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Contents

GENETIC EVALUATION AND UTILIZATION


Overall progress 5 IR64 compared with recently released ASD16 and other IR varieties 5 A simplified method to classify rice varieties with isozymes Agronomic characteristics 7 Ratooning ability of IR varieties in Hangzhou, China 7 Performance of CR666 rice cultures 8 Performance of broadcast seeded TM8089 8 Cross compatibility between Guizhou traditional upland sinica varieties and short-statured varieties 8 Varieties suitable for direct seeding in the Ganges floodplain 9 Evapotranspiration rates of Jaya and Triveni varieties 9 Rice grain dormancy and its alleviation 10 Inheritance of tillering ability in three crosses of upland varieties 11 Performance of ORS26-2014-4 (Lalat), a medium-duration variety 12 Four new rice varieties in Bangladesh 12 Heritability of rolled leaf character Grain quality 12 Grain quality of some promising mutants 13 Grain quality characteristics of some rice varieties 13 Physicochemical properties of discolored rice grains Disease resistance 14 Field screening against tungro (RTV) in Lanrang, Indonesia 14 Multilocational screening for bacterial blight (BB) resistance Insect 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 17 resistance Reaction of rice varieties to the mite Oligonychus oryzae Resistance to whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) in Rajasthan Pothana a gall midge (GM) resistant variety for endemic areas of Andhra Pradesh Evaluation for brown planthopper (BPH) resistance New sources of resistance to gall midge (GM) and yellow stem borer (YSB) Screening for resistance to yellow stem borer (YSB) Screening rice cultivars against rice whorl maggot (RWM) Modified seedbox screening test to identify field resistance to brown planthopper (BPH) Cold tolerance Variability in yield and yield components of normal and late-sown rice in West Bengal

PEST CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT


Diseases 24 Leaf blast (Bl) outbreak in dry season rice 25 Purification and serology of ragged stunt virus (RSV) 25 Timing of planting and variety for rice tungro virus disease (RTV) control 26 A scoring system for rice yellow mottle virus disease (RYMV) 26 Crown sheath rot incidence in West Bengal 27 Nitrogen level, cultivar, and R. solani isolate effect on sheath blight (ShB) development 28 Bacterial blight (BB) in hilly regions of Nepal 28 Relationship between growth rate, sclerotia production, and virulence of isolates of Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn 29 Control of rice pests with phosphamidon 85% WP 30 Effect of low soil phosphorus and pH on bacterial blight (BB) Insects 30 Elophila sp? africalis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): A new pest of azolla in Sierra Leone 30 Leaffolder (LF) population on rice under drought 31 Pest survey in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka 31 Trap crop for green leafhopper (GLH) and tungro (RTV) management 32 Rice thrips Stenchaetothrips biformis (Bagnall) effect on yield 32 Influence of age of crop and time of planting on gall midge (GM) incidence 33 Host plants for yellow rice borer (YSB) Scirpophaga incertulas and white stem borer (WSB) S. innotata 33 Walking the rice paddy for pest sampling does not affect yield 33 Occurrence of a virulent rice gall midge (GM) Orseolia oryzae WoodMason biotype (?) in Andhra Pradesh, India 34 Some common predators of rice insect pests 34 A new brown planthopper (BPH) biotype in Parwanipur, Nepal 34 Seasonal changes in the stem borer (SB) Maliarpha separatella populations 35 Influence of cultivation on survival of the Malayan black bug in ricefields 36 Bioassay of Beauveria bassiana and Nomuraea rileyi (Deuteromycotina; Hyphomycetes) against the rice leaffolder (LF) 36 Effect of buprofezin in controlling green leafhopper (GLH) and tungro (RTV) incidence 37 Knockdown of green leafhopper (GLH) by six insecticides 37 Effect of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides on green leafhopper (GLH) and tungro (RTV) 38 Chemical control of rice gall midge (GM) Orseolia oryzivora Weeds 38 Herbicides to control weeds in transplanted rice Other pests 39 Yield loss to rice root nematode Hirschmanniella oryzae 39 Control of rice root nematode with carbofuran

18

Drought tolerance 19 Drought tolerance of some hybrids and their parents Adverse soils tolerance 21 Field screening of hybrids for the second crop in acid sulfate soils of South China Hybrid rice 22 Early-maturing hybrid rice combinations 22 Morphological characters, seed setting, and dry matter production of A and B lines 23 Performance of three new hybrid rices Tissue culture 23 A simple device for mass extraction of rice anthers

IRRIGATION WATER MANAGEMENT


40 Irrigation regime and rice yield

SOIL AND CROP MANAGEMENT


41 41 Mollisol productivity under two management levels Effect of nitrogen source and insect control on growth of a ratoon crop

42 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 47 48 48 49 49 49 50 50 51

Effect of sesbania straw in a flooded soil on soil pH, redox potential. and water-soluble nutrients Amelioration of highly alkali soil by karnal grass and para grass before rice - wheat cropping sequence Effect of pyrite and fertilizer on rice protein quality Response to nitrogen of rice in sodic soil Comparative efficiency of puddling implements Effect of sodicity and pretransplanting submergence on rice yield Effect of seeding date and seedling age on dry season yield Scarifying seeds of green manure legumes Whole-plant ratooning technique Effect of phosphates on flooded rice Effect of basally applied coated urea on grain yield Applying nitrogen with sesbania Responses of rice to N, P, and Zn in semireclaimed alkali soil Effects of several urea-based N sources Effect of urea supergranule (USG) and grain yield of varieties of different durations Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) effects on yield Weed seedlings transplanted with rice seedlings reduce grain yield

51 51 52 53 53

Nitrogen sources and placement for irrigated rice Phosphorus application in acid-sulfate soil Effect of sulfur source and fertilizer on rice yield Efficiency of phosphorus form combined with organic manure in rice rice cropping Effect of Azospirillum on ASD16 rice

RICE-BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS


53 54 Rice-based fish and vegetable cropping system in coastal saline soils Transplanted aman - potato - maize cropping pattern in Bangladesh

ANNOUNCEMENTS
54 55 56 56 Two IRRI scientists awarded Japans top science prize IRGC user guidelines Public health and rice scientists hold conference on waterborne disease New IRRI publications

ERRATA

Guidelines and Style for IRRN Contributors


Articles for publication in the International Rice Research Newsletter (IRRN) should observe the following guidelines and style. Guidelines Contributions should not exceed two pages of double-spaced typewritten text. Two figures (graphs, tables, or photos) may accompany each article. The editor will return articles that exceed space limitations. Contributions should be based on results of research on rice or on cropping patterns involving rice. Appropriate statistical analyses should be done. Announcements of the release of new rice varieties are encouraged. Pest survey data should be quantified. Give infection percentage, degree of severity, etc. Style For measurements, use the International System. Avoid national units of measure (cavan, rai, etc.). Abbreviate names of standard units of measure when they follow a number. For example: 20 kg/ha, 2 h/d. Express yield data in tonnes per hectare (t/ha). With small-scale studies, use grams per pot (g/pot) or g/row. Express time, money, and common measures in number, even when the amount is less than 10. For example: 8 min, $2, 3 kg/ha, 2-wk intervals. Write out numbers below 10 except in a series containing 10 or higher numbers. For example: six parts, seven tractors, four varieties. But There were 4 plots in India, 8 in Thailand, and 12 in Indonesia. Write out numbers that start sentences. For example: Sixty insects were put in each cage. Seventy-five percent of the yield increase is attributed to fertilizer. Place the name or denotation of chemicals or other measured materials near the unit of measure. For example: 60 kg N/ha, not 60 kg/ha N; 200 kg seed/ha, not 200 kg/ha seed. Use common names not trade names for chemicals. The US$ is the standard monetary unit in the IRRN. Data in other currencies should be converted to US$. When using acronyms, spell each out at first mention and put the specific acronym in parentheses. After that, use the acronym throughout the paper. For example: The brown planthopper (BPH) is a well-known insect pest of rice. Three BPH biotypes have been observed in Asia. Abbreviate names of months to three letters: Jun, Apr, Sep. Define in the footnote or legend any nonstandard abbreviations or symbols used in a table or figure. Do not cite references or include a bibliography.

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


OVERALL PROGRESS
IR64 compared with recently released ASD16 and other IR varieties
S. R. S. Rangasamy. C. A. Palanisamy, K. Natarajamoorthy. S. Palanisami, R. Velusamy, and S. M. Lal, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore, India
Table 2. Resistance a of ASD16 and 4 IR varieties to pests and diseases at Coimbatore, India, 1986 summer. Reaction to insects BPH S S R R S Reaction to diseases B1 RTV

Variety IR50 IR60 IR62 IR64 ASD16

GLH WBPH BB S MR R R S S S R R S S S R R MR

IR64 was compared with recently released TNAU variety ASD16 and IR50, IR60, and IR62 in a Summer 1986 trial. The random block replicated trial

S MR R R RR RR MR S

aR = resistant, MR = moderately resistant, S = susceptible.

Table 1. Performance of ASD16 and 4 IR varieties at Coimbatore, India, 1986 summer. Variety IR50 IR60 IR62 IR64 ASD16 CD Duration (d) 110 115 125 120 115 Plant ht (cm) 69.5 72.8 82.1 83.1 97.2 3.5 Tillers/ plant 10 11 9 11 8 2.2 Grains/ panicle 111 108 110 118 102 9.5 Empty grains/ panicle 23 20 20 16 19 Grain yield (g/plant) 12.4 11.7 15.3 18.2 16.7 3.4 Straw 1000Yield yield grain (t/ha) (g/plant) wt (g) 9.1 8.9 13.6 12.9 15.4 21.2 21.3 23.9 26.9 24.2 1.5 4.6 4.8 4.6 5.0 4.8

was planted 3 Apr and harvested on 6 Oct. At harvest, 10 plants from each replication were assessed for yield and yield-contributing characters. IR64 yielded 5.0 t/ ha, 0.2 t/ ha more than ASD16 and IR60 (Table 1). IR64 and IR62 compare in height, but IR62 takes 5 d longer to mature. The grain of

IR64 is long slender. IR64 is resistant to brown planthopper (BPH), green leafhopper (GLH), and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) and moderately resistant to blast (Bl), bacterial blight (BB), and tungro (RTV) (Table 2).

A simplified method to classify rice varieties with isozymes


J. C. Glaszmann, Institut de Recherches Agronomiques Tropicales et des Cultures Vivrieres, Centre International de Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement, and Plant Breeding Department, IRRI

Analyses of isozyme variation at 15 to 21 loci among traditional O. sativa rices from all continents have led to the identification of 6 varietal groups: indica (group I); japonica, with its temperate

and tropical forms (group VI), and 4 marginal groups restricted to the north of the Indian subcontinent (groups II to V). The method used to determine the classification of a given variety involves at least 15 loci and requires electrophoretic survey of at least 10 enzymes. We have developed a simplified procedure based on five diagnostic genes which permit classifying most varieties. These genes are Pgi-1 and Pgi-2, which encode phosphoglucose isomerases, and Amp-3, Amp-2, and Amp-1, which

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

A simple method to classify rice varieties with isozymes, using their genotypes at the 5 loci Pgi-1, Pgi-2, Amp-3, Amp-2, and Amp-1. IRRI, 1987.

encode aminopeptidases efficient with leucyl --naphthylamide, alanyl -naphthylamide, and both substrates. The enzymes are extracted by grinding a single plumule in a few drops of water and are separated by 4 h electrophoresis at 15 V/cm in a 14% starch gel, with a

Tris (0.009M)-Histidine (0.005M) gel buffer, pH 8.0, and a Tris (0.400M)Citrate (0.105M) electrode buffer, pH 8.0. They are stained using standard procedures. The resulting zymograms are translated in terms of loci and alleles.

These data are used to assign a given variety to one of the groups. An algorithm with five steps, corresponding to the five loci, where the criteria taken into consideration are the alleles of the variety at these loci, is used (see figure). The original and the simplified

6 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

methods were compared using a sample of more than 3,000 traditional varieties. The classification coincided in 99% of the cases. In the other 1%, rices fell into one group in one case and were

classified intermediaries in the other case. A similar finding was observed among modern varieties produced by hybridization within a group. Of 87 varieties whose parentage involves at

least 2 different groups, only 4 (5%) gave different results using the 2 methods. The simplified method is highly reliable. It is fast, cheap, and requires no sophisticated equipment.

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
Ratooning ability of IR varieties in Hangzhou, China
Qiu Baiqin and Jin Qingsheng, Crop Institute, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, China
Average duration and grain yield of IR varieties in main crop and ratoon crop. Hangzhou, China, 1986. Variety Main crop Maturity (d) 171 167 164 145 123 126 111 118 119 172 148 120 134 155 164 135 131 141 151 167 114 130 133 119 110 120 143 126 Yield (g/plant) 14.9 15.7 14.6 14.5 16.5 13.1 16.2 11.7 12.4 14.4 16.3 15.7 12.6 12.8 11.7 12.3 11.4 11.9 13.0 11.6 11.9 11.6 13.0 14.8 12.1 12.9 13.8 12.5 Ratoon crop Maturity (d) 48 56 46 52 47 50 44 48 50 42 49 51 41 50 54 57 43 42 41 45 51 Yield (g/plant) 4.2 4.5 3.8 1.8 5.8 6.4 3.8 4.1 2.4 6.0 2.7 3.3 2.6 1.5 2.9 3.0 2.9 1.7 1.4 2.6 6.1 Ratoon scale 5 5 5 9 1 1 5 5 5 1 5 5 5 9 5 5 5 9 9 5 1

We evaluated 28 IR varieties, from IR5 to IR64, for ratooning ability. Pregerminated seeds were sown on 18 Apr 1986 in a screenhouse and 8 plants of each variety were transplanted on 17 May at 20- 15-cm spacing. At maturity, plants were cut to 15-cm height and scored for ratooning ability 15 d after cutting. IR29, IR30, IR43, and IR64 had relatively high ratooning ability; ratoon crops yielded about 50% of main crops (see table). In 13 varieties, ratooning was intermediate; ratoon crops yielded 2030% of main crops. In seven varieties, the ratoon crops did not head because of the long growth duration of the main crop and subsequent low temperatures during the ratoon crop. Main crop and ratoon crop growth durations and yields did not correlate.

IR5 IR8 IR20 IR22 IR24 IR26 IR28 IR29 IR30 IR32 IR34 IR36 IR38 IR40 IR42 IR43 IR44 IR45 IR46 IR48 IR50 IR5 2 IR54 IR56 IR5 8 IR60 IR62 IR64

Performance of CR666 rice cultures


G.A. Palanisamy, K. Natarajamoorthy, and S. Palanisamy, School of Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 3, India

Performance of CR666 lines at Coimbatore, India, 1986. Line CR666-14 CR666-18 CR666-36-4 CR666-37-38 CR666-119 Duration (d) 75 74 75 73 75 Mean plant ht (cm) 68 71 66 87 65 Mean tillers/ plant 6 8 6 6 7 Panicle length (cm) 17 17 16 21 17 Yield (t/ha) 1.3 1.9 0.8 1.5 0.9

To identify a very short-duration variety that can fit into the 60-d fallow between 2 turmeric crops in Kalingarayan canal tract, we tested 5 promising lines of CR666. The entries were direct seeded on 16 Jul 86 in a randomized block design replicated three times. Because no local variety is in the 60-d duration

group, a local check could not be included. The 5 lines, which reportedly mature in 60 d at Cuttack, took about 15 d longer at Coimbatore, perhaps because

of the difference in latitude and

elevation. Cuttack is situated 20 30'N at 23 m, Coimbatore at 11 02' N at 431 m. CR666-18 gave the maximum yield, followed by CR666-37-38 (see table). IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 7

Performance of broadcast seeded TM8089 M. Subramanian, A.P.M.K. Soundararajan, and V. Sivasubramanian, Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai, Tamil Nadu, India

Comparison of TM8089 and TKM9 broadcast and transplanted. a Tamil Nadu, India. Character Plant height (cm) Productive tillers Panicle length (cm) Panicle weight (g) Grains/panicle Yield (t/ha) Difference (%)
at

Broadcast seeding TKM9 93.8 5.0 20.6 3.0 71.0 2.6 TM8089 95.2 5.0 18.6 3.0 76.0 3.1 17.5 TKM9 99.0 10.4 23.2 3.0 93.0 5.0

Transplanting TM8089 (5.696)** (4.472)** (6.321)** (8.179)** (4.989)** 103.6 10.6 22.4 3.2 97.0 5.2 5.5

(1.963)** (2.855)**

TM8089 is a high-yielding blast-tolerant red rice selection from TKM9. It was isolated at the Paddy Experiment Station, Tirur, to replace highly blastsusceptible TKM9. We compared TM8089, which is suitable for rainfed lowland cultivation, and TKM9 broadcast seeded and transplanted in 200-m2 observational plots. Broadcast seeding was at 100 kg seed/ ha. Transplanting was at 60 kg seed/ ha. Thinning and gap filling were done in the broadcast plots; transplanting was at 2 to 3

values in parentheses are highly significant.

seedlings/hill, 15- 10-cm spacing. Management practices were common for both planting treatments. Twenty hills were selected at random from each plot and plant height, productive tillers, panicle length, panicle weight, and grains/ panicle were recorded. Differences between direct seeding and transplanting were distinct

(see table). All traits were lower under broadcast seeding, in particular, number of productive tillers. TM8089 was better than TKM9 in all traits except panicle length. Its higher yield is attributed to more grains per panicle under broadcast seeding and to more grains per panicle and higher panicle weight under transplanting.

Cross compatibility between Guizhou traditional upland sinica varieties and short-statured indica varieties Shen Fu-Chen, Chen Wen-Qinag, and Pan Jian-Hui, Rice Research Institute, Academy of Agriculture Science, Guizhou Province, China

Table 1. Distribution of cross compatibility (CC) between Guizhou upland sinica varieties and shortstatured indica varieties. China, 1985. Male parent Lowland rice Upland rice Total Tota1 (no.) 545 118 663 >50% CC no. 294 81 375 % 53.94 68.64 56.56 >60% CC no. 151 45 196 % 27.71 33.14 29.26 >70% CC no. 55 22 77 % 10.09 18.64 11.61 >80% CC no. 11 9 20 % 2.02 7.63 3.02 >90% CC no. 3 3 % 2.5 0.45

Cross compatibility between 296 Guizhou traditional upland sinica varieties and 3 short-statured indica varieties was tested in 663 F 1 combinations in 1985. A number of the local upland sinicas have high cross compatibility with shortstatured indicas. The upland sinicas have higher cross compatibility with the short-statured indicas than with lowland sinicas (Table 1). They also have distinctly higher cross compatibility with short-statured Guichao 2 than with common short-statured sinicas (Table 2). The high and low cross compatibility between sinicas and indicas are negatively correlated with the latitudes and elevations of the origins of the sinicas and positively with mean temperature and >10 C cumulative 1-yr temperature of the places of origin. The closest relationship is with latitude. 8 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

Table 2. CC of short-statured Guichao 2 with local upland sinica and common short-statured sinica rice varieties. Male parent Local upland sinica Common short-statured sinica F1 distribution (no.) Total 22 24 > 60% CC 2 0 170% CC 1 0 Highest 72.52 50.36 F1 CC Lowest 30.63 10.87 Mean 49.90 33.69

Varieties suitable for direct seeding in the Ganges floodplain B.K. Singh and R.K. Roy, R.A.U. Campus, Bihar Agricultural College, Sabour 813210, Bihar, India

The Ganges River floodplain, formed through soil erosion and deposits, is estimated to total 0.24 million ha. The land is subjected to periodical flooding

in the wet season and crops are generally grown in the winter season. With the introduction of bamboo boring, another crop in the stabilized floodplain in the summer season before flooding has become possible. As a short-duration summer rice crop after winter crop harvest, transplanted, irrigated Pusa 2-21 and Pusa 33 performed well and were harvested before flooding started. But summer rice

in these areas is not catching on because of the costs of transplanting and irrigating. An early-maturing rice variety khat could be direct seeded and grown with limited irrigation is desirable. We evaluated the performance of 11 early-maturing rice varieties under direct seeding with limited irrigation in Ziauddinpur floodplain. The trial was in a randomized block design with three replications. Soil was sandy loam with medium fertility. Seeds at 80 kg/ha were sown 10 May 1985 in rows 15 cm apart. Fertilizer at 80-17.5-20 kg NPK/ha was applied. One presowing irrigation and two irrigations during the dry spell were given. The crop received 64 mm rainfall in 7 d in May, 222 mm in 18 d in Jun, and 387 mm in 23 d in Jul. Pusa 2-21 and Hathi Jhulan failed because of a severe attack of brown leaf spot disease. Varieties ES1-1-1,

Plant height, days to heading, grain yield, and yield attributes of 9 direct-seeded varieties, Bihar, India, summer 1985. Variety IET6148 ES1-1-1 ES1-2-3 IET7617 IET7564 IET7613 ES21-2-1 Cauvery Pusa 33 CD (0.05) Plant ht (cm) 85.2 86.0 78.7 82.2 96.2 91.3 81.2 84.3 88.3 6.7 Days to 50% heading 98 66 66 91 66 92 85 86 98 Panicles/m2 129 122 144 127 135 124 116 117 114 14 Panicle length (cm) 18.4 14.4 15.1 18.4 21.3 18.9 14.5 18.8 18.1 1.4 Total spikelets/ panicle 64.3 68.2 66.1 63.0 118.3 65.8 65.7 74.2 74.9 6.9 Filled spikelets/ panicle 47.0 5 8.5 56.5 46.1 100.3 48.6 51.3 54.6 56.3 6.0 1000grain wt (g) 21.6 18.7 18.2 21.3 20.0 22.0 19.0 20.9 21.4 1.0 Grain yield (t/ha) 0.9 1.2 1.5 0.9 2.1 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.1 0.6

ES1-2-3, and IET7564 were the earliest to reach 50% heading, 66 d after sowing (see table). Heading time in general was 15-20 d longer than in wet season, perhaps because of soil moisture stress during early crop stages. IET7564 had significantly higher

grain yield because it had more panicles/ m 2 and filled spikelets/ panicle. This semitall variety develops sufficient foliage in early stages to smother weeds. It has good grain quality and matures within 90 d, for harvest before floods in early Aug.

Evapotranspiration rates of Jaya and Triveni varieties M.A. Hassan and V. R. Ramachandran, Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Pattambi 679306; and J. U. Nair, Auxillary Evapotranspiration Observatory, Indian Meteorological Department, Pattambi 679306, Kerala, India

The varieties were not observed simultaneously, but were compared on the basis of daily mean ET in relation to
Table 2. Growth parameters of Triveni and Jaya. Kerala, India, 1986 kharif.

Leaf

area

index

Leaf width (mm)

Leaf angle a

We studied evapotranspiration (ET) of Jaya (120 d) and Triveni (105 d) based on data collected 1978-85 at RARS, Pattambi (1048'N, 7612'E). ET was measured using two sets of volumetric lysimeters, and potential ET (PET) was computed using the Blaney-Criddle formula as modified by Doorenbos and Pruitt. Soil was lateritic sandy loam.

Jaya Triveni Jaya Triveni

70 d after sowing b e 4.0d 8.0 6.3 7.5 Flowering phase c 8.9 d 4.2 e 4.7 7.7

170 d 18 16 d 18

average evaporative demand of the atmosphere. ET of Jaya was 41% higher than PET in Jun-Sep (kharif) and 46% higher in Oct-Jan (rabi). ET of Triveni was 41% higher than PET in Jun-Sep and 58% higher in Oct-Jan (Table 1). Jaya and Triveni had similar ET during kharif, but Triveni used 0.14 mm/d more water than Jaya during rabi. The higher ET of Triveni during rabi may have been because it had higher leaf area index and leaf angle and smaller leaf width than Jaya (Table 2).

flowering. same day. at flowering, and 10 d after flowering. d Significant at the 1% level. e Not significant.

a 70 d after sowing and 10 d after b Triveni and Jaya were sown on the c Av of 3 stages; 1 wk before flowering,

Rice grain dormancy and its alleviation A. Kapur, J. Kaur, and H. L. Sharma, Seed Research and Production Unit, Plant Breeding Department, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India

Table 1. Varietal variation in ET rates in relation to average PET. Kerala, India, 1986 kharif and rabi. Kharif Variety Jaya Trivenib Difference in ET rates in relation to av PET
aAv a

Rabi Percent increase of ET over PET 41 41 ET (mm/d) 6.05 6.19 0.14 PET (mm/d) 4.15 3.93 Percent increase of ET over PET 46 58

ET (mm/d) 4.95 4.90 +0.05

PET (mm/d) 3.51 3.47

of 3 seasons for kharif and 2 for rabi. bAv of 5 seasons each for kharif and rabi.

Seeds of IR8, Jaya, PR106, PR4141, Basmati 370, and Punjab Basmati I were collected immediately after harvest, dried to 12% moisture, and kept under ambient conditions in cloth bags. We began germination tests immediately after harvest, then every 7 d until seeds

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

attained more than 80% germination. Under ambient conditions, the coarse and semifine grain varieties broke their dormancy rapidly (5663 d) compared to superfine grain Basmati 370 and Punjab Basmati I (132140 d) (Table 1). The fine grain varieties that matured and were harvested under low temperatures broke dormancy slowly; the coarse and semifine grain varieties that encountered slightly higher temperatures during maturation and harvest lost their dormancy rapidly. It appears that temperature fluctuations near full maturity and at harvest contributed quantitatively to the dormancy barriers. To break dormancy, we presoaked seeds in GA3 , KNO3 , and water at 25C for 24 h and applied a heat treatment at 50oC in the oven for 24, 48,72, and 96 h. Water soaking showed negligible results (Table 2), indicating that dormancy barriers are not leachable. Presoaking seeds in GA3 (500 pg/ml) or KNO3 (500 l/ml) broke dormancy in all varieties. Heat treatment at 50oC for 96 h was most effective in breaking dormancy. The treatments which broke the dormancy appeared to act at the hull level by inhibiting O2 absorbing systems and at the embryo level by enhancing O2 availability and removing inhibitors. A two-block hypothesis is posited: one block seems to be at the husk level and one at the embryo level.

Table 1. Germination of rice varieties during postharvest storage under ambient conditions. Ludhiana, India. Variety Germination (%) at indicated days after harvest (DH) Coarse and semifine grain 42 21 28 35 DH DH DH DH 48 44 40 67 56 55 47 70 68 64 54 73 72 68 62 75 Dormancy (d) 63 DH 86 82 90 88 132 DH 75 88 140 DH 85 92 132-140 132-140 56-63 56-63 56-63 56-63

0 PR106 IR8 Jaya PR4141 36 24 24 58 0 Punjab Basmati 1 Bas 370 2

7 14 DH DH 40 30 28 60 45 38 32 64

49 DH 76 72 69 78 119 DH 45 75

56 DH 79 78 76 80 125 DH 63 75

7 63 DH DH 5 2 15 5

Superfine grain 70 98 105 112 DH DH DH DH 20 12 28 20 33 42 38 60

Table 2. Treatments to break dormancy and enhance germination. Ludhiana, India.


~

Treatment
Control (initial germination) Water soaking (24 h) GA3 soaking (24 h) 100 g/ml 200 g/ml 500 g/ml KNO3 soaking (24 h) 100 g/ml 200 g/ml 500 g/ml Heat treatment (50C) 24 h 48 h 72 h 96 h LSD P = 0.05

Germination (%) PR106 36.6 38.6 57.3 71.6 86.0 43.3 65.6 81.0 55.0 70.3 81.0 93.0 6.3 IR8 24.3 32.3 52.0 72.0 83.3 37.3 58.0 80.3 52.3 68.3 79.3 92.6 6.5 Jaya 24.3 30.0 53.3 68.3 91.3 40.0 59.6 80.6 61.0 76.3 84.0 94.3 6.4 PR 4141 50.6 60.0 69.0 77.6 95.6 59.3 71.0 81.0 64.6 77.0 89.0 92.0 5.0 Pb Bas 1 2.0 7.6 54.6 70.6 85.6 11.3 46.0 76.6 36.0 49.0 67.3 81.3 7.7 Bas370 8.3 50.6 63.0 87.3 10.3 39.3 71.6 23.3 47.6 70.6 80.0 5.8

Inheritance of tillering ability in three crosses of upland varieties A. Faye, M. Gningue, and O. Mane, Institut Senegalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), Djibelor, Senegal

Means, ranges, mean square, heritability coefficients, and residual heterosis for number of tillers in the F 2 of 3 crosses. ISRA, Senegal. Population IR12624-65-2 IRAT144 F2 IRAT144 Abdoulaye Mano F2 IRAT144 Barafita F2 Observations (no.) 30 28 160 50 52 160 52 52 160 Mean 6.70 3.14 6.11 4.14 4.83 5.50 4.80 5.57 5.52 Range 213 1 8 119 110 115 116 1 9 111 124 Mean square 7.87 4.27 13.69 9.87 32.69 40.39 5.33 8.45 19.58 Heritability coefficient (H) Residual heterosis

Tiller number at 40 d after seeding (DAS) is indicative of the early growth vigor essential to an early-maturing genotype. We studied allelic relationships, estimates of heritability, and residual heterosis for number of tillers at 40 DAS in 3 F 2 populations of crosses with upland rice varieties that included traditional Abdoulaye Mano, and Barafita from Senegal. In all F2 populations, heritability

57.68% 55.54% 65.73%

4.32 18.45 6.50

exceeded 50% for the character studied. In the IR12624-65-2/IRAT144 F2 , more plants showed tiller numbers closer to the IR12624-65-2 parent, which has the

higher tillering potential, than to the IRAT144 parent (see table). The distribution of F2 plants was bimodal (see figure). Adjusting observed data to

10 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

Distribution of numbers of tillers 40 DAS in the F 2 of 3 crosses of upland varieties. ISRA, Senegal.

the theoretical level for 1 gene segregation (7525%) gives a highly significant c 2. In IRAT144/Abdoulaye Mano, environmental variance undoubtedly contributed to the continuous variation in the F2 plants, which corresponds to

parental values. The weak expression of the tiller number character seems to influence moderate tiller numbers most. This explains why the residual heterosis was negative. In the IRAT144/Barafita F2, tiller

numbers at 40 DAS varied continuously. Data could not be used to test goodness of fit with expected segregation ratio. The distribution skewed more toward higher tiller numbers than it did in Barafita.

Performance of ORS26-2014-4 (Lalat), a medium-duration variety


S. K. Panda, N. Shi, and K. C. Mohapatra, Regional Research Institute, Chiplima, Sambalpur 768026, India

Yield performance and reactions to insect pests of 24 promising rice cultures. Chiplima, Sambalpur, India, 1986. Culture ORl58-7-1 ORl96-2 OR131-5-8 NDU80 RP1570-6-5-4-1 KM6 UPR79-123 UPR103-44-2 OR268-408-5 NDR302 RP1570-44-1 RP1699-174-97-1 RP1699-183-133-1 RP1699-26-1-1 UPR231-28-1-2 RP2151-40-1 RP2151-21-22 RP1832-23-3-4 IR18348-36-3-3 Rasi IR36 RP2240-153-1-51 ORS26-2014-4 (Lalat) ORS26-2008
a

Plant Days to ht 50% (cm) flowering 99.5 74.7 84.0 96.7 88.8 78.0 85.5 81.3 87.8 92.7 87.3 99.0 97.2 94.3 80.3 90.0 96.5 74.5 89.3 83.5 78.0 79.0 85.3 87.0 99 99 92 97 95 88 95 101 110 99 95 97 106 104 91 102 103 88 92 90 90 92 97 99

Panicles/m 2 238.7 345.0 292.0 270.3 211.0 257.7 236.3 232.3 202.7 310.3 306.0 236.7 326.0 348.3 290.3 338.3 295.0 296.0 255.3 225.0 229.0 215.7 275.7 265.3

Grain yield (t/ha) 1.8 2.1 1.2 2.4 1.5 1.8 1.5 1.7 1.2 1.9 2.3 1.8 1.3 1.9 2.5 3.7 3.0 1.5 2.4 2.1 2.0 2.1 4.3 2.2

Caseworm damagea 1.7 0.7 0.3 1.7 0.3 0.7 1.3 4.3 1.3 1.7 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.7 1.3 1.7 0.7 0.3 0.7 1.3 0.3 0.7 0.3 0.7

Leaffolder damagea (%) 11.2 7.5 15.3 11.0 13.3 15.7 11.7 12.5 8.9 11.2 13.2 15.1 11.0 14.6 11.7 8.2 5.8 13.5 10.7 14.4 10.3 14.6 9.9 10.9

Whitehead damagea (%) 11.1 7.5 15.3 11.0 13.3 15.1 11.7 12.5 8.8 10.0 13.2 15.1 11.2 14.6 11.7 8.2 5.8 13.5 10.7 11.1 10.0 14.5 9.9 10.9

ORS26-2014-4 (Obs 677/IR2071 //Bikram/ W1263), popularly called Lalat, is a 135-d variety. We compared it with 23 promising rice cultures of similar duration. The trial had 30-d-old seedlings transplanted 20 Feb 1986 at 20- 15-cm spacing in 6.5-m2 plots, in a randomized block design with 3 replications. Fertilizer was 80-40-40 kg NPK/ha. Pest infestation was measured at peak incidence. Lalat performed best with a yield of 4.3 t/ha (see table). Its grain is medium bold with white kernel. The plant was 85.3 cm tall, flowered in 97 d, and produced 276 panicles/m2. It was resistant to caseworm, leaffolder, and stem borer at heading.

By the Standard evaluation system for rice.

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 11

Four new rice varieties in Bangladesh M.M. Ullah and N.A. Khondaker, Regional Agricultural Research Station, P.O. Hathazari, Chittagong, Bangladesh

genes but in other combinations, the rolled leaf character was controlled

by 14 pairs of dominant genes (see table).

Inheritance of rolled leaf character in crosses. Guizhou, China, 1984-85. Cross F1 flag leaf F2 flag leaf Rolledleaf plants 138 200 135 126 129 194 630 468 354 Flatleaf plants 445 652 391 456 385 610 7 2 5 Rolled:flat c 2 P>

Four new varieties (BR12, BR14, BRl5 and BR16) were compared to popular short duration Purbachi and BRI for the first wet season crop. Thirty-day-old seedlings were transplanted on 15 May and harvested in Aug 1985. Urea, triple superphosphate, and muriate of potash were applied at 80, 30, 35 kg NPK/ha. BR14 and BR12 produced the significantly highest yields, Purbachi the lowest. BR14 matured 6 d later than Purbachi but gave 38% higher yield (see table).
Performance of new rice varieties at the Farming Systems Research site, Hathazari, Chittagong, Bangladesh, 1985.

R503/Guizhou 2 R503/Qian Yi 272 R503/Guang er ai 104 R524/Guizhou 2 R524/Qian Yi 272 R524/Guang er ai 104 R556/Guizhou 2 R556/Qian Yi 272 R556/Guang er ai 104

Flat Flat Flat Flat Flat Flat Rolled Rolled Rolled

1:3 1:3 1:3 1:3 1:3 1:3 63:1 256:1 63:1

0.5445 1.0577 0.1243 3.4845 0.0025 0.3251 0.8885 0.0140 0.0410

0.30 0.30 0.70 0.05 0.80 0.50 0.30 0.90 0.80

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


GRAIN QUALITY
Grain quality of some promising mutants M.A. Sagar and M. Ashraf; Rice Grain Quality Lab, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan

Variety BR16 BR15 BR14 BR12 BR1 Purbachi


a

Grain a yield (t/ha) 4.10 cd 4.28 bc 4.81 a 4.66 ab 3.68 cd 3.49 d

Duration (d) 124 126 122 128 113 116

Values followed by a common letter do not differ Significantly at the 5% level of probability.

We examined the physicochemical characteristics of two mutants developed at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad. DM16-5-1

from Basmati 370 has significantly higher yield (29.16%) than its parent. FG6 from IR6 has higher head rice recovery (8%) than its parent. No significant differences were found between parent and mutant for 100-grain weight, grain length, breadth, size and shape, elongation ratio, amylose content, and gelatinization temperature. However, the length to breadth ratio for both groups differed

Quality characteristics of milled rice of mutants and their parents. Islamabad, Pakistan. Aromatic Non-aromatic Statistical a significance NS NS NS S S NS HS NS NS HS HS HS NS IR6 1.8 7.0 2.0 3.6 Long Slender 13.2 1.9 5.0 46.0 29.6 8.0 7.0 59.8 67.0 None FG6 1.8 1.2 1.8 4.0 Long Slender 13.4 1.8 1.5 42.8 28.1 7.2 7.0 47.5 66.0 None Statistical a significance NS NS NS S NS NS HS S NS HS NS HS NS

Heritability of rolled leaf character Shen Fu-Chen, Liu Chuan-Xiu, and Pan Jian- Hui, Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guizhou Province, China

Characteristic 100-grain weight (g) Grain length (mm) Grain breadth (mm) Length: breadth Grain size and shape

Basmati DM16-5-1 370

Heritability of the rolled leaf character has been found to be controlled by a pair of mainly recessive genes. Using R503, R524, and R556, with the rolled leaf, as female parents, and Guizhou 2, Guang er ai 104, and Qian Yi 272, with a flat leaf, as male parents, we observed the F1 and F2 in 1984 and 1985. In some combinations, the character seemed to be controlled by a pair of

1.5 6.6 1.6 4.2 Long Slender Cooked grain length (mm) 13.3 2.0 Elongation ratio Chalkiness score 5 .0 40.4 Whiteness Amylose content (% dry basis) 20.0 8.4 Protein content (% N 5.95) Alkali spreading value 5.2 46.8 Gel consistency (mm) Gelatinization temp (C) 70.5 Strong Aroma
aS

1.5 6.6 1.7 3.9 Long Slender 12.4 1.9 8 .0 41.2 19.3 7.3 4.3 50.8 72.1 Moderately strong

= significant at the 5% level, HS = significant at the 1% level, NS = nonsignificant.

12 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

significantly (see table). Chalkiness scores, protein content, and gel consistency tests also were significantly different. But gel consistency values can

be taken as similar because they ranged from 41 to 60 mm. Cooked grain length of DM16-5-1 was less than that of Basmati 370; in

FG6, it was the same as in IR6. Aroma was strong in Basmati 370 and moderately strong in DM16-5-1. 1R6 and FG6 had no aroma.

Grain quality characteristics of some rice varieties A. N. Kihupi, Sokoine University of


Agriculture, Crop Science Department, P. O. Box 3005, Morogoro, Tanzania

We evaluated 36 lines and varieties for yield and grain quality characteristics. Plot size was 3.6 2 m with 20- 20cm plant spacing. Afaa Mwanza and M38 had the highest grain yields, followed by IR46,

IR36, M40, IR42, and 1ET2379; CR1005 and IR5 had the lowest (see table). The materials tested differed significantly in grain length to breadth ratio: the highest ratio was for Faya Theresa (slender), and the lowest ratio for F46 (medium). Supa India had the longest grains (extra long) and Cross 10 the shortest (medium). Amylose content varied, 19-28%. Popular varieties in Tanzania Afaa Mwanza, Faya Theresa, Supa India,

and Kihogo Red had intermediate amyloses, as do a number of the introduced varieties. It was not possible to separate highamylose rices into those with soft and hard gel consistency because laboratory facilities are limited.

Individuals, organizations, and media are invited to quote or reprint articles or excerpts from articles in the IRRN.

Grain yield and quality characteristics of some rice varieties. Ngerengere, Tanzania. Line or variety M38 Afaa Mwanza M40 IR46 IR36 IR42 IR48 IET2379 TOX502-25-115 IR34 Cross 14 M26 Faya Theresa Cross 3 F19 TOX494-5-1-B-2 M48 Cross 10 Supa India Kihogo Red IR3274-348-1-6 M9 B57C-MD-10-2 Cross IR4570-124-3 F46 M50 BKN6986-147-6 IITA63-84 IR5931-81-1-1 M13 Kinandang Patong IR1539-823-1-4 Ram Tulasi CR1005 IR5 Mean CV (%) Grain yield (t/ha) 7.2 7.1 6.9 6.8 6.6 6.5 6.3 6.3 6.1 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.3 5.1 5.1 4.9 4.9 74.8 4.8 4.8 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.2 4.1 3.5 3.5 3.2 2.0 2.1 5.2 19.4 Grain length (mm) 7.4 6.7 7.0 6.6 5.9 6.8 6.3 6.4 7.4 7.1 6.01 6.5 6.5 6.01 5.8 7.5 6.7 5.7 7.7 7.1 5.7 6.6 6.5 5.9 6.6 6.5 6.8 7.1 7.4 6.7 6.7 7.30 6.69 6.70 6.61 6.46 6.65 5.99 Size category Long Long Long Long Medium Long Medium Medium Long Long Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Long Long Medium Extra long Long Medium Long Medium Medium Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Medium Length: breadth 4.5 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.4 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.2 4.4 2.6 2.7 4.7 3.4 3.3 4.1 3.8 3.1 3.6 3.6 2.8 3.7 3.3 2.7 3.7 2.6 4.2 3.0 3.2 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.2 3.5 3.4 3.4 7.7 Shape Slender Slender Slender Slender Slender Medium Slender Slender Slender Slender Medium Medium Slender Slender Slender Slender Slender Slender Slender Slender Medium Slender Slender Medium Slender Medium Slender Slender Slender Slender Slender Slender Slender Slender Slender Slender Amylose content (%) 21 24 2.4 22 28 23 23 28 20 25 21 23 22 22 22 22 19 24 23 24 25 28 25 21 21 25 26 26 24 28 20 23 26 24 22 23 23 Type Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate High Intermediate Intermediate High Low High Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate Low Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate High High High Intermediate Intermediate High High High Intermediate High Low Intermudiate High Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate

Physicochemical properties of discolored rice grains


E. P. Navasero and M. D. Window, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, P.M. B. 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria

Discolored grains of ITA307 were obtained from IITAs high rainfall station at Onne in southern Nigeria. The samples were divided into healthy (glume discoloration 1-5%) and discolored (more than 5% discolored) grains. Part of each sample was parboiled in the laboratory. (Parboiled rice is widely accepted in Nigeria and other West African countries.) Discolored grains had lower dry weights for rough and brown rice than healthy grains. Head rice yield is also low (see table). After parboiling, milling yields, translucency, and hardness improved for both healthy and discolored grains. Discolored glumes did not necessarily result in discolored milled rice. However, parboiling accentuated discoloration. In ITA307, cooking time and gelatinization temperature were not much affected by discoloration. Amylose content slightly decreased in discolored grains.

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 13

Physicochemical properties of parboiled and unparboiled discolored grains. Ibadan, Nigeria. Property Dry weight (mg)/grain Rough rice Brown rice Milling yield (% of rough rice) Milled rice Head rice Hardness (kg) Chalkiness a Discoloration (%) Gelatinization temperature a Cooking time (min) Amylose content (%) Healthy raw 28.8 24.6 73.6 36.8 6 5 3 HI/I 25 14.9 Discolored raw 26.8 21.9 71.3 31.5 6 5 5 HI/I 24 13.4 Healthy parboiled 28.4 24.4 79.0 77.4 14 0 9 I 24 14.2

Discolored parboiled 25.9 22.6 77.0 76.0 14 0 20 I 24 13.8

CV

LSD (5%)

0.21 0.15

0.18 0.11

Milled rice

1.03 2.45 2.49 8.40 5.5


6.1

1.46 1.19

ns 0.54

Complete slide sets of photos printed in Field problems of tropical rice, revised 1983, are available for purchase at $50 (less developed country price) or $60 (developed country price), including airmail postage and handling, from the Communication and Publications Department, Division R, IRRI, P. O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines. NO orders for surface mail handling will be accepted.

Standard evaluation system for rice.

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


DISEASE RESISTANCE
Field screening against tungro (RTV) in Lanrang, Indonesia M. Sudiak S., A. Muis, and S. Sama, Maros Research Institute for Food Crops, P.O. Box 173, Ujung Pandang, Indonesia
Table continued Line RTV score a 4 WT
0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

6 WT
1 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

8 WT
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Line
B6678d B5994-Mr-28-3-3-3-0 B6229-Mr-14-3-2-2 B5964-Mr-12-1-2-1 B6932-Mr-1-blk B6229-Mr-28-1-1-2 B5960-Mr-18-8-1-1-0 B6932-Mr-10-blk B6733-Mr-7-2 B5517f-Kn-22-0-0 B6932-Mr-11-blk B6696-Mr-14-3 B6932-Mr-25-blk B6680-Mr-9-3 B6058-Mr-19-2-1-2 B6679-Mr-23-2
a By the SES 09 scale.

RTV score 4 WT
1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

6WT
3 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1

8 WT
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Breeding lines from the Bogor Research

Lines identified as resistant to RTV and their reaction at 4, 6, 8 WT at Lanrang, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Line B6240-Mr-1-3-3 B6228-Mr-10-1-1-2 B6242-Mr-23-3-1 B6236-Mr-14-1-2 B6932-Mr-26-blk B6025-Mr-56-1-3-2-0 B6209e B 6 716-Mr-4-3 B6240-Mr-1-3-2 B6680-Mr-9-6 B6346-Mr-3-2-1 B6228-Mr-10-1-1-3 B6448-2-Mr-4-3-2 B6448-2-Mr-4-3-1 B6350-Mr-6-2-1 B6723-Mr-1-4 B6229-Mr-28-1-1-1 B6208e B6234-Mr-14-2-3-1 B6007-Mr-34-1-1-2-0 B6058-Mr-16-2-3-3 B6733-Mr-2-2 B6058-Mr-14-2-3-2 B6228-Mr-47-4-3 RTV score a 4 WT 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 WT 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 WT 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

B6228-Mr-47-4-1 B7000-Mr-8 B5960-Mr-18-9-3-0 B7004-Mr-1 B6553-Mr-1-1 B6058-Mr-19-2-1-2 B6682-Mr-1-2 B6471-Mr-6-3-1 B6548-Mr-1-2 B6058-Mr-19-2-1-1 M6964-Mr-4-3-3 B6448-2-Mr-4-3-1 B6058-Mr-19-2-3-2 B6446-25-Mr-2-14 B6207e

B6443-10-Mr-1-1-2

Institute for Food Crops (BORIF) were evaluated in the field during the 1986 monsoon season to identify sources resistant to RTV. Each line was transplanted in 2 rows of 20 hills/row at 20- 20-cm spacing. RTV-infected TN1 plants were transplanted in 1 row between each line. The trial plot was fertilized at 90 kg N and 26 kg P/ha. RTV was scored by the Standard evaluation system for rice (SES) at 4, 6, and 8 wk after transplanting (WT). Of 1,500 accessions screened, 56 were resistant to RTV (see table).

Multilocational screening for bacterial blight (BB) resistance K. V. Patel, D. G. Vala, T. C. Patel, and S. Raman, National Agricultural Research Project, Gujarat Agricultural University, Navsari 396450, India

With increased irrigation facilities, rice has become a major food crop in Gujarat. It is grown predominantly in the south. BB (Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae), false smut (Ustilaginoidea virens now Claviceps oryzae), and blast

14 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

(Pyricularia oryzae) are major diseases. BB inflicts heavy losses every year. During 1984-85 kharif, we screened 103 entries for BB resistance under natural disease pressure in Navsari and Vyara. Each entry was transplanted in 2 rows, each 2.25 0.3 m. One row of highly susceptible GR11 was transplanted between each entry and on all sides. Fertilizer was applied at 15075-0 kg NPK/ha. At 40 d after transplanting, the entries were inoculated by clipping the leaf tips and spraying a bacterial suspension collected

from naturally infected leaves. Disease severity was rated on the Standard evaluation system for rice, 15 d after inoculation. Variation in disease intensity in the two locations may be due to variation in the pathogen as well as differences in disease pressure (see table). Of the 103 entries screened, none were resistant, only 4 were moderately resistant (IRTP8160, IRTP10492, lRTP12158, and 3-8-3-3-1), and 23 scored 5 at both sites.

Screening of rice cultures against BB under natural conditions. Navsari, India, 1984-85 kharif. BB score 1 3 5 7 9 Total Entries (no.) Navsari 1 15 51 29 7 103 Vyara 19 54 29 1 103 Entries (no.) common at both locations 4 23 6

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


INSECT RESISTANCE
Reaction of rice varieties to the mite Oligonychus oryzae M. Velusamy, D. Alice, and M. Subramanian, Rice Research Station (RRS), Ambasamudram, Tamil Nadu 627401, India

A sudden and severe incidence of O. oryzae occurred the first week of Sep 1986 at RRS, when maximum temperature shot up to 36 C. Mites inhabited the underside of the rice lamina in the nursery as well as in the

main fields. Affected plants showed whitish patches on leaf surfaces; in severe cases, the leaves turned grayish white and dried up. Severe incidence also occurred in Echinochloa colona, a wetland weed found with rice that may be an alternate host. Fifteen Tamil Nadu and 8 IRRI varieties being raised in nonrandomized observational plots (10 m2) were screened for reaction to mite. The crops

were at the booting to heading stage. Population/cm 2 was measured by selecting 2 leaves from random hills and counting mites on a cm2 area. For percent leaf area affected, leaves were selected from 5 random hills and affected and unaffected portions measured. Most of the Tamil Nadu varieties had no mite incidence (see table). IRRI varieties were affected, particularly IR62.

Reaction of rice varieties to mite incidence in Tamil Nadu, India, 1986. Variety TM8089 TKM9 TNAU80058 CO 41 ACMl0 ACM9 AD85001 AD9246 ADT36 IR60 IR30 AD24417 AD25723 PY3 IR56 IR52 IR64 ADT31 IR50 IR58 TPS1 CO 39 IR62 Origin Tamil Tamil Tamil Tamil Tamil Tamil Tamil Tamil Tamil IRRI IRRI Tamil Tamil Tamil IRRI IRRI IRRI Tamil IRRI IRRI Tamil Tamil IRRI Nadu Nadu Nadu Nadu Nadu Nadu Nadu Nadu Nadu Nadu Nadu Nadu Mites/cm2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 6 6 6 6 10 10 15 15 20 Leaf damage (%) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 5 5 6 2 15 21 21 22 24 28 60 60 100

Resistance to whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) in Rajasthan R.S. Tripathi and R. Pandya, Agriculture Research Station, Banswara, India

Nadu Nadu Nadu

WBPH was found for the first time in Rajasthan during the 1986 wet season. The infestation began the first week of Sep, infested varieties began showing hopperburn patches in late Sep. We evaluated resistance in the field of 30 varieties from the Uniform Varietal Trial early group and 20 varieties from the advanced trial. Varieties were grown in a randomized block design at 20- 15-cm spacing with 3 replications. Scoring according to the Standard evaluation system for rice was in the last week of Oct.

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 15

Resistance of rice varieties to WBPH at Banswara, India, 1986 wet season. Variety RPW6-18 Pusa 44-33 R35-2750 RP825-28-7-1 RP25-45-1-3 BR51-46-1-0-1 IR52 RP1670-1418-2208-1585 RAU72-9-20-1-1 UPR239-151-1-1 UPR231-28-1-2 RP1898-6 HKR 101 RP2151-40-1 RP2151-21-22 RP1831-36-1-4 RP1832-23-3-4 RR5 1-1 RP2086-74-6-1 CR314-5-10 CR314-5-3 RP2240-86-84 RP2240-153-151 RP2246-72 HKP20 AR26-5-3-5 NRL-162 SKL-17-67-11 Pusa 587-2-1 RNDR88-1-1 UPR79-151 UPRS1-47 KD3-5-13 RP9263-2256-2 RP2263-2561-1 RP1686-616-1 RP2440-32-28 RP2240-142-139 RR52-1 IR18348-36-3-3 BK79 BK190 BK398 BK657 Chambal BK770 CR220-66 Ratna Jaya IR36
aBy

Cross IR8/Siam 9 IR5901-2/IR8 IR8JW1263 Vijaya/PTB21 Vijaya/PTB21 IR20/IR5-114-3 Nam Sagui 19/IR2071//IR206 M63-83/Cauvery IR8/IR12-178 Hamsa/IR24 Ratna/YR13-89-11 Mettasanna/Rasi IET4141/CR98-7216 IET4141/CR98-7216 Surekha/CR147-7369 CR141-7404/Surekha ARC665O/TNl//Mudgo/PTB 33 IET5854/IET6187 RP143-4/Phalguna RP143-4/Phalguna Pusa 2-21/Surekha Paizam/IR8 Jaya mutant/Bas. 370 W13400/W11216 IR36/T21 Sona/ARC1154 Sona/ARC1154 IET3262/Dhaneswar RP143-4/Phalguna RP143-4/Phalguna CR188-10/Indira IR5657-33-2-1/IR2061-465-1-5-5

Damage ratinga 7 9 4 6 5 7 5 8 4 7 5 5 5 3 4 1 2 8 9 8 9 3 5 6 4 2 6 6 2 3 6 6 4 5 7 9 7 7 9 3 6 7 5 8 4 5 6 8 9 6

Reactionb S HS MR S MR S MR HS MR S MR MR MR R MR R R HS HS HS HS R MR S MR R S S R R S S MR MR S HS S S HS R S S MR HS MR MR S HS HS S

Pothana a gall midge (GM) resistant variety for endemic areas of Andhra Pradesh N. Kulkarni, P. P. Reddy, D. V. Rao, and G. B. Rao, Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Agricultural Research Station, Warangal 506007, India

Pothana (IR579/ W12708), recently released for GM endemic areas, is 90 cm tall and produces compact, dense panicles and long slender grains. The leaf margin and other plant parts are purple. It matures in 125 d during the monsoon and 135 d during the winter seasons. It is almost immune to GM attack and is tolerant of yellow stem borer. In trials from 1982 to 1984, Pothana yielded an average 4.3 t/ha. Because GM incidence is high in the monsoon crop, the yield advantage in this season is spectacular. Among 64 varieties tested at 21 locations in 1981, Pothana ranked second with a grain yield of 4 t/ha.

Evaluation for brown planthopper (BPH) resistance N. K. Dhal and S. K. Panda. Regional Research Institute, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Chiplima, Sambalpur 768026, India

We evaluated field resistance to BPH of 13 cultivars, including Jaya and Ratna


Field resistance of rice varieties to BPH in Cuttack, Orissa, India, 1983. Variety OR131-13-13 IR13429-196-1-20 IR36 OR131-11 CR157-22-1900 IR1342-108-2-2-3 OR158-13-1 OR131-3-1 OR136-3 Ratna Jaya ORl31-3-3 IR19661-364-1-2-3 BPH Days to Yield no./hill 50% (t/ha) at 90 DT flowering 11.4 19.6 63.1 7.7 32.9 32.2 197.5 8.9 16.5 217.6 112.3 9.7 9.4 86 82 87 96 91 85 88 100 99 82 98 98 96 4.9 4.2 4.2 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.4 3.3 2.9 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.0

the Standard evaluation system for rice. bR = resistant, MR = moderately resistant, S = susceptible, HS = highly susceptible.

Eight varieties scored resistant and 15 moderately resistant (see table). Eleven were highly susceptible. RP1831-36-1-4, RP1832-23-3-4, AR26-5-3-5. and Pusa

587-2-1 showed high resistance; Jaya, Pusa 44-33, CR314-5-3, RP1686-616-1, RR52-1, and RP2086-74-6-1 were highly susceptible.

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16 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

as susceptible checks, in the summer season in the Adaptive Research Centre, Barachana, Cuttack. Three-week-old seedlings were planted in 20-m2 plots at 15- 10-cm spacing in a randomized block design with 3 replications. The BPH population was sampled from 20 hills/plot at 15-d intervals, starting from 45 d after transplanting (DT). The BPH population did not exceed 8 individuals/hill until 60 DT; at 90 DT susceptible Ratna and Jaya had 218 and 112 BPH/hill. OR158-13-1 was highly susceptible with 198 BPH/hill. OR13111 and OR131-13-13 had only 7.7 and 11.3 BPH/hill and yielded more than 4 t/ha (see table).

seedlings were transplanted/hill with 20 15-cm spacing in 3-m-long rows. TN1 was the susceptible check. Deadheart damage on 20 hills of each variety was recorded at 50 d after transplanting. ARC5500, ARC6588, CO 18, RYT2908, W1263, ASD7, T7, RP2199-

115-2, ARC62 15, and Manoharsali scored resistant (0-5% deadhearts). RP2199-162-2 was moderately resistant (5.1-10% deadhearts). Other entries were susceptible (10.1-25% deadhearts) or highly susceptible (more than 25% deadhearts).

Screening rice cultivars against rice whorl maggot (RWM) M. Velusamy, D. Alice, and M. Subramanian, Rice Research Station, Ambasamudram, Tamil Nadu, India

New sources of resistance to gall midge (GM) and yellow stem borer (YSB) N. Kulkarni, G.V.S.P. Rao, and T. Narsaiah, Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Agricultural Research Station, Warangal 506007, India

We screened 21 varieties against RWM Hydrellia sasakii in the 1986 multilocation trial. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. The cross plot size was 8.325 m 2 .

Seedlings were planted 15 cm between rows and 10 cm within rows. Affected leaves and unaffected leaves were counted from 5 random hills/plot. At 25 d after transplanting, damage was 22-57% (see table). IR64 had 57% damage. Nineteen entries, with more than 25% damage, were considered highly susceptible. Only IR28128-45-2 and TNAUBPHR831293, with 25 and 22% damage, were classified moderately resistant.

Varieties highly susceptible and moderately resistant to RWM. Ambasamudram, Tamil Nadu, 1986. Variety Cross combination Highly susceptible IR5657-33-2-1/IR2061-465-1-5-5 Jhona 349/IR28 ITB33/IR30/IR36 TM7/IR8 Manila/IR8 Triveni/CO 39 T7/1R8 BG280-1*2/PTB33 ADT31/CO 39 PV2/IR36 M63-83/Sarya N22/IR36 PY2/IR36 Triveni/IR20 Selection from IR50 T7/IR8 TKM9/IR36 ASDl/IRON297 Moderately resistant IR36/IRlO154-23-3-3//IR9129-209-2-2-2-1 T7/IR20 Leaf damage (%) 57.3 56.6 52.2 52.1 51.7 50.7 50.0 50.0 45.5 43.9 42.0 39.7 38.8 34.8 36 .0 33.3 33.3 31.3 29.5 25.0 22.2

GM and YSB are serious pests of rice in the Northern Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh in both monsoon and winter seasons. We screened 97 varieties for resistance to natural infestations of YSB and GM. Entries were planted in single 3-mlong rows; each row had 20 plants. GM incidence was recorded 50 d after transplanting; whitehead damage caused by YSB was recorded at harvest. IET8340, IET8637, IET8797, RP1579-36-33, RP2091-272-3-4-8, RP2091-272-8-2-7, RP2434-24-1-2, Moirangpheu, Aganni, and W1263 had less than 5% GM and YSB damage.

IR64 ACM5 IR62 TKM9 ACM12 ACM11 ET7254 TNAUBPHR831305 BG367-4 (AD 85003) ASD16 TNAU83152 KT7987 IET7988 TNAU831520 ADT36 ACM9 TNAUBPHR831305 AS28883 AS25370 IR28128-45-2 TNAUBPHR831293

Screening for resistance to yellow stem borer (YSB) N. Kulkarni, G.V.S.P. Rao, and T. Narsaiah, Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Agricultural Research Station, Warangal 506007, India Modified seedbox screening test to identify field resistance to brown planthopper (BPH) F.G. Medrano and E.A. Heinrichs, Entomology Department, IRRI; S. Alam and M.S. Alam, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute; Y.Y. Jackson, Brewer, Solomon Islands; and D. Senadhira and N. Wickramasinghe, CARI, Sri Lanka

We screened 24 varieties for YSB resistance under natural infestation during 1984 kharif. Two 30-d-old

In field screening for resistance to BPH at IRRI, some varieties are resistant in the field but susceptible at early seedling stage in the greenhouse. We modified the standard seedbox screening test

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 17

BPH damage ratings of selected rice varieties in 4 countries in the standard and the modified seedbox screening tests. Damage rating a Variety IRRI Biotype 1 SSST Sinna Sivappu Kencana IR26 IR46 ASD7 Utri Rajapan Triveni TN1 1.5 6.5 3.0 1.5 2.0 6.0 8.0 9.0 a bc a a a b cd d MSST 1.0 2.5 2.5 1.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 9.0 Biotype 2 SSST 1.5 a 6.0 c 8.5 d 8.0 d 3.5 b 7.5 cd 8.5 d 9.0 d MSST 1.5 1.5 8.5 1.5 1.5 1.0 5.0 9.0 a a a a a Biotype 3 SSST 1.0 a 6.0 bcd 3.5 ab 4.0 bc 8.5 d 6.5 cd 7.5 d 8.0 d MSST 1.5 3.0 4.0 3.5 8.5 4.5 6.5 9.0 a ab ab ab c ab bc c Bangladesh SSST 1.0 a 9.0 c 8.0 c 6.0 b 9.0 c 9.0 c 9.0 c 9.0 c MSST 1.0 a 9.0 c 5.0 b 5.0 b 9.0 c 6.0 c 6.0 c 9.0 c Solomon Islands SSST 1.0 7.8 8.8 7.0 7.5 9.0 8.0 9.0 a bc c b bc c bc c MSST 1.0 a 6.8 de 7.0 e 3.0 b 5.5 c 6.0 cd 7.2 e 9.0 f Sri Lanka SSST 5.5 a 7.5 bc 7.0 ab 7.5 bc 8.0 bc 7.5 bc 7.0 ab 9.0 c MSST 6.0 6.0 8.0 8.0 8.5 5.0 5.5 8.5 a a

a ab ab ab a ab b

b c

a a

b b b b

a By the SES scale 09: 0 = no damage, 9 = plants killed. In a column, means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by

Duncans multiple range test.

(SSST) to identify field-resistant varieties in the greenhouse. Varieties in which resistance is expressed in older plants are useful because their resistance may be stable and not easily broken down by the selection of virulent biotypes. The feeding behavior of the South Asia BPH population differs from that of Southeast Asia BPH. Some varieties that are resistant in Southeast Asia are not resistant in South Asia and vice versa. A collaborative project compared the SSST and the modified standard seedbox screening test (MSST) in tests conducted in the Philippines, Bangladesh, Solomon Islands, and Sri Lanka. Seeds of eight varieties and methods for conducting the tests were sent from IRRI. Varieties were selected on the basis of their reactions in SSST and in IRRI fields. Sinna Sivappu was the resistant (R) check, TN1 was the susceptible (S) check. IR26 was selected as the basis for testing IR46. IR26 is S to biotype 2 in the SSST and in the field; IR46 is S in the SSST but R in the field. ASD7 is a R check for biotypes 1 and 2 and a S check for biotype 3. Kencana, Utri Rajapan, and Triveni are S in the SSST, but moderately R to R in the field. Test insects were reared on 60- to 80d-old TNI plants except for biotypes 2 and 3, which were reared on Mudgo and ASD7 at IRRI. In the commonly used SSST, 25 seeds of each variety are sown in a 60- 45 7-cm seedbox in 20-cm rows with

5-cm spacing between rows. Varieties are arranged in a randomized complete block design with one row of each variety replicated four times. At 7 d after sowing (DAS), each seedling is infested with 8 to 10 2d- or 3d-instar nymphs. When plants in the S TN1 check are killed, damage is scored by the Standard evaluation system for rice (SES). The design and methods used for MSST are the same as for SSST except that each seedling was infested at 10 DAS with 3 to 5 2d- or 3d-instar nymphs. The F1 progeny of the initially infested insects killed the S check about 28 d after initial infestation. Kencana was moderately susceptible (MS) or S to all three biotypes in the SSST in all countries, but R in the MSST at IRRI (see table). IR46 and IR26, with the same major resistance gene (Bph 1), had similar reactions in the SSST at all locations. In the MSST, however, IR46 was R to biotype 2 and

the Solomon Islands population, IR26 was S. In IRRI field tests, IR46 was R to biotype 2. Utri Rajapan and Triveni had lower damage ratings in the MSST than in the SSST at all locations. At IRRI, Utri Rajapan had a rating of 7.5 in the SSST and 1 in the MSST for biotype 2. It becomes tolerant of biotype 2 after the seedling stage in both greenhouse and field tests. Only Utri Rajapan and Triveni showed field resistance across all locations. The lack of uniformity in Kencana and IR46 may be due to a lack of field resistance to certain populations or to some variation in the methodology used. Utri Rajapan is being used as a donor of field resistance to BPH in breeding programs at IRRI. It also has a high tolerance for BPH and whitebacked planthopper and is resistant to rice tungro virus.

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


COLD TOLERANCE
Variability in yield and yield components of normal and latesown rice in West Bengal S. K. B. Roy, State Agricultural E xperimental Station, Malda, West Bengal, India
2

Stagnant rainwater or flash floods in Jul

and early Aug often damage the seedbed or newly transplanted seedlings. Farmers have to prepare fresh seedbed. When floodwater recedes, new seedbeds cause late transplanting in the main field. Varieties adapted to different sowing times are needed to replace traditional

18 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

Variability in yield and yield components under normal and late sowings. Malda, West Bengal, India, 1985-86. Sowing date 13 Jul Line CN657-21 CN671-28 CN671-29 Mean CN657-21 CN671-28 CN671-29 Mean % reduction Variety (V) Sowing (S) V S Duration (d) 106 111 102 106 92 101 87 93 12.3 180.4** 635.2** 11.9** Plant height (cm) 161 149 131 147 137 121 98 119 19.0 81.05** 39.23** 1.3 ns Panicle length (cm) 21 24 23 23 23 23 22 23 0.0 0.07 ns 0.014 ns 0.019 ns Tillers (no.) 8 7 10 8 11 9 13 11 37.5 6.83** 12.61** 0.46 ns Grains/ panicle 120 173 145 146 122 127 103 117 19.8 130.5** 303.6** 95.72** 1000grain wt (g) 28 25 30 27.6 29 28 29 28.6 3.6 34.4** 9.4** 19.1** Yield (t/ha) 2.5 2.8 2.6 2.6 1.5 1.5 1.8 1.6 38.46 0.84 ns 6.55** 0.34 ns Sterility (%) 19 18 20 19 19 23 24 22

10 Aug

F value a

** = significant at the 1% level.

varieties. Late-planted rice generally encounters two environmental factors that can reduce yield: a gradual decline in average night/day temperatures and drought during the reproductive stage. The effects are pronounced in northern West Bengal. We conducted an experiment in the old Gangetic alluvium region at Malda (2533'N) to identify important characters for late sowing and to evaluate the effect of temperature on the reproductive stage.

Three advanced lines derived from CNL 231/Pankaj and Pankalash/CRI006 crosses were sown on 13 Jul and 10 Aug. The 30-d-old seedlings were transplanted 20 15 cm apart in 5-m2 plots with 5 replications. Fertilizer was applied 60-30-30 kg NPK/ha. In the variability study, heading duration, total grains/panicle, and 1,000-grain weight significantly differed among varieties and by sowing date, and variety sowing interaction (see table). Although plant height, filled

grains/panicle, and yield were reduced by 19, 19.8, and 38.5% in late sown rices, effective tiller numbers and 1,000grain weight increased. Days to heading was 102-1 11 in the Jul-sown crop and 87-101 in the Augsown crop. Average temperature was 26.5 C during panicle initiation for Jul and 23.3 C for Aug sowings. Average temperatures of 22 C and 20 C prevailed during grain filling. Although low temperatures were not critical for mid-Aug sowing, sterility % was higher with late sowing.

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


DROUGHT TOLERANCE
Drought tolerance of some rice hybrids and their parents
D. K. Sharma, M. N. Shrivastava, P.S. Shrivastava, and A.S.R.A.S. Sastry, Zonal Agricultural Research Station, J. N. Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, College of Agriculture, Raipur 492012, M. P., India

In several crop plants, hybrids have shown higher drought tolerance than their parents. This has been attributed to deeper and more developed root systems. Under such situations as midseason rain failures in rainfed rice, this capacity could make the difference between a relatively good crop and a total failure.

We evaluated 11 rice hybrids and their parents for drought tolerance in a split-plot design in 2 replications using 15 plants each during the 1984 dry season. Irrigation treatments were in main plots and the hybrids and their parents in subplots. Irrigation was withheld for 14 d at late tillering or panicle initiation. Plots were normally irrigated afterwards. The mean values and percent reduction of four traits under normal irrigation and under drought stress are presented in the table. Grain yield reduction in five hybrids was less than in the lesser affected parent. In another five hybrids, it was between the two parents. Only one hybrid had higher yield reduction than

both parents, probably because this hybrid flowered in late May and was affected by hot winds. Among the parents, Taichung Senyu 285 had exceptionally high tolerance for drought, with higher yield under stress than all the other hybrids. None of the correlation coefficients between characters were significant.

Individuals, organizations, and media are invited to quote or reprint articles or excerpts from articles in the IRRN.

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 19

Grain yield reduction and some yield components of hybrids and their parents under irrigated and drought conditions. Raipur, India, 1984 dry season. Entry Situation a Plant height Mean (cm) 7 2.4 60.2 61.0 60.0 74.0 56.4 60.0 52.6 60.0 54.4 12.4 57.2 75 .0 58.7 60.6 50.5 75.0 65.1 77.7 61.5 65.0 54.3 71.2 58.4 72.2 56.1 7 3.4 62.6 76.6 55.2 72.0 55.1 62.3 54.3 60.4 56.1 74.0 60.8 66.2 53.4 67.8 62.3 68.2 57.8 63.2 47.4 0.4 2.3 3.3 Reduction (%) 16.8 1.6 23.8 12.3 9.3 21.0 21.7 17.0 13.2 13.1 16.5 17.7 22.3 14.7 27.9 23.5 12.8 7.1 17.8 19.3 8.1 15.2 25.0 Effective tillers Mean (no.) 15.2 14.1 15 .0 10.0 13.6 13.4 13.3 12.7 10.0 7.2 15.5 15.2 16.3 16.0 15.3 12.2 14.3 12.3 11.2 10.1 15.0 11.1 12.0 10.9 12.0 11.3 17 .0 12.4 19.0 13.8 19.0 15.9 7.0 5.8 23.0 16.3 16.0 13.7 17 .0 15.5 21.0 13.8 16.0 12.0 25 .0 19.5 0.5 1.7 2.4 Reduction (%) 7.2 33.3 1.5 4.5 28.0 1.9 1.8 20.3 14.0 9.8 26.0 9.2 5.8 27.1 27.4 16.3 17.1 29.1 14.4 8.8 34.3 25.0 22.0 Filled grains/panicle Mean (no .) 63.6 48.7 77.3 61.0 74.0 35.3 94.0 62.9 60.4 46.4 73.0 66.8 75.0 35.8 70.3 59.4 71.5 29.2 77.8 59.8 69.0 29.7 77.2 70.2 75.0 24.0 73.4 39.2 76.6 44.3 72.0 41.2 62.3 41.8 60.4 27.6 74.0 52.0 66.2 32.8 75.6 62.6 69.0 39.1 69.0 39.1 2.5 2.8 3.9 Reduction (%) 23.4 21.1 52.3 33.1 23.2 8.5 52.2 15.5 59.2 23.1 56.9 9.1 68.0 45.6 42.2 42.8 32.9 54.3 29.7 50.0 17.2 43.3 43.3 Grain yield/plant Mean (g) 15.2 14.1 15.0 12.9 13.6 12.3 13.3 11.4 11.0 9.6 15.5 13.0 16.2 15.5 18.5 16.0 14.5 8.3 16.0 11.8 15.0 9.3 16.6 13.2 9.4 7.7 13.8 9.4 18.4 7.7 13.6 5.8 9.7 7.9 17.6 12.2 16.2 8.9 18.6 17.9 19.2 16.4 13.2 12.1 19.2 12.9 0.8 1.3 1.8 Reduction (%) 7.2 14.0 9.6 14.3 12.7 16.1 4.3 13.5 42.7 26.3 38.0 20.5 24.5 31.9 58.1 57.3 18.6 30.7 45.1 3.8 14.6 8.3 32.8

BG367-4/MW10 IR25571-31/MW10 MW10/Samridhi IR36/Azucena IR9752-71/Ratna Taichung Senyu 285/Samridhi Taichung Senyu 285/MW10 RP1140-27/Ratna IR13240-82/IR36 IR25571-31/Poorva Taichung Senyu 285/Poorva MWl0 BG367-4 IR25571-31 Samridhi IR36 Azucena IR9752-71 Ratna Taichung Senyu 285 Poorva RP1140-27 IR13240-32 LSD (0.05) Main plot means Subplot means Subplots at same main plot level
a N = normal, D = drought.

N D N D N D N D N D N D N D N D N D N D N D N D N D N D N D N D N D N D N D N D N D N D N D

The International Rice Research Newsletter (IRRN) invites all scientists to contribute concise summaries of significant rice research for publication. Contributions should be limited to one or two pages and no more than two short tables, figures, or photographs. Contributions are subject to editing and abridgment to meet space limitations. Authors will be identified by name, title, and research organization.

20 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


ADVERSE SOILS TOLERANCE
Field screening of hybrids for the second crop in acid sulfate soils of South China

K. Tan and Jinpei Li, Research Laboratory of Tropic and Subtropic Soils, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China

We screened acid-tolerant hybrids for the second crop in acid sulfate soils (Table 1) of Duanfen and Wencun, Taishan County, Guangdong Province, in 1985. At Duanfen, 18 varieties were tested
Table 1. Characteristics of the acid sulfate soils in Duanfen and Wencun, South China, 1985. Item pH (H 2 O) pH (KCl) Total N (%) Organic C (%) Available P (Olsen, ppm) Exchangeable K (meq/100 g) Available Zn (ppm) (0.05 N HCl) Water soluble SO 4 (meq/100 g) Active Fe (%) Active Mn (ppm) Particle size (%) Sand (2-0.005 mm) Silt (0.05-0.001 mm) Clay (<0.001 mm) Location Duanfen 3.85 3.17 0.22 3.13 1.6 0.29 7.8 0.44 2.70 20.1 6.6 62.9 30.4 Wencun 3.71 3.23 0.17 2.16 4.4 0.45 8.1 1.28 2.49 19.5 22.7 58.2 19.1

under 2 fertilizer treatments: with (1.6 t CaO/ha) and without. Limed or not, Shanyou 63 yielded best, followed by Qingyouzao, Ganghuaqinglan Fo, and Shanyou 36 without liming (Table 2). Because early high rainfall might have decreased soil acidity, only some varieties showed slight Fe toxicity in the late growth stage and the difference between the fertilizer treatments was not significant. In general, most hybrids

tested adapted to the soil. In Wencun, 31 rice varieties were screened with NPK fertilizers. The varieties suffered more severe Fe toxicity in late growth stage. Many grains on panicles were empty in 21 varieties (Table 3). The yield variation in Wencun was affected by percentage filled spikelets rather than straw weight, panicle numbers, and grains/panicle.

Table 2. Grain yield of second crop of rice screened in acid sulfate soil at Duanfen, South China, 1985. Tested rice Variety Shanyou 63 Qingyouzao Ganghuaqinglan Fo Shanyou 36 Shanyou 2 Shanyouxuan 30 Ce 64 Qiuzhongai Zhubao 384 Shanyou 64 V-you 35 Wanhuaai 1 Qinghuaai 6 Gangbaiai Qinghuaai Guishanai Liuyou 2 Xiangaizao 9
a

Grain yield Type


a

Without liming kg/plot 1.00 0.98 0.95 0.93 0.89 0.89 0.85 0.81 0.76 0.73 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.71 0.68 0.66 0.66 0.33 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 10 11 12 13 13 14

With liming kg/plot 1.04 0.82 0.81 0.87 0.77 0.93 0.67 0.67 0.82 0.79 0.63 0.75 0.77 0.65 0 .80 0.62 0.61 0.30 Rank 1 4 5 3 8 2 10 10 4 7 12 9 8 11 6 13 14 15

HV HV HV HV HV HV RV RV RV HV HV RV RV RV RV RV HV RV

HV = hybrid variety, RV = regular variety.

Table 3. Field screening of second crop rice in acid sulfate soil at Wencun, South China, 1985. Tested rice Variety Chanjiang 204 Qinghuaai 6 Ganghuaqinglan Fo Ciuzhongai Zhubao 384 IR54 IR4422-480-2-3-3 IR46 Gangbaiai IR32307-107-3-2-2 Shanyou 35 IR28228-119-2 Continued on next page Type RV RV HV RV RV IV IV IV RV IV HV IV
a

Growth period (d) 147 141 141 141 139 138 139 139 137 134 131 143

Dry straw wt (kg/plot) 2.87 2.05 1.74 1.75 2.07 2.65 2.88 2.82 2.03 1.97 1.87 3.02

Av panicles/ plant 10.5 8.4 10.0 8.1 8.8 9.2 7.6 8.9 10.5 10.7 11.6 11.1

Grains/ panicle 95.4 91.6 80.1 123.0 75.3 85.9 86.8 106.5 72.8 101.9 76.2 107.7

Ripe state Better Better Better Better Better General General General General General b GWFR GWFR

Filled spikelets (%) 68.0 67.3 62.3 67.0 77.9 53.7 46.2 52.4 50.3 41.2 27.6 14.9

Grain yield (kg/plot) 2.01 1.80 1.75 1.60 1.54 1.36 1.20 1.16 1.10 1.07 0.83 0.81

Grain yield rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 21

Table continued Tested rice Variety IR36 V-you 35 IR42 Wanhuaai 1 Shanyou 64 Xiangaizao 9 Shanyou 36 Guo 16 Shanyou 63 Yuachi 231-8 IR131427-60-1-3-2-2 IR50 Liuyou 2 Ce 64 IR58 IR29725-22-3-3-3 IR9764-45-2-2 IR13145-45-2-3 IR25587-133-3-2-2-2
a IV

Type a IV HV IV RV HV RV HV RV HV RV IV IV HV RV IV IV IV IV IV

Growth period (d) 134 133 143 141 132 134 131 138 133 136 132 132 133 133 132 132 145 145 145

Dry straw wt (kg/plot) 1.50 1.75 3.17 2.00 2.66 1.52 2.62 2.41 2.41 2.57 2.71 2.96 2.86 2.87 2.58 2.67 -------

Av panicles/ plant 10.5 10.4 8.2 7.7 10.3 14.5 11.1 9.8 9.7 15.0 13.0 14.6 7.8 8.7 8.1 11.0 -------

Grains/ panicle 62.6 59.6 103.6 81.0 63.5 40.2 59.4 104.0 75.5 56.6 57.2 60.5 60.1 87.6 79.3 57.0 -------

Ripe state GWFR GWFR GWFR GWFR GWFR GWFR GWFR GWFR GWFR GWFR GWFR GWFR GWFR GWFR GWFR GWFR GWFR GWFR GWFR

Filled spikelets (%) 8.1 25.7 25.0 43.7 7.7 14.4 4.2 16.0 11.7 0.5 2.1 7.4 16.0 12.9 0.4 2.5 -------

Grain yield (kg/plot) 0.71 0.67 0.58 0.5 3 0.51 0.45 0.35 0.33 0.31 0.24 0.21 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.14 0.08 -------

Grain yield rank 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 24 25 26 27 -------

= IRRI variety. b Green without full ripeness.

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


HYBRID RICE
Early-maturing hybrid rice combinations
Mao Chang-Xiang, Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center, Changsha, China

Ten newly developed early-maturing hybrid rice combinations were tested in a six-location yield trial in the first cropping season 1986 in Hunan Province. Plot size was 13.3 m 2 in 3 replications. Sowing was from the end of Mar to early Apr with harvesting

date by the end of Jul. Wei You 35 is a high-yielding combination developed in 1980. Xie Qing Zao A/Xuan 10-19 had the significantly highest yield (see table). It is moderately resistant to bacterial blight and blast. L301 A/R29, with good grain quality, was selected in Texas, USA, by Chinese scientists. Its yield is not significantly lower than that of Wei You 35. Xie Qing Zao A/Xuan 10-19 and L301 A/R29 were developed by the Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center.

Morphological characters, seed setting, and dry matter production of A and B lines
M. Rangaswamy, S.R.S. Rangasamy, K. Natarajamoorthy, and V. Sivasubramanian, School of Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore 641003, India

Growth duration and yield of newly developed early-maturing rice hybrids. Hunan, China, 1986. Combination Xie Qing Zao A/Xuan 10-19 L301 A/R29 Xie Qing Zao A/S 5 -200 V 20 A/H 78 Wei You 26 V 20 A/383 Z 97 A/To 326 V 20 A/305 V20 A/S5 -990 Chang 22 A/T 65 Wei You 35 (check)
a

Growth duration (d) 118.8 117.4 119.6 121.6 117.0 117.8 118.8 119.0 115.0 126.6 120.6

Yield (t/ha) 7.9 7.2 7.0 7.0 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.5 5.5 7.4

Increase (%) over check 7.66 a 2.37 4.44 5.17 7.76* 7.90* 8.14* 9.69* 11.57** 24.85**

Yie1d/d per ha (kg) 66.8 61.4 59.0 57.6 58.1 51.8 57.0 56.0 56.7 43.8 61.2

Morphological characters, seed set percentage, root to straw ratio, and dry matter production were estimated in 11 cytosterile lines of rice (A) and their maintainers (B). Five are from China, four from IRRI, and two from TNAU. The cytosteriles were high in total dry matter production, predominantly distributed in root and straw (see table). In general, root:straw was higher in A lines than in B lines. Plants of B lines were taller, but panicle length was greater in A lines. The increased weight of vegetative parts in A lines may be due to the mobilization of nutrients to tillers and the prolonged vegetative phase. These, however, were not utilized by the reproductive parts because of poor sink

Significant at the 5% (*) and 1% (**) levels.

22 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

Characters of A and B lines. TNAU, India. Line Plant ht (cm) A V20 Zhen-shan 97 Er-jiu-Nan 1 Yar-ai-Zhao 1 Yar-ai-Zhao 2 IR46827 IR46828 IR46829 IR46830 TNMS31 TNMS37 Mean CD (0.05)
a

Panicle length (cm) A 19.9 20.8 18.8 18.5 22.5 19.9 22.1 20.0 21.4 22.0 22.1 20.7 2.3 B 18.0 19.6 17.3 19.3 21.2 17.9 19.8 18.1 18.5 21.5 22.9 19.5 2.6

B 66 73 65 68 78 69 74 67 63 96 93 74 21

Panicle exsertiona (cm) B 1.52 1.54 1.64 1.66 1.68 1.61 1.62 1.58 1.60 1.65 1.74 1.62 ns

Tillers (no.) A 8 19 20 17 15 24 19 11 21 17 15 17 6 B 6 6 8 9 6 18 13 7 8 10 9 9 5

Root length (cm) A 13.6 18.6 18.0 14.0 10.6 17.8 17.7 14.5 18.2 14.7 18.9 16.1 3.2 B 12.2 17.2 17.0 14.8 11.6 19.3 15.1 16.3 17.1 14.2 17.2 15.6 2.5

Straw dry wt (g) A 5.8 12.5 14.5 8.5 8.3 17.8 17.5 16.5 15.3 16.6 18.3 13.8 5.2 A 4.1 4.3 4.5 7.5 6.1 5.0 5.2 4.8 4.6 11.5 9.0 6.1 2.6

Root dry wt (g) B 4.7 6.0 8.5 7.5 5.5 8.5 7.0 6.0 7.7 9.2 8.0 7.2 2.1 B 2.5 2.5 3.0 5.0 4.7 3.5 3.3 4.0 4.0 8.5 6.5 4.3 1.8

Root to straw ratio A 1.23 2.08 1.71 1.13 1.51 2.09 2.50 2.75 1.99 1.80 2.29 1.92 0.48 B 1.64 1.72 1.50 1.50 1.30 1.43 1.56 1.20 1.15 1.35 1.38 1.43 ns

Grain setting (%) A 19.5 13.5 11.0 16.2 9.6 14.3 7.5 11.5 17.6 9.5 17.9 13.5 3.4 B 80.9 79.8 88.6 68.5 74.7 77.2 77.9 81.8 76.6 85.9 87.9 80.0 12.4

64 57 63 67 70 62 62 58 58 90 82 67 16

Values were zero for A.

size reflected by spikelet sterility. The reduction in height of A lines may be due to lack of panicle exsertion from the Performance of three new hybrid rices

boot leaf. Poor panicle exsertion in the male sterile lines may be associated with a nonrestorer gene or it may be due to

interaction between nonrestorer gene and sterile cytoplasm.

Performance of new hybrid rices in yield trials in Changsha, China, 1986. Character Plant height (cm) Growth duration (d) Panicles (no./m 2) Filled spikelets (no./panicle) 1000-grain wt (g) Yield (t/ha) Brown rice yield (%) length (mm) width (%) length: width Total milling yield (%) Head rice (%) Chalky rice a (%) Chalky area of milled ricea (%) Gel consistency (mm) Alkali spreading value (scale) Amylose content (%)
aBased

Xie Fangming, Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center, Changsha, Hunan, China
We evaluated the yield potential and grain quality of three new hybrid rices in Changsha in May-Sep 1986. Seeds were sown 14 May; 30-d-old seedlings were transplanted at 2 seedlings/ hill and 20- l5-cm spacing in a randomized block design with 3 replications. II-32 A/ MH63 performed well and is expected to be released commercially (see table). Although its yield was not significantly higher than that of Shan You 63, a widely grown hybrid in south and southwest China, its seed production is considerably higher because the cytoplasmic male sterile (cms) line II-32 A possesses such floral traits as large stigma, good panicle, and stigma exsertion, suitable for a higher natural outcrossing rate. The cms lines used in the new hybrids possess a cms system different from that of WA types. Tian-Ai A is gametophytic, others are sporophytic. MH63, the R line used in the four combinations, was derived from a strain of Gui 630/ IR30. Lodging caused some yield loss due to heavy rain during grain ripening.

11-32 A/ MH63 119 137 296 12 2 27.2 8.5 79.7 6.5 2.6 2.5 75.7 33.6 15.5 1.8 27 6.7 20.3

Tian Ai A/ MH63 119 132 342 93 27.6 7.8 78.7 6.7 2.5 2.7 72.7 62.5 32.0 2.3 35 5.6 21.2

Guang-Tan 69 A/ MH63 123 133 320 97 25.5 7.4 80.4 6.6 2.4 2.8 73.8 41.0 27.0 4.3 38.5 6.5 21.1

Shan You 63 (check) 117 129 311 106 29.3 8.3

on the weight of rough rice.

Genetic Evaluation and Utilization


TISSUE CULTURE
A simple device for mass extraction of rice anthers S. K. Raina and S. Hadi, Biotechnology Centre, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India

Anther culture techniques for use in breedinggenerallyshowlowefficiency.

Inoculating several thousand anthers is necessary to generate a pollen-plants population large enough for selecting desirable type(s). Because their flowering duration is short, several F1 hybrids or other material may have to be utilized within a short period. Isolation of anthers becomes a cumbersome and labor-intensive job.

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 23

Procedure for mass extraction of anthers from rice florets. All operations are carried out under aseptic conditions and, therefore, all the necessary instruments, glassware, etc. are sterilized.

These limitations restrict the quantity of anther culturing possible and have often been criticized as impractical. We have evolved a simple device for mass extraction of anthers (see figure). We used an animal cage feeding bottle (125 ml capacity) made of polypropylene or polymethylpentane and fitted a 3.5-cm length of steel tubing into the screw cap of the bottle. From the bottom to about 3/4 up the bottle, horizontal slits about 1.5 mm wide and 3 cm long are made 4 mm apart in 4 vertical rows. Slits of one row correspond to the gaps of the adjacent row. When florets are stirred in the bottle, the slits allow the anthers to pass through, leaving empty glumes behind. After each lot of florets, the debris can

be removed and the device rinsed with sterile distilled water. We have recorded anther yields of over 80% and found that anthers can be

isolated in less than 50% of the time needed in conventional methods. The device is resistant to breakage, autoclavable, and reusable.

Pest Control and Management


DISEASES
Leaf blast (BI) outbreak in dry season rice N.K. Dhal, S.S. Nanda, S.S. Mishra, and B. Mishra, Regional Research Station (RRS), Chiplima 768026, India

Bl caused by Pyricularia oryzae, known to be endemic in the hilly tracts of Orissa during wet seasons, has invaded

dry season rice in the Hirakud command areas of Western Orissa. Leaf Bl appeared for the first time in the 1982 dry season and was severe in 1986. We surveyed disease incidence and found that popular varieties Daya, IR50, and ORS26-2014-4 were affected, with disease intensities ranging from 41.2 to 82.9%. However, IR36 and Pratap were resistant. Disease intensity

24 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

Effect of N level on leaf B1 intensity and rice yield. Orissa, India. N level (kg/ha) 0 40 80 120 160 CD (0.05) CV (%)
aFigures

Disease intensitya (%) 27.19 47.13 60.87 67.54 68.43 7.58 11.43 (31.39) (43.35) (51.30) (55.60) (55.82)

Yield (t/ha) 2.9 3.9 3.1 2.7 2.2 ns 25.5

in the parentheses are angular transformation values.

was higher at higher N levels. In a trial at RRS, Chiplima, Daya was grown in randomized block design plots with four replications. N levels were 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 kg/ ha. Leaf B1 appeared at maximum tillering during the second wk of Mar, when night temperatures were as low as 15.5 19.5 C, day temperatures as high as 32.536 C, accompanied by high morning relative humidity of 91.096.5. All fully emerged leaves of 20 random1y

selected hills from each plot were examined. Scoring followed the Standard evaluation system for rice. Disease intensity was calculated:
% disease intensity = sum of disease score 100 maximum disease score no. of leaves examined

Disease intensity increased significantly with increased N but differences in grain yield were not significant (see table).

Purification and serology of ragged stunt virus (RSV) A. Parejarearn and H. Hibino, IRRI

RSV was purified from RSV-infected TN1 plants (Omura procedure with some modifications). Plants with roots were homogenized with 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) in 0.01 M MgC12 . Sap clarified by freezing overnight and defrosting at room temperature was treated with 1% Triton X-100 for 30 min. Virus precipitated with 6% PEG 6000 and 0.3 M sodium chloride was suspended in 0.1 M histidine buffer in 0.01 M MgC12 (pH 7.0). The suspension was treated with 20% CCl4 and differentially centrifuged. The virus fraction was layered on 2050% linear sucrose density gradient and centrifuged at 25,000 rev/min for 90 min in a Beckman SW27 rotor. The zone containing virus particles was recovered with an ISCO Model 640

2. Agar gel diffusion test showing serological relation between RSV in the Philip pines and Thailand. The center well contains purified RSV in the Philippines and the outer wells contain antisera to RSV in the Philippines (P) and Thailand (T), and phosphate buffer.

UA5 scanner and centrifuged at 40,000 rev/min for 60 min. The purified virus fraction had maximum UV adsorption

at 260 nm, and UV adsorption ratio at 260 nm and 280 (A 260/280 ) was 1.92.1. Purified virus particles were about 60 nm in diameter (Fig. 1). Five 1-ml aliquots of purified virus fractions, of which A260 nm was adjusted to 1.0, were injected into 2 rabbits at 2wk intervals. The first four injections were intramuscular, the last injection was intravenous. One week after the last injection, antisera were collected. The antisera had a titre of 1:1280 in both ring-interface precipitin and double agar gel diffusion tests. In the gel diffusion test, a single band was formed between purified RSV and the antisera, and between RSV and antiserum to RSV from Thailand. The reaction bands fused (Fig. 2), indicating that RSV in the Philippines and in Thailand are serologically indistinguishable.

Timing of planting and variety for rice tungro virus disease (RTV) control R.C. Cabunagan, Z.M. Flores, H. Hibino, F. Elazegui, and T.W. Mew, Plant Pathology Department, IRRI

1. Electron micrograph of purified RSV negatively stained in 2% uranyl acetate. X100,000.

We studied time of planting and variety relationship to RTV incidence in first and second crop transplanted rice at Guimba, Nueva Ecija, Philippines. The first crop was established in Jun, Jul, Aug, and Sep and the second crop in Oct, Nov, Dec, and Jan. Twenty-oneday-old seedlings of IR36, IR42, IR50, IR58, IR64, and TN1 (susceptible

check) were transplanted in 2- 2-m plots with 20 20 cm between hills and 23 seedlings/hill. The plants were subjected to natural RTV infection in the field. At 30 d after transplanting, vector leafhopper populations were estimated by average leafhopper numbers/ 10 sweeps in the plots; RTV-associated virus incidence was determined serologically. Two leafhopper species, Nephotettix virescens and N. nigropictus, were present in the area. N. virescens was predominant. Fewer than 1 insect/sweep was obtained in plots planted in Jun. Leafhopper catches continued low for

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 25

Jul and Aug plantings, but increased for Sep plantings and reached 12 insects/ sweep for Oct plantings. The population declined during the relatively cool months of Dec and Jan (Fig. 1). Incidence of the bacilliform virus (RTBV) and the spherical virus (RTSV) increased with leafhopper populations. Regardless of month of planting, RTSV incidence was present (Fig. 1b). Infection with RTSV alone did not cause RTV symptoms. Dual infection with RTBV and RTSV was observed in Jun, Sep, and Oct plantings. Regardless of month of planting, TN1 was most infected, followed by IR36 and IR42 (Fig. 1c). IR50, IR58, and IR64 were seldom infected.

Average density of the vector leafhoppers (a) and incidence of RTBV and RTSV (b) at 30 d after transplanting in 6 varieties transplanted monthly from Jun 1985 to Jan 1986; and incidence in each variety regardless of month of transplanting (c).

A scoring system for rice yellow mottle virus disease (RYMV)


V. T. John and G. Thottapilly, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Nigeria

RYMV, an African specific disease of lowland rice varieties, has been studied for its etiology and to screen for resistance. But a standard evaluation system for this disease has not been reported. The disease is systemic and variable under different growing conditions. Symptoms vary with age of host. Different varieties show different symptoms. Even after repeated inoculations, some immune varieties do not show any virus serologically, even
Table 1. Scoring system for RYMV. Score Resistancea Leaf color

by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Others with little or no symptoms give positive reactions with ELISA. The scoring system we propose is compatible with the Standard evaluation system for rice. Scores are based on leaf color, mottling, plant height, flowering,
Table 2. Differential varieties for RYMV. Score 0 2 4 7 9 Resistance grade HR R MR S HS Varieties Oryza glaberrima accessions such as Tog 5612, Tog 5681 Moroberekan, LAC23 OS6, ITA235 BG90-2, IR5 ITA212

and sero-reaction determined by agargel diffusion and ELISA techniques. The serological techniques are for restricted use in critical laboratory tests. Most field scores can be based on visual symptoms. In the score range, 0 represents immunity and 9 extreme susceptibility (death of infected plant) (Table 1). The actual score range is typified by certain rice varieties which when inoculated display characteristic symptoms (Table 2).

Crown sheath rot incidence in West Bengal


D. K. Nayak and H.S. Chakrabarti, Rice Research Station, Chinsurah, Hooghly, West Bengal, India

Stunting

Flowering

Sero-diagnosis b ELISA Agar-gel diffusion

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
a HR

HR R R R MR MR S S S HS

Green Green Green Green with sparse dots/streaks Green with visible mottling Light green, mottled Pale green Pale yellow Yellow Yellow, orange

Nil Nil Nil Negligible Slight 25% 50% 75% >75% >75%

Normal Normal Normal Normal Normal Slight delay Delayed Delayed No flowering Death of plants

+ ++ + (weak) +++ + +++ ++ Highly positive Highly positive Highly positive Highly positive Highly positive

= highly resistant, R = resistant, MR = moderately resistant, S = susceptible, and HS = highly susceptible. b = doubtful, = negative, + = low virus content, ++ = high virus content, +++ = very high virus content.

Early symptoms of crown sheath rot were reddish brown lesions in patches on the outer leaf sheaths at the crown of the plants. Gradually, the lesions spread throughout the crown sheaths and became dark brown to black. At maturity, clusters of perithecia were produced in the lesions. In severely affected clumps, the culms rotted causing incomplete exsertion and leaf drying (see figure). Microscopic examination of the rotted crown sheaths showed the

26 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

Incidence of crown sheath rot disease in rice in West Bengal.

presence of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis, characterized by hyphae with distinct hyphopodia and beaked perithecia that produced unitunicate asci with eight long, curved ascospores.

Nitrogen level, cultivar, and R. solani isolate effect on sheath blight (ShB) development A. K.M. Shahjahan, N. Fabellar, and T. W. Mew, Plant Pathology Department, IRRI

Eight rice varieties differing in duration, plant height, and ShB susceptibility were grown in 30-cm-diam pots in the greenhouse with 2 N levels: 1.6 g and 3.2 g/pot. N was applied in 2 equal splits at 21 d after transplanting and at panicle initiation. Staggered planting synchronized booting. Ten isolates of R. solani differing in growth rate, sclerotia production, and culture type were selected from 98 isolates collected from rice, grass, millet, maize, water hyacinth, and weeds. Plants were inoculated at booting with inocula prepared in a rice hull:rice grain medium. About 100 ml of the inocula was placed between tillers. Inoculated plants were covered with polyethylene sheets at night. Lesion height/plant height was recorded at 5d intervals. The ratios of

1. Vertical development of ShB in IR58 by different isolates of R. solani at 2 N levels. IRRI, 1987.

leaf to sheath area infection were compared 28 d after inoculation. Development of relative lesion height (RLH) and percent area infected (PAI) by isolates of R. solani differed among varieties. The influence of N level was apparent only at later stages of lesion

development. However, there was an isolate N interaction. Isolate RS72-1 produced the lowest RLH as well as PAI in all varieties and was the least virulent isolate tested (Fig. 1,2). The other isolates developed higher RLH and PAI in IR58 and IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 27

Taichung 176 varieties. Himali and Purple were heavily infected. Infection was uniform and distributed throughout the plots. Aggregate infected area was about 1.5 ha. Although infection was severe and uniform, grain filling was not much affected, maybe because it was a late foliar infection. The combination of rainy weather, strong winds, and moderate temperatures in Kathmandu favored rapid disease spread. Maximum and minimum temperatures Jun-Oct were 28 C and 19 C. Total rainfall was 1,040 mm in 87 d. BB also was found in the western hilly regions: Khurkot, Armadi, and Shibalaya Panchayat in Parbat district; Kalika and Mulpani Panchayat, including Baglung Bazar, in Baglung district, and Ratnechour Panchayat in Myagdi district. Local varieties Gudura, Gauriwa, Jarneli, Aanadi, Aagani, and Panhela, and improved varieties Masuli and Khumal 3 were infected. Most of the incidences were in river basin areas (774 m) up to the mid-range of hills (1,084 m). Infection was mostly in shaded areas.

2. Vertical development of ShB in IR64 by different isolates of R. solani at 2 N levels. IRRI, 1987.

Relationship between growth rate, sclerotia production, and virulence of isolates of Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn
A. K. M. Shahjahan, N. Fabellar, and T. W. Mew, IRRI

IR1317 (short varieties) than in Narnpungbyeo, Ta-poo-cho-z, and IR26 (tall varieties). The results suggest that,

in addition to other factors, ShB development will be influenced by the virulence of the pathogen isolate.

Bacterial blight (BB) in hilly regions of Nepal


H. K. Manandhar, B. J. Thapa, and P. Amatya, Division of Plant Pathology, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal

BB caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae (Ishiyama, 1922) Dye was first observed in the terai region with the introduction of high-yielding rice varieties. Taichung Native 1 was the first

victim. Later, improved varieties IR5, Jaya, Padma, and IR24, and some local varieties were infected. This disease has been confined to hilly regions. In a disease survey in Sep 1986, BB symptoms were observed in the Sorahkhutte, Nayabazar, and Mhaipi areas (altitude about 1,238 m) of Kathmandu valley. Blighted specimens were tested in the laboratory and BB was confirmed. The disease was found in Himali, Purple, Khumal-3, and

Cultures of Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight were isolated from diseased specimens of rice, grass, weeds, water hyacinth, maize, and millet from fields on the IRRI farm and in Laguna Province, Philippines. Growth rate (regression coefficient), sclerotia production (no./plate in 10 d), and cultural characteristics of 98 isolates were studied using potato dextrose agar(PDA) medium enriched with 0.1% urea. Virulence of 10 isolates representing different culture types, growth rate, and sclerotia production were tested on IR58

28 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

Growth rate, sclerotia production, culture type, and virulence of 10 isolates of R. solani a IRRI, 1987. Isolate no. RS9-1 RS16-1 RS26-1 RS27-1 RS44-8 RS52-2 RS64-4 RS68-4 RS72-1 RSl4-3
a

Host Rice Rice Grass Millet Rice Rice Rice Rice Rice Rice

Culture type b I III IV II II II III V VI IV

Growth ratec (mm/h) 2.9 2.5 2.8 3.2 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.9 1.3 2.8 ab b ab a ab ab ab ab ab

Sclerotia (no./plate) 55 55 9 25 35 33 60 134 22 16 bc bc

Virulenced (RLH %) 68 62 57 75 65 52 57 74 43 72 abc abc bcd a abc cd bcd a d ab

d cd bc c bc cd cd

Means of 3 replications. In a column, means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT. b All the R. solani isolates were grouped into six culture types based on the colony color, growth characteristics, size and pattern of sclerotia production in PDA + 0.1% urea medium. cGrowth rate was calculated by regression analysis of linear growth over time. dVirulesion height lence measured as RLH developed in IR58 in 20 d after inoculation. RLH % = plant height 100

Relationship between growth rate of 10 isolates of R. solani in agar medium and virulence measured as RLH (%) in IR58. IRRI greenhouse, 1987.

grown in pots in the greenhouse with 1.6 g N/30-cm pot. IR58 was inoculated at booting and lesion height and plant height were measured 20 d after inoculation. The 10 isolates differed in growth rate, sclerotia production, and virulence (see table). Growth rate varied from 1.3 to 3.2 mm/h and sclerotia production from 9 to 134 sclerotia/plate. No

correlation between growth rate and sclerotia production ( r = 0.23 ns) or between sclerotia production and virulence (r = 0.37 ns) was noted. The correlation was significant ( r = 0.78**) between growth rate and virulence measured as relative lesion height (RLH) in IR58 20 d after inoculation (see figure), but if the extreme values for RS72-1 were excluded, the correlation

coefficient becomes nonsignificant (r = 0.66ns). The mean growth rates of the 9 other isolates (excluding RS72-1) do not differ much (2.5 to 3.2 mm/h). Virulence varied from 52 to 75%. The most virulent isolate (RS27-1) with the highest growth rate was isolated from millet grown during the dry season in an upland field following rice.

Control of rice pests with phosphamidon 85% WP M. Velusamy and M. Subramanian, Rice Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Ambasamudram, Tamil Nadu, India

Two rice varieties were planted for four seasons at Ambasamudram in 1984-85 (TKM9 in Jun-Oct and IR20 in SepFeb). Phosphamidon at 210 g ai/ha was sprayed in 4 treatments(see table). Gall midge onion shoots, stem borer deadhearts, green leafhoppers, and

whorl maggot leaf damage were counted 45 d after transplanting (DT) in the first planting and 30 DT in the second planting. Spraying three times was most effective. With only 1 application, 1 spray 20 DT was most effective.

Effect of phosphamidon 85% WP on rice insect pests in wet lowlands. a Tamil Nadu, India, 1984-85.

1984 Application time (DT) Jun - Oct b GM (%) 5.9 b 1.8 a 4.6 b 3.9 a 1.7 a Yield (t/ha) 7.0 b 6.9 b 7.0 b 6.9 b 7.5 a GM (%) 26.3 c 15.8 a 23.7 bc 20.9 b 21.2 b Sep - Feb c GLH (no./5 sweeps) 43 b 21 a 37 b 28 a 22 a WM (%) 12.4 ab 11.2 a 14.5 b 11.5 a 13.8 b Yield (t/ha) 2.8 3.2 4.0 3.4 3.2 a a a a a Jun - Oct d GLH (no./5 sweeps) 10.9 d 7.2 bc 7.0 b 9.2 cd 5.2 a Yield (t/ha) 5.4 b 5.9 b 5.9 b 5.9 b 6.1 a

1985 Sep - Feb e GM (%) 23.6 d 16.2 c 12.0 b 10.1 ab 8.8 a SBDH (%) 21.7 b 16.6 a 14.6 a 14.5 a 15.5 a Yield (t/ha) 4.1 4.5 4.5 4.8 4.7 a a a a a

20 40 60 20, 40, 60
a

GM = gall midge, SBDH = stem borer deadhearts, GLH = green leafhopper, WM = whorl maggot. In a column, numbers followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05% level. bNo SBDH and GLH infestations. cNo SBDH. dNo GM and SBDH. eNo GLH and WM.

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 29

Effect of low soil phosphorus and pH on bacterial blight (BB)


A. H. Mondal, N. R. Sharma, M. Islam, A. Haque, and S. A. Miah, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh

Effect of low P on BB development. Bangladesh.a Soil Mawnapathar, Gazipur Vagnahati, Gazipur Magura, Bogra Madhupur, Rangpur
a Means

Available P (ppm) 15 5 11 14

pH 4.3 5.5 4.4 5.4

BB lesion b (%) 30.15 14.99 24.46 21.65 a b b b

SES c score 7 5 5 5

We studied the effect of low available soil P and pH on BB development in IR8 rice. Four soil samples were collected from Bogra, Rangpur, and Gazipur districts of Bangladesh: Magura (11 ppm P and pH 4.4), Madhupur (14 ppm P and pH 5.4), Mawnapathar (15 ppm P and pH 4.3), and Vagnahati (5 ppm P and pH 5.5). IR8 seedlings were grown in pots on

of 3 replications. b Figures followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P 0.05 level. cStandard evaluation system for rice ratings.

those soils. Plants were fertilized with 100 ppm N from urea and 40 ppm K from muriate of potash, but no P was added. They were inoculated by leaf clipping with a 72-h-old bacterial culture

of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae at maximum tillering. Lesion length was significantly lowest (15%) 21 d after inoculation in Vagnahati soil (see table).

Pest Control and Management


INSECTS
Elophila sp.? africalis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): A new pest of azolla in Sierra Leone

S. J. Fannah, WARDA, Regional Mangrove Swamp Rice Research Station, Rokupr, Sierra Leone A research program initiated in 1981 uses azolla as a biofertilizer for rice in associated mangrove and inland valley swamps. Agronomic trials in experiment station and farmers fields in Sierra Leone and Guinea involve both local and exotic azolla to identify and select strains with competitive biomass production and adaptability. An outbreak of leaf-feeding insect larvae on Azolla pinnata var. imbricata strain PI-I37 occurred in late 1985 at Rokupr. Larvae were collected and
Duration of growth stages of Elophila sp.? africalis Hampson reared on Azolla pinnata var. imbricata at Rokupr, Sierra Leone, 1985. Growth stage Egg Larva Pupa Adult Duration (d) Range 18-25 4-5 3-4 Average 4-54.3 23.1 4.6 3.3 Observations (no.) 25 batches 236 51 75

reared in the laboratory until adults emerged. The moth was identified as Elophila sp.? africalis Hampson by J. D. Bradley of the Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, British Museum (National History). This species is reported to have been reared only from Pistia. This is the first time E. africalis has been found on azolla in Sierra Leone. Other species in the genus Elophila have caused considerable damage to azolla at IRRI in the Philippines. In preliminary studies of the

reproductive biology of E. africalis in our laboratory at room temperature and 89-92% relative humidity, moths emerging from larvae collected from infested cultures of A. pinnata var. imbricata were the source of insects. Females deposited eggs, in batches of 16 to 165, on the adaxial side of the floating azolla frond close to the edge. Neonate larvae emerged 4 d later (see table). Field surveys indicated E. africalis has wide distribution in Sierra Leone.

Leaffolder (LF) population on rice under drought R. K. Patel, M. P. Janoria, and A. K. Bhowmik, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur, Madhya Prarlesh, India

An insect population buildup is influenced by weather. During the 1986 wet season, a drought prevailed in most of Madhya Pradesh, with 1 wk cloudy weather and no rain 20 Aug-10 Sep around the Jabalpur district. LF Cnaphalocrocis medinalis attacked most

ricefields. A limited roving survey in Sep noted incidence on dwarf and tall rice varieties in both rainfed and irrigated fields. Leaf damage was moderate in fertilized fields. At the University Nucleus Seed Production Farm, average intensity was 2.0 damaged leaves/ hill on shortduration Poorva and 5.8 damaged leaves/ hill on medium-duration IR36. The long dry spell interrupted by cloudy weather may have adversely affected the numbers of natural enemies, promoting LF buildup.

30 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

Pest survey in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka N. D. Delpachitra and D. L. Wickramasinghe, Regional Agricultural Research Centre, Bombuwela, Sri Lanka

Number of insects/15 sweeps in farmers fields. Sri Lanka, 1984.

District Area

Insect pests (no.) WBPH 0 51 23 9 16 56 18 133 17 29 35 0 0 0 19 2 30 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Paddy bug 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 9 2 136 0 0 18 36 8 16 12 0 52 12 19 48 67 35 25 144 87 170 11 Spiders

Natural enemies (no.) Dragonflies 3 3 0 1 7 0 2 14 1 1 4 3 2 1 0 1 1 6 4 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 0 0 Mirid bugs 16 1 5 5 5 2 3 9 0 0 0 40 1 14 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 Hymenopterans 0 0 18 86 5 13 0 0 13 12 40

Kalutara Horana Matugama

We surveyed rice insect pests and natural enemies in farmers fields in the 1984 Apr-Aug growing season. Kalutara district was divided into 3 districts and 2 fields of 0.6 ha or more were selected in each district. Distance between fields was at least 5 km. The rice variety grown in the selected fields was the most common variety. Assessments were made once a month from seedling to ripening. Fifteen sweeps/field were taken for insect counts and five 1-m 2 samples were observed for damage. The harmful insects present in considerable amounts were whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera (Horvath) at the vegetative phase and paddy bug Leptocorisa oratorius at the reproductive phase. Natural enemies found included spiders, dragonflies, mirid bugs, and hymenopteran parasites (see table). The WBPH at the vegetative phase dropped in number with crop age. This decrease may be due to the presence of natural enemies. Farmers had used chemical control in previous seasons.

Nagoda Uggalboda Kananwila Kulupana Matugama Bellana Nagoda Uggalboda Kananwila Kulupana Matugama Bellana Nagoda Uggalboda Kananwila Kalupana Matugama Bellana Nagoda Uggalboda Kananwila Kulupana Matugama Bellana Nagoda Uggalboda Kananwila Kalupana Matugama Bellana

Seedling stage 0 0
0 0 1 0

Kalutara Horana Matugama

Tillering 1 6
10 0 2 1

Kalutara Horana Matugama Kalutara Horana Matugama

Booting 22 4

13 22 24 13
0 0 5 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0

3 2 2 1 Flowering 12 1
9 2 0 0

Kalutara Horana Matugama

Ripening 0 0
0 0 1

Trap crop for green leafhopper (GLH) and tungro (RTV) management
R. C. Saxena. International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology and IRRI, and H.D. Justo, Jr., IRRI

Table 1. RTV incidence in ricefields with and without a trap crop.a IRRI, May-Sep 1986. Treatment b Date planted Proportionate area/ha RTV incidencec (%) Combined RTV incidence (%)

A trap crop is a small, early planting of a crop that is more attractive to insect pests than the crop to be protected and effective enough to justify using it instead of other control measures. We tested using a trap crop instead of intensive chemical control of Nephotettix virescens in May-Sep 1986. RTV-susceptible IR42 was used as both trap crop and main crop.

2-row trap crop Main crop 3-row trap crop Main crop 4-row trap crop Main crop Treated control d Untreated control e
aAv

9 May 23 May 9 May 23 May 9 May 23 May 9 May 23 May

0.074 0.926 0.109 0.891 0.144 0.856 1.000 1.000

0.3 8.2 a 0.5 7.0 a 0.5 4.7 a 6.4 a 36.8 b

8.5 a 7.5 a 5.2 a 6.4 a 36.8 b

of 4 replications. Means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT. bTrap crops were sprayed. cProportionate RTV incidence (%) in trap crop was not analyzed. dMain crop fields sprayed with cypermethrin @ 0.05 kg ai/ha. eUnsprayed fields.

In trap-crop fields, 2, 3, or 4 border rows were planted 15 d before the main crop and sprayed each week up to 60 d

after transplanting (DT) with cypermethrin at 0.05 kg ai/ha. The main crop was not sprayed.

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 31

Fields without a trap crop, but sprayed with cypermethrin, were the treated control. Unsprayed fields without a trap crop were the untreated control. Plot size was 11 17 m. Each treatment was replicated four times. At 65 DT, RTV incidence was significantly higher in the untreated control than in trap or insecticidetreated fields (Table 1). Relatively higher nymphal and adult GLH populations were recorded. Yields were significantly higher in trap and insecticide-treated fields than in the untreated control (Table 2). Although yield was highest in insecticide-treated fields, the cost of cypermethrin lowered net gain. Limited insecticide use also conserves natural enemies of rice pests.

Table 2. Value of yields with and without trap crop after deducting cost of cypermethrin a . IRRI, MaySep 1986. Treatment 2-row trap crop and main crop 3-row trap crop and main crop 4-row trap crop and main crop Treated control Untreated control
a

Area (ha) Trap crop 0.074 0.109 0.144 0 0

Combined yield Main crop (t/ha) 0.926 0.891 0.856 1.000 1.000 4.5 a 4.2 a 4.4 a 4.9 a 3.3 b

Value of Cypermethrin Cost d yield b applied c ($/ha) ($/ha) (liters/ha) 787.50 735.00 770.00 857.50 577.50 0.592 0.872 1.152 8.000 0 14.21 20.93 27.65 192.00 0

Net value ($/ha) 713.29 a 714.07 a 742.35 a 665.50 ab 577.50 b

Av of 4 replications. In a column, means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT. b US$ = P20; value of rice (NFA price) = $0.175 kg. c Eight applications to trap crop rows and treated control plots @ 0.05 kg ai/ha per treatment. d Cost of cypermethrin Jul 1986 = $24/liter.

The International Rice Research Newsletter and the IRRI Reporter are mailed free to qualified individuals and institutions engaged in rice production and training. For further information write: IRRI, Communication and Publications Dept., Division R, P. O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines.

Rice thrips Stenchaetothrips biformis (Bagnall) effect on yield


N. D. Delpachitra and D.L. Wickramasinghe, Regional Agricultural Research Centre, Bombuwela, Sri Lanka

We evaluated thrips damage and subsequent yield in highly susceptible variety Bg 94-1. We assumed that natural thrips infestation would be uniform over all plots, if not controlled. Carbofuran at 1 kg ai/ha was used in an

experiment in late Nov 1983. A second experiment used different insecticides. Damage was rated according to the Standard evaluation system for rice 34 wk after sowing. After assessment, the plants were fully protected from other pest attacks. In carbofuran-treated plots, thrips damage was rated as 1; in untreated

control plots, 7-9. Average grain yield in treated plots (3.34 t/ ha) was significantly different from that in the untreated plots (2.34 t/ ha) at 5% level of probability. Plots treated with different chemicals had a control rating of 1 for all but triazophos, which rated 5; untreated plots rated 7 (see figure). Yields varied.

Influence of age of crop and time of planting on gall midge (GM) incidence
M.N. Ukwungwu, Rice Research Programme, National Cereals Research Institute, Badeggi, P.M.B. 8, Bida, Nigeria

Rice GM Orseolia oryzivora is a serious

pest of wet season (WS) rice at Edozhigi, an irrigated area in Nigeria. The rainy season in this area is Jun-Oct and farmers transplant in Sep. We measured GM incidence on FARO 27 and FARO 29 in the 1985 WS on samples of 50 hills/variety, replicated 3 times. Percentage of silvershoots was calculated as the ratio

GM incidence by age of rice crop. Edozhigi, Nigeria, 1985 wet season. Days after transplanting 30 40 50 60 70 Silvershoots a (%) FARO 27 13.8 15.4 14.5 7.9 7.7 10.2 (21.6) (22.6) (21.7) (16.1) (16.0) FARO 29 11.8 18.0 18.2 15.3 10.4 6.7 (17.4) (25.1) (25.2) (22.9) (18.6) Mean 12.8 16.7 16.4 11.6 9.1

Thrips damage and rice yield under chemical control, Sri Lanka, 1983.

LSD (0.05)
a

Figures in parentheses are transformed angular values, LSDs refer to them.

32 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

of number of silvershoots to tillers/50 hills at 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 d after transplanting (DT). GM incidence also was measured at 50 DT on FARO 27, FARO 29, and ITA212 transplanted 20 Aug, 25 Sep, and 25 Oct. Early-maturing FARO 27 was more

prone to GM infestation at 30-50 DT and medium-maturing FARO 29 at 4060 DT (see table). The later the transplanting date, the higher the GM incidence (see figure). But many local farmers avoid early planting because they grow upland crops before rice.

randomized complete block design. There was no significant difference in yield.


Effect on yield of walking through rice paddy. IRRI. 1986.
Walking (no./wk) 0a 1 3 6
a Plots

Yield (t/ha) 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.4

not walked on 14-77 d after transplanting.

Occurrence of a virulent rice gall midge (GM) Orseolia oryzae WoodMason biotype(?) in Andhra Pradesh, India
J.S. Bentur, T.E. Srinivasan, and M.B. Kalode, Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030, India

Effect of planting time on GM incidence. Edozhigi, Nigeria, 1985 wet season.

Host plants for yellow rice borer (YSB) Scirpophaga incertulas and white stem borer (WSB) S. innotata
A. Arvind, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India

We measured YSB and WSB survival on two weed species common in ricefields. Individually caged plants of Cyperus rotundus and Cynodon dactylon were infested separately with newly emerged first-instar YSB and

WSB larvae. On C. rotundus, both YSB and WSB larvae bored into the stem, fed on the inner contents, and pupated below the soil surface. Survival on C. rotundus was 78% for YSB and 53% for WSB. On C. dactylon, the larvae scraped the inflorescence peduncle, fed a little on the inner stem contents, but failed to pupate. It could be that stem borer larvae initially feed on C. dactylon, then migrate to a newly transplanted rice crop.

Walking the rice paddy for pest sampling does not affect yield
G.S. Arida and B.M. Shepard, IRRI

It is necessary to walk the rice paddy to sample insect populations. We measured

the effect on yield of walking in the paddy. Variety IR64 was transplanted 20 d after seeding at 25 25 cm. The field was divided into 24 plots measuring 2 5 m each. Four treatments (see table) were replicated six times in a

During the 1986 wet season, GM severely damaged rice crops in northeastern Andhra Pradesh, where large tracts were planted to GMresistant varieties Phalguna (RPW 6-17) and Surekha (developed from IR8/ Siam 29). These varieties were released in 1977 and 1976. We assessed damage in cooperation with the extension staff of the Department of Agriculture, Andhra Pradesh. Damage in Phalguna and Surekha averaged more than 50% silvershoots. Maximum damage approached 96%. Susceptible varieties were severely damaged CR1014, 33%; Mahsuri, 57%; RNR17, 78%; Sona, 84%; and Swarna, 88%. Pest buildup was probably favored by high rainfall (410 mm) late Jun to midAug, and frequent cyclonic storms in Sep and Oct, resulting in cloudy and humid periods. Farmers also were not familiar with control measures because GM had not occurred severely for more than 10 yr. Studies over 10 yr under the AICRIP coordinated entomology program have established 3 distinct biotypes, based on reactions to differential donors Eswarakora and

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 33

Siam 29/Leaung 152 and their derivatives. The Andhra Pradesh population represented biotype 1. Apparently, the resistance in Phalguna and Surekha has broken down in response to a new, more virulent biotype. Other resistant varieties involving donors other than Siam 29 also were affected by the new population. In small minikit plots, Pothana (an Eswarakora derivative) and IR36 (a Ptb derivative) exhibited 40.6% and 22.2% silvershoots. These preliminary studies point toward a possible new biotype of GM.

of insect predators of rice insect pests 1981-84 (see table). A. T. Barrion of the Entomology Department, International

Rice Research Institute, R. Madge, CIE, London, and M. S. K. Ghauri, CIE, London, identified the specimens.

A new brown planthopper (BPH) biotype in Parwanipur, Nepal


G.L. Shrestha, National Rice Improvement Program (NRIP), Parwanipur, Birganj, Nepal; and R.R. Adhikary, Parwanipur Agriculture Station, Parwanipur, Birganj, Nepal

Some common predators of rice insect pests N. Q. Kamal, A.N.M.R. Karim, and S. Alam, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Joydebpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh

We multiplied the local BPH population on susceptible TN1 during the 1984-85 winter season. The biotype was identified by screening on differential rice varieties in the greenhouse. We repeated the screening twice, with three replications each. Damage was scored on individual seedlings using the Standard evaluation system for rice. Mudgo and IR26 with Bph 1

resistance gene (resistant [R] to biotypes 1 and 3) were susceptible to the Parwanipur biotype (see table). ASD7, CR94-13, and IR36 with bph 2 gene for resistance (R to biotypes 1 and 2 but susceptible to biotype 3) were susceptible. The Parwanipur BPH population is not biotype 1, biotype 2, or biotype 3. Rathu Heenathi (Bph 3 gene) and Babawee ( bph 4 gene) were resistant to the Parwanipur BPH biotype, as were Ptb 33 and Hondarawala with two genes (bph 2 + Bph 3) for resistance. The Parwanipur BPH population appears to be a new biotype. The gene complex of IR56 and IR58 is not fully understood.

We collected predators from ricefields using sweep nets and took visual counts
Some insect predators of rice insect pests recorded at BRRI farm, Joydebpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh, 1981-84. Predator COLEOPTERA Anthicidae Formicomus sp. Carabidae Ophionea ishii ishii Habu Ophionea indica Thunberg Staphylinidae Paederus fuscipes Curtis Cicindellidae Cicindela venosa Kollar C. grammophora HEMIPTERA Miridae Cyrtorhinus sp. Tythus sp. Nabidae Stenonabis nr. tagalida Stal Gerridae Limnogonus sp. Mesoveliidae Mesovelia vittigera (Horvath) Veliidae Microvelia douglasi atrolineata Bergroth Pentatomidae Zincroma coerulin Linnaeus Anthocoridae Orius tantillus (De Motschulsky) DIPTERA Chloropidae Anatrichus pygmaeus Lamb Intensity

Comparison of differential varietal reactions to BPH biotypes 1, 2, and 3, and the Parwanipur BPH biotype. Birganj, Nepal, 1984-85 winter. Gene for resistance and differential variety Bph 1 Mudgo IR26 bph 2 ASD7 CR94-13 Bph 3 Rathu Heenathi bph 4 Babawee bph 2 + Bph 3 Ptb 33 Hondarawala No resistance gene TN1 Reaction to local biotypes of BPH Biotype 1 R R R R R R R R S Biotype 2 S S R R R R R R S Biotype 3 R R S S R R R R S Reaction to Parwanipur biotype S S S S R R R R S

High High Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Moderate Moderate High Moderate Moderate Moderate

Seasonal changes in the stem borer (SB) Maliarpha separatella populations M.N. Ukwungwu, Rice Research Programme, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI), Badeggi, P.M.B. 8, Bida, Nigeria

We studied seasonal population

fluctuations of M. separatella, a major pest of rice in Nigeria, Jan-Dec 1982 at Badeggi research farm. Ten hills of susceptible variety FARO 11 were dissected at 10-d intervals from transplanting to harvest to count borers. Insect population was about four times higher in crops transplanted in the dry season (Nov-May) than in the wet

34 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

farmers fields. However, in Feb-Apr, no farmers rice crops were in the field and the research farm crops attracted borers.

Influence of cultivation on survival of the Malayan black bug in ricefields


B. M. Shepard and V. A. Perez, Entomology Department, IRRI

Black bugs Scotinophara coarctata remain in rice stubble after harvest. If fields are not plowed, the crop ratoons and the bugs continue to feed and reproduce. It is not unusual to find over 100 insects/ hill. We plowed an approximately 1/8-ha portion of a ricefield after harvest using a carabao with moldboard plow, and immediately placed 14 1-m2 cages at random in the plowed section and 14 cages in an unplowed section of the same field. Live adults and nymphs of the Malayan black bug in the cages were recorded at 4, 10, 17, 24, and 31 d after plowing. Significantly fewer black bug adults and nymphs were found inside cages in the plowed field (see figure). Many black bugs were killed outright by the plowing, others died because host plants were destroyed.

2. M. separatella larvae by crop growth stage, Badeggi, Nigeria, 1982.

season (Jun-Oct) (Fig. 1). Regardless of time of planting, rice was prone to infestation at later growth stages

(Fig. 2). Incidence was low Aug-Jan, probably because of even distribution on the research farm and in adjoining local

Populations of black bug nymphs and adults in plowed and unplowed ricefields. Palawan, Philippines, 1986.

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 35

Bioassay of Beauveria bassiana and Nomuraea rileyi (Deuteromycotina; Hyphomycetes) against the rice leaffolder (LF) R.M. Aguda, Entomology Department, IRRI, and M.C. Rombach, Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Ithaca, New York, USA

Rice LF Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia spp. are infected with various entomogenous fungi, including Beauveria bassiana, Nomuraea rileyi, Paecilomyces farinosus, and an unidentified entomophthoralean species. These fungi are obligate insect pathogens that might be useful in biological control of LF. We tested the virulence of B. bassiana (white muscardine fungus) and Nomuraea rileyi (cosmopolitan pathogen of lepidoptera) on LF C. medinalis. The B. bassiana isolate originated from the brown planthopper from China, the N. rileyi isolate originated from hairy caterpillar Rivula atimeta in the Philippines. Suspensions of 0, 104, 105, 106, 107, and 10 8 conidia/ml were prepared for both fungi. Thirty 3d-instar LF larvae were dipped in each suspension and left for several minutes on filter paper. Treated larvae were incubated in petri

Mortality of LF larvae treated with different entomogenous fungi. IRRI, 1987.

dishes containing rice leaves; the leaves were renewed daily. Mortality was determined after 1 wk incubation. Mortality percentage was adjusted, using Abbotts formula. Differences between fungi species were tested by probit analysis. Probit analysis resulted

in ED 50% of 7.4 103 conidia/ml for B. bassiana and ED 50% of 3.5 105 conidia/ml for N. rileyi. Virulence of these fungi differed (see figure). The B. bassiana isolate was more infectious to this host.

Effect of buprofezin in controlling green leafhopper (GLH) and tungro (RTV) incidence S. Masud, and Moeh, Sudjak S., Maros Research Institute for Food Crops, P.O. Box 173, Ujung Pandang, Indonesia

Table 1. GLH population and RTV incidence at Maros, Indonesia, 1986.

Buprofezin concentration g (ml)/ha

Formulation

GLHa (no./40 hills) 28 DT 49 DT

Tungro incidence (%) 56 DT 63 DT

We evaluated an insect growth regulator, buprofezin, in the field against Nephotettix virescens GLH population and RTV infection. Two formulations were used: wettable powder (WP) and emulsifiable concentrate (EC), each at 250, 500, and 1,000 g (ml)/ ha. The trial was conducted at Maros in the dry season and at Lanrang in the 1986 wet season in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Plot size was 5

250 500 1000 250 5 00 1000 0 (control)


aIn

10 WP 10 WP 10 WP 400 EC 400 EC 400 EC

12.7 13.2 11.5 14.0 21.7 14.2 36.7

a a a ab b ab

7.0 a 12.7 ab 5.7 a 11.0 ab 14.5 ab 8.0 a 20.0 b

51 60 54 49 53 45 66

83 78 81 79 83 68 87

a column, values followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P 0.05.

10 m. Variety Cisadane was planted at 25- 25-cm spacing. Urea and TSP were applied at 40 kg N and 18 kg P / ha 25 and 50 d after transplanting (DT). The insecticide was applied first when GLH was found on trial plots. Counts were made from 1 d after insecticide

application to 49 DT in Maros and 53 DT in Lanrang. RTV incidence was monitored weekly until symptoms were found. At Maros, GLH was found 21 DT al 8-17 insects/40 hills. At 28 DT, all insecticide rates significantly controlled

36 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

GLH (Table 1). By 35 DT, the rates did not significantly differ from each other. RTV was 45-65% at 56 DT and increased to 68-88% by 63 DT. All insecticide rates tested kept GLH below the economic injury level of 25 insects/hill, but did not prevent RTV. At Lanrang, GLH was found 48-56 insects/40 hills at 18 DT (Table 2). All insecticide rates tested were ineffective at 25 and 32 DT, but were effective at 39 DT, By 53 DT, treatments were not significantly different from each other. Severe RTV infection was found at 60 DT. All treatments were ineffective in

Table 2. GLH population and RTV incidence at Lanrang, Indonesia, 1986.

Buprofezin concentration (g (ml)/ha 250 500 1000 250 500 1000 0 (control)
a

Formulation 10 WP 10 WP 10 WP 400 EC 400 EC 400 EC

GLH a (no./40 hills) 25 DT 44.7 ab 30.2 ab 39.5 ab 40.7 ab 51.2 b 28.0 a 74.5 c 46 DT 19.7 ab 15.5 a 17.5 a 17.5 a 20.7 ab 17.7 a 26.7 b

Tungro incidence (%) 60 DT 99 96 98 98 97 95 99

In a column, values followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P 0.05.

suppressing RTV. Buprofezin is slow to control GLH populations because it acts

only during molting. The delay allows RTV to be transmitted.

Knockdown of green leafhopper (GLH) by six insecticides


R.F. Macatula and O. Mochida. IRRI

Table 1. Effect of foliar spraying of 6 insecticides on N. virescens adults. IRRI insectary, 1986.

Insecticide a Alphamethrin Cypermethrin Ethoproxyfen MIPC Monocrotophos Deltamethrin Control


aSpray

Rate (% ai) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.15 0.15 0.005

Adult female mortality (%) at indicated time after release b 1h 77 c 100 a 100 a 98 b 79 c 100 a 0 d 3h 79 b 100 a 100 a 100 a 100 a 100 a 0 c 24 h 90 b 100 a 100 a 100 a 100 a 100 a 0 c

Some insecticides that control GLH effectively do not always prevent tungro (RTV) infection. This is probably due to slow knockdown, as GLH can transmit RTV before it dies. Using foliar spray and contact toxicity tests, we evaluated four pyrethroids, one carbamate, and one organophosphate in the laboratory for quick knockdown. In the foliar spray test, 30-d-old potted seedlings of highly susceptible TNl were cleaned, placed on an electrically rotating table, and uniformly sprayed with insecticide, using an Arthur Thomas sprayer. Spray rates were 0.005, 0.15, and 0.01% ai. Control plants were sprayed with distilled water. Ten minutes after treatment (MAT), the mylar film-caged plants were infested with 20 GLH adults. Knockdown mortalities were recorded up to 24 h after insect release. In the contact toxicity test, 20 GLH adults were collected from rearing cages, anaesthetized with CO 2 gas for 10 s, and transferred onto petri dishes lined with filter paper. The dishes were placed at the bottom of a Potters spray tower and sprayed with insecticide solution. Treated adults were transferred to 15d-old untreated TN1 seedlings. Mortality was recorded to 60 MAT. With foliar spraying, adult mortalities

volume based on 500 liters water/ha. bAv of 4 replications. In a column, means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level by DMRT.

Table 2. Effect of contact spray of 6 insecticides on N. virescens adults. IRRI insectary, 1986.

Insecticide a Alphamethrin Cypermethrin Ethoproxyfen MIPC Monocrotophos Deltamethrin Control


aS

Rate (% ai) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.15 0.15 0.005

Adult female mortality (%) at indicated time after treatment b 5 min 2 cd 70 a 15 b 2 cd 5 cd 79 a 0 d 10 min 4 c 92 a 21 b 4 c 4 c 95 a 0 c 20 min 15 c 100 a 36 b 0 d 2 d 100 a 0 60 min 16 c 100 a 49 b 19 c 2 de 100 a 0 e

pray volume based on 500 liters water/ha. b Av of 4 replications, 20 GLH/replication. In a column, means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT.

were significantly high with all 6 insecticides 1 h after release (Table 1). With direct spraying, the synthetic

pyrethroids deltamethrin and cypermethrin showed significantly higher knockdown 5 MAT (Table 2).

Effect of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides on green leafhopper (GLH) and tungro (RTV)
S.L. Valencia and O. Mochida, IRRI

We evaluated 4 synthetic pyrethroids ethoproxyfen (0.1 kg ai/ ha), cypermethrin (0.05 kg ai/ ha), alphamethrin, and deltamethrin (0.0125 kg ai/ ha) for Nephotettix virescens GLH and

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 37

RTV control in the field in 1984 dry season (DS). Wet seedbeds of highly susceptible TN1 and susceptible IR22 were covered with nylon mesh immediately after sowing to protect seedlings from GLH. Starting 1 d after transplanting (DT), 8 insecticide applications were made at weekly intervals. Disease incidence was recorded at 60 DT. The same materials and methods were used in a 1985 wet season (WS) trial, but insecticide applications were reduced to five. In the 1984 DS, RTV infection in plots treated with any of the pyrethroids was significantly lower than in the untreated control. Cypermethrin gave the lowest RTV incidence (see table).

RTV control by 4 synthetic pyrethroids on 2 susceptible rices at IRRI, 1984-85. RTVb (% infected hills) at 60 DT Insecticidea Formulation 1984 DS IR22 Cypermethrin Ethoproxyfen Alphamethrin Deltamethrin Control 5 EC 20 EC 10 EC 2.5 EC 7.8 7.8 11.5 14.4 30.3 a a ab ab TN1 9.6 21.7 21.3 29.7 81.9 a abc abc bc IR22 2.5 a 2.6 a 3.9 ab 3.3 ab 5.3 b 1985 WS TN1 29.6 22.9 39.4 24.1 43.4 ab a ab a b

a Insecticide was applied at 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43, and 50 DT in the 1984 DS and at 1, 20, 34, 49, bIn a column, means followed by a common letter are not significantly

and 63 DT in the 1985 WS. different at 5% level by DMRT.

In the 1985 WS, RTV infection was significantly lower on IR22 treated with ethoproxyfen and cypermethrin and on TN1 treated with ethoproxyfen and deltamethrin.

The degree of control with the synthetic pyrethroids improved with more frequent applications early in crop growth. On susceptible varieties, control of RTV by insecticides was low.

Chemical control of rice gall midge (GM) Orseolia oryzivora


D. Dakouo and S. Nacro. INERA - Station de Faroka-Ba, B. P. 910 Boho-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

Chemical control of rice GM a. Burkina Faso, 1982-83. Chemical applied at indicated time 0 DT Carbofuran Carbofuran Carbofuran Carbofuran Carbofuran 15 DT Deltamethrin Deltamethrin Deltamethrin 30 DT Carbofuran Deltamethrin Deltamethrin 45 DT 1982 Deltamethrin Deltamethrin Deltamethrin 1983 Deltamethrin Carbofuran Carbofuran Deltamethrin 60 DT Deltamethrin Deltamethrin Carbofuran Deltamethrin Deltamethrin Damage (% silvershoots) 75 DT 26 23 18 20 16 21 16 11 11 11 b ab ab ab a bc ab a a a Yield (t/ha)

A 2-yr study (1982-83) investigated chemical control of GM on irrigated rice in southwestern Burkina Faso, where the pest is prevalent. Carbofuran at 1.2 kg ai/ ha and deltamethrin at 2.5 g ai/ha in a randomized block design with 5 treatments and 5 replications were evaluated. Plot size was 32 rows of 20 hills. Silvershoots at 45, 60, and 75 d after transplanting were counted on 4 rows/plot. Yield was estimated from 20 rows/plot.

5.39 6.31 7.31 6.40 6.68 4.91 6.46 6.91 6.12 5.91

a a a a

a a a a

a DT = days after transplanting. In a column and in a year, means followed by the same letter are not

significantly different at the 5% level.

Treatments that included at least one application of carbofuran were effective

(see table). Yields were 1-2 t/ha higher than without treatment.

Pest Control and Management


WEEDS
Herbicides to control weeds in transplanted rice
S. S. Tomar, Sukhadia University, Agricultural Research Station (ARS), Borkhera Kota, Rajasthan, India

In southeastern Rajasthan, labor for

manual weeding is scarce and expensive. I evaluated herbicides in kharif seasons 1984-85. Seven herbicides at 2 rates of application were compared with hand weeding 20 and 40 d after transplanting (DT) and an unweeded check. The

experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with four replications. Weed seed ( Echinochloa crus-galli ) was broadcast at 5 kg/ ha immediately after transplanting. Herbicides were applied 6 DT.

38 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

Effect of herbicides on weed control in transplanted rice, Kota, India. Rate (kg ai/ha) Grain yield (t/ha) 1984 6.7 6.9 6.1 6.3 6.7 6.7 6.5 6.2 6.6 6.8 7.1 6.9 5.7 6.1 7.0 4.6 0.2 1985 5.2 5.6 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.9 4.8 5.3 5.4 5.7 6.1 5.7 5.6 5.7 6.0 4.0 0.2 Panicles/m2 1984 312 321 311 324 320 295 298 310 290 315 332 310 299 300 323 264 3 1985 281 283 290 295 297 284 295 271 242 253 267 267 261 252 262 236 4 Panicle wt (g) 1984 2.8 2.7 3.2 3.4 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.5 2.8 2.5 3.3 3.5 2.4 0.1 Weed dry wt (g/m2) at Costharvest to-benefit 1985 ratio b 1984 1985 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.9 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.8 3.0 2.9 3.3 3.0 2.8 2.8 3.5 2.3 0.3 170 167 190 149 188 185 209 189 192 190 130 163 210 180 134 232 2 74 71 85 82 78 70 95 89 95 96 69 75 100 104 15 166 2 13.2 12.5 14.5 9.9 12.4 9.5 18.4 10.7 10.8 8.5 7 .0

Treatment

2,4-D EE (G) 2,4D EE (G) Oxyfluorfen (G) Oxyfluorfen (G) Thiobencarb (G) Thiobencarb (G) Anilofos (EC) Anilofos (EC) Butachlor (G) Butachlor (G) Pendimethalin (G) Pendimethalin (G) Butachlor (EN) Butachlor (EN) Hand weeding 20 and 40 DT Unweeded check CD (0.05)
a

0.8 1.0 0.1 0.15 1.0 1.5 0.3 0.4 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.5

Pendimethalin at 1.0 and 1.5 kg ai/ ha, thiobencarb at 1.0 and 1.5 kg ai/ha, and 2,4-D at 1.0 kg ai/ha were effective in controlling weeds (see table). These treatments had significantly higher grain yield, more effective tillers, and higher panicle weight than the unweeded check. The highest benefit-tocost ratio was with pendimethalin at 1 kg ai/ha.

EE = ethyl ester, G = granules, EC = emulsifiable concentrate, EN = emulsion. Cost of 2,4-D 4G, $1/kg; thiobencarb 10 G, $2.15/kg; butachlor 5G, $l.l/kg; pendimethalin S G, $1/kg;butachlor 50 EN, $10/liter; oxyfluorfen and anilofos, not available. b Grain, $160/t; C:B averaged over 2 yr.

The International Rice Research Newsletter and the IRRI Reporter are mailed free to qualified individuals and institutions engaged in rice production and training. For further information write: IRRI, Communication and Publications Dept., Division R, P. O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines.

Pest Control and Management


OTHER PESTS
Yield loss to rice root nematode Hirschmanniella oryzae
E. I. Jonathan and B. Vela-putham, Nematology Laboratory, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Trichy 5, India
Effect of rice root nematode H. oryzae on height and yield of rice. a Tamil Nadu, India, 1984-85. Treatment (nematodes/g soil) Plant ht (cm) 30 DT 38 a 34 b 30 c 60 DT 62 a 58 b 54 c 1 At harvest 79 a 70 b 68 c Grain Yield (g/4 hills) 44.1 a 32.2 b 26.6 c 5.2 Reduction Yield (%) (g/4 hills) 26.9 39.7 34.1 a 26.0 b 19.7 c 3.5 Straw Reduction (%) 22.9 42.2

We conducted two experiments with potted plants to determine yield loss to H. oryzae. IR20 seedlings raised in sterile soil were transplanted 21 d after sowing at 4 seedlings/ pot. Treatments were rice root nematodes inoculated at 1 and at l0/g soil and an untreated check, in 8

0 1 10 CD (0.05)

a Mean for 2 pot experiments, with 8 replications each. DT = days after transplanting. In a column, means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT.

replications. Yield losses were 27% with 1 nematode/g soil and 40% with 10

nematodes/g soil (see table). Straw yields were 23% less with 1 nematode and 42% less with 10 nematodes.

Control of rice root nematode with carbofuran


B.N. Routaray, H. Sahoo, and S. N. Das, Nematology Department, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar 751003, Orissa, India

The effect of carbofuran on populations of rice root nematode Hirschmanniella

mucronata and on growth characteristics of rice were measured in microplot field experiments in 1983 and 1984 rainy seasons. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with 4 treatments and 5 replications in 16-m2 subplots. Treatments were seedlings from an untreated nursery (TI), seedlings from a

carbofuran-treated nursery (T2), seedlings from the untreated nursery with carbofuran applied 50 d after transplanting (DT) (T3), and seedlings from the carbofuran-treated nursery with carbofuran at 50 DT (T4). All applications were at 1 kg ai/ha. Experimental field soil was loamy clay with pH 6.4. Recommended NPK

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 39

fertilizer was applied. Healthy 30-d-old Jaya seedlings were transplanted at 20- 15-cm spacing. Other cultural practices were as needed. Preplanting nematode populations per 200 cc soil did not differ significantly by year but varied within years: 122.4134.6 in 1983 and 109.6-126.0 in 1984. At harvest, H. mucronata numbers were very low in soil samples of treated nursery and treated plot (see table). Nematode populations per gram root also were low. The number of flowering tillers was higher and fresh root weight was greater. Yields increased with increasing carbofuran application.

Control of rice root nematode by carbofuran in Orissa, India, 1983-84. a Nematode population/ 200 cc soil Treatment Before transplanting 1983 T T2 T3 T4 CD (0.05)
a

At harvest 1983 1984

Population/ g root 1983 7.20 4.16 2.66 0.84 1984 6.20 4.00 3.20 1.40 1.32

Flowering tillers (no.) 1983 3.48 4.10 4.56 5.26 1.38 1984 4.80 6.20 6.60 7.40 1.35

Fresh root weight at harvest (G) 1983 1984

Yield/plot (kg) 1983 2.2 2.6 3.0 4.0 0.2 1984 2.7 2.9 3.3 4.4 0.2

1984 119.4 124.8 109.6 126.0 20.4

134.6 132.0 134.4 122.4 15.0

250.2 315.2 140.0 151.0 69.0 90.0 14.0 22.6 14.6

25.30 18.44 29.28 20.70 34.64 26.70 40.74 31.82 2.95 1.85

18.8 0.40

Mean of 5 replications

Irrigation Water Management


Irrigation regime and rice yield
V. N. Khade, B. P. Patil, S. T. Thorat, and S.A. Khanvilkar, Konkan Agricultural University, Dapoli 415712 Maharashtra, India
Rice yield as influenced by irrigation. Maharashtra, India, 1983-86 dry seasons. Irrigation a As required to maintain saturation 12 mm CPE with 60 mm depth 24 mm CPE with 60 mm depth 36 mm CPE with 60 mm depth 12 mm CPE with 120 mm depth 24 mm CPE with 120 mm depth 36 mm CPE with 120 mm depth CD (0.05)
aCPE

Grain yield (t/ha) 1983-84 5.5 5.1 4.7 3.4 4.2 4.3 3.8 0.4 1984-85 6.6 6.4 6.7 6.0 5.1 6.1 6.9 1 .0 1985-86 4.3 5.0 4.4 4.0 3.6 3.7 3.9 0.6 Mean 4.8 5.5 5.3 4.5 4.3 4.9 4.9 0.6

Water use Irrigation efficiency applications (kg/ha mm) (no.) 1.7 2.3 3.7 4.6 0.9 1.7 2.5 84 40 24 16 40 24 16

Water applied (mm) 2815 2400 1440 960 4800 2880 1920

We assessed the effect of irrigation level on rice yield (Ratna variety) during three dry seasons 1983-86. Soil was medium black, with pH 6.4, 0.87% organic C, and an infiltration rate of 1.0-1.4 cm/ h. Seven treatments were replicated three times in a randomized block design. One-month-old seedlings were transplanted at 20- 15-cm spacing and fertilized with 100-2241 kg NPK/ha. Irrigation treatments were scheduled immediately after transplanting. Water use efficiency was calculated on the basis of pooled means. In all 3 yr, irrigation level significantly influenced yield (see table). Irrigation at 12 mm cumulative pan evaporation (CPE) with 60 mm depth produced significantly higher grain yield (5.5 t/ha) than with 36 mm CPE with 60 mm depth and 12 mm CPE with 120 mm

= Cumulative pan evaporation.

depth. It produced yield equal to 24 mm CPE with 60 mm depth and 24 and 36 mm CPE with 120 mm depth. Water use efficiency was highest (4.6 kg/ha.mm) with irrigation at 36 mm CPE with 60 mm depth. The

quantity of water required was 960 mm from transplanting to maturity. Irrigation at 12 mm CPE with 60 mm depth and 24 mm CPE with 60 mm depth resulted in equal yields, but 24 mm CPE saved 960 mm of water.

The International Rice Research Newsletter and the IRRI Reporter are mailed free to qualified individuals and institutions engaged in rice production and training. For further information write: IRRI, Communication and Publications Dept., Division R, P. O. Box 933, Manila. Philippines.

40 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

Soil and Crop Management


Mollisol productivity under two management levels
A.K. Khatri, Oriental Bank of Commerce, Gorakhpur, U.P., India; and A.K. Sharma, Soil Science Department, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.P., India
Table 1. Physical and chemical properties of soil at Pantnagar, India, 1983. Horizon Ap A1 A3 B2 IIB 3 IIC Depth (cm) 0-11 11-31 31-48 48-10 70-90 90-96+ Sand (%) 44 43 45 42 25 24 Silt (%) 24 21 31 37 36 41 Clay (%) 32 36 24 21 39 35 pH 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.0 8.1 8.1 Organic matter (%) 3.2 2.6 2.0 1.5 1.4 1.2 Cation exchange CaCO3 equivalent capacity (%) (meq/100 g) 0.4 0.7 0.7 2.1 2.5 2.6 25.2 24.6 19.1 17.6 13.5 13.2 Base saturation (%) 91 91 100 95 100 98

We studied the productivity of a Mollisol occupying the lowest position on a 0-1% slope and developed on fine silty calcareous alluvial parent material. The profile was poorly drained. Surface and subsurface texture was clay loam, subsoil texture varied from silt loam to silty clay loam (Table 1). The soil was classified as fine silty, mixed, hyperthermic Typic Haplaquoll. It belongs to the Phoolbagh series. A crop management experiment was conducted on this soil during the 1983 rainy season. High and moderate management levels were applied in a randomized block design with four replications. High management approximated the practices followed by affluent and progressive farmers of the area. It included summer plowing, harrowing, and leveling; optimum transplanting (around 15 Jul), maintaining 3-5 cm water level in the field: 120 kg N and

Table 2. Yield components and yield, and net income a under 2 management levels. Pantnagar, India, 1983. Management level High Moderate
aUS$l

Tillers/ meter (no.) 64 53b

Grain yield (t/ha) 5.9 5.0b

Straw yield (t/ha) 7.9 6.3

Harvest index 43 44

Gross income ($) 786.83 664.87

Production cost ($) 315.31 229.95

Net income ($) 411.52 434.92


~~

= Indian rupees 10.50 (Nov 1983). bSignificant difference at 5% level.

40 kg P/ha; and weeding at 20, 40, and 60 d after transplanting. Moderate management was a combination of practices followed by a farmer with moderate resources and know-how. It included summer plowing, harrowing, and leveling; late transplanting around 21 Jul, maintaining field moisture at saturation; 60 kg N and 20 kg P/ha; and weeding at 20 and 40 d after transplanting. N was applied as urea in three split

doses and P as single superphosphate as a basal dose. Diseases and pests were controlled as needed. Number of tillers and grain yield were significantly higher under high level of management (Table 2). The significant increase in grain yield was due to more effective tillers per unit area. But net income was somewhat lower under high management level because of increased costs of production.

Effect of nitrogen source and insect control on growth of a ratoon crop

Complete slide sets of photos printed in Field problems of tropical rice, revised 1983, are available for purchase at $50 (less developed country price) or $60 (developed country price), including airmail postage and handling, from the Communication and Publications Department, Division R, IRRI, P. O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines. No orders for surface mail handling will be accepted.

K. S. Prakash and B. G. Prakash, Agricultural Research Station, Siruguppa 583121, India

We studied N source and insecticide treatment on a ratoon crop (Sona Mahsuri) in 1985-86. The area has endemic brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens that could survive in the stubble of a ratoon crop. There were 4 fertilizer treatments: 0 N/ha, 50 kg N/ha, azolla applied 34 times at 2.5 t/ha, and azolla + 25 kg N/ha. The insecticides were

monocrotophos at 0.5 kg ai/ha and chlorpyrifos at 0.3 kg ai/ ha. Treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Azolla (fresh weight) was applied on the soil surface 3-4 times, up to 12 t/ha. But the azolla could not be uniformly maintained in the field. Growth and multiplication were retarded by fluctuating water level, snail damage, and high temperature. Soil salinity also could have affected azolla growth. Soils were black deep Vertisols with pH 8.5. N content of the azolla was about 6%. Regenerated tillers were counted at 15

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 41

Effect of N source and insecticide treatment on ratoon crop. Siruguppa, India, 1985-86. Treatment a No N (control) No N + monocrotophos No N + chlorpyrifos 50 kg N/ha 50 kg N/ha + monocrotophos 50 kg N/ha + chlorpyrifos Azolla Azolla + monocrotophos Azolla + chlorpyrifos Azolla + 25 kg N/ha Azolla + 25 kg N/ha + monocrotophos Azolla + 25 kg N/ha + chlorpyrifos CD (0.05)
a

Regenerated tillers (no.) 11 9 13 22 22 18 14 13 15 18 21 23 4.26

Plant height (cm) 43.9 47.7 49.0 63.9 64.3 60.0 50.4 48.8 48.3 56.6 53.3 56.8 7.80

Tillers/ plant 13 11 15 20 26 24 17 14 13 21 24 20 0.98

Panicles/ plant 10 8 12 21 20 17 13 11 11 17 14 18 9.4

Sterility (%) 2.15 4.72 2.71 2.11 1.25 0.93 2.7 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.8 1.2 0.52

Yield (t/ha) 0.9 0.9 1.2 2.2 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.2 0.7 2.0 1.5 1.4 0.74

Harvest index 0.44 0.49 0.49 0.44 0.41 0.44 0.50 0.41 0.40 0.52 0.45 0.45 0.09

Monocrotophos at 0.5 kg ai/ha, chlorpyrifos at 0.3 kg ai/ha, and azolla at 2.5 t/ha.

d after ratooning; plant height, tillers per plant, panicles per plant, sterility percentage, yield, and harvest index were noted at harvest (see table). Number of regenerated tillers, panicles/ plant, and yield vaned considerably. In most treatments, some tillers regenerated after 15 d. The interaction between N source and insecticide application had no significant effect on ratoon growth and development because there was no pest pressure on either the main or the ratoon crops. Fertilizer at 50 kg N/ ha gave the highest mean ratoon yield. Applying azolla immediately after ratooning may not benefit the ratoon crop because azolla N is not available to the plant until the azolla decomposes.

Effect of sesbania straw in a flooded soil on soil pH, redox potential, and water-soluble nutrients
C.S. Khind, A. Jugsujinda, C.W. Lindau, and W.H. Patrick, Jr., Laboratory for Wetland Soils and Sediments, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-7511, USA

Information on release of nutrients other than N by green manures is scarce.

We studied the effect of Sesbania straw on Eh-pH kinetics and the release of water-soluble nutrients in a flooded rice soil in the laboratory. The Crowley silt 1oam (Typic Albaqualf) collected from the Rice Experimental Station at Crowley, Louisiana, had pH 6.7,0.81% organic C, and CEC 14.8 meq/ 100 g. To monitor changes in Eh and pH, duplicate 60-g samples of air-dry soil, without or with 0.2% by weight sesbania

straw (2.5% N) were transferred into redox tubes. The tubes were constructed by sealing 12.5 mm of 18-gauge platinum wire on both sides of 40 138 mm pyrex test tubes, 25 mm from the bottom. The soil samples were submerged with an excess of deionized distilled water and incubated at 30 C. pH and Eh measurements were made at intervals for 60 d. To monitor release of water-soluble nutrients, duplicate 10-g portions of air-

1. Effect of sesbania straw on kinetics of pH and Eh in a flooded Crowley silt loam soil in the laboratory. Louisiana State University, 1987.

42 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

2. Effect of sesbania straw on water-soluble nutrients in a flooded Crowley silt loam soil in the laboratory. Louisiana State University, 1987.

dry soil, with and without sesbania straw, were transferred into 50-ml centrifuge tubes (25 100 ml) fitted with rubber septa. The soil samples were submerged with 25 ml of deionized distilled water. The tubes were weighed and incubated at 30C. Moisture lost during incubation was replaced by weighing the tubes occasionally and adding water as needed. At specified intervals, the tubes were shaken for 30 min, centrifuged at 7,000 rev/min for 20 min, and the solutions filtered through 0.45-m filter paper. The samples were acidified to pH 2 with 12 N HCl and analyzed for different elements on an Inductive Coupled Argon Plasma emission spectrophotometer. Decreases in soil Eh after flooding were more pronounced with the addition of sesbania straw (Fig. 1). At 60 d after flooding (DF), soil Eh decreased to -125 without sesbania and to -245 mV with sesbania. The Eh of the soil receiving sesbania stabilized at

30 DF, the Eh in unamended samples stabilized at 40 DF. Increased soil reduction caused by incorporation of sesbania straw was also reflected by increases in soil pH. At 60 DF, soil pH increased from 6.8 to 7.2 without sesbania and to 7.4 with sesbania. Incorporation of sesbania straw had a

variable effect on the release of watersoluble nutrients in the flooded soil (Fig. 2). Sesbania application caused marked increases of water-soluble Ca, Mg, P, Fe, and Mn. Those increases peaked 4 to 8 DF, then decreased. Sesbania straw had a slightly depressing effect on water-soluble Cu, Zn, and Al, but had no effect on water-soluble Si.

Amelioration of highly alkali soil by karnal grass and para grass before rice - wheat cropping sequence

A. Kumar, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal 132001, Haryana, India To reclaim alkali soils (pH greater than l0), 12-15 t gypsum/ha followed by rice - wheat for 3-4 yr has been recommended. But gypsum is costly for small and marginal farmers. We studied growing karnal grass [ Diplachne fusca (Linn.) P. Beauv] and

para grass [ Brachiaria mutica (Forsk.) Stapf.] as alternatives to gypsum. The field was highly alkaline: pH 10.6 and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) 94. Soil texture was sandy loam with 15% clay, 27% silt, and 58% sand. The experiment was conducted 1979-80 to 1983-84 in a split-plot design with four replications. The eight treatments are in the table. Jaya rice and HD2009 wheat were sown throughout. Gypsum was applied 19 Jun 1979. Karnal grass and para grass were planted 8 Jul 1979.

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 43

Recommended agronomic practices for growing rice and wheat in alkali soil were followed. The results indicate that grasses grown for 2 yr sufficiently ameliorated the soil for a successful rice -wheat sequence. Rice yields in plots without amendment were possible the third year, and wheat yields the fourth year. Yields of rice and wheat in plots where 12.5 t gypsum/ha was applied and where karnal grass was grown for 2 yr did not differ significantly. Changes of soil pH as a result of the treatments are shown in the figure. The pH reduction was greatest in plots

Rice - wheat yields in alkali soil treated with gypsum or grass crops. Haryana, India, 1979-84. Yield (t/ha) Treatment a No amendment Gypsum P 1 yr P 2 yr P 3 yr K 1 yr K 2 yr K 3 yr CD (0.05) 1979-80 Rice 0 3.7 Wheat 0 2.6 1980-81 Rice 1.0 4.5 3.8 4.1

1981-82 Rice 4.6 5.8 5.8 5.3 5.4 6.1

1982-83 Rice 5.7 6.5 6.8 5.9 5.6 6.6 5.8 5.8 ns Wheat 2.7 3.6 3.3 3.4 3.0 3.6 3.8 3.2 0.5 0.6 3.4 1.6 2.6 2.1 3.4

1983-84 Rice 5.1 4.8 5.4 5.1 5.9 5.4 5.2 5.5 0.5 Wheat 3.8 4.6 4.7 4.9 4.3 4.6 5.2 4.1 0.6

Wheat 0 1.3 0.1 0.3

Wheat

a P = para grass, K = karnal grass.

where gypsum was applied. For the grasses, pH reduction was greater in

plots where karnal grass was grown for 2 yr.

Soil reduction over 5 yr in response to gypsum and grasses amendments. 1 = initial pH in 1979; 2 = pH in 1980 before rice; 3, 4, and 5 = pH in 1981, 1982, and 1983 after rice.

Effect of pyrite and fertilizer on rice protein quality


S. K. Addy, A. Singh, R. Singh, and C. P. Awasthi, Soil Science Department, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Narendra Nagar (Kumarganj), Faizabad 224229 (U. P.), India

Protein concentration in grain increases with high fertility. Because the poor biological value of rice protein is 44 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

attributed to the deficiency of essential amino acids, such as lysine and tryptophan, we studied the effect of different levels of pyrite and fertilizer on protein quality of rice. The soil was slightly saline-alkali with moderate pH and exchangeable sodium percentage. Pyrite was applied 10 d before transplanting Saket 4 to ensure complete oxidation in the experimental field. N as urea, single superphosphate, and muriate of potash were applied.

Half the N and all the P and potash were applied at transplanting. The remaining N was applied 30 d after transplanting. Grain samples were harvested with a sickle and dried in an oven at 60 C. The samples were hand pounded to brown rice, ground to powder, and passed through a 60-mesh sieve for chemical analysis. N content in the defatted samples was determined by microKjeldahl method; that value was

multiplied by a factor of 5.95 to get protein content. Protein fractions were estimated on the basis of solubility in water (albumin), sodium chloride (globulin), ethyl alcohol (prolamin), and sodium hydroxide (glutelin). Lysine content was measured using trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid reagent. Protein fractions and lysine content were calculated as percent of grain. Protein content increased in all treatments. The highest protein content was obtained with 600 kg pyrite/ha and 120-60-60 kg NPK/ha. Fractionation revealed that the major

Effect of pyrite and fertilizers on brown rice protein quality. Faizabad, India, 198586 kharif. Character (%) Protein Albumin Globulin Prolamin Glutelin Lysine
a

Range 8.009.00 0.530.74 0.550.77 0.320.65 6.097.13 0.220.30

Mean 8.58 0.62 0.69 0.51 6.65 0.26

CD at 5% 0.40 0.07 0.09 0.14 0.50 0.04

Character Protein vs albumin Protein vs globulin Protein vs prolamin Protein vs glutelin Prolamin vs glutelin Protein vs lysine

Coefficient of correlationa 0.46 0.32 0.55* 0.76** 0.65** 0.81**

* = significant at 5%, ** = significant at 1%.

amount of protein was in the form of glutelin (6.65%) (see table). Higher fertility slightly increased the prolamin and glutelin fractions. Lysine content

decreased with increased pyrite and NPK. Protein content was positively correlated with prolamin and glutelin and negatively correlated with lysine.

Response to nitrogen of rice in sodic soil K. N. Singh and D. K. Sharma, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Kurnal 132001, India

We studied the influence of N level (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg/ ha) on yield in highly barren sodic soil without amendment. Soil was sandy loam with pH 10.3, 90% exchangeable sodium, 0.35 meq exchangeable Ca + Mg/ 100 g, 30 kg available N/ ha, 21 ppm Olsen's

extractable P, and adequate available K in the 015 cm layer. Damoder (CSR-1) variety was transplanted 16 Jul 1981 and 1982. Zinc sulfate at 5.5 kg/ ha with one-third N as urea was applied at transplanting, with 1/3 N at 25 and 1/3 N at 50 d after transplanting. The crop was harvested 17 Nov 1981 and 16 Nov 1982. Grain and straw yields increased significantly with N level (Table 1). The N content of grain and straw also increased (Table 2).

Table 2. N content ingrain and straw by N level. Karnal, India, 198182. N level (kg/ha) N content (%) 1981 Grain 0 60 120 180 CD (0.05) 1.08 1.22 1.33 1.44 0.10 Straw 0.28 0.30 0.33 0.35 0.04 Grain 1.00 1.04 1.13 1.30 0.08 1982 Straw 0.33 0.44 0.47 0.53 0.05

Table 1. Effect of N level on yield and yield attributes. Karnal, India, 198182. N level (kg/ha) 1981 Plant ht (cm) Productive tillers/hill Panicle length (cm) Yield (t/ha) Grain Straw Plant ht (cm) Productive tillers/hill 1982 Panicle length (cm) Yield (t/ha) Grain Straw pH at 015 cm after harvest in 1982

0 60 120 180 CD (0.05)

83.4 95.1 105.5 111.0 6.5

7.8 11.5 13.1 14.5 0.9

14.4 15.6 16.4 17.0 0.8

1.3 2.2 2.9 3.6 0.4

2.4 3.7 4.9 5.9 0.6

98.7 113.0 117.9 124.8 7.2

6.1 10.9 12.5 13.8 1.1

14.9 17.3 17.7 18.5 0.7

1.4 2.5 3.0 3.4 0.4

2.3 4.2 5.3 5.9 0.6

9.8 9.8 9.7 9.7

Comparative efficiency of puddling implements


S. T. Thorat, R. G. Joshi, M. T. Deshmukh, and S.B. Kadrekar. Konkan Agricultural University, Dapoli 415712, Maharashtra, India

We evaluated the performance of different puddling implements rotary power tiller, iron puddler, iron plow,

country wooden plow, and wooden puddler during the 198284 monsoon seasons and their effect on yield in newly terraced land. The experiment was in a randomized block design with five replications. All implements except the rotary power tiller were bullock drawn. The plots were puddled with two criss-cross passes except with the country wooden plow, which had the farmer practice of four

passes. Plot size was 9.6 4.2 m. Soil was clay loam, lateritic with pH 5.6 and 1. 19% organic C. After puddling, Jaya was transplanted in early Jul at 20- 15-cm spacing. The crop was fertilized with 100-22-41 kg NPK/ha. All the P and K and 40% N were applied at transplanting. The remaining N was applied in two equal splits at tillering and panicle initiation. In 1983, yield was significantly

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 45

influenced by puddling treatment (see table). Plots puddled with the rotary power tiller and the iron puddler had significantly higher yields than those puddled with the iron plow and the wooden puddler. Yields with the rotary power tiller, iron puddler, and country wooden plow and with the wooden plow, the iron plow, and the wooden puddler were similar. Yields with all implements increased across the 3 yr.
Effect of sodicity and pretransplanting submergence on rice yield
A. Swarup, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal 132001, India

Effect of puddling implement on rice grain yield. Maharashtra, India, 1982-84. Grain yield (t/ha) Year Rotary power tiller 2.2 3.5 5.0 3.6 Iron puddler 2.3 3.4 4.7 3.5 Iron plow 2.0 2.7 4.5 3 .0 Country wooden plow 2.0 2.8 5.0 3.3 Wooden puddler 2.4 2.4 4.5 3.1 CD (0.05)

1982 1983 1984 Pooled mean

ns 0.48 ns 0.34

Change in soil pH, ESP, and exchangeable Ca + Mg after rice harvest. Karnal, India, 1982. Before rice Soil no. ESP pH Exchangeable Ca + Mg (meq/l00 g) 1.4 2.1 2.8 5.2 ESP After rice pH Exchangeable Ca + Mg (meq/100 g) 2.1 3.1 3.8 6.0

We evaluated the effect on yield of four percentages of exchangeable sodium (ESP) and length of pretransplanting submergence. The split-plot design had ESP levels in the main plots and pretransplanting submergence in the subplots, with four replications. Subplot was 40 m2. Urea at 150 kg N/ ha and 9 kg Zn/ ha were applied: half the N and all the Zn at transplanting and half the N topdressed in 2 equal splits at 3 and 6 wk after transplanting. The crop was harvested 1 Nov 1982. Presubmergence for 15 and 30 d increased yields (see figure). This effect was more pronounced at high ESP. The mean yield increase due to 15 d

1 2 3 4

82 72 65 35

10.2 9.9 9.7 9.3

70 58 47 25

9.8 9.5 9.4 9.0

submergence was 0.5 t/ha and that to 30 d submergence, 0.9 t/ha. The effect was beneficial because these sodic soils undergo reduction in pH and redox potential, increase in partial pressure of CO 2 (PCO 2), and change in other physicochemical characteristics within 2 wk of flooding. This creates a favorable ionic

environment in the rhizosphere. Seedlings transplanted immediately after flooding (0 day presubmergence) showed stunted growth and lower yields because of initially high pH and ESP and reduced availability of nutrients. ESP and pH of the soils decreased substantially after rice under flooded conditions (see table).

Effect of seeding date and seedling age on dry season yield


C.L. Patel, Z. G. Patel, I. G. Patel, and A. G. Naik, Agronomy Department, Gujarat Agricultural University, Navsari, India

55, and 65 d old) as subplot treatments. There were four replications. The crop was fertilized with 100 kg N and 22 kg P/ha. All the P and half the N were basally applied at transplanting, the
Interaction effect of seeding date and seedling age at transplanting on grain yield of Mahsuri rice. a Gujarat, India, 1981-82, 1982-1983 summerseasons.
Grain yield (t/ha) by seedling age 45 d 1 Nov 15 Nov 30 Nov 15 Dec 3.7 3.9 5.3 4.4 55 d 3.9 4.4 6.2 4.1 65 d 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.3

Effect of sodicity and pretransplanting submergence on rice yield. Karnal, India, 1982.

Assured canal irrigation and improved marketing have led to dry season rice cultivation in South Gujarat. Information is needed on optimum seeding date and seedling age at transplanting for summer cultivation of long-duration variety Mahsuri. We conducted a field experiment on the college farm during 1981-82 and 1982-83 summer seasons. The split-plot design had 4 seeding dates (1 Nov, 15 Nov, 30 Nov, and 15 Dec) as main plot treatments and 3 seedling ages (45,

Seeding date

CD (0.05)

0.2

a Pooled data for 2 summer seasons.

46 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

remaining N was topdressed in two equal splits at tillering and at panicle initiation. Two seedlings/hill were transplanted at 25- 15-cm spacing. The highest grain yield (6.2 t/ha) was with 30 Nov seeding and transplanting

55-d-old seedlings (see table). The lowest yield (3.3 t/ha) was with seeding on 15 Dec and transplanting 65-d-old seedlings. In general, early seeding gave higher yields with older seedlings and late

seeding gave higher yields with younger seedlings. Low temperature during early seeding dates restricted seedling growth. Transplanting young seedlings during cold days hindered crop establishment.

Scarifying seeds of green manure legumes C. Rarivoson, Plant Biology and Biochemistry Department, University of Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar; M. Schramm, Biology Department, Humboldt - University of Berlin, GDR; Ch. Samson, Mission IRAT, Madagascar; and Fetiarson, Agronomic Research Department, FOFIFA, Antananarivo, Madagascar

The hard seededness characteristic of green manure legume seeds often

prevents germination, leading to poor stands. We studied scarification methods appropriate for a low technology productionprogram. Seeds of Aeschynomena uniflora, A. schimperii, A. sensitiva, Sesbania rostrata, and an unidentified Sesbania species were harvested in Jun. In Oct, 3 scarification methods were applied: concentrated H 2 SO4 from 0 to 180 min, boiling water from 0 to 90 min, and abrasion with sand. Seeds (20/ treatment replicated twice) were germinated on moist filter paper at 30 C. Acid and mechanical abrasion

2. Germination of green manure by legume seeds scarified by abrasion with sand. Madagascar, 1986.

methods of scarification were effective, but boiling water was not. Germination of H 2SO4 -treated seed varied by species (Fig. 1). The highest germination of sesbania was achieved with seeds soaked in H 2 SO4 for 2 h. Mechanical abrasion was effective for A. uniflora but not for A. schimperii or A. sensitiva. Mechanical abrasion of sesbania seeds increased germination 45% (Fig. 2).
Whole-plant ratooning technique

D.M. Maurya, D.N. Vishwakarma, and S.P.S. Rathi, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Narendranagar, Faizabad, (U.P.), India

1. Germination of green manure legume seeds by time of scarification with concentrated H2 SO 4 . Madagascar, 1986.

With traditional ratooning techniques, yields are low, 20-30% of the main crop yield. Lack of adequate leaf area may be a factor in the lower ratoon yields. We tried using mother leaves for the ratoon IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 47

Yield and yield components in main and full plant ratoon crops. Faizabad, India, 1986. Main Variety Duration (d) 94 90 96 95 97 Tillers/ plant 18 17 16 17 18 Effective tillers/ plant 16 16 15 14 15 Grains/ panicle 86 88 94 92 91 1000grain wt (g) 16.5 16.0 18.0 17.5 17.8 Yield (t/ha) 3.0 3.2 3.6 3.7 3.6 0.7 Duration (d) 33 36 35 34 36 Ratoon crop Effective tillers/ plant 15 14 14 16 15 Grains/ panicle 81.0 83.0 90.0 89.0 85.0 1000grain wt (g) 16.2 15.8 17.7 17.2 17.6 Yield (t/ha) 2.4 2.7 2.0 2.1 2.1 0.6 Total Duration (d) 127 126 131 129 133 Yield (t/ha) 5.4 5.8 5.6 5.8 5.6

NDR119 NDR1001 NDR118 NDR102 NDR312 CD (0.05)

crop by harvesting only panicles, leaving the leaves and stem intact. New shoots arose from higher nodes, instead of the ground tillers as in traditional ratooning. The number of branches emerging from each tiller and total tillers approached the number in the main crop, and in some plants even exceeded it. Each branch developed 2-3 small Effect of phosphates on flooded rice
Badrinath, A.M. Krishnappa, B.N. Patil, N.A.J. Gowda, P.S. Herle, and K.B. Rao, Agricultural Research Station, Mangalore 575002, India

leaves. Panicle size almost matched that of the main crop. The ratoon crop matured in 34-36 d, with yield levels approaching 80-85% of the main crop (see table). The experiment was conducted with very short-duration varieties. The nursery was sown on 19 Jun 1986, 25-dold seedlings were transplanted at superphosphate (MRP + SP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) in the midland soils of coastal Karnataka during the 1984 and 1985 wet seasons. Soil was sandy clay loam, Ustoxtropept with pH 5.0, electrical conductivity 0.2 dS/m at 25 C, 1.26% organic C, 56 kg P/ha, and 83 kg K/ha. Available micronutrients (in ppm) were Zn 0.25, Cu 1.86, Mn 0.38, Fe 57.7, and B 0.50. The experiment was in a splitplot design with P sources in main plots and P levels in subplots, including a noP control. Three 27-d-old IET2911 (medium duration) seedlings/ hill were transplanted at 15- 15-cm spacing. All plots received 100 kg N and 88 kg K/ha.

1 seedling/ hill in 12- 5-m plots with 20- 15-cm spacing and 60-30-30 kg NPK/ha. The ratoon crop was fertilized with 30-75 kg NP/ha. Yields of the different varieties were similar. This technique costs more because of the need for hand sickle harvesting of the main crop without disturbing the shoot system. Half the N was applied at transplanting, 25% at tillering, and 25% at panicle initiation. P was applied at transplanting. The field was flooded from transplanting to maturity and the crop protected from insects, diseases, and weeds. Fertilizer sources gave significantly different yields in both years (see table). The higher yield with SP alone or DAP were comparable to that with MRP + SP (25% + 75%). Yield with 26.4 kg P/ha was significantly higher than with other levels. The interaction effects were also significant in 1985-86. Locally available MRP is an inexpensive source of P.

We evaluated superphosphate (SP), Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP), and Mussoorie rock phosphate plus
Effect of P source and level on rice yield. Mangalore, India, 1984-86. Treatment Main plot Control SP MRP MRP + SP (75 + 25) MRP + SP (50 + 50) MRP + SP (25 + 75) DAP F test SEm CD (0.05) Subplot 0 kg P/ha 13.2 kg P/ha 26.4 kg P/ha 39.6 kg P/ha F test SEm CD (0.05) Interaction Grain yield (t/ha) 1984-85 3.3 3.9 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.9 * 0.12 0.3 3.3 3.6 3.8 3.8 ns 0.14 ns ns 1985-86 3.1 3.5 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.5 * 0.06 0.2 3.0 3.3 3.4 3.3 0.01 0.04 0.1 Significant

Effect of basally applied coated urea on grain yield


P. Balasubramanian, A.S. Dawood, and S. Sankaran, Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute (TRRI), Aduthurai 612101, India

In Cauvery Delta, farmers usually apply N as urea in split doses. But with monsoon weather, water stagnation in the field, and social factors, N often is not applied on time.

We compared N applied in a single basal dose as coal-tar-coated urea (CCU), neem-coated urea (NCU), sulfur-coated urea (SCU), and urea supergranules (USG), to N applied in 3 splits (50% basal, 25% at tillering, and 25% at panicle initiation) as prilled urea (PU). Two experiments were conducted Jun-Sep 1983 and 1984 using shortduration rice varieties (110-115 d) in a randomized block design with four

48 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

replications. Soil was clay loam, with low available N, medium available P and K, and pH 7.5. Basal CCU (1%) and NCU (5%)

yields were not significantly different from that with PU in splits. Yields with SCU broadcast and USG deep point placed 2 d after transplanting

were not significantly different from that with split applications of PU. Split-applied urea was the least expensive practice.

Applying nitrogen with sesbania


Y. Singh, B. Singh, M.S. Maskina, and C.S. Khind, Soils Department, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, India

Sesbania plus N effects on yield. Ludhiana, India, 1986 kharif. Treatment No sesbania + no N No sesbania + 120 kg N/ha No sesbania + 180 kg N/ha Sesbania + no N Sesbania + 60 kg N/ha Sesbania + 60 kg N/ha Sesbania + 60 kg N/ha Sesbania + 60 kg N/ha Sesbania + 60 kg N/ha Sesbania + 120 kg N/ha Sesbania + 120 kg N/ha LSD (P = 0.05) N application (kg/ha) at indicated time 0 DT 40 60 60 30 30 40 21 DT 42 DT 40 60 30 30 60 40 Grain yield (t/ha) 4.8 7.4 8.2 7.0 8.1 7.8 8.1 7.7 8.4 8.4 9.0 0.4

Yields with and without sesbania green manure and three levels of N as urea in different splits were studied in a field experiment laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications during 1986 kharif. Soil was a sandy loam (Typic Ustochrept) with pH 8.2, EC 0.15 dS/m, organic C 0.34%, total N 0.06% Olsens P 10 kg/ha, and a percolation rate of 5 mm/h. Sesbania grown in situ for 7 wk was incorporated 1 d before transplanting. Sesbania dry matter was 24 t/ha, with

40 60
60 30 30 60 40

106 kg N/ ha. All plots received 26 kg P and 23 kg K/ha at the final puddling. Sesbania green manure plus 60 kg N/ha yielded more than sesbania with 120 kg N/ha (see table). Applying 60 kg N/ha

in 2 equal splits at 21 d and 42 d after transplanting (DT) was most efficient. If 120 kg N/ha is applied with green manure, 3 equal splits at 0, 21, and 42 DT gave the highest yield.

Responses of rice to N, P, and Zn in semireclaimed alkali soil

Institute, Karnal132001, India

M. V. Singh, Central Soil Salinity Research

P deficiency has been a major cause of low yields in semireclaimed alkali soils. We studied the effect of P fertilization with N and Zn in a semireclaimed alkali
Effect of P application with N and Zn on yield in a semireclaimed alkali soil. Karnal, India. Treatment (kg/ha) N N N N N N 120 Z 0 160 Z 0 80 Z 20 120 Z 20 160 Z 20 200 Z 20 Mean LSD (0.05) N P NP Grain yield (t/ha) Zero 4.9 5.2 4.5 5.4 5.8 5.7 5.2 0.72 0.36 17.5 kg P 5.2 5.3 5.0 6.6 7.5 7.1 6.1 Mean 5.0 5.2 4.8 6 .0 6.6 6.4

soil. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with four replications. Half the N and all the P and Zn were applied at transplanting as urea, single superphosphate, and zinc sulfate. The remaining N was topdressed in 2 equal splits at 3 and 6 wk after transplanting. Recommended agronomic practices were followed. Originally the soil had been highly sodic (pH 10.45), but gypsum application and 4 yr cropping had reduced pH to 8.8, EC to 0.42 dS/m,

and exchangeable sodium percentage to 19 in 0-15 cm surface soil. The soil had loamy texture, 0.28% organic C, 2.73% CaCO3, 0.5 mg DTPA-Zn/kg, 76 mg available N, 3.96 mg available P, and 140 mg available K/kg. Applying N and Zn without P had no effect on yield. Applying N, P, and Zn together significantly increased yield (see table). A balanced application of 160 kg N, 17.5 kg P, and 4.5 kg Zn/ha gave the maximum yield.

Effects of several urea-based N sources


B. Jena and C. Misra, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar 751003, India

ns

We compared 6 urea sources prilled urea (PU), urea supergranule (USG), large granule urea (LGU), neem cakecoated urea (NCU), rock phosphate-

coated urea (RPU), and sulfur-coated urea (SCU) at 37.5, 112.5, and 150 kg N/ ha in a 1986 dry season field experiment. Soil was a fine loamy hyperthermic Typic Haplaquept with pH 5.3, organic C 0.46%, CEC 4.3 meq/ 100 g, 215 kg available N/ ha (alk. permanganate method), 6.5 kg available P/ ha (NaHCO3 extract), and 37 kg available K/ ha (ammonium acetate extract). The experiment was in a split-

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 49

plot design with N in the main plots and sources in the subplots. Seedlings of Lalat (Obs 677/IR2071//Vikram/W1263, 130 d duration group) were transplanted on 22 Jan. All plots received 22 kg P and 41 kg K/ha with all the LGU, NCU, RPU, SCU, and 1/3 the PU at transplanting. All the USG was placed 7 cm deep at 10 d after transplanting (DT). The additional PU was applied in equal splits at 20 DT and at panicle initiation. Yields increased significantly with increasing N up to 112.5 kg N/ha (Table l), although yield response (kg grain/ kg N) and apparent N recovery values (Table 2) were highest at 37.5 kg N. Yields with USG and SCU were equal and significantly superior to those with other N sources. USG at 75 kg N/ha was the best treatment, as is reflected in yield response and apparent N recovery.

Table 1. Grain yield with urea-based N sources. Bhubaneswar, India, 1986 dry season. Nitrogen dose (kg/ha) 0 37.5 75.0 112.5 150.0 Yield (t/ha) PU 2.2 3.4 4.5 5.5 5.6 USG 2.1 4.3 5.5 5.5 5.5 LGU 2.2 3.5 4.4 4.7 5.5 NCU 2.3 3.9 4.3 5.1 5.5 RPU 2.1 3.9 3.9 5.3 5.3 SCU 2.4 3.7 5.0 6.2 5.5 Mean 2.2 3.8 4.6 5.4 5.5 4.3

Mean 4.2 4.6 4.0 4.2 4.1 4.5 LSD (0.05) N:0.6, Source: 0.3. Sources at fixed N: 0.7 and N at the same or different source: 0.9

Table 2. Yield response and apparent N recovery with urea-based N sources. Bhubaneswar, India, 1986 dry season. Nitrogen dose (kg/ha) 37.5 75.0 112.5 150.0 Yield response (kg grain/kg N) 41.6 31.7 28.0 21.7 Apparent N recovery (%) 51.4 39.3 42.7 40.2 Source PU USG LGU NCU RPU SCU Yield response (kg grain/kg N) 28.0 38.1 26.6 30.1 28.6 33.1 Apparent N recovery (%) 44.7 54.2 32.6 41.9 39.5 47.5

Effect of urea supergranule (USG) on grain yield of varieties of different durations


S. V. Subbaiah and S. K. Sharma, Agronomy Department, Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030, Andhra Pradesh, India

We studied the influence of USG on varieties of different durations in controlled irrigated experiments 1984Table 1. Mean grain yield of irrigated six longduration varieties with USG and split applications of prilled urea. Andhra Pradesh, India, 1984-85. Grain yield (t/ha) 1984 5.8 5.3 5.5 0.3 7.1 1985 4.9 4.6 5.1 5.1 5.3 0.2 6.8

85. Recommended P, K, and Zn were applied before field puddling, N was applied as per treatment. The soil was a Vertisol type with pH 8.2, CEC 49.2 meq/ 100 g soil, 0.09% total N, and 5 ppm available P. Short-duration (95-105 d) IET7564, IET7613, IET7614, and IET7566 were evaluated with 90 kg N/ ha using USG placement and prilled urea split application. Source of N was not significant (3.94.4 t/ha).
Table 2. Effect of modified urea materials on grain yield of Rasi. Andhra Pradesh, India, 1984 kharif. Treatment Urea best split USG at 7 DT Mussoorie-phos-coated urea Gypsum-coated urea Neem cake-coated urea Urea 4 equal splits (1/4 N basal + 1/4 N before panicle initiation + 1/4 N after panicle initiation + 1/4 N panicle stage) Compost + USG (1/2 N as USG) CD (0.05) CV (%) Grain yield (t/ha) 4.6 5.8 4.8 4.8 4.4 4.5

In longduration (150-165 d) IET5897, IET5890, IET5656, Jagannath, Phalguna, and Pankaj, 90 kg N/ ha as urea best split was superior or equal to USG placement at 7 d after transplanting (DT). Yields with 3/4 N as USG at 7 DT + 1/4 N as prilled urea at panicle initiation were significantly greater than yields with prilled urea best split (Table 1). Medium-duration Rasi responded better to USG (90 kg N/ha) than to prilled urea and other coated materials (Table 2).
~

Treatment Best split (prilled urea) Four splits (prilled urea) USG at 7 DT 1/4 N as prilled urea (basal) + 3/4 N as USG at 28 DT 3/4 N as USG at 7 DT + 1/4 N as prilled urea at panicle initiation CD (0.05) CV (%)

Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) effects on yield


Badrinath, A.M. Krishnappa, P.S. Herle, B.N. Patil, N.A.J. Gowda, and K.B. Rao, Agricultural Research Station, Mangalore 575002, India

4.8 0.8 9.4

MRP is an indigenous fertilizer material suitable for acid soils; it slowly and continuously releases available P. We studied its availability to rice variety Phalguna in a field experiment

50 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

Effect of MRP on yield. Mangalore, India, 1983-85. Treatment Main plot Application on day of transplanting 7 DBT 14 DBT 21 DBT F test SEm CV (%) Subplot 0 kg P/ha 13.2 kg P/ha 26.4 kg P/ha 39.6 kg P/ha F test a SEm CV (%) Interaction (main sub)
a**

Yield (kg/plot) 1983 3.72 3.89 3.71 3.71 ns 0.10 10.62 3.10 3.77 4.46 3.83 ** 0.10 10.59 ns 1984 1985 0.97 1.11 1.22 1.08 ns 0.08 27.73 1.13 1.11 1.09 1.04 ns 0.05 17.58 ns 1.96 2.07 1.97 1.95 ns 0.03 5.74 1.89 1.97 2.07 2.03 ** 0.02 4.50 ns

seedlings in two farmers fields in Guimba, Nueva Ecija, Philippines. We harvested 50 1-m2 quadrats from areas in both fields where transplanted seedlings were contaminated with weed seedlings and 50 1-m2 quadrats from areas where no weed seedlings had been transplanted. In 1 field, yield from quadrats where an average of 29% of the hills were infested with Echinochloa glabrescens

was 372 g/m2; in areas where no weed seedlings were transplanted, the yield was 476 g/m2. In the other field, yield from quadrats where an average 23% of the hills were infested with Echinochloa oryzoides was 434 g/ m 2, 18% lower than the 530 g/ m 2 yield where no infestation was observed. Differences in yield between the weedinfested and weed-free hills were highly significant in both fields.

Nitrogen sources and placement for irrigated rice M.S. Zia, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Soil Science Section, National Agricultural Research Centre, P. O., N.I. H., Park Road, Islamabad, Pakistan

cant.

= significant at 1% level, ns = not signifi-

conducted during kharif seasons 198385. Experimental site soils are yellowish brown (10 YR 7/6 dry), clay loam, strong medium subangular blocky, dry hard, moist firm, wet sticky, moderate1y slow permeability with pH 5.7. They are high in organic C (1.26%) and available P (82 kg/ ha), but low in available K (50 kg/ ha). Four main treatments (application at 0, 7, 14, and 21 d before transp1anting [DBT]) and 4 subtreatments (0, 13.2, 26.4, and 39.6 kg P/ha) were tested in a split-plot design. All plots received 100 kg N and 73 kg K/ha. Net plot (5.76 m2) yields over a period of 3 yr are presented in the table. Although the yield increase with MRP applied 7 DBT was not significant, the yield difference with 26.4 kg P/ ha was significant. The interaction between P level and time of application was not significant.

We studied N source and placement method for irrigated rice on a clay loam soil with pH 8.3 and 0.6% organic matter. Deep placement of urea supergranules (USG) gave a higher yield and was the

most efficient, but was not significantly different from incorporating urea in dry soil (see table). Efficiency of dry soil incorporation was on a par with deep placement of USG Incorporating urea in puddled soil gave a significantly lower yield. Calcium ammonium nitrate incorporated in puddled soil had the lowest yield after control and was the least efficient. Yields were significantly higher with higher levels of fertilizer but fertilizer efficiency was higher at lower levels.

Rice grain yield (variety IR6) and fertilizer efficiency as affected by different N sources and their methods of placement. Islamabad, Pakistan, 1982. Treatmenta Control 46 kg N/ha as urea incorporated in puddled soil (2/3 basal + 1/3 at PI) 46 kg N/ha as calcium ammonium nitrate incorporated in puddled soil (2/3 basal + 1/3 at PI) 46 kg N/ha as urea all incorporated in dry soilc 46 kg N/ha as USG deep placed, 4 DT 92 kg N/ha as urea incorporated in puddled soil (2/3 basal + 1/3 at PI) 92 kg N/ha as calcium ammonium nitrate applied in puddled soil (2/3 basal + 1/3 at PI) 92 kg N/ha as urea all incorporated in dry soilc 92 kg N/ha as USG deep placed, 4 DT SE
aPI

Grain yieldb (t/ha) 3.2 5.0 4.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.1 6.4 ab 6.6 a 1.1 c c c d d e f

Fertilizer efficiency (kg yield/kg N used) 41.2 30.9 5 3.5 54.2 26.4 21.7 35.7 37.6

= panicle initiation, DT = days after transplanting. bMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level of significance by DMRT. c The field was irrigated and planted after dry soil incorporation.

Weed seedlings transplanted with rice seedlings reduce grain yield

A. N. Rao and K. Moody, IRRI We observed that grass weed seedlings had been transplanted with rice

Phosphorus application in acidsulfate soil


B.K. Singh, P.S. Tan, L. V. Thanh, and N. V. Luat, Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Omon, Hau Giang, Vietnam

In the Cuu Long (Mekong) Delta of Vietnam, acid-sulfate soils are found in 1.15 million ha, mostly in Kien Giang, Long An, Dong Thap, Hau Giang, and An Giang Provinces. Seedling mortality and poor crop growth due to extremely

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 51

Effect of P application on agronomic characters, yield and yield components of lowland transplanted rice in acid-sulfate soils. Cuu Long Delta, Vietnam, 1983 wet season. Method of P application Control Full as basal 1/2 basal + 1/2 at 15 DT 1/2 at 15 DT + 1/2 at 30 DT Full at 15 DT Seedling root dipped in P slurry Full as basal CD (0.05) CV (%) Rate Seedling (kg P/ha) mortality (%) 0 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 26.2 39.6 1.7 1.8 16.7 11.1 3.1 1.2 Plant Days to ht 50% (cm) heading 95 120 120 105 109 115 125 107 96 97 103 102 100 96 Lodging Panicles/ (1-9 scale) hill 1 5 3 1 1 3 5 4.2 9.0 8.9 6.7 7.2 9.6 9.2 1.6 14.2 Panicle Panicle wt length (cm) (g) 17.5 19.9 20.0 18.8 19.0 18.9 19.5 1.2 4.2 1.43 2.38 2.16 1.93 1.80 1.90 2.08 0.20 7.0 Filled grains/ panicle 30.5 57.8 54.3 51.8 46.5 51.7 53.3 11.3 15.3 Unfilled grains (%) 33.6 32.4 38.5 29.1 33.4 35.2 34.5 5.6 11.1 1000grain wt (g) 31.6 27.2 28.5 27.0 28.3 28.1 27.9 2.6 6.1 Grain yield (t/ha) 0.96 4.26 3.92 2.31 2.85 4.12 4.11 0.55 11.5 Response to P (kg grain/ kg P applied) 188.5 169.1 77.1 108.0 180.5 180.0

low pH at planting and acute P deficiency are the major problems on these soils. We conducted a field trial in the 1983 wet season to evaluate the effect on stand establishment and yield of methods of applying P. Seven treatments were tested in a randomized block design with four replications. The soil was clayey with 0.232% total N, 0.027% total P, 0.52% SO2-4 , 1.111 meq Al +3 /100 g soil, and pH 3.7 at transplanting. On 27 Jul 1983, we transplanted 38-dold E425 seedlings spaced 20 15 cm.Al1 plots received 80 kg N/ha as urea (30 kg N/ha basal + 20 kg N/ ha 15 d after transplanting [DT] + 30 kg N/ ha at 40 DT) and 20.5 kg K/ha as muriate of potash. P was applied as superphosphate (9% P). A phosphate slurry was prepared by mixing superphosphate with soil and water in the ratio 1:1.5:2.5. Seedlings were dipped in slurry for 12 h before transplanting. About two-thirds of the slurry was consumed in treatment; the leftover was uniformly applied to the relevant plots to maintain a P level of 17.5 kg/ha. In basal and split application, superphosphate was broadcast on the soil surface. Missing hills were counted at panicle initiation. Lodging was scored on a 19 scale at maturity. The crop was harvested between 26 Oct and 8 Nov, depending on crop maturity in the different treatments.

Basal application, irrespective of quantity applied, resulted in lower seedling mortality (see table). It also appears to have augmented root development, increasing nutrient absorption. Symptoms of P deficiency narrow, short, and erect leaves with dirty dark green color and stunted plants with limited tillers were high in control. Basal P enhanced tiller production and plant height and hastened crop maturity. That crop lodged moderately because of increased height and heavier panicles, but lodging did not affect grain yield.

At 17.5 kg P/ha, basal P resulted in significantly higher grain yield than other P application methods except seedling root dipped in phosphate slurry and split-applied P (1 / 2 basal + 1 / 2 at 15 DT). Basal application increased the yield mainly through increased number of panicles (higher survival of seedlings and more effective tillers/ hill) and filled grains/ panicle. Higher 1 ,000-grain weight in the absence of P might be attributed to reduced competition among fewer spikelets in the panicle. Basal application of 17.5 kg P/ha resulted in maximum P efficiency.

Effect of sulfur source and fertilizer on rice yield


C. Paulraj and C.S. Balasundaram, Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Department, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai, India

Grain and straw yields with different S fertilizers. Madurai, India, 1980-81 kharif. Treatmenta Control U 100 kg N/ha + CaO 27 kg/ha (20 kg Ca/ha) AS 100 kg/ha alone U 100 kg N/ha + elemental S 30 kg/ha U 100 kg N/ha + elemental S 60 kg/ha U 100 kg N/ha + G 250 k/ha U 100 kg Nha + G 500 kg/ha CaO 27 kg/ha alone (20 kg Ca/ha) DAP 22 kg P/ha alone TSP 22 kg P/ha alone G 500 kg/ha alone 17:17:17 mixture DAP + G 500 kg/ha 17:17:17 mixture + G 500 kg/ha CD
a

Grain (t/ha) 4.0 4.3 5.1 5.2 4.8 5.4 6.1 3.6 4.0 3.5 3.7 3.8 5.4 5.1 0.4

Straw (t/ha) 5.9 6.6 7.3 9.9 9.4 10.9 12.3 5.8 6.9 7.2 5.6 6.9 7.4 6.1 0.3

We studied the effect of S source and fertilizer on yield, verified earlier finding on applying 100 kg N/ ha as urea with 1/2 t gypsum/ ha, examined the effect of adding gypsum with the common farmer practice of 17:17:17 mixture and DAP, and separated the effects of Ca and S. A 1980-81 kharif field trial involved 14 treatments in a randomized block design with 3 replications. Plot size was 24 m 2. Soil was sandy clay loam, pH 7.6, low soluble salts, EC 0.4 mmho/cm, with 273 kg N/ha, 7.32 kg P/ha, 292 kg

U = urea, AS = ammonium sulfate, DAP = diammonium phosphate, G = gypsum, TSP = triple superphosphate.

52 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

K/ ha, and 18 kg S/ ha. Urea to 100 kg N/ha was added with the 17:17:17 mixture and with DAP. Muriate of potash at 42 kg K/ha was applied for all treatments. Gypsum,

elemental S, and calcium oxide were applied basally. Urea at 100 kg N/ha plus gypsum at 1/ 2 t/ha overwhelmingly increased yield (see table). Gypsum at 1/ 2 t/ha with

17:17:17 mixture and DAP equaled urea at 100 kg N/ha plus gypsum at 1/4 t/ha. S enhanced yield more than Ca. Gypsum is an easily available and cheaper source of S than elemental S.

Efficiency of phosphorus form combined with organic manure in rice - rice cropping
V. Kr. K. Karuppiah and G.S. Thangamuthu, Agronomy Department, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India

We compared direct and residual effects of phosphate rock and superphosphate on IR20 in 1982-83 kharif (wet season) and rabi (dry season). Treatments were imposed on the kharif crop, residual effects were studied on the rabi crop in a randomized block design replicated three times. Both crops received 100 kg N and 42 kg K/ ha. Soil was clay loam, with 220 kg available N/ ha, 4.3 kg P/ ha, 271 kg available K/ ha, and pH 8.0. Organic manures were farmyard manure
Grain yield and return of phosphate and organic manure combinations. Coimbatore, India, 1982-83.
Treatment Grain yield (t/ha) Kharif Farmyard manure alone Farmyard manure + superphosphate Farmyard manure + rock phosphate Compost alone Compost + superphosphate Compost +rock phosphate Greenleaf manure alone Green leaf + superphosphate Green leaf + rock phosphate Superphosphate alone Rock phosphate alone Contro1 (no Organic manure) CD (0.05)
a

(FYM) 0.05% N, 0.11% P, 0.42% K; composted water hyacinth 1.5% N, 0.34% P, 1.25% K; and leucaena green leaf manure 3.0% N, 1.7% P, 2.08% K. The efficiency of superphosphate and rock phosphate improved when they were combined with organic manures (see table). Superphosphate applied with organic manure had highest direct effect. Superphosphate with leucaena green leaf

manure was best. Rock phosphate efficiency improved with composted water hyacinth. Residual effects of all organic manures and P were equal. Rock phosphate with organic manure was better in obtaining high grain yield. FYM was the best in improving rock phosphate efficiency. Composted water hyacinth with rock phosphate gave the highest net return. Azospirillum treatments (control, seed treatment, seedling dip, and field application) were examined in a splitplot design with 3 replications. Available NPK was 298-75-164 kg/ha. Yield differences due to Azospirillum treatment as well as the interaction between Azospirillum and N levels were not significant. All four N treatments were significantly superior to the control.

Effect of Azospirillum on ASD16 rice D. Alice and M. Subramanian, Rice Research Station, Ambasamudram 627401, India

We evaluated the effect of Azospirillum on grain yield of ASD16 (110 d duration) Jun-Oct 1986. Five N levels (0, 25, 50,75, and 100 kg/ha) and 4

Rabi 4.7 5.0 5.4 4.8 4.6 5.0 4.8 4.9 5.3 4.9 4.9 4.0 0.5

Return a / $ invested 1.87 2.06 2.10 1.98 2.03 2.12 1.93 2.09 2.03 2.10 1.90 1.54

Rice-Based Cropping Systems


Rice-based fish and vegetable cropping system in coastal saline soils
C.R. Biswas, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (CSSRI); G.N. Chattopadhyay and P.K. Chakraborty, Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (CIFRI); A.K. Bandyopadhyay, CSSRI, Regional Research Station Canning, India 743329; and A. Ghosh, CIFRI, Barrackpore, India
Yield and income with different rice - fish vegetable cropping systems in Barrackpore, India, 1982-85. Cropping pattern Yield (t/ha) Gross return ($/ha) 398.00 855.30 1297.60 1754.90 Net return ($/ha) 150.00 395.30 624.60 869.90

4.7 5.4 4.9 4.7 5.6 5.2 5.9 5.9 5.0 5.4 4.4 4.0 0.1

Av of 2 seasons.

In the coastal saline soils of the Sundarbans, rice is grown only during the monsoon season. No crop is grown during the winter and summer seasons because good quality irrigation water is lacking and soil salinity is high. Saline water is plentiful throughout the year.

Rice 3.4 Rice + 3.4 freshwater fish 0.5 Rice 3.4 brackish water 0.5 fish Rice 3.4 + freshwater fish 0.5 - brackish water 0.5 fish Rice 3.4 + freshwater fish 0.5 -brackish water 0.5 fish + vegetables 10.7

2594.30

1294.30

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 53

We conducted inter-institute collaborative trials for 4 yr to expand land use through rice - fish culture followed by brackish water fish culture with vegetable cultivation on the bunds. (The vegetable crop was grown only in 1985.) Freshwater fish (carp and Transplanted aman - potato - maize cropping pattern in Bangladesh
N. A. Khondaker and M. M. Ullah, Regional Agricultural Research Station, P. O. Hathazari, Chittagong, Bangladesh

Macrobranchium rosenbergil) with rice during the monsoon season approximately doubled returns (see table). Brackish water fish ( P. monodon and L. parasia) during the fallow period increased gross income four times. Rice and freshwater fish during the monsoon and brackish water fish during the

fallow increased returns five times. Vegetable crops along the field borders with rice and freshwater fish followed by brackish water fish increased income eight times. It was possible to get 2 fish crops, 1 rice crop, and 1 vegetable crop in 1 yr from 1 field by judicious land use.

Yield a of transplanted aman - potato - maize cropping pattern at 3 sites in Bangladesh, 1983-85.

Crop

Yield (t/ha) Patiya


2.4 8.2 2.0 4.0 21.6 4.6

Satkania
2.4 7.7 1.9 4.0 25.4 4.4

Fatikchari
2.5 5.5 2.0 4.1 21.6 4.2

Mean

CV (%)

Material cost ($/ha)

Net return ($/ha)

We studied a transplanted aman rice potato - maize cropping pattern for 2 yr in farmers fields at 3 sites in Chittagong District and compared it with farmers cropping patterns. The cropping pattern was replicated on five farms in partially irrigated uplands. In the improved cropping pattern, maize variety Sadaf was introduced as an alternate crop to broadcast local aus variety Chinnal, potato variety Cardinal as an alternate to the farmers local variety, and transplanted aman variety BRII to Pajam. The fields were fertilized with 80-60-40 kg NPK/ha for

Transplanted aman Potato Broadcast aus Transplanted aman Potato Maize


a 2-yr

Farmers pattern 2.4 1.6 7.1 16.2 2.0 1.1 Improved pattern 4.0 1.7 24.9 10.0 4.4 3.8

89 219 42 102 491 117

258 323 209 429 1126 588

av.

transplanted aman, 120-100-100 kg NPK/ha for potato, and 100-60-40 kg NPK/ha for maize. Spacing was 25 15 cm for transplanted aman, 60 30 cm for potato, and 75 25 cm for maize. Seeding rate was 80 kg/ha for transplanted aman, 1,500 kg/ ha for

potato, and 30 kg/ ha for maize. All crops in all locations received normal cultural treatments. Average yields for 2 yr are presented in the table. Net return for the improved pattern was 171% of the farmers cropping pattern.

Announcements
Two IRRI scientists awarded Japans top science prize Sharing the 1987 Japan Prize are Dr. Henry M. Beachell, former IRRI plant breeder, and Dr. Gurdev S. Khush, currently head of IRRI's Plant Breeding Department. The Prize patterned in the tradition of the Nobel Prize is Japans most prestigious. The award was given 14 Apr in Tokyo in the presence of Japans Crown Prince Akihito and Crown Princess Michiko, Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone, and foreign dignitaries. On 15 Apr, Emperor Hirohito received the rice scientists at the Imperial Palace. Beachell, who joined IRRI in 1963, was honored for his work on IR8, the first semidwarf rice variety to be widely grown in the tropics. Khush, who joined IRRI in 1967, led the effort that developed IR36, which became the most widely grown variety of any crop the world has ever known. By 1983, IR36 was planted on 11 million ha in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Beachell played a key role in the selection of IR8, which IRRI released in late 1966 from a cross of a dwarf rice from China with a vigorous Indonesian variety. IR8 had short, stiff straws that enabled it to yield heavily without falling over. Its insensitivity to daylength meant that farmers could grow it around the world. With good management, IR8 yielded 4 or 5 t/ha on irrigated farms; traditional varieties yielded 1 or 2 t. The increased farm productivity that followed in the wake of IR8 gave rise to the term Green Revolution. IR36 was developed under Khushs leadership from crosses involving 13 parents from 6 countries. It was evaluated cooperatively by scientists at IRRI and in national agricultural programs throughout Asia. IR36 was first named as a farm variety in 1976 in the Philippines, then released by national agencies across Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The popularity of IR36 was due largely to its genetic resistance to a

54 IRRN 12:3 (June 1987)

dozen insects and diseases, which decreased farmers' dependence on pesticides. IR36 also has resistance to environmental stresses such as drought and N-deficient soils. IR36 matures in about 105 d in contrast to 130 d for IR8 and 150-170 d for traditional varieties. Its slender grains are generally considered superior to those of most earlier semidwarfs. IR36 has been especially popular in the Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia, India, Malaysia, Kampuchea, Laos, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. IRGC user guidelines The International Rice Germplasm Center (IRGC) has more than 80,000 rice accessions and responds to requests for seed samples from rice breeders all over the world. To facilitate IRGC services so that you receive the seeds you want in the shortest time possible, these guidelines have been established:

Beachell, born in Nebraska, USA, in 1906, was a rice breeder with the U.S. Department of Agriculture at Beaumont, Texas, for 30 yr before he joined IRRI. From 1972 to 1982, he worked with an IRRI project at the Central Research Institute for Food Crops in Indonesia. He is now a plant breeder with Farm of Texas Co., Alvin, Texas. Khush was born in 1935 in Punjab, India. He was a geneticist at the University of California, Davis, before joining IRRI. carefully because a misspelled name may not be readily located. It would be helpful to indicate the desired traits so that additional materials may be sent. you specify your Ifthe IRRI Statisticsneeds, IRGC can ask Department to

Beachell and Khush are the first agricultural scientists to receive the Japan Prize. The Science and Technology Foundation of Japan initiated the Prize in 1985 to recognize persons who have "served the cause of peace and prosperity for mankind through original and outstanding achievements in science and technology." The 1987 awardees were chosen from 510 top names in science nominated by fellow scientists from around the world. shipment has reached you.

We follow the plant quarantine

The IRRI accession numbers in our

seed list indicate different origins/ seed sources/ecostrains/morphologic variants/polymorphic populations. Use the IRRI Acc. No. whenever you can. Retain our seed list for future reference.

provide the biotic, edaphic, and ecological stress characteristics of the accessions you receive, using available morphoagronomic and other evaluation data files. A computer printout will accompany our covering letter. the major diseases or insects, please indicate that you need purified seed stock. The original population is likely to be heterogeneous. Most IRGC accessions do not qualify as purelines, particularly those of varieties collected from farmers' fields. We do judicial purification, but not to an extent that would change the genetic composition of the original population.

regulations of the importing country. If necessary, the seeds will first be sent to the quarantine station of your country. If your country has special restrictions, please supply the information or send us the official seed import permit.

If you wish genetic testers for one of

The amount of seed provided is limited to 10-20 g for each rice variety or breeding line and 10-50 seeds for a population of wild species. For larger quantities of IR varieties and promising lines, please write the IRRI Plant Breeding Department or the International Rice Testing Program. term "insufficient seed" in our reply indicates that shipment will be sent after a successful seed rejuvenation. IRGC may make a special seed increase of a few accessions, if the need is warranted and our time and space permit.

If you do not hear from us more than 6 wk after writing, send another letter. However, you should allow for the time needed for letters to reach us, or for our reply to reach you: 2 wk within Asia, 2 wk from North America or Europe, 3 wk from South America, and 4 wk from Africa - one way. Rice breeders/researchers do not automatically deposit their promising or published materials in IRGC. If you have recent information about such materials, please supply the published paper reference so that we can request seeds from the original source. We welcome queries, suggestions, and
comments on IRGC service. If you are in Los Baos, you can seek assistance from Mrs. Ched Parker or any IRGC staff member in obtaining the information you need. Or please write us and be specific about the information you need.

Wild rices are generally heterogeneous


populations or hybrid swarms. They require special care. Guidelines on growing the wild rices will accompany our letter with your shipment.

If IRGC seed stocks are depleted, the If requested far enough in advance,

received earlier, be sure to use the IRRI ACC. No. in our seed list. For some cultivars, we hold several accessions under the same variety name.

If you wish to retest an accession you

Please spell the variety names

Please acknowledge receipt of IRGC


seeds so that we may know that the

Individuals, organizations, and media are invited to quote or reprint articles or excerpts from articles in the IRRN.

IRRN 12:3 (June 1987) 55