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FAKULTI PENDIDIKAN TEKNIKAL

JABATAN PENDIDIKAN KEJURUTERAAN

KOD MATAPELAJARAN

BBT3623

NAMA MATAPELAJARAN

TEKNOLOGI ELEKTRIK

TAJUK UJIKAJI

USING MULTIMETER
2. USING AMMETER
3. USING VOLTMETER

NO. UJIKAJI

Experiment 1-1
Using voltmeter
Objectives
1.
2.

To become familiar using voltmeter.


To learn how to measure DC voltage.
Equipment list
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Variable DC Power supply.


Bread board
Voltmeter
Resistors
Wires

Theory
1. The force which causes current to flow through the circuit
element is called electromotive force ( emf,E) or voltage. The
voltage is measured in volt (V).
2. A voltmeter is an instrument used to measure voltage. It must
be connected in parallel with the terminal of the circuit
element whose voltage we wish to measure. Generally
speaking, the voltmeter has a high internal resistance so as to
not influence the cicuit to which it is connected.
3. When you use the DC voltmeter to measure voltage, it is very
important to verify the polarity and measure range before
applying the power to the circuit. Reversing the polarity or
choosing a range to small will course the pointer to hit the
mechanical stops at the end of scale. It will be impossible to

obtain a valid reading in this case, and the DC voltmeter may be


damage.

Experiment procedure 1-1


1. Set the circuit as per figure 1-1-1 using variable DC Power supply,
bread board, resistors and wires provided.

R1

R2

DC

R3

R4

R5

Figure 1-1-1
2. Connect the + terminal of voltmeter to +terminal power supply
and 30 terminal of voltmeter to terminal of power supply.
3. Make sure volt select at the position as shown in the figure 1-1-2

Volt select
position

Figure 1-1-2

4. Turn on the DC power supply. Measure and record the DC voltage


reading indicated by the voltmeter.
V= _____________ volt.
4. Slowly turn the volt select at the variable DC Power supply
clockwise and observe the change of the reading on the volt
meter.
Is it the reading increased while the volt select turn toward
clockwise ?
Yes

No

5. Adjust the DC power supply to 25 V.


i.

Measure and record the:


Voltage across R1, = __________ volt

ii.

Voltage across R1+R2, = __________ volt

iii.

Voltage across R1+R2+R3, = __________ volt

iv.

Voltage across R1+R2+R3+R4, = __________ volt

v.

Voltage across R1+R2+R3+R4+R5, = __________ volt

6.

Experiment 1-2
Using ammeter
Objectives
1. To become familiar using ammeter.
2. To learn how to measure DC current.
Equipment list
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

DC 24V Power supply.


Bread board
Ammeter
Resistor
Wires

Theory

1. If a voltage source is applied to a circuit, electric current will flow


in the circuit. The ammeter is the instrument used to measure
current flow in a circuit. It must be connected in series with the
circuit element whose current flow we wish to measure. The unit
of measurement of electric current is the ampere (A).
2. When an ammeter is connected into a circuit the internal
resistant of the instrument is added to the circuit. The current is
therefore is reduced. To minimize this effect, ammeter is always
constructed to have low internal resistance.
3. The current must always enter at the positive terminal and leave
through the negative terminal of a dc ammeter. Reversing the
polarity or choosing a range too small will cause the pointer of a
dc ammeter to hit the mechanical stops at the ends of scale, and
the dc ammeter may be damaged.
Experiment procedure1-2
1. Set the circuit as per figure 1-2-1 using variable DC Power
supply, bread board, resistor and wires provided.
R

DC
B

Figure 1-2-1
2. Turn on the variable DC power supply. Turn the volt select of
variable power supply to 12 volt.
3. Connect the + terminal of ammeter to terminal A and 1000
terminal of ammeter to terminal B. Is there any of ammeter
reading.
Yes

No

4. Disconnect the 1000 terminal of ammeter and reconnect the


terminal to the lower range. Measure and record the current.
I = ____________ Amp

Experiment 1-3
Using multimeter
Objectives
1.
2.

To become Familiar With the Parts of a Multimeter


To become familiar using multimeter.
Equipment list
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Variable DC Power supply.


Bread board
Multimeter
Resistors
Wires

Theory
Inspect the meter. Starting from the top and working to the bottom:
1.
The dial. This has the arc
shaped scales visible through the
window. The pointer indicates values
read from the scale.
2.
The pointer or needle, this
the thin black line at the left-most
position in the dial face window in the
image. The needle moves to the value
measured.

Picture 1-3-1 - Multimeter

3.
Arc shaped lines or scales on the meter dial face. May
be different colors for each scale but will have different values.
These determine the ranges of magnitude.
4.
A wider mirror like surface shaped like the scales
mentioned previously might also be present. The mirror is used
to help reduce parallax view by lining up the pointer with its
reflection before reading the value the pointer is indicating.
5.
A selector switch or knob. This allows changing the
function (volts, ohms, amps) and scale (x1, x10, etc.) of the
meter. Many functions have multiple ranges. It is important to
have both set correctly, otherwise serious damage to the
meter or harm to the operator may result. Most meters
employ the knob type, but there are others. Regardless of the
type, they work similarly. Some meters have an "Off" position on
this selector switch while others have a separate switch to turn
the meter off. The meter should be set to off when stored.
6. Jacks or openings in the case to insert test leads. Most
multimeters have several jacks. One is usually labeled "COM" or
(-) for common and negative. This is where the black test lead is
connected. It will be used for nearly every measurement taken.
The other jack(s) is labeled "V (+) and the Omega symbol" for
Volts and Ohms respectively and positive. The + and - symbols
represent the polarity of probes when set for and testing DC
volts. If the test leads were installed as suggested, the red lead
would be positive as compared to the black test lead. This is nice
to know when the circuit under test isn't labeled + or -, as is
usually the case. Many meters have additional jacks that are
required for current or high voltage tests. It is equally important
to have the test leads connected to the proper jacks as it is to
have the selector switch range and test type (volts, amps, ohms)
set. All must be correct. Consult the meter manual if unsure
which jacks should be used.
7. Test leads. There should be (2) test leads or probes.
Generally, one is black and the other red.
8. Battery and fuse compartment. Usually found on the reverse,
but sometimes on the side. This holds the fuse (and possibly a
spare) and the battery that supplies power to the meter for
resistance tests. The meter may have more than one battery and
they may be of different sizes. A fuse is provided to help protect
the meter movement. Sometimes there is more than one fuse. A
good fuse is required for the meter to function. Fully charged
batteries will be required for resistance / continuity tests.

9. Zero Adjustment. This is a small knob usually located near the


dial that is labeled "Ohms Adjust", "0 Adj", or similar. This is used
only in the ohms or resistance range while the probes are
shorted together (touching each other). Rotate the knob slowly to
move the needle as close to the 0 position on the Ohms scale as
possible. If new batteries are installed, this should be easy to do a needle that will not go to zero indicates weak batteries that
should be replaced.

Experiment procedure1-3
1. Set the circuit as per figure 1-3-1 using variable DC Power
supply, bread board and resistors provided.

R2

R1

DC

R3

2. Turn on the variable DC power supply. Turn the volt select of


variable power supply to
24 volt.
Figure
1-3-1
3. Turn multimeter knob to the highest range of DC.mA
measurement. If there is no movement of the reading, turn the
knob to the lower range. Measure and record the current IR1.
IR1 = ____________ mA
4. Set the circuit as per figure 1-3-2

R2

R1

DC

R3

5. Turn on the variable DC power supply. Turn multimeter knob


to the highest range of Figure
DC.V measurement.
If there is no
1-3-2
movement of the reading, turn the knob to the lower range.
Measure and record the current IR3.
IR3 = ____________ mA
6. Set the circuit as per figure 1-3-3

R2

R1

DC

R3

7. Turn multimeter knob


to the1-3-3
highest range of current
Figure
measurement .Turn on the variable DC power supply. If there is
no movement of the pointer reading, turn the knob to the lower
range. Measure and record the voltage VR3.
VR3 = ____________ V
8. Turn off the variable DC power supply. Take out the R1 from from
the bread board. Turn multimeter knob to the measurement.

Measure and record the resistance of R1. Do the same step to R2


and R3
R1 = ____________ Ohm
R2 = ____________ Ohm
R3 = ____________ Ohm

9. Is it R1=R2=R3 ?
Yes

No

Summary
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