulnar brachialis insertion strong angulation of distal radial articular surface, large styloid process like modern strong lateral trochlear ridge on the distal humerus apes elongate superposteriorly extended lateral humeral epicondyle


Bipedal on ground, quadrupedal in trees; grasping large toe possibly last common ancestor with chimps

some dental chars more similar to chimp than any known hominid deciduous molar very small (sig below the A. afarensis avg, on low end of chimp range, comparable to bonobo) size of upper and lower central incisors relative to postcanines comparable to Miocene hominids & gorillas morphology of canines differ from known apes canine enamel thickness similar to chimp but lacks apical thickening upper & lower canines larger relative to postcanines absolute & rel thinner enamel differ from shape of 1st deciduous molar; lower 3rd molar more strongly assym; Miocene & upper 3rd molar more assym living apes no anterior fovea and small, low taloned w/ minimal cupsule development upper central incisors canine morphology more incisorform differ from relatively higher crown shoulders; crowns less projecting australopithecines cupped distal wear pattern on lower canine smaller mandible P3, different shape no honing facet/different wear pattern

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ARA-VP-6/1: (juvenile) 10 teeth from 1 indiv ARA-VP-6/500 Ardi: 45% of her skeleton (including most of the skull, pelvis, hands and feet, many limb bones). Estimated height 120cm (3'11") tall; weight aprox 50 kg (110 lbs) 300-350cm3 cranial capacity ARA-VP-7/2 consists of parts of all 3 bones from the left arm of a single individual

Cerling, T. et al (2010) Comment on the Paleoenvironment of Ardipithecus ramidus, 328 (5982): 1105 Gibbons, A. (2009) A new kind of ancestor: Ardipithecus unveiled, Nature 326: 36-40. Science

Haile-selassie, Y. et al (2001) Late Miocene hominids from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia, Nature 412:178-181. Harrison, T. (2010) Apes Among the Tangled Branches of Human Origins, Science 327 (5965): 532-534 Louchart, A. et al (2009) Taphonomic, Avian, and Small-Vertebrate Indicators of Ardipithecus ramidus Habitat, Science 326 (5949): 66-66e4 Lovejoy, C. (2009) Careful Climbing in the Miocene: The Forelimbs of Ardipithecus ramidus and Humans Are Primitive, Science 326 (5949):70-78 Lovejoy, C. (2009) The Pelvis and Femur of Ardipithecus ramidus: The Emergence of Walking, Science 326 (5949): 71-76 Lovejoy, C. (2009) Combining Prehension and Propulsion: The Foot of Ardipithecus ramidus, Science 326 (5949): 72-78 Upright

Lovejoy, C. et al (2009) The Great Divides: Ardipithecus ramidus Reveals the Postcrania of Our Last Common Ancestors with African Apes, Science 326 (5949):73-106 Lovejoy, C. (2009) Reexamining Human Origins in Light of Ardipithecus ramidus, Science 326 no. 5949 pp. 74-74e8 Sarmiento, E. (2010) Comment on the Paleobiology and Classification of Ardipithecus ramidus, Science 328 (5982): 1105 Suwa, G. et al (2009) The Ardipithecus ramidus skull and its implications for hominid origins, Science 326(5949): 68e1-68e7. Suwa, G. et al (2009) Paleobiological Implications of the Ardipithecus ramidus: Dentition, Science 326(5949): 69-99. White, T. et al (1994) Australopithecus ramidus, a new species of early hominid from Aramis, Ethiopia, Nature 371:306-12. White, T. D., et al (2009) Ardipithecus ramidus and the Paleobiology of Early Hominids, Science 326(5949):64-64, 75-86. White, T. D. et al (2009) Macrovertebrate Paleontology and the Pliocene Habitat of Ardipithecus ramidus, Science 326(5949): 67-93 White, T. D. et al (2010) Response to Comment on the Paleobiology and Classification of Ardipithecus ramidus, Science 328 (5982): 1105 WoldeGabriel, G. et al (2009) The Geological, Isotopic, Botanical, Invertebrate, and Lower Vertebrate Surroundings of Ardipithecus ramidus, Science 326 (5949): 65-65e5

Aramis, Ethiopia: headwaters of drainages; all specimens surface finds