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Sukhadia University UDAIPUR

Project Report on





Air pollution

Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere. What do smog(a mixture of smoke and fog), acid rain, carbon monoxide, fossil fuel exhausts, and trospheric ozone have in common ? They are all examples of air pollution. Air pollution is not new. As far back as the 13th century, people started complaining about coal dust and soot in the air over London, England. Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the late 1700s we have been changing the earths atmosphere and its chemistry.

Sources of air pollution refer to the various locations, activities or factors which are responsible for the releasing of pollutants into the atmosphere. These sources can be classified into two major categories which are: Anthropogenic sources (human activity) mostly related to burning different kinds of fuel

"Stationary Sources" include smoke stacks of power plants, manufacturing facilities (factories) and waste incinerators, as well as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices

"Mobile Sources" include motor vehicles, marine vessels, aircraft and the effect of sound etc. Chemicals, dust and controlled burn practices in agriculture and forestry management. Controlled or prescribed burning is a technique sometimes used in forest management, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement. Fire is a natural part of both forest and grassland ecology and controlled fire can be a tool for foresters. Controlled burning stimulates the germination of some desirable forest trees, thus renewing the forest.

Fumes from paint, hair spray, varnish, aerosol sprays and other solvents

Waste deposition in landfills, which generate methane. Methane is not toxic; however, it is highly flammable and may form explosive mixtures with air. Methane is also an asphyxiant and may displace oxygen in an enclosed space. Asphyxia or suffocation may result if the oxygen concentration is reduced to below 19.5% by displacement

Military, such as nuclear weapons, toxic gases, germ warfare and rocketry

Natural sources

Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land with little or no vegetation Methane, emitted by the digestion of food by animals, for example cattle Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earth's crust. Radon is a colorless, odorless, naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas that is formed from the decay of radium. It is considered to be a health hazard. Radon gas from natural sources can accumulate in buildings, especially in confined areas such as the basement and it is the second most frequent cause of lung cancer, after cigarette smoking

Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires Vegetation, in some regions, emits environmentally significant amounts of VOCs on warmer days. These VOCs react with primary anthropogenic pollutantsspecifically, NOx, SO2, and anthropogenic organic carbon compoundsto produce a seasonal haze of secondary pollutants.[6]

Volcanic activity, which produce sulfur, chlorine, and ash particulates

Emission factors
Air pollutant emission factors are representative values that people attempt to relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the ambient air with an activity associated with the release of that pollutant. These factors are usually expressed as the weight of pollutant divided by a unit weight, volume, distance, or duration of the activity emitting the pollutant (e.g., kilograms of particulate emitted per megagram of coal burned). Such factors facilitate estimation of emissions from various sources of air pollution. In most cases, these factors are simply averages of all available data of acceptable quality, and are generally assumed to be representative of long-term averages.

Health impact of specific air pollutants

Some of these gases can seriously and adversely affect the health of the population and should be given due attention by the concerned authority. The gases mentioned below are mainly outdoor air pollutants but some of them can and do occur indoor depending on the source and the circumstances.

Tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke generates a wide range of harmful chemicals and is a major cause of ill health, as it is known to cause cancer, not only to the smoker but affecting passive smokers too. It is well-known that smoking affects the passive smoker (the person who is in the vicinity of a smoker and is not himself/herself a smoker) ranging from burning sensation in the eyes or nose, and throat irritation, to cancer, bronchitis, severe asthma, and a decrease in lung function. Biological pollutants. These are mostly allergens that can cause asthma, hay fever, and other allergic diseases. Volatile organic compounds. Volatile compounds can cause irritation of the eye, nose and throat. In severe cases there may be headaches, nausea, and loss of coordination. In the longer run, some of them are suspected to cause damage to the liver and other parts of the body. Formaldehyde. Exposure causes irritation to the eyes, nose and may cause allergies in some people. Lead. Prolonged exposure can cause damage to the nervous system, digestive problems, and in some cases cause cancer. It is especially hazardous to small children. Radon. A radioactive gas that can accumulate inside the house, it originates from the rocks and soil under the house and its level is dominated by the outdoor air and also to some extent the other gases being emitted indoors. Exposure to this gas increases the risk of lung cancer. Ozone. Exposure to this gas makes our eyes itch, burn, and water and it has also been associated with increase in respiratory disorders such as asthma. It lowers our resistance to colds and pneumonia. Oxides of nitrogen. This gas can make children susceptible to respiratory diseases in the winters. Carbon monoxide. CO (carbon monoxide) combines with haemoglobin to lessen the amount of oxygen that enters our blood through our lungs. The binding with other haeme proteins causes changes in the function of the affected organs such as the brain and the cardiovascular system, and also the developing foetus. It can impair our concentration, slow our reflexes, and make us confused and sleepy. Sulphur dioxide. SO2 (sulphur dioxide) in the air is caused due to the rise in combustion of fossil fuels. It can oxidize and form sulphuric acid mist. SO2 in the air leads to diseases of the lung and other lung disorders such as wheezing and shortness of breath. Long-term effects are more difficult to ascertain as SO2 exposure is often combined with that of SPM. SPM (suspended particulate matter). Suspended matter consists of dust, fumes, mist and smoke. The main chemical component of SPM that is of major concern is lead, others being nickel, arsenic, and those present in diesel exhaust. These particles when breathed in, lodge in our lung tissues and cause lung damage and respiratory problems. The importance of SPM as a major pollutant needs special emphasis as a) it affects more people globally than any other pollutant on a continuing basis; b) there is more monitoring data available on this than any other pollutant; and c) more epidemiological evidence has been collected on the exposure to this than to any other pollutant. Indoor Air Pollution Many people spend large portion of time indoors - as much as 80-90% of their lives. We work, study, eat, drink and sleep in enclosed environments where air circulation may be restricted. For these reasons, some experts feel that more people suffer from the effects of indoor air pollution than outdoor pollution.

There are many sources of indoor air pollution. Tobacco smoke, cooking and heating appliances, and vapors from building materials, paints, furniture, etc. cause pollution inside buildings Outdoor Air Pollution Smog is a type of large-scale outdoor pollution. It is caused by chemical reactions between pollutants derived from different sources, primarily automobile exhaust and industrial emissions. Cities are often centers of these types of activities, and many suffer from the effects of smog, especially during the warm months of the year Another consequence of outdoor air pollution is acid rain. When a pollutant, such as sulfuric acid combines with droplets of water in the air, the water (or snow) can become acidified . The effects of acid rain on the environment can be very serious. It damages plants by destroying their leaves, it poisons the soil, and it changes the chemistry of lakes and streams. Damage due to acid rain kills trees and harms animals, fish, and other wildlife. The Greenhouse Effect, also referred to as global warming, is generally believed to come from the build up of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is produced when fuels are burned. Plants convert carbon dioxide back to oxygen, but the release of carbon dioxide from human activities is higher than the world's plants can process. The situation is made worse since many of the earth's forests are being removed, and plant life is being damaged by acid rain. Thus, the amount of carbon dioxide in the air is continuing to increase. This buildup acts like a blanket and traps heat close to the surface of our earth. Changes of even a few degrees will affect us all through changes in the climate and even the possibility that the polar ice caps may melt. Ozone depletion is another result of pollution. Chemicals released by our activities affect the stratosphere , one of the atmospheric layers surrounding earth. The ozone layer in the stratosphere protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) from aerosol cans, cooling systems and refrigerator equipment removes some of the ozone, causing "holes"; to open up in this layer and allowing the radiation to reach the earth. Ultraviolet radiation is known to cause skin cancer and has damaging effects on plants and wildlife. . Air pollution is either primary or secndary. Primary pollution is put directly to the air such as smoke and car exhausts. Secondary pollution forms in the air when chemical reactions changes primary pollutants. The formation of Tropospheric Ozone is an example of secondary air pollution

Seven air pollution facts that most people do not know:

1. Typhoons that hit Taiwan, Japan, and Hong Kong tend to produce widespread acidic rain. The typhoons draw in highly polluted air originating from south east China. This air becomes integrated into the typhoon circulation before falling to the ground with the rain 2. Acid fog is even more potent than acid rain. There is now considerable evidence that shows that acidic fog leads to the decline of high-elevation forests that are located in south eastern Canada, eastern United States, south eastern China, Japan, eastern Russia and many parts of Europe. The






majority of acidic fog events are due to emissions from heavy traffic and other industrial sources. However, some of the worst acidic fogs in the past occurred due to volcanic eruptions. You can even experience high pollution levels in locations far away from any industrial area. For example, you would think that Mt Fuji in Japan has clean air, but numerous studies have shown that acidic cloud droplets frequently bath the forests near the summit of Mt Fuji. This occurs when polluted air is blown into the region from south eastern China and occasionally from the industrial regions of Japan Aerosol particles (dust, smoke, smog) that are of the size 0.1 - 1.0 m (i.e. 1 = 1 x 10-6 and the m stands for metres) are able to travel worldwide and extend throughout the whole of the troposphere if meteorological conditions are suitable. This particle size has the longest residence time since particles both smaller and larger than 0.1 - 1.0 m tend to be quickly dispersed into the atmosphere or incorporated into another particle. The city of Zaragoza, in NE Spain is subject to high levels of air pollution, more so during the winter months. However, these episodes of air pollution don't last as long as those in other European cities. The reason is that the local wind, known as "cierzo" is nearly always present to blow all the air pollution out of Zaragoza. Most other industrial parts of Europe, on the other hand, don't have the luxury of such an efficient natural air pollution removal system. Increased levels of air pollution interferes with flower pollinators (such as bees). A number of studies have shown that when there's thick smog present, the scent of a flower is modified to such an extent that the pollinators aren't attracted to to it. This has led to a decline in certain plant species in many industrial regions of the world. Here's some additional air pollution facts you should bear in mind if you're planning to travel to Bangladesh. Dhaka, which is the capital city of Bangladesh has some of the worst air pollution episodes out of any city in the world. It is a fast growing city with massive traffic congestion and high numbers of unregulated industries that are located in close proximity to the city. A majority of the pollutants are from SO2, that leads to acidic precipitation and low visibility due to thick smog. Winter normally has the most severe air pollution episodes.

Tabacco smoke
Tobacco:- Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the leaves of plants of the genus Nicotina.The word nicotiana is in honor of Jean Nicot, French ambassdor to Portugal who in 1559 sent it as a medicine to the court of Catherine Medici. It can be consumed, used as an organic pesticide and in the form of nicotine tartrate, used in some medicines specially fo toothaches.It is most commonly used as recreational drug, and is a valuable cash crop for countries such as Cuba, China and United States. Its consumption is commonly appears in the form of smoking, chewing, snuffing or dipping tobacco. But we found that smoking is the most common method of consuming tobacco than any other form of tobacco consumption. Tobacco smoking:- Tobacco smoking is where tobacco is burned and the vapors either tasted or inhaled, which trigger chemical reactions in nerve endings, which heighten heart rate, memory alterness and reaction time, which are often associated with pleasure. Effect of tobacco smoking on health:- Tobacco is the single greatest cause of preventable death globally. Tobacco use leads most commonly to diseases affecting the heart and lungs, with smoking being a major risk factor for heart attacks, strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)

(including emphysema and chronic bronchitis), and cancer (particularly lung cancer, cancers of the larynx and mouth, and pancreatic cancer). It also causes peripheral vascular disease and hypertension. Effect of tobacco smoking on environment:- It is a common belief among cigarette smokers that they are only hurting themselves. In fact they are not, they are also hurting the people around them and the environment too. These days everyone knows what cigarette does to their bodies, but the knowledge of what smoking does to the earth is not as common.there are some things that every smoker who has a concern for environmental issues should know. It is obvious that smoking pollutes the air and quite often the ground. However, it is not always obvious how or how much smoking actually pollutes the environment. Cigrattes contain over 4000 chemicals which are exhaled and released into the air and the atmosphere. Tobacco smoke is a major component of indoor air pollutiuon , and ETS contains the same toxic substances as identified in mainstream tobacco smoke. Secondhand smoke contains atleast 250 chemicals known to be toxic, including more than 50 that can cause cancer. Cigratte smoking is associated with a 10-fold increase in the risk of dying from chronic obstructive lung diseases are attributable to cigratte in the country. According to the World Health Organisation(WHO), currently 6 million people die every year globally from tobacco use(one death every 6 seconds), out of which 1.2 million die in the south-east Asia region alone. If you are still wondering what the collective impact on the environment the tobacco has have. Here is some information in relation to what we are doing to the planet: Nearly 600 million trees of forest are destroyed each year to provide wood to dry tobacco. In countries where wood isn't used, LPG, coal or oil is used for drying. By 2015, 90 percent of the world's tobacco will be grown in the developing countries. A modern cigratte manufacturing machine can use upto 3.7 miles of paper an hour. Tobacco plants use more nutrients than many other crops, thus degrading the fertility of soil. Vast quantities of pesticides, fertilizers are used on tobacco crops. Some crops require over a dozen applications of pesticides during the three month growing period. Approximately 30% of North Americans are smokers, and this percentage goes even higher in the developing countries, this means there is a massive amount of pollution being released into the air everyday. Trees are often compared to the lungs of are planet in the same way as lungs in our bodies. With all of the pollutants that the trees filter outfor us already, it seems almost crazy to add more to the air that does not need to be added. We need to breathe fresh air, no one needs to smoke. Steps taken by WHO to control use of tobacco:- Every year WHO celebrates World No Tobacco Day on 31 May to darw global attention to the devastating health effect of tobacco use and the importance of tobacco control programme focusing on an important aspect of the programme . This year WHO had selected "The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control" as the theme of the day. The WHO FCTC is the world 's foremost tobacco control instrument. It provides an outline for tobacco control and an international platform for implemaentation and monitering. On World Tobacco Day 2011, and throught the following year WHO has urged counties to put this treaty at the heart of their tobacco control efforts. Examles and Sources of Air Pollution:- Air pollution is made up of solid particles and chemicalsAir pollution comes from many different sources. Natural processes that affect air quality include volcanoes, which produce sulphur, chlorine and ash particles. Wildfires produce smoke and carbon monoxide.

Cattle and other animals emit methane as part of their digestive process. Even pine trees emit Volatile Organic Components(VOCs).

The role of the international community

The international community should be committed to work together and assist countries to achieve development goals by assuming the following roles: 1. Advocacy role: Raising awareness and learning from past experience to leapfrog development. 2. Knowledge creation and sharing role: Exploring and documenting the relationship between policy, technical, institutional, and cultural aspects of pollution management. 3. Brokering role: Coordinating activities at local, regional and global levels and promoting publicprivate partnerships to resolve problems. 4. Financing role: Assisting the development and implementation of action plans to manage air quality in developing countries and cities. 5. Skills building role: Helping countries get the skills they need to effectively manage air quality problems through technical assistance, training programs, twinning arrangements, and site visits. In addition, the international community can be advocates of and support sustainability of the private sector, and promote environmental, social, and corporate responsibility. As for partnership programs that help countries enhance the capacities of collaboration among different stakeholders, the Cities Alliance formed in 1999a partnership between the UN, Habitat, the World Bank, and othersprovides examples of horizontal city-to-city cooperation maximizing development assistance from multi-laterals and bilaterals. Another example is The Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities, which was jointly launched in 2001 by the World Bank and ADB and other partners. (Visit: www.citiesalliance.org and www.worldbank.org/ cleanair/caiasia/index.htm). The World Bank uses a variety of tools to achieve its goal and focuses on 1) promoting information dissemination (e.g. Website, Open discussion list server); 2) providing air quality management training; and 3) developing pilot studies (diesel pollution reduction strategies for cities). By carrying out these activities, the World Bank promotes real actions and investments on the ground.

State of air pollution in Indian cities

Air quality data generated by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) for 2007 under the National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP) presents deadly facts about air pollution levels in Indian cities. Centre for Science and Environment has analysed the official data to assess the state of air quality and trend in Indian cities. The most widely monitored pollutants in India are particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and on a limited scale carbon monoxide.

Some of the worst forms of air pollutions are found in Indian cities. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) considers air to be clean if the levels are below 50 per cent of the prescribed standards for pollutants. During 2007 only 2 per cent cities have low air pollution on the basis of PM10. In about 80 per cent of cities (of a total of 127 cities/towns monitored under the NAMP) at least one criteria pollutant exceeded the annual average ambient air quality standards. This has serious public health implications. There are very few cities, which can be termed clean keeping PM10 levels (respirable particulates) as criteria however over the years SO2 levels have fallen sharply in many cities but the NO2 levels are increasing in many cities. PM10 trend: - Almost half of the total cities monitored under NAMP have critical levels of PM10. CPCB classifies cities as critically polluted if the levels of criteria pollutants are more than 1.5 times the standards. Levels up to 1.5 times the standards are labeled high. Levels that reach up to 50 per cent of the standards are moderate. And lower than that is low. In 2007 data of 121 cities has been analysed and only three cities Dewas, Tirupati, Kozhikode recorded low pollution level. - Indian cities are reeling under heavy particulate pollution with 52 percent of cities (63 cities) hitting critical levels (exceeding 1.5 times the standard), 36 cities with high levels (11.5 times the annual standard) and merely 19 cities are at moderate levels, which is 50 per cent below the standard. - The PM10 levels remain persistently high in the northern region. In the NCR towns Noida, Faridabad including NCT Delhi have high levels of PM10 and in past two years the levels have increased. Only in hill towns such as Shimla, Gajraula and Parwanoo have low PM10 levels. In western and eastern India, there is usually a mixed trend. Eastern cities, including Shillong, Angul, Rourkela and Howrah, show an increasing trend and in the west PM10 levels have declined in some cities like Ahmedabad, Solapur, Nagda and Jamnagar but increased in Mumbai, Kota and Satna. - In southern India, though the cities generally have lower PM10 levels compared to the northern ones, some cities show an increase. In cities such as Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam, Tuticorin, and Bangalore there is an increasing trend. A sharp declining trend has been noted in Thiruvanthapuram, Kochi and Mysore during 2000-2007 PM10 levels are gradually reducing. NOx trend: - NOx (measured as NO2) is emerging as the new national challenge and a growing problem. The NO2 levels during 2007 at seven monitoring stations exceeded the annual average standard in residential areas and NO2 level at one monitoring stations in industrial areas exceeded annual average standard. - The seven monitoring stations in residential areas that exceeded the standard are located at Town Hall (82 microgram per cubic metre), Sarojini Nagar (65 microgram per cubic metre) in Delhi, Salt lake (66 microgram per cubic metre), Moulali (76 microgram per cubic metre), Minto Park (65 microgram per cubic metre), in Kolkata, Gandhi Maidan (67 microgram per cubic metre) in Patna and Ghuseri (68

microgram per cubic metre) in Howrah. One monitoring stations in industrial areas where annual average standard was exceeded is located at Bandhaghat 91 microgram per cubic metre, (Howrah). - In North India, cities such as Delhi (where traffic areas record high levels and often exceed the standards), Dehradun, Yamunanagar and Ludhiana show a rising trend. Eastern cities, including Howrah, Kolkata, Dhanbad, Jamshedpur and Jharia, have much higher levels compared to northern cities. In many cities in this region the levels declined up to 2004 however there is an increasing trend observed again in past two years. - Southern Indian cities show a rising trend especially in Visakhapatnam, Hyderabad and Thiruvanthapuram. Cities in western India are relatively better off with almost constant to declining NO2 levels, though the levels indicate an increasing trend in Mumbai, Nagpur, Nashik, Pune and Chandrapur. Pune after showing high levels till 2003 showed sharp decline till 2005. One of the reasons attributed to lower levels being recorded in Pune is the shifting of the monitoring stations away from heavy traffic sites. SO2 trend: - Sulfur dioxide is not considered a problem in India any more. Its levels in most cities are already very low and declining. However, there are still some cities such as Khurja, Nashik, Jamshedpur and Chandrapur have moderate levels, the maximum levels was recorded at Khurja with 45 microgram per cubic meter. - During 2007 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) (annual average) was not exceeded at any monitoring station in residential and industrial areas. SO2 levels at 79 per cent of the monitoring stations in industrial areas and 93 per cent of the monitoring stations in residential areas were less than 20 microgramme per cubic metre. The highest concentration in residential area was observed at monitoring station located at Nashik and highest concentration in industrial area was observed at monitoring station located at Khurja (UP) during 2007, although SO2 levels at none of the monitoring stations exceeded the annual average standard. Trend in big cities In the cities like Ahmedabad, Varanasi, Chennai, Pune, and Kolkata the PM10 levels have reduced in 2007 compared to 2002 levels. However in the cities like Mumbai, Faridabad, Lucknow, Bangalore and Delhi the PM10 annual average levels have increased in 2007 over 2002. The nitrogen dioxide levels in the cities like Solapur, Ahmedabad, Pune and Kolkata has reduced. According to CPCB, although various interventions have taken place to mitigate ambient NO2 levels but at the same time number of vehicles have increased exponentially.