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Name: Dr. Apeksha.D.

Rao Learning center code: 00952 Subject code: MB0050 Subject name: Research methodology Date: 22-09-2011

Assignment 1 1. a. Differentiate between nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales, with an example of each. [5marks] b. What are the purposes of measurement in social science research? [5 marks] Measurement may be classified into four different levels, based on the characteristics of order, distance and origin. Nominal measurement: This level of measurement consists in assigning numerals or symbols to different categories of a variable. Male and female applicants to an MBA program are an example of nominal measurement. The numerals or symbols are just labels and have no quantitative value. The numbers of cases under each category are counted. Nominal measurement is therefore the simplest level of measurement. It does not have characteristics such as order, distance or arithmetic origin. Ordinal measurement: In this level of measurement, persons or objects are assigned numerals which indicate ranks with respect to one or more properties, either in ascending or descending order. Ex: Individuals may be ranked according to their socio-economic class, which is measured by a combination of income, education, occupation and wealth. The individual with the highest score might be assigned rank 1, the next highest rank 2, and so on or vice versa. The numbers in this level indicate only rank order and not equal distance and absolute quantities. This means that the distance between ranks 1 & 2 is not necessarily equal to the distance between ranks 2 and 3. Ordinal scales may be constructed using rank order, rating and paired comparisons. Variables that lend themselves to ordinal measurement include preferences, ratings of organizations and economic status. Statistical techniques that are commonly used to analyze ordinal scale data are the median and rank order correlation coefficients. Interval measurement: This level of measurement is more powerful than the nominal and ordinal levels of measurements, since it has one additional characteristic - equality of distance. However, it does not have an origin or a true zero. This implies that it is not possible to multiple or divides the numbers on an interval scale. Ex: The Centigrade or Fahrenheit temperature gauge is an example of the interval level of measurement. A temperature of 50 degrees is exactly 10 degrees hotter than 40 degrees and 10 degrees cooler than 60 degrees.

Interval scales lend themselves to more powerful statistical techniques, such as standard deviation, product moment correlation and t tests and F tests of significance. Ratio measurement: This is the highest level of measurement and is appropriate when measuring characteristics which have an absolute zero point. This level of measurement has all the three characteristics order, distance and origin. Ex: Height, weight, distance and area Apart from being able to use all the statistical techniques that are used with nominal, ordinal and interval scales, techniques like the geometric mean and co efficient of variation may also be used. The main limitation of ratio measurement is that it cannot be used for characteristics such as leadership quality, happiness, satisfaction and other properties which do not have natural zero points. Levels of measurement Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Characteristics No order, distance or origin Order, but no distance or origin Both order and distance, but no origin Order, distance and origin

Purposes of measurement in social science research are: The researcher constructs theories to explain social and psychological phenomena (e.g. labor unrest, employee satisfaction), which in turn are used to derive hypotheses or assumptions. These hypotheses can be verified statistically only by measuring the variables in the hypotheses. Measurement makes the empirical description of social and psychological phenomena easier. Ex: When conducting a study of a tribal community, measuring devices help the researcher in classifying cultural patterns and behaviors. Measurement also makes it possible to quantify variables and use statistical techniques to analyze the data gathered. Measurement enables the researcher to classify individuals or objects and to compare them in terms of specific properties or characteristics by measuring the concerned variables. Ex: Comparison of male and female students performance in college exams or of length of stay on the job of older and younger employees.

2. a. What are the sources from which one may be able to identify research problems? [ 5 marks]

b. Why literature survey is important in research?

[5 marks]

Frequently, an exploratory study is concerned with an area of subject matter in which explicit hypothesis have not yet been formulated. The researchers task then is to review the available material with an eye on the possibilities of developing hypothesis from it. In some areas of the subject matter, hypothesis may have been stated by previous research workers. The researcher has to take stock of these various hypotheses with a view to evaluating their usefulness for further research and to consider whether they suggest any new hypothesis. Sociological journals, economic reviews, the bulletin of abstracts of current social sciences research, directory of doctoral dissertation accepted by universities etc afford a rich store of valuable clues. In addition to these general sources, some governmental agencies and voluntary organizations publish listings of summaries of research in their special fields of service. Professional organizations, research groups and voluntary organizations are a constant source of information about unpublished works in their special fields.

3. a. What are the characteristics of a good research design? b. What are the components of a research design? Characteristics of a Good Research Design

[ 5marks] [ 5 marks]

1. It is a series of guide posts to keep one going in the right direction. 2. It reduces wastage of time and cost. 3. It encourages co-ordination and effective organization. 4. It is a tentative plan which undergoes modifications, as circumstances demand, when the study progresses, new aspects, new conditions and new relationships come to light and insight into the study deepens. 5. It has to be geared to the availability of data and the cooperation of the informants. 6. It has also to be kept within the manageable limits Components of Research Design 1. Dependent and Independent variables: A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. The concept may assume different quantitative values, like height, weight, income, etc. Qualitative variables are not quantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity. However, the qualitative phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the attribute considered. Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are known as continuous variables. But, all variables need not be continuous. Values that can be expressed only in integer values are called non-continuous variables. In statistical term, they are also known as discrete variable. For example, age is a continuous variable; where as the number of children is a non-continuous variable. When changes in one variable depends upon the changes in one or more other variables, it is known as a dependent or endogenous variable, and the variables that cause the changes in the dependent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or exogenous variables. For example, if demand depends upon price, then demand is

a dependent variable, while price is the independent variable. And if, more variables determine demand, like income and prices of substitute commodity, then demand also depends upon them in addition to the own price. Then, demand is a dependent variable which is determined by the independent variables like own price, income and price of substitute. 2. Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. For instance, assume that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between childrens school performance and their self-concepts, in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former, the dependent variable. In this context, intelligence may also influence the school performance. However, since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher, it would be known as an extraneous variable. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an experimental error. Therefore, a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables. 3. Control: One of the most important features of a good research design is to minimize the effect of extraneous variable. Technically, the term control is used when a researcher designs the study in such a manner that it minimizes the effects of extraneous independent variables. The term control is used in experimental research to reflect the restrain in experimental conditions. 4. Confounded relationship: The relationship between dependent and independent variables is said to be confounded by an extraneous variable, when the dependent variable is not free from its effects.

Research hypothesis: When a prediction or a hypothesized relationship is tested by adopting scientific methods, it is known as research hypothesis. The research hypothesis is a predictive statement which relates a dependent variable and an independent variable. Generally, a research hypothesis must consist of at least one dependent variable and one independent variable. Whereas, the relationships that are assumed but not be tested are predictive statements that are not to be objectively verified are not classified as research hypothesis. Experimental and control groups: When a group is exposed to usual conditions in an experimental hypothesis-testing research, it is known as control group. On the other hand, when the group is exposed to certain new or special condition, it is known as an experimental group. In the afore-mentioned example, the Group A can be called a control group and the Group B an experimental one. If both the groups A and B are exposed to some special feature, then both the groups may be called as experimental groups. A research design may include only the experimental group or the both experimental and control groups together. Treatments: Treatments are referred to the different conditions to which the experimental and control groups are subject to. In the example considered, the two treatments are the parents with regular earnings and those with no regular earnings. Likewise, if a research study attempts to examine through an experiment regarding the comparative impacts of three different types of fertilizers on the yield of rice crop, then the three types of fertilizers would be treated as the three treatments. Experiment: An experiment refers to the process of verifying the truth of a statistical hypothesis relating to a given research problem. For instance, experiment may be conducted to examine the yield of a certain new variety of rice crop developed. Further, Experiments may be categorized

into two types namely, absolute experiment and comparative experiment. If a researcher wishes to determine the impact of a chemical fertilizer on the yield of a particular variety of rice crop, then it is known as absolute experiment. Meanwhile, if the researcher wishes to determine the impact of chemical fertilizer as compared to the impact of bio-fertilizer, then the experiment is known as a comparative experiment. Experiment unit: Experimental units refer to the predetermined plots, characteristics or the blocks, to which the different treatments are applied. It is worth mentioning here that such experimental units must be selected with great caution.

4. a. Distinguish between Doubles sampling and multiphase sampling. [ 5 marks] b. What is replicated or interpenetrating sampling? Double Sampling and Multiphase Sampling Double sampling refers to the subsection of the final sample form a pre-selected larger sample that provided information for improving the final selection. When the procedure is extended to more than two phases of selection, it is then, called multi-phase sampling. This is also known as sequential sampling, as sub-sampling is done from a main sample in phases. Double sampling or multiphase sampling is a compromise solution for a dilemma posed by undesirable extremes. The statistics based on the sample of n can be improved by using ancillary information from a wide base: but this is too costly to obtain from the entire population of N elements. Instead, information is obtained from a larger preliminary sample nL which includes the final sample n. Replicated or Interpenetrating Sampling It involves selection of a certain number of sub-samples rather than one full sample from a population. All the sub-samples should be drawn using the same sampling technique and each is a self-contained and adequate sample of the population. Replicated sampling can be used with any basic sampling technique: simple or stratified, single or multi-stage or single or multiphase sampling. It provides a simple means of calculating the sampling error. It is practical. The replicated samples can throw light on variable non-sampling errors. But disadvantage is that it limits the amount of stratification that can be employed. [ 5 marks]

5. a. How is secondary data useful to researcher? b. What are the criteria used for evaluation of secondary data? Use of Secondary Data

[ 5 marks] [ 5 marks]

The second data may be used in three ways by a researcher. First, some specific information from secondary sources may be used for reference purpose. For example, the general statistical information in the number of co-operative credit societies in the country, their coverage of

villages, their capital structure, volume of business etc., may be taken from published reports and quoted as background information in a study on the evaluation of performance of cooperative credit societies in a selected district/state. Second, secondary data may be used as bench marks against which the findings of research may be tested, e.g., the findings of a local or regional survey may be compared with the national averages; the performance indicators of a particular bank may be tested against the corresponding indicators of the banking industry as a whole; and so on. Finally, secondary data may be used as the sole source of information for a research project. Such studies as securities Market Behaviour, Financial Analysis of companies, Trade in credit allocation in commercial banks, sociological studies on crimes, historical studies, and the like, depend primarily on secondary data. Year books, statistical reports of government departments, report of public organizations of Bureau of Public Enterprises, Censes Reports etc, serve as major data sources for such research studies. Evaluation of Secondary Data When a researcher wants to use secondary data for his research, he should evaluate them before deciding to use them. 1. Data Pertinence The first consideration in evaluation is to examine the pertinence of the available secondary data to the research problem under study. The following questions should be considered. What are the definitions and classifications employed? Are they consistent ? What are the measurements of variables used? What is the degree to which they conform to the requirements of our research? What is the coverage of the secondary data in terms of topic and time? Does this coverage fit the needs of our research? On the basis of above consideration, the pertinence of the secondary data to the research on hand should be determined, as a researcher who is imaginative and flexible may be able to redefine his research problem so as to make use of otherwise unusable available data. 2. Data Quality If the researcher is convinced about the available secondary data for his needs, the next step is to examine the quality of the data. The quality of data refers to their accuracy, reliability and completeness. The assurance and reliability of the available secondary data depends on the organization which collected them and the purpose for which they were collected. What is the authority and prestige of the organization? Is it well recognized? Is it noted for reliability? It is capable of collecting reliable data? Does it use trained and well qualified investigators? The answers to these questions determine the degree of confidence we can have in the data and their accuracy. It is important to go to the original source of the secondary data rather than to use an immediate source which has quoted from the original. Then only, the researcher can review the cautionary ands other comments that were made in the original source.

3. Data Completeness The completeness refers to the actual coverage of the published data. This depends on the methodology and sampling design adopted by the original organization. Is the methodology sound? Is the sample size small or large? Is the sampling method appropriate? Answers to these questions may indicate the appropriateness and adequacy of the data for the problem under study. The question of possible bias should also be examined. Whether the purpose for which the original organization collected the data had a particular orientation? Has the study been made to promote the organizations own interest? How the study was conducted? These are important clues. The researcher must be on guard when the source does not report the methodology and sampling design. Then it is not possible to determine the adequacy of the secondary data for the researchers study. 6. What are the differences between observation and interviewing as methods of data collection? Give two specific examples of situations where either observation or interviewing would be more appropriate. Observation vs. interviewing as Methods of Data Collection: Collection of data is the most crucial part of any research project as the success or failure of the project is dependent upon the accuracy of the data. Use of wrong methods of data collection or any inaccuracy in collecting data can have significant impact on the results of a study and may lead to results that are not valid. There are many techniques of data collection along a continuum and observation and interviewing are two of the popular methods on this continuum that has quantitative methods at one end while qualitative methods at the other end. Though there are many similarities in these two methods and they serve the same basic purpose, there are differences that will be highlighted in this article. Observation: Observation, as the name implies refers to situations where participants are observed from a safe distance and their activities are recorded minutely. It is a time consuming method of data collection as you may not get the desired conditions that are required for your research and you may have to wait till participants are in the situation you want them to be in. Classic examples of observation are wild life researchers who wait for the animals of birds to be in a natural habitat and behave in situations that they want to focus upon. As a method of data collection, observation has limitations but produces accurate results as participants are unaware of being closely inspected and behave naturally. Interviewing: Interviewing is another great technique of data collection and it involves asking questions to get direct answers. These interviews could be either one to one, in the form of questionnaires, or the more recent form of asking opinions through internet. However, there are limitations of

interviewing as participants may not come up with true or honest answers depending upon privacy level of the questions. Though they try to be honest, there is an element of lie in answers that can distort results of the project. Though both observation and interviewing are great techniques of data collection, they have their own strengths and weaknesses. It is important to keep in mind which one of the two will produce desired results before finalizing. Observation vs. interviewing: Observation Observation requires precise analysis by the researcher and often produces most accurate results although it is very time consuming. Interviewing Interviewing is easier but suffers from the fact that participants may not come up with honest replies.

Interview format: Interviews take many different forms. It is a good idea to ask the organisation in advance what format the interview will take. Competency/criteria based interviews: These are structured to reflect the competencies or qualities that an employer is seeking for a particular job, which will usually have been detailed in the job specification or advert. The interviewer is looking for evidence of your skills and may ask such things as: Give an example of a time you worked as part of a team to achieve a common goal. Technical interviews: If you have applied for a job or course that requires technical knowledge, it is likely that you will be asked technical questions or has a separate technical interview. Questions may focus on your final year project or on real or hypothetical technical problems. You should be prepared to prove yourself, but also to admit to what you do not know and stress that you are keen to learn. Do not worry if you do not know the exact answer - interviewers are interested in your thought process and logic. Academic interviews:

These are used for further study or research positions. Questions are likely to centre on your academic history to date. Structured interviews: The interviewer has a set list of questions, and asks all the candidates the same questions. Formal/informal interviews: Some interviews may be very formal, while others will feel more like an informal chat about you and your interests. Be aware that you are still being assessed, however informal the discussion may seem. Portfolio based interviews: If the role is within the arts, media or communications industries, you may be asked to bring a portfolio of your work to the interview, and to have an in-depth discussion about the pieces you have chosen to include. Senior/case study interviews: These ranges from straightforward scenario questions (e.g. What would you do in a situation where to the detailed analysis of a hypothetical business problem. You will be evaluated on your analysis of the problem, how you identify the key issues, how you pursue a particular line of thinking and whether you can develop and present an appropriate framework for organising your thoughts. Specific types of interview The Screening Interview: Companies use screening tools to ensure that candidates meet minimum qualification requirements. Computer programs are among the tools used to weed out unqualified candidates. (This is why you need a digital resume that is screening-friendly. See our resume centre for help.) Sometimes human professionals are the gatekeepers. Screening interviewers often have honed skills to determine whether there is anything that might disqualify you for the position. Remember they do not need to know whether you are the best fit for the position, only whether you are not a match. For this reason, screeners tend to dig for dirt. Screeners will hone in on gaps in your employment history or pieces of information that look inconsistent. They also will want to know from the outset whether you will be too expensive for the company.

Some tips for maintaining confidence during screening interviews: Highlight your accomplishments and qualifications. Get into the straightforward groove. Personality is not as important to the screener as verifying your qualifications. Answer questions directly and succinctly. Save your winning personality for the person making hiring decisions! Be tactful about addressing income requirements. Give a range, and try to avoid giving specifics by replying, "I would be willing to consider your best offer." If the interview is conducted by phone, it is helpful to have note cards with your vital information sitting next to the phone. That way, whether the interviewer catches you sleeping or vacuuming the floor, you will be able to switch gears quickly The Informational Interview: On the opposite end of the stress spectrum from screening interviews is the informational interview. A meeting that you initiate, the informational interview is underutilized by job-seekers who might otherwise consider themselves savvy to the merits of networking. Jobseekers ostensibly secure informational meetings in order to seek the advice of someone in their current or desired field as well as to gain further references to people who can lend insight. Employers that like to stay apprised of available talent even when they do not have current job openings, are often open to informational interviews, especially if they like to share their knowledge, feel flattered by your interest, or esteem the mutual friend that connected you to them. During an informational interview, the jobseeker and employer exchange information and get to know one another better without reference to specific job opening. This takes off some of the performance pressure, but be intentional nonetheless: Come prepared with thoughtful questions about the field and the company. Gain references to other people and make sure that the interviewer would be comfortable if you contact other people and use his or her name. Give the interviewer your card, contact information and resume. Write a thank you note to the interviewer. The Directive Style: In this style of interview, the interviewer has a clear agenda that he or she follows unflinchingly. Sometimes companies use this rigid format to ensure parity between interviews; when

interviewers ask each candidate the same series of questions, they can more readily compare the results. Directive interviewers rely upon their own questions and methods to tease from you what they wish to know. You might feel like you are being steam-rolled, or you might find the conversation develops naturally. Their style does not necessarily mean that they have dominance issues, although you should keep an eye open for these if the interviewer would be your supervisor. Either way, remember: Flex with the interviewer, following his or her lead. Do not relinquish complete control of the interview. If the interviewer does not ask you for information that you think is important to proving your superiority as a candidate, politely interject it. The Meandering Style: This interview type, usually used by inexperienced interviewers, relies on you to lead the discussion. It might begin with a statement like "tell me about yourself," which you can use to your advantage. The interviewer might ask you another broad, open-ended question before falling into silence. This interview style allows you tactfully to guide the discussion in a way that best serves you. The following strategies, which are helpful for any interview, are particularly important when interviewers use a non-directive approach: Come to the interview prepared with highlights and anecdotes of your skills, qualities and experiences. Do not rely on the interviewer to spark your memory-jot down some notes that you can reference throughout the interview. Remain alert to the interviewer. Even if you feel like you can take the driver's seat and go in any direction you wish, remain respectful of the interviewer's role. If he or she becomes more directive during the interview, adjust. Ask well-placed questions. Although the open format allows you significantly to shape the interview, running with your own agenda and dominating the conversation means that you run the risk of missing important information about the company and its needs.

Assignment-2 1. a. Explain the General characteristics of observation. [ 5 marks]

b. What is the Utility of Observation in Business Research? [ 5 marks] General Characteristics of Observation Method Observation as a method of data collection has certain characteristics. 1. It is both a physical and a mental activity: The observing eye catches many things that are present. But attention is focused on data that are pertinent to the given study. 2. Observation is selective: A researcher does not observe anything and everything, but selects the range of things to be observed on the basis of the nature, scope and objectives of his study. For example, suppose a researcher desires to study the causes of city road accidents and also formulated a tentative hypothesis that accidents are caused by violation of traffic rules and over speeding. When he observed the movements of vehicles on the road, many things are before his eyes; the type, make, size and colour of the vehicles, the persons sitting in them, their hair style, etc. All such things which are not relevant to his study are ignored and only over speeding and traffic violations are keenly observed by him. 3. Observation is purposive and not casual: It is made for the specific purpose of noting things relevant to the study. It captures the natural social context in which persons behaviour occur. It grasps the significant events and occurrences that affect social relations of the participants. 4. Observation should be exact and be based on standardized tools of research and such as observation schedule, social metric scale etc., and precision instruments, if any. Use of Observation in Business Research Observation is suitable for a variety of research purposes. It may be used for studying (a) The behaviour of human beings in purchasing goods and services.: life style, customs, and manner, interpersonal relations, group dynamics, crowd behaviour, leadership styles, managerial style, other behaviours and actions; (b) The behaviour of other living creatures like birds, animals etc. (c) Physical characteristics of inanimate things like stores, factories, residences etc. (d)Flow of traffic and (e) movement of materials and products through a plant. parking problems

2. a. Briefly explain Interviewing techniques in Business Research? [ 5marks] b. What are the problems encountered in Interview? [5 marks]

Interviewing techniques in Business Research The interview process consists of the following stages: Preparation Introduction Developing rapport Carrying the interview forward Recording the interview Closing the interview Preparation The interviewing requires some preplanning and preparation. The interviewer should keep the copies of interview schedule/guide (as the case may be) ready to use. He should have the list of names and addresses of respondents, he should regroup them into contiguous groups in terms of location in order to save time and cost in traveling. The interviewer should find out the general daily routine of the respondents in order to determine the suitable timings for interview. Above all, he should mentally prepare himself for the interview. He should think about how he should approach a respondent, what mode of introduction he could adopt, what situations he may have to face and how he could deal with them. The interviewer may come across such situations as respondents; avoidance, reluctance, suspicion, diffidence, inadequate responses, distortion, etc. The investigator should plan the strategies for dealing with them. If such preplanning is not done, he will be caught unaware and fail to deal appropriately when he actually faces any such situation. It is possible to plan in advance and keep the plan and mind flexible and expectant of new development. Introduction The investigator is a stranger to the respondents. Therefore, he should be properly introduced to each of the respondents. What is the proper mode of introduction? There is no one appropriate universal mode of introduction. Mode varies according to the type of respondents. When making a study of an organization or institution, the head of the organization should be approached first and his cooperation secured before contacting the sample inmates/employees. When studying a community or a cultural group, it is essential to approach the leader first and to enlist cooperation. For a survey or urban households, the research organizations letter of introduction and the interviewers identity card can be shown. In these days of fear of opening the door for a stranger, residents cooperation can be easily secured, if the interviewer attempts to get him introduced through a person known to them, say a popular person in the area e.g., a social worker. For interviewing rural respondents, the interviewer should never attempt to approach them along with someone from the revenue department, for they would immediately hide themselves, presuming that they are being contacted for collection of land revenue or

subscription to some government bond. He should not also approach them through a local political leader, because persons who do not belong to his party will not cooperate with the interviewer. It is rather desirable to approach the rural respondents through the local teacher or social worker. After getting himself introduced to the respondent in the most appropriate manner, the interviewer can follow a sequence of procedures as under, in order to motivate the respondent to permit the interview: 1. With a smile, greet the respondent in accordance with his cultural pattern. 2. Identify the respondent by name. 3. Describe the method by which the respondent was selected. 4. Mention the name of the organization conducting the research. 5. Assure the anonymity or confidential nature of the interview. 6. Explain their usefulness of the study. 7. Emphasize the value of respondents cooperation, making such statements as You are among the few in a position to supply the information. Your response is invaluable. I have come to learn from your experience and knowledge. Developing Rapport Before starting the research interview, the interviewer should establish a friendly relationship with the respondent. This is described as rapport. It means establishing a relationship of confidence and understanding between the interviewer and the respondent. It is a skill which depends primarily on the interviewers commonsense, experience, sensitivity, and keen observation. Start the conversation with a general topic of interest such as weather, current news, sports event, or the like perceiving the probable of the respondent from his context. Such initial conversation may create a friendly atmosphere and a warm interpersonal relationship and mutual understanding. However, the interviewer should guard against the over rapport as cautioned by Herbert Hyman. Too much identification and too much courtesy result in tailoring replied to the image of a nice interviewer. The interviewer should use his discretion in striking a happy medium. Carrying the Interview Forward After establishing rapport, the technical task of asking questions from the interview schedule starts. This task requires care, self-restraint, alertness and ability to listen with understanding, respect and curiosity. In carrying on this task of gathering information from the respondent by putting questions to him, the following guidelines may be followed:

1. Start the interview. Carry it on in an informal and natural conversational style. 2. Ask all the applicable questions in the same order as they appear on the schedule without any elucidation and change in the wording. Ask all the applicable questions listed in the schedule. Do not take answers for granted. 3. If interview guide is used, the interviewer may tailor his questions to each respondent, covering of course, the areas to be investigated. 4. Know the objectives of each question so as to make sure that the answers adequately satisfy the question objectives. 5. If a question is not understood, repeat it slowly with proper emphasis and appropriate explanation, when necessary. 6. Talk all answers naturally, never showing disapproval or surprise. When the respondent does not meet the interruptions, denial, contradiction and other harassment, he may feel free and may not try to withhold information. He will be motivated to communicate when the atmosphere is permissive and the listeners attitude is non judgmental and is genuinely absorbed in the revelations. 7. Listen quietly with patience and humility. Give not only undivided attention, but also personal warmth. At the same time, be alert and analytic to incomplete, non specific and inconsistent answers, but avoid interrupting the flow of information. If necessary, jot down unobtrusively the points which need elaboration or verification for later and timelier probing. The appropriate technique for this probing is to ask for further clarification in such a polite manner as I am not sure, I understood fully, is this.what you meant? 8. Neither argues nor dispute. 9. Show genuine concern and interest in the ideas expressed by the respondent; at the same time, maintain an impartial and objective attitude. 10. Should not reveal your own opinion or reaction. Even when you are asked of your views, laugh off the request, saying Well, your opinions are more important than mine. 11. At times the interview runs dry and needs re-stimulation. Then use such expressions as Uh-huh or That interesting or I see can you tell me more about that? and the like. 12. When the interviewee fails to supply his reactions to related past experiences, represent the stimulus situation, introducing appropriate questions which will aid in revealing the past. Under what circumstances did such and such a phenomenon occur? or How did you feel about it and the like. 13. At times, the conversation may go off the track. Be alert to discover drifting, steer the conversation back to the track by some such remark as, you know, I was very much interested in what you said a moment ago. Could you tell me more about it?

14. When the conversation turns to some intimate subjects, and particularly when it deals with crises in the life of the individual, emotional blockage may occur. Then drop the subject for the time being and pursue another line of conversation for a while so that a less direct approach to the subject can be made later. 15. When there is a pause in the flow of information, do not hurry the interview. Take it as a matter of course with an interested look or a sympathetic half-smile. If the silence is too prolonged, introduce a stimulus saying You mentioned that What happened then? Additional Sittings In the case of qualitative interviews involving longer duration, one single sitting will not do, as it would cause interview weariness. Hence, it is desirable to have two or more sittings with the consent of the respondent. Recording the Interview It is essential to record responses as they take place. If the note taking is done after the interview, a good deal of relevant information may be lost. Nothing should be made in the schedule under respective question. It should be complete and verbatim. The responses should not be summarized or paraphrased. How can complete recording be made without interrupting the free flow of conversation? Electronic transcription through devices like tape recorder can achieve this. It has obvious advantages over note-taking during the interview. But it also has certain disadvantages. Some respondents may object to or fear going on record. Consequently the risk of lower response rate will rise especially for sensitive topics. If the interviewer knows short-hand, he can use it with advantage. Otherwise, he can write rapidly by abbreviating word and using only key words and the like. However, even the fast writer may fail to record all that is said at conversational speed. At such times, it is useful to interrupt by some such comment as that seems to be a very important point, would you mind repeating it, so that I can get your words exactly. The respondent is usually flattered by this attention and the rapport is not disturbed. The interviewer should also record all his probes and other comments on the schedule, in brackets to set them off from responses. With the pre-coded structured questions, the interviewers task is easy. He has to simply ring the appropriate code or tick the appropriate box, as the case may be. He should not make mistakes by carelessly ringing or ticketing a wrong item. Closing the Interview After the interview is over, take leave off the respondent thanking him with a friendly smile. In the case of a qualitative interview of longer duration, select the occasion for departure more carefully. Assembling the papers for putting them in the folder at the time of asking the final question sets the stage for a final handshake, a thank-you and a good-bye. If the respondent desires to know the result of the survey, note down his name and address so that a summary of the result could be posted to him when ready.

Editing At the close of the interview, the interviewer must edit the schedule to check that he has asked all the questions and recorded all the answers and that there is no inconsistency between answers. Abbreviations in recording must be replaced by full words. He must ensure that everything is legible. It is desirable to record a brief sketch of his impressions of the interview and observational notes on the respondents living environment, his attitude to the survey, difficulties, if any, faced in securing his cooperation and the interviewers assessment of the validity of the respondents answers. Interview Problems In personal interviewing, the researcher must deal with two major problems, inadequate response, non-response and interviewers bias. Inadequate response Kahn and Cannel distinguish five principal symptoms of inadequate response. They are: partial response, in which the respondent gives a relevant but incomplete answer non-response, when the respondent remains silent or refuses to answer the question irrelevant response, in which the respondents answer is not relevant to the question asked inaccurate response, when the reply is biased or distorted and verbalized response problem, which arises on account of respondents failure to understand a question or lack of information necessary for answering it. Interviewers Bias The interviewer is an important cause of response bias. He may resort to cheating by cooking up data without actually interviewing. The interviewers can influence the responses by inappropriate suggestions, word emphasis, tone of voice and question rephrasing. His own attitudes and expectations about what a particular category of respondents may say or think may bias the data. Another source of response of the interviewers characteristics (education, apparent social status, etc) may also bias his answers. Another source of response bias arises from interviewers perception of the situation, if he regards the assignment as impossible or sees the results of the survey as possible threats to personal interests or beliefs he is likely to introduce bias. As interviewers are human beings, such biasing factors can never be overcome completely, but their effects can be reduced by careful selection and training of interviewers, proper motivation and supervision, standardization or interview procedures (use of standard wording in survey questions, standard instructions on probing procedure and so on) and standardization of interviewer behavior. There is need for more research on ways to minimize bias in the interview.

Non-response Non-response refers to failure to obtain responses from some sample respondents. There are many sources of non-response; non-availability, refusal, incapacity and inaccessibility. Non-availability Some respondents may not be available at home at the time of call. This depends upon the nature of the respondent and the time of calls. For example, employed persons may not be available during working hours. Farmers may not be available at home during cultivation season. Selection of appropriate timing for calls could solve this problem. Evenings and weekends may be favorable interviewing hours for such respondents. If someone is available, then, line respondents hours of availability can be ascertained and the next visit can be planned accordingly. Refusal Some persons may refuse to furnish information because they are ill-disposed, or approached at the wrong hour and so on. Although, a hardcore of refusals remains, another try or perhaps another approach may find some of them cooperative. Incapacity or inability may refer to illness which prevents a response during the entire survey period. This may also arise on account of language barrier. Inaccessibility Some respondents may be inaccessible. Some may not be found due to migration and other reasons. Non-responses reduce the effective sample size and its representativeness. Methods and Aims of control of non-response Kish suggests the following methods to reduce either the percentage of non-response or its effects: 1. Improved procedures for collecting data are the most obvious remedy for non-response. Improvements advocated are (a) guarantees of anonymity, (b) motivation of the respondent to co-operate (c) arousing the respondents interest with clever opening remarks and questions, (d) advance notice to the respondents. 2. Call-backs are most effective way of reducing not-at-homes in personal interviews, as are repeated mailings to no-returns in mail surveys. 3. Substitution for the non-response is often suggested as a remedy. Usually this is a mistake because the substitutes resemble the responses rather than the non-responses. Nevertheless, beneficial substitution methods can sometimes be designed with reference to important characteristics of the population. For example, in a farm management study, the farm size is an important variable and if the sampling is based on farm size, substitution for a respondent with a particular size holding by another with the holding of the same size is possible.

Attempts to reduce the percentage or effects on non-responses aim at reducing the bias caused by differences on non-respondents from respondents. The non-response bias should not be confused with the reduction of sampled size due to non-response. The latter effect can be easily overcome, either by anticipating the size of non-response in designing the sample size or by compensating for it with a supplement. These adjustments increase the size of the response and the sampling precision, but they do not reduce the non-response percentage or bias.

3. a. What are the various steps in processing of data?

[ 5 marks]

b. How is data editing is done at the Time of Recording of Data? [ 5 marks] Data in the real world often comes with a large quantum and in a variety of formats that any meaningful interpretation of data cannot be achieved straightaway. Social science researches, to be very specific, draw conclusions using both primary and secondary data. To arrive at a meaningful interpretation on the research hypothesis, the researcher has to prepare his data for this purpose. This preparation involves the identification of data structures, the coding of data and the grouping of data for preliminary research interpretation. This data preparation for research analysis is teamed as processing of data. Further selections of tools for analysis would to a large extent depend on the results of this data processing. Data processing is an intermediary stage of work between data collections and data interpretation. The data gathered in the form of questionnaires/interview schedules/field notes/data sheets is mostly in the form of a large volume of research variables. The research variables recognized is the result of the preliminary research plan, which also sets out the data processing methods beforehand. Processing of data requires advanced planning and this planning may cover such aspects as identification of variables, hypothetical relationship among the variables and the tentative research hypothesis. The various steps in processing of data may be stated as: o o o o Identifying the data structures Editing the data Coding and classifying the data Transcription of data o Tabulation of data. o Editing o The next step in the processing of data is editing of the data instruments. Editing is a process of checking to detect and correct errors and omissions. Data editing happens at two stages, one at the time of recording of the data and second at the time of analysis of data. o 12.3.1 Data Editing at the Time of Recording of Data o Document editing and testing of the data at the time of data recording is done considering the following questions in mind. o Do the filters agree or are the data inconsistent?

Have missing values been set to values, which are the same for all research questions? o Have variable descriptions been specified? o Have labels for variable names and value labels been defined and written? o All editing and cleaning steps are documented, so that, the redefinition of variables or later analytical modification requirements could be easily incorporated into the data sets. 4. a. What are the fundamental of frequency Distribution? [ 5 marks]

b. What are the types and general rules for graphical representation of data? Frequency Distribution and Class Intervals Variables that are classified according to magnitude or size are often arranged in the form of a frequency table. In constructing this table, it is necessary to determine the number of class intervals to be used and the size of the class intervals. A distinction is usually made between continuous and discrete variables. A continuous variable has an unlimited number of possible values between the lowest and highest with no gaps or breaks. Examples of continuous variable are age, weight, temperature etc. A discrete variable can have a series of specified values with no possibility of values between these points. Each value of a discrete variable is distinct and separate. Examples of discrete variables are gender of persons (male/female) occupation (salaried, business, profession) car size (800cc, 1000cc, 1200cc) In practice, all variables are treated as discrete units, the continuous variables being stated in some discrete unit size according to the needs of a particular situation. For example, length is described in discrete units of millimetres or a tenth of an inch. Class Intervals: Ordinarily, the number of class intervals may not be less than 5 not more than 15, depending on the nature of the data and the number of cases being studied. After noting the highest and lower values and the feature of the data, the number of intervals can be easily determined. For many types of data, it is desirable to have class intervals of uniform size. The intervals should neither be too small nor too large. Whenever possible, the intervals should represent common and convenient numerical divisions such as 5 or 10, rather than odd division such as 3 to 7. Class intervals must be clearly designated in a frequency table in such a way as to obviate any possibility of misinterpretation of confusion. For example, to present the age group of a population, the use of intervals of 1-20, 20-50, and 50 and above would be confusing. This may be presented as 1-20, 21-50, and above 50. Every class interval has a mid point. For example, the midpoint of an interval 1-20 is 10.5 and the midpoint of class interval 1-25 would be 13. Once class intervals are determined, it is routine work to count the number of cases that fall in each interval. One-Way Tables: One-way frequency tables present the distribution of cases on only a single dimension or variable. For example, the distribution of respondents of gender, by religion, socio [ 5 marks]

economic status and the like are shown in one way tables (Table 10.1) lustrates one-way tables. One way tables are rarely used since the result of frequency distributions can be described in simple sentences. For instance, the gender distribution of a sample study may be described as The sample data represents 58% by males and 42% of the sample are females. Tow-Way Table: Distributions in terms of two or more variables and the relationship between the two variables are show in two-way table. The categories of one variable are presented one below another, on the left margin of the table those of another variable at the upper part of the table, one by the side of another. The cells represent particular combination of both variables. To compare the distributions of cases, raw numbers are converted into percentages based on the number of cases in each category. (Table 10.2) illustrate two-way tables. TABLE 10.2

Another method of constructing a two-way table is to state the percent of representation as a within brackets term rather than as a separate column. Here, special care has been taken as to how the percentages are calculated, either on a horizontal representation of data or as vertical representation of data. Sometimes, the table heading itself provides a meaning as to the method of representation in the two-way table.

Types of Graphs and General Rules The most commonly used graphic forms may be grouped into the following categories: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Line Graphs or Charts Bar Charts Segmental presentations. Scatter plots Bubble charts Stock plots Pictographs Chesnokov Faces

The general rules to be followed in graphic representations are: 1. The chart should have a title placed directly above the chart. 2. The title should be clear, concise and simple and should describe the nature of the data presented.

3. Numerical data upon which the chart is based should be presented in an accompanying table. 4. The horizontal line measures time or independent variable and the vertical line the measured variable. 5. Measurements proceed from left to right on the horizontal line and from bottom to top on the vertical. 6. Each curve or bar on the chart should be labelled. 7. If there are more than one curves or bar, they should be clearly differentiated from one another by distinct patterns or colours. 8. The zero point should always be represented and the scale intervals should be equal. 9. Graphic forms should be used sparingly. Too many forms detract rather than illuminating the presentation. 10. Graphic forms should follow and not precede the related textual discussion.

5. Strictly speaking, would case studies be considered as scientific research? Why or why not? [10 marks] Students pursuing their thesis are often required to conduct research and feel perplexed because of different methodologies available. While a scientific research is preferred by most as it is based upon observation and experimentation that can be easily verified, there is also a method called case study that is becoming popular among research students. There are some similarities in both approaches and there are scientific researches being conducted through case studies. However, there are differences between a case study and scientific research that need to be highlighted for the benefit of research students. Case study Case study as a technique of research is commonly employed in social sciences such as psychology, anthropology, sociology and economics. Time tested theories are used while observing a particular situation, event, or a group. Theoretical models can be easily tested in real life situations through case studies. In the last few decades, case studies are even being applied in scientific disciplines to analyze specific situations. Case studies produce only observations, and no quantitative data. This however, does not hamper a research project as the data obtained through a case study serves as input in many related research projects. Case study serves to narrow down the focus of the researcher and brings out results that are natural and spontaneous. Scientific research This is a type of research that allows researchers to come to conclusions that are definitive in nature and easily verifiable through experiments that can be repeated by anyone interested in the research. Scientific research is also characterized by neutrality as there is no bias and the researcher has set guidelines and uses a method of presentation that is transparent and can be interpreted easily. Scientific research utilizes data collection through observation and experimentation and then testing hypotheses that are theories that have stood the test of time. One benefit of scientific research is that it has practical applications. Scientific research is mostly confined to natural phenomenon and health and ailments. Most of the drugs are a result of scientific research only.

In brief: Case Study vs Scientific Research Case study as a method of research is used mostly in social sciences whereas scientific research, as the name indicates is a popular mode of research in life sciences. Case study produces qualitative data while scientific research produces quantitative data. Case study is longer in duration. On the other hand scientific research requires precise measurement and analysis of data collected. Scientific research is sometime considered guilty of being a slave of theories and laws whereas case study is freer in comparison and studies specific cases to make generalizations.

6. a. Analyse the case study and descriptive approach to research. [5 marks]. b. Distinguish between research methods & research Methodology. a) Case Study and descriptive approach to research:

Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how... Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, Descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship, where one variable affects another. In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. The description is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations. Often the best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation. Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are. In short descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied. But there are always restrictions to that. Your research must have an impact to the lives of the people around you e.g. finding the most frequent disease that affects the children of a town. The reader of the research will know what to do to prevent that disease thus; more people will live a healthy life. Descriptive research does not fit neatly into the definition of either quantitative or qualitative research methodologies, but instead it can utilize elements of both, often within the same study. The term descriptive research refers to the type of research question, design, and data analysis that will be applied to a given topic. Descriptive statistics tell what is, while inferential statistics try to determine cause and effect.

A case study is a research method common in social science. It is based on an in-depth investigation of a single individual, group, or event. Case studies may be descriptive or explanatory. The latter type is used to explore causation in order to find underlying principles. They may be prospective, in which criteria are established and cases fitting the criteria are included as they become available, or retrospective, in which criteria are established for selecting cases from historical records for inclusion in the study. Rather than using samples and following a rigid protocol (strict set of rules) to examine limited number of variables, case study methods involve an in-depth, longitudinal (over a long period of time) examination of a single instance or event: a case. They provide a systematic way of looking at events, collecting data, analyzing information, and reporting the results. As a result the researcher may gain a sharpened understanding of why the instance happened as it did, and what might become important to look at more extensively in future research. Case studies lend themselves to both generating and testing hypotheses. Another suggestion is that case study should be defined as a research strategy, an empirical inquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its real-life context. Case study research means single and multiple case studies, can include quantitative evidence, relies on multiple sources of evidence and benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions. Case studies should not be confused with qualitative research and they can be based on any mix of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Single-subject research provides the statistical framework for making inferences from quantitative case-study data Research Methods and Research Methodology are two terms that are often confused as one and the same. Strictly speaking they are not so and they show differences between them. One of the primary differences between them is that research methods are the methods by which you conduct research into a subject or a topic. On the other hand research methodology explains the methods by which you may proceed with your research. Research methods involve conduct of experiments, tests, surveys and the like. On the other hand research methodology involves the learning of the various techniques that can be used in the conduct of research and in the conduct of tests, experiments, surveys and critical studies. This is the technical difference between the two terms, namely, research methods and research methodology. In short it can be said that research methods aim at finding solutions to research problems. On the other hand research methodology aims at the employment of the correct procedures to find out solutions. It is thus interesting to note that research methodology paves the way for research methods to be conducted properly. Research methodology is the beginning whereas research methods are the end of any scientific or non-scientific research. Let us take for example a subject or a topic, namely, employment of figures of speech in English literature. In this topic if we are to conduct research, then the research methods that are involved are study of various works of the different poets and the understanding of the employment of figures of speech in their works. On the other hand research methodology pertaining to the topic mentioned above involves the study about the tools of research, collation of various manuscripts related to the topic, techniques involved in the critical edition of these manuscripts and the like.

If the subject into which you conduct a research is a scientific subject or topic then the research methods include experiments, tests, study of various other results of different experiments performed earlier in relation to the topic or the subject and the like. On the other hand research methodology pertaining to the scientific topic involves the techniques regarding how to go about conducting the research, the tools of research, advanced techniques that can be used in the conduct of the experiments and the like. Any student or research candidate is supposed to be good at both research methods and research methodology if he or she is to succeed in his or her attempt at conducting research into a subject.