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Biochemistry and Genetics 1

Dr. Grogan's Material for Mini-II


5 questions
Answer key is at the end IN REVERSE ORDER!!!

1) Mice are made which have a selective knock-out of the GLUT4 transporter in
muscle. The mice survive, but have unusual glucose metabolism. These mice
would MOST LIKELY DIFFER from normal mice by having:

A) glucose uptake only by liver parenchymal cells


B) post-excercise plasma hypoglycemia
C) failure of all insulin-dependent responses, and insulin-resistance
D) post-prandial plasma hyperglycemia
E) failure to secrete enough insulin from pancreas after meals

2) While glucokinase is an important enzyme in liver, it is also present in


pancreatic β-cells. A patient is shown to have low glucokinase activity in
pancreatic β-cells by enzymatic analysis. This patient is MOST LIKELY to?

A) deliver more GLUT4 receptor to the plasma membrane of muscle cells


B) transport too much glucose into pancreas, reducing uptake by other tissues
C) develop a type of insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus
D) be unable to utilize glucose in pancreas
E) secrete less insulin when glucose levels increase to high levels

3) In Tauri Disease (Glycogen Storage Disorder Type VII) nausea, vomiting,


myoglobinuria, cramping and other symptoms develop due to a mutation of
phosphorfructokinase-1 (PFK-1). Symptoms usually appear in these patients
after intense excercise. Why?

A) glucose 6-phosphate is diverted to storage in muscle and cannot be


regenerated
B) muscle PFK-1 is not regulated as occurs in other tissues like liver
C) lactate accumulation in excercising muscle has a positive allosteric effect on
PFK-1
D) glucose dephosphorylation occurs which reduces net ATP yields from
glycolysis
E) muscle has an extreme requirement for ATP from anaerobic glycolysis in
excercise

4) A deficiency of Triose Phosphate Isomerase (TPI) often leads to hemolytic


anemia. Why are erythrocytes particularly susceptible to low levels of this
enzyme? (Note - progressive neurodegenerative disorders also develop in
severe TPI deficiency)
A) muscle and other tissues do not require this enzyme
B) erythrocytes cannot make any ATP without this enzyme
C) the PFK-1 reaction becomes reversible with high fructose 2,6 bis-P
concentrations
D) cells are forced to make ATP, without oxygen, in order to maintain ion
gradients
E) hemoglobin function depends on adequate levels of glyceraldehyde 3-
phosphate

5) Analysis of a patient's blood shows chronic hyperlactatemia (high lactic acid


levels). This suggests that the patient's oxidation of glucose to CO2 is:

A) the result of a high ATP to ADP ratio


B) utilizes both glycolytic and TCA (Kreb's cycle) enzymes equally
C) the result of a deficiency of lysosomal enzymes
D) not complete
E) blocked by the action of glucagon

Answer Key (in reverse order): D, B, E, E, D