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Student Text

This course is designed for radio network planning and tuning engineers. It is recommended for anyone who needs an understanding ofthe WCDMA/UMTS air interface.



What this is all about? Radio Access Evolution UMTS Specifications' Releases Radio Access Methods Spreading Channellization 0VSF Codes Scrambling QPSK Modulation WCDMA Transmitter P-CPICH (Pilot Channel)

4 6 8 I0 I2 I4 I6 I8 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50



I8 I9

Logical Channels Power Control Handover RAKE Receiver

22 23 24

High Speed Downlink Packet Access


Evolved Packet System (EPS)



What do w e expect from new telecommunication networks?

Growth of subscribers no:

Total Dlglel Mobile Subocvlben

End-users performance expectations



Multimedia services
capacity coverage quality security


Global roaming
dual-mode mobiles GSMIUMTS




Since the launch of digital mobile systems, in the year 2008 the number of digital subscribers has exceeded three and half billion. Higher expectations of mobile users, regarding services, mobility and security have forced operators to build more advanced networks. Actually, more and more people are turning to mobile technology not only for voice and text message communications (guaranteeing better capacities, coverage and quality) but to mobile broadband as their primary way to access Internet-based services, including Web servers, corporate networking and email on the move.
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The convergence of existing technologies like mobile, fixed networks, Internet, intranets caused the new multimedia services and global roaming to become the most important factors and challenges to the telecommunication market. Sending still pictures, music, films, video-conferencing, and access to intranets or Internet requires more bandwidth and more reliable transport technologies. Before WCDMA/UMTS, transport network planning was relatively simple, at least in terms of functionality and capacity requirements. Taking into account the exponential growth in global mobile data traffic the actual solution lies in migrating to all-IP transport over Ethernet-based networks (because of the efficient aggregation and multiplexing, flexible interfaces and lower costs).

I ) Which is bigger nowadays i n your opinion: the total number of mobile subscribers

or the fofalnumber of$xed telephony subscribers?

2) Is it possible to access data published in the Internet with a typical mobile phone today? Whaf sort offinctionality must be supported by a mobile sfatioiS in such a case?

the number of worldwide mobile

pr ~ ~ P r a t i o l n E1; expected l o reach ii"i $$ ~ n 2 C W8 d

I In the year 2005 the number of SMS messages sent reached j / about one trillion.
W C D M A Air Interface -3-

How to build the radio system that will be able to support required higher bit rates? How has the radio transmission been evolving to reach expected 2 Mbps throughput?


First generation (1G) of mobile telephony networks was the generation of analogue transmissions where only one service was possible, the voice call. Systems like NMT, AMPS, and TACS are examples of them. Problems with control of quality and demands on data transmissions forced development of new digital technologies. Those new systems were called systems of the second generation (2G) such as GSM, PDC, D-AMPS, IS-95. The digital voice calls, a possibility to transmit data (with low rates) were very important steps towards the third generation (3G) systems where very high data rates (up to 2 Mbps) allow operating the new multimedia services. 3Gsystems are based on IMT-2000 recommendations. The UMTS is one of such systems.


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To support very advanced services, existing systems should transmit data with higher bit rates. Because of a huge infrastructure of existing systems, to reach this, both, radio interface and the network have to be modified. The evolution, not the revolution, is needed. The GSM has evolved in the radio interface, combining number o f time slots per user, allocated for a services (HSCSD), changing the coding schemes and introducing packet transmissions (GPRS) and even changing the modulation (EDGE), reaching transmissions close to the 500 kbps theoretically. To provide transmissions up to 2 Mbps a new radio access method had to be deployed. And solutions for that are given by 3G systems. The evolution of 3G called HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access) and EUL (Enhanced Uplink known also as the HSUPA High Speed Uplink Packet Access) increase the maximum downlink and uplink bit rates to 14 Mbps and 5.76 Mbps respectively. HSDPA and EUL is referred to as HSPA (High Speed Packet Access). The evolution of HSPA (sometimes called HSPA+)' will increase the maximum bit rates up to 42 Mbps in the downlink 1 and 1 Mbps in the uplink (using Multiple Input Multiple Output antenna solutions and higher order modulation). The Long Term Evolution (LTE) as the next step towards 4G systems were to have average user throughput of three- to fourtimes the HSDPA levels in the downlink (IOOMbps), and two to three times the HSUPA levels in the uplink (50Mbps). But the target peak data rates are in the 4G:
up to 100 Mbps in f l mobility, wide area deployments; ul up to 1 Gbps in low mobility, local area deployments.

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I ) Identifij diferent network solutions that you can call "generation 2%".
2) W h a f are other names for fhe standard called IS-95?

I The

I GMSK mod~dation scheme used in GSM into 8-PSK, which

enables faster transmission across the air inteface,

major change brought by EDGE is the change from

W C D M A Air Interface



The 3rd Generation Mobile System and the (GSM) and their capabilities are developed in a phased approach. In the following the content of the 3GPP Releases is briefly outlined.

Release 5

Release 1999



2005-03 Time



3GPP Release 1999 is the first release from 3GPP and covers specifications for a complete mobile system. 3GPP Release 1999 contains, but is not limited to: UTRA FDD and 3.84 Mcps TDD modes, UTRAN Iu, Iub and Iur interfaces, GSM based evolved core network, USIM, AMR speech codec, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), Location Services (LCS), a broad range of supplementary services, Customized Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic (CAMEL), Open Service Access (OSA) and Telecommunication management. The 3GPP Release1999 December 1999. was functionally frozen in j


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3GPP Release 4 is a further enhancement of 3GPP Release 1999. 3GPP Release 4 contains, but is not limited to, UTRA FDD repeater function and low chip rate TDD option, 700 MHz support for GERAN, e2e transparent packet streaming service, Tandem Free Operation, Transcoder Free Operation, IP transport of CN protocols, Bearer independent CS core network, CAMEL enhancements and OSA enhancements. The 3GPP Release 4 was functionally frozen in March 2001. 3GPP Release 5 contains, but is not limited to, the initial phase of the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), UMTS in 1800/1900MHz bands (release independent), Wideband AMR, IP transport in the UTRAN, Iu for GERAN, Gb over IP, CAMEL enhancements and OSA enhancement, Global Text Telephony (this is a Release independent Feature), Location Services enhancements, UTRAN sharing in connected mode and Security enhancements. The 3GPP Release 5 was functionally frozen in March 2002 and the remaining part in June 2002. 3GPP Release 6 contains Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS), Wireless LAN/UMTS Interworking, Network Sharing, Priority Service, IMS Phase2, Enhanced Uplink (HSUPA), subscriber certificates. The 3GPP Release 6 was functionally frozen in March 2005. 3GPP Release 7. It is planned that 3GPP Release 7 will contain Multiple Input Multiple Output antennas (MIMO), Advanced Global Navigation Satellite System (A-GNSS), Wireless LAN/UMTS Interworking Phase 2, 64QAM mofulation for HSDPA, 16QAM in HSUPA.

i Global

WCDMA 'Family' subscriptions (total includes WCDMA + HSPA) exeeded 350 mln subscribers.

WCDA/IA Air Interface

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When designing mobile communication system important is to know how to separate diflerent directions of transmission and how to enable an access to common resources for multiple users.





L time








Transmission from an user equioment to the base station (Uplink, UL) and from the base station to an user equipment is usually separated in the frequency or the time domain.


In Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) separate frequency bands are reserved for transmission and reception. This avoids collisions during communication. The distance between the uplink and the downlink is called Duplex Distance. The uplink is normally placed on the lower freqency band, because it's easer to transmit lower

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frequeny wave over a long distance. As it requires less energy this solution conserves the battery lifetime (which is a serious problem for mobile stations).

Time Division Duplex (TDD) requires just one frequency band for the transmission and the reception. Compared to FDD this is seen as the advantage. TDD system may be implemented in situation when availability of frequency resources is the limiting factor. However in TDD time structure must be implemented to separate the uplink from the downlink. Transmission and reception is always discontinous. TDD frame consists of a certain number of the uplin and downlink timeslots. In order to avoid collisions synchronizations must be kept.

The first multiple access technology for mobile systems was Frequency Division ~ u l t i ~ Access (FDMA). In this case for le each connection a separate frequency band of equal width is allocated. Transmission is continous and no synchronization in time is needed.

In Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) the' available resources are divided in time domain into timeslots. A certain number o f timeslots make TDMA frame. This number is system specific. One user has a cyclic access to the resources. Can transmit only within the timeslot that has been allocated to him/her. Other users use the remaining timeslots o the frame. Transmission is discontinous. f Synchronization is needed to avoid overlapping of bursts sent in adjacent timeslots.

The Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) allows for simultaneous transmission of multiple users in the same frequency band. Separation of different connections is achieved through assignment of different codes with specific propertis. Transmission is continous The characteristic property of CDMA systems is wide transmission band.

W C D M A Air Intevface


How does the narrowband user information use wide spectrum? How is it possible that users may use the same frequency at the same time? Which technique does the UMTS use to spread the spectrum?

Spreading Spectrum Methods:

frequency hopping -slow, fast (FH) time hopping (TH)



WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) systems use wide frequency channels. The narrowband signal, no matter what bandwidth occupying (different for different services, e.g. voice, video), must be spread before the transmission. After spreading all services (signals), are transmitted occupying the same frequency band, which in case of the UMTS is 5 MHz. The spectral power density of lower bit rate services (e.g. voice) is lower than of services with higher bit rates (like video). Spreading the spectrum, the transmission in the wide frequency band makes signal similar to the noise increasing resilience to interference and security of the system. Spread spectrum
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systems are less sensitive to narrowband interference and fading. Information transmitted on wide frequency channels is easier to recover in case of the poor quality of the received signal.

1 /

Several spread spectrum technologies exist; Frequency Hopping ! (FH), Time Hopping (TH) and Direct Sequence (DS) Spreading I Spectrum are basic methods. In the UMTS/WCDMA the DS-SS . is involved.

According to 3GPP specifications the spreading consists of two j steps: channellization and scrambling. The channellization expands the band and is used to separate services. The j scrambling improves properties of the signal, ciphers information and separates UMTS transmitters.

I ) What are the biggest advantages of spread spectrum technologres as opposed to other solutions ?
2) What males spread spectrum complex and dificult to implement?

Thanks to its unique features spread spectrum technologies have initially been in zrse for several years in military systems.
W C D M A Air Intevface

How to separate services of the same user? How to keep the same bandwidth for all users and their semices? And finally: how to achieved the expected 2 Mbps transmissions?

Bit rate

Chip rate


SF: 4,8,16,32,64, 128,256, F"2 Different bitrates with comsponding spreading factors


To spread signal the UMTS uses Direct Sequence Spreading Spectrum technique. The output stream from the channellization process consists of spreading codes sequences (or inverse code sequences) being used instead of input bits (input bit ,0" is mapped to the spreading sequence, input bit "1" is mapped to the inverse sequence) increasing the signal rate. The rate is increased with the ratio equal to the length of the spreading code, called Spreading Factor (SF). The bit in the spread signal is called a chip. The rate of spread information (signal) is the chiprate.
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To keep the fixed band of the frequency occupied by services of I different rates, the chiprate has to be constant. That means that 1 higher bit rate services use shorter codes (lower SF), lower bit i rate uses longer codes (higher SF). In the UMTS SFs of 4,8,16,1 32, 64,128 and 256 are used (sometimes, for a special downlink 1 control channel, the SF of 512 is used). The constant chiprate is / set to 3.84 Mcps (megachip per second).

1) The higher bit requested, the longer code needed - is this true or false?

2) Why does the chiprate have to be constant?

The chiprate used in CDMA (IS-95) i s 1.2288 Mcp

W C D M Air bzterface



DigitallAnalog mapping
Example: 0 0 1 1 -> (+I ,+I ,-1,-1)

Digital 0 e->Analog +1
Digital I <-> Analog -1


The channelisation codes of figure above are Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes that preserve the orthogonality between a user's different physical channels. The channelisation codes are uniquely described as Cch,SF,k, where SF is the spreading factor of the code and k is the code number, 0 < k < SF-1. Each level in the code tree defines channelisation codes of length SF, corresponding to a spreading factor of SF. The Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes l determine the data rates allocated to calls. A property of OVSF f

codes is that any two codes from different tree levels are orthogonal if and only if neither is a mother code of the other. Once the network assigns an OVSF code, it does not permit assignment of non-orthogonal codes to its ancestors and descendents. This major drawback is called as the blocking PrOPertJ'. Channelization codes should minimize interference among streams transmitted from a same source. In other words crosscorelation should be as low as possible. OVSF codes (Walsh codes) are organized in the tree (as presented in figure above). It may be noticed that number of available codes of a specific length is equal to the spreading factor. In this way there can be more low data rate users served from one base station than high data rate users.

The tree is built up after eachsplit by doubling the parent-code on one branch and by repeating the parent-code followed by the inversed parent-code on the other branch.

How to separate users in the system when all services are transmitted on the same frequency? How to generate codes which will have very good autocowelation properties?




Re-use factor = 4

Re-use factor = I

Code re-use factor = 512

00000 0000000000 MSB


After channellization a signal of multiple services is scrambled by another code. A scrambling code identifies transmitters (Node-Bs or MSs). Scrambling, helping in the process of synchronization, improves signal characteristics and the system security. Scrambling operation is done by chip-by-chip multiplication of dedicated scrambling code and a signal (channellized services of one transmitter). That means the chip rate is not affected, that is, the band expansion is achieved by channellization process only. Scrambling codes, because of the noise-like characteristics, have common name Pseudo Noise (PN) codes.

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PN codes are generated by linear shift registers with feedbacks performing modulo 2 additions (XOR). The length of registers and the feedback allocation are fixed. Downlink scrambling codes are allocated during the planning phase of the system deployment. Uplink scrambling codes are allocated dynamically by RNC.

1) What is the puvpose ofallocation of diferent scrambling codes for difirent transmitters (Node-Bs) ?
2) What kind of operation is necessa y at the receiving side ifscrambling is used?

I received scrambled information.

WCDMA Air Interface

The RAKE receiver with 8 fingers is used to correlate

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Any digital modulation scheme uses a finite number of distinct signals t o represent digital data. PSK uses a finite number of phases, each assigned a unique pattern of bina y digifs. Usually, each phase encodes an equal number of bits. Each pattern of bits f o m s the symbol that is represented by the particular phase.

( I - I Q I )



----- RF Carrier amplitude

I - I Q I )


Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) sometimes known as quaternary PSK, quadriphase PSK, 4-PSK uses four points on the constellation diagram, equispaced around a circle. With four phases, QPSK can encode two bits per symbol. The mathematical analysis shows that QPSK can be used to double the data rate compared with a BPSK system while maintaining the same bandwidth of the signal.

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Although QPSK can be viewed as a quaternary modulation, it is easier to see it as two independently modulated quadrature carriers. With this interpretation, the even (or odd) bits are used to modulate the in-phase component of the carrier, while the odd (or even) bits are used to modulate the quadrature-phase component of the carrier. BPSK is used on both carriers and they can be independently demodulated.

Data stream (control, user data) from higher layers (Transport block/Transport block set) is encodevecoded to offer transport semices over the radio transmission link. Channel coding scheme is a combination of ewor detection, error correcting, rate matching, interleaving and transport channels mapping onto/splitti'ngfrom physical channels.

dowil~nk phys~cal channel


Error detection is provided on transport blocks through a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC).The size of the CRC is 24,16,12,8 or 0 bits and it is signalled from higher layers what CRC size that should be used for each TrCH.

All transport blocks in a TTI are serially concatenated. If the number of bits in a TTI is larger than the maximum size of a i
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code block then code block segmentation is performed after the concatenation of the transport blocks. The maximum size of the code blocks depends on whether convolutional coding or turbo coding is used for the TrCH. Code blocks are delivered to the channel coding block. The convolutional coding or turbo coding schemes can be applied to TrCHs. Radio frame size equalisation is padding the input bit sequence in order to ensure that the output can be segmented in data segments of same size. Radio frame size equalisation is only performed in the UL. The 1st interleaving is a block interleaver with inter-column permutations. When the transmission time interval is longer than 10 ms, the input bit sequence is segmented and mapped onto consecutive N radio frames. Following rate matching in the DL and radio frame size equalisation in the UL the input bit sequence length is guaranteed to be an integer multiple of N. Rate matching means that bits on a transport channel are repeated or punctured. Higher layers assign' a rate-matching attribute for each transport channel. Every 10 ms, one radio frame from each TrCH is delivered to the TrCH multiplexing. These radio frames are serially multiplexed into a coded composite transport channel (CCTrCH) . When more than one PhCH is used, physical channel segmentation divides the bits among the different PhCHs. The 2nd interleaving is a block interleaver and consists of bits input to a matrix with padding, the inter-column permutation for the matrix and bits output from the matrix with pruning. The spreading operation is performed for all physical channel except SCH. The spreading operation includes a modulation mapper stage successively followed by a channelisation stage, an IQ combining stage and a scrambling stage. All the downlink physical channels are then combined.

WCDMA Air lizfevface



Predifined bit sequence 1 T slot = 2560 chips , 2 0 bits

Slot #i


-- --- - .-------- -- - -

.- ---


I radio frame = 10 ms

F l
'I' PN

Pilot Channel Output

: Orthogonal



The CPICH is a fixed rate (30 kbps, SF=256) downlink physical channel that carries a pre-defined bit sequence. Figure above shows the frame structure of the CPICH.



The Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) has the following characteristics:

- The same channelization code is always used for the P- f CPICH; - The P-CPICH is scrambled by the primary scrambling code; - There is one and only one P-CPICH per cell; - The P-CPICH is broadcast over the entire cell.


,. -,

256 chips

- .


Nd,,.pl 8 bits

Slot #O

Slot # I

Slot #i

1 radio frame = 10 ms




Slot #l



Slot #14


Primary SCH Secondary SC H



I 1 m





2560 chips

) 1
One 10 rns SCH radio frame

The Primary CCPCH is a fixed rate (30 kbps, SF=256) downlink physical channels used to carry the BCH transport channel.



Figure above shows the frame structure o the Primary CCPCH. f The frame structure differs from the downlink DPCH in that no TPC commands, no TFCI and no pilot bits are transmitted.


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The Primary CCPCH is not transmitted during the first 256 chips of each slot. Instead, Primary SCH and Secondary SCH are transmitted during this period.

The Synchronisation Channel (SCH) is a downlink signal used for cell search. The SCH consists of two sub channels, the Primary and Secondary SCH. The 10 ms radio frames of the Primary and Secondary SCH are divided into 15 slots, each of length 2560 chips. Figure above illustrates the structure of the SCH radio frame. The Primary SCH consists of a modulated code of length 256 chips, the Primary Synchronisation Code (PSC) denoted cp in figure above, transmitted once every slot. The PSC is the same for every cell in the system.

The Secondary SCH consists of repeatedly transmitting a length 15 sequence of modulated codes of length 256 chips, the Secondary Synchronisation Codes (SSC), transmitted in parallel with the Primary SCH. The SSC is denoted csi,k in figure 18, where i = 0, 1, ..., 63 is the number of the scrambling code group, and k = 0,1, .. ., 14 is the slot number. Each SSC is chosen from a set of 16 different codes of length 256. This sequence on the Secondary SCH indicates which of the code' groups the cell's downlink scrambling code belongs to.

WCDMA Air Intelface





1 radio frame = 10 ms


The Secondary CCPCH is used to carry the FACH and PCH. There are two types o Secondary CCPCH: those that include f TFCI and those that do not include TFCI. It is the UTRAN that determines if a TFCI should be transmitted, hence making it f mandatory for all UEs to support the use of TFCI. The set o possible rates for the Secondary CCPCH is the same as for the downlink DPCH. The frame structure of the Secondary CCPCH is shown in figure above. The parameter k determines the total number of bits per downlink Secondary CCPCH slot. It is related to the spreading factor SF of the physical channel as SF = 256/2k. The spreading factor range is from 256 down to 4.

The FACH and PCH can be mapped to the same or to separate Secondary CCPCHs. If FACH and PCH are mapped to the same Secondary CCPCH, they can be mapped to the same frame.

; 1

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The main difference between a CCPCH and a downlink dedicated physical channel is that a CCPCH is not inner-loop power controlled.

The main difference between the Primary and Secondary CCPCH is that the transport channel mapped to the Primary CCPCH (BCH) can only have a fixed predefined transport format combination, while the Secondary CCPCH support multiple transport format combinations using TFCI.

W C D M A Air Inteface



Data Pilot Npilot bits

Data Ndata bits TFCl


Tslot= 2560 chips, 10%its (k=0..3)


slot #O slot #I


slot # i l


Message part radio frame T = 10 ms

4096 chips

4096 chips

10 ms (one radio frame)

Message part

20 ms (two radio frames)


The random-access transmission is based on a Slotted ALOHA approach with fast acquisition indication. The UE can start the random-access transmission at the beginning of a number of well-defined time intervals, denoted access slots. There are 15 access slots per two frames and they are spaced 5120 chips apart. Information on what access slots are available for random-access transmission is given by higher layers.

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The random-access transmission consists of one or several preambles of length 4096 chips and a message of length 10 ms or 20 ms. Each preamble is of length 4096 chips and consists of 256 repetitions of a signature of length 16 chips. There are a maximum of 16 available signatures.


The 10 ms message part radio frame is split into 15 slots, each of length Tslot = 2560 chips. Each slot consists of two parts, a data part to which the RACH transport channel is mapped and a control part that carries Layer 1 control information. The data and control parts are transmitted in parallel. A 10 ms message part consists of one message part radio frame, while a 20 ms message part consists of two consecutive 10 ms message part radio frames. The message part length is equal to the Transmission Time Interval of the RACH Transport channel in use. This TTI length is configured by higher layers.

The data part consists of 10*2k bits, where k=0,1,2,3. This corresponds to a spreading factor o 256, 128, 64, and 32 f respectively for the message data part.

The control part consists of 8 known pilot bits to support channel estimation for coherent detection and 2 TFCI bits. This corresponds to a spreading factor of 256 for the message control part. The total number of TFCI bits in the random-access message is 15*2 = 30. The TFCI of a radio frame indicates the transport format of the RACH transport channel mapped to the simultaneously transmitted message part radio frame. In case o f a 20 ms PRACH message part, the TFCI is repeated in the second radio frame

WCDA4A Air Interface

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NT~C bits





TFC l NTFCl bits

2560 chips, lohibits (k=0..7)


1 radio frame = 10 ms


Within one downlink DPCH, dedicated data generated at Layer 2 and above, i.e. the dedicated transport channel (DCH), is transmitted in time-multiplex with control information generated at Layer 1 (known pilot bits, TPC commands, and an optional TFCI). The downlink DPCH can thus be seen as a time multiplex of a downlink DPDCH and a downlink DPCCH.

Figure above shows the frame structure o the downlink DPCH. f Each frame o length 10 ms is split into 15 slots, each of length f Tslot = 2560 chips, corresponding to one power-control period.


The parameter k in figure 9 determines the total number o bits f f per downlink DPCH slot. It is related to the spreading factor SF 1 o the physical channel as SF = 512/2k. The spreading factor f may thus range from 512 down to 4.
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There are basically two types of downlink Dedicated Physical Channels; those that include TFCI (e.g. for several simultaneous services) and those that do not include TFCI (e.g. for fixed-rate [ services). It is the UTRAN that determines if a TFCI should be / transmitted and it is mandatory for all UEs to support the use of I TFCI in the downlink.

W C D M A Air Interface





%atPs 10*2 k bits (k=0..6)

glot 2560 chips, Ndat,= =




Subframe #O

Subframe # Subframe #2 I

I Subframe#) I Subframe #4


1 subframe = 2 m s 1 radio frame:

I= ms 10


The uplink DPDCH is used to carry the DCH transport channel. There may be zero, one, or several uplink DPDCHs on each radio link.

The uplink DPCCH is used to carry control information generated at Layer 1. The Layer 1 control information consists of known pilot bits to support channel estimation for coherent detection, transmit power-control (TPC) commands, feedback information (FBI), and an optional transport-format combination indicator (TFCI). The transport-format combination
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indicator informs the receiver about the instantaneous transport I format combination of the transport channels mapped to the simultaneously transmitted uplink DPDCH radio frame. There ) is one and only one uplink DPCCH on each radio link.

Figure above shows the frame structure of the uplink DPDCH ] and the uplink DPCCH. Each radio frame of length 10 ms is ; split into 15 slots, each of length Tslot = 2560 chips, corresponding to one power-control period. The DPDCH and DPCCH are always frame aligned with each other.

The parameter k in figure above determines the number of bits per uplink DPDCH slot. It is related to the spreading factor SF of the DPDCH as SF = 256/2k. The DPDCH spreading factor may range from 256 down to 4. The spreading factor of the uplink DPCCH is always equal to 256, i.e. there are 10 bits per uplink DPCCH slot.

W C D M A Air Intevface


Transport channels are transported further over UTRAN interfaces, Iub or Iur.

A general classification of transport channels is into two groups: Dedicated channels and Common channels. There is only one type of dedicated transport channel, the Dedicated Channel (DCH). There are seven types of common transport channels: BCH, FACH, PCH, RACH, DCH, HS-DSCH and E-DCH.

/ I

Logical channel is defined by what type of information is transferred. A general classification of logical channels is into i two groups: Control channels and Traffic channels.


Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH)



Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)


Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH)

7 Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH)

SynchronisationChannel (SCH) Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH)



W C D M A Air Interface


There are three types of channels in the WCDMA technologies: Physical Channel, Transport Channel and Logical channel. The Transport Channels are interface between MAC and Layer 1, while Logical Channels are interface between MAC and RLC. The logical and transport channels define what data are transported, while the physical channels define how and with what physical characteristic the data are transport.

Control Channel

Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Paging Control Channel (PCCH) Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) Common Control Channel (CCCH) Shared Channel Control Channel (SHCCH) MBMS point-to-multipoint Control Channel (MCCH) MBMS point-to-multipoint Scheduling Channel (MSCH)

Traffic Channel

Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) Common Traffic Channel (CTCH) MBMS point-to-multipoint Traffic Channel (MTCH)


Logical channel is defined by what type of information is transferred. A general classification of logical channels is into two groups: Control channels and Traffic channels.

Control Channels:

Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH): A downlink channel for broadcasting system control information.
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Paging Control Channel (PCCH): A downlink channel that transfers paging information. This channel is used when the network does not know the location cell of the UE, or, the UE is in the cell connected state (utilising UE sleep mode procedures).

Common Control Channel (CCCH): Bi-directional channel for transmitting control information between network and UEs. This channel is commonly used by the UEs having no RRC connection with the network and by the UEs using common transport channels when accessing a new cell after cell reselection.

Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH): A point-to-point bidirectional channel that transmits dedicated control information I between a UE and the network. This channel is established through RRC connection setup procedure. Shared Channel Control Channel (SHCCH): Bi-directional 1 channel that transmits control information for uplink and downlink shared channels between network and UEs. This j channel is for TDD only.


Traffic Channels:

Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH): A Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) is a point-to-point channel, dedicated to one UE, for the transfer of user information. A DTCH can exist in both uplink and downlink.


Common Traffic Channel (CTCH): A point-to-multipoint I unidirectional channel for transfer o dedicated user information I f for all or a group of specified UEs.

UMTS Air Interface

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What is the power control and why is i t so important in UMTS/WCDMA? How to achieve better quality, higher capacity and wider coverage? How to balance the system load?

Open loop

Ref. value

Closed loop

Quality loop



The Power Control is one of the most important functions ! implemented in the UMTS/WCDMA. The transmissions of I users' signals are on the same frequency and at the same time. 1 The interference is a limiting factor for coverage, capacity and [ quality of the system. Exceeding the threshold interference ( level leads to the drop of services in the entire cell. Transmitter ( power level has to be kept at the lowest possible level to reach 1 the lowest possible interference. That allows to keep the i highest possible capacity on one hand, and to keep the signal strong enough with the good quality expected in the system on the other hand.
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The mobile station, being close to the Node-B, must reduce the transmitted power to avoid too high interference to weaker signals transmitted from distant mobile stations (near-far problem). Too many mobile stations being close to the Node-B generate very high uplink interference and the signal transmitted from distant (the cell edge) mobile phones may be jammed. So, the number of mobile stations working in the cell influences the size of the cell. More mobile stations generate higher interference and in effect the cell shrinks (cell breathing).

Open loop power control takes place when the mobile station, measuring signal strength on broadcast channels, decides what level of transmitted power to use for its random access message.

Fast closed (inner) loop power control takes place when precise power control is needed and dedicated (traffic) channels are used. Uplink measurements done by the Node-B compared to the target reference value are the base for the decisions taken, and are transmitted by the Node-B to increase or decrease the mobile stations' transmission power level.

Outer loop power control is used to keep the individual connection on a required quality level (according to changes in signal propagation environment). The reference value (in the closed loop) is updated by the ,,quality loop". Outer loop power control is done between the Node-B and the RNC.

1) Can near-frar problem affect also other mobile systems? 2) What types ofpower confrol are used in GSM?

I The

UMTS Air Interface

power control in UMTS is pdomzed almost continuously the power can be adjzdsted 1500 times per second.


How to increase quality and capacity of the UMTS system? How to change cells during a call when roaming to the GSM network?

Hard Handover Soft Handover

Softer Handover

GSIW-UMTS roaming


Handovers occur when a mobile station changes cells during lasting service, or the quality changes (change of physical channel). Depending on how the channel is changed the UMTS introduces different possible handovers.


Soft handover takes place when the same frequency is used in neighbouring cells (it's the UMTS case). The mobile station is connected to two or more Node-Bs at the same time and exchanges information simultaneously.


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Softer handover takes place when the mobile station is simultaneously connected to two different sectors of the same Node-B.

Hard handover is needed when multiple carriers are allocated in the system. The connection to the originating cell is released first and after that, the new connection to the destination cell is build. It takes place in case of Hierarchical Cell Structure, hot-spot places (Inter-Frequency Handover; IFHO), and in a handover between UMTS and GSM networks (Inter- Radio Access Technology Handover; IRATHO).

I ) Whaf is the reasonjor a soff handover?

2) W h a f for multiple carriers can be assigned in the system?

ere i no "harder" handover in the UMTS. s

UMTS Air Intevface


One of the characteristics o radio Wanmission is multipath propagatia f Signa I, before reaching the receiver. experiences multiple wfrectims caused be obstacles such as hills, buildings, trees. Multiple copies of the same signal propagate on difjerent paths and thus reach the receiver with different delays. Dueto phase shifts between multipath components the resulting combined signal is attenuated

Delay profile

Cornbi ner




To Decoder

Searcher Finger

Power measurement of Neighboring Base Stations


Multipath fading cannot be eliminated. Hoever different i methods are used to overcome this problem. Some of them are 1 fast power control, strong coding, interleaving or retransmission protocols. I CDM A-based systems another n powerful method is used: RAKE receiver. RAKE equalizes delays o multipath components and combines the signals i a , f n positive manner.

In the RAKE receiver detected signal is first put- to a matched filter, which is used to identify current delay profile. The delay profile determines how the energy o one chip is "smeared" in f time. Each of the delay profile peaks is allocated a separate correlation receiver, i.e. RAKE receiver finger. After equalizing deIays between R A E fingers, signals are combined. The resulting output signal from RAKE is improved.

RAKE fingers may be used for tracing multipath components and for the maximum ratio combining i soft/sofier handover. n One o the RAKE receiver fingers is used for scaru-ting f neighbouring cel1s'Pilot channels. This finger is called Searcher. Searcher finger helps to perform measurements on , ' the Pilot strength in order to prepare for possibne handover.

UMTS A i r Ilzte?f~:farc

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One of the most important aspects of third-generation (3G) mobile systems is enhanced packet data access. WCD2MA 3GPP Release 99 provides data rates of 384 kbiys for wide-area coverage. However, as the use of packet data services increases and new services are introduced, higher speed and greater capacity are required.



WCDMA is evolving to enable higher bit-rates and higher throughput. The first step, introduced in 3GPP Release 5, improving the downlink is the technology known as the High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). The second step (included in 3GPP Release 6) is to improve the uplink by introducing Enhanced Uplink (EUL). Together these two technologies are known as High Speed Packet Access (HSPA).

HSDPA provides download speeds at least five times faster than . earlier versions of UMTS, allowing users of HSDPA networks a ;

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broader selection of video and music downloads. HSPDA specifies data transfer speeds of up to 14.4 Mbps per cell. Sometimes HSDPA is characterized as a 3.5G cellular radio technology.

; /

The high speeds of HSDPA is achieved through techniques including:

Shared-channel transmission, which results in efficient use of available code and power resources in WCDMA

A shorter TTI, which reduces round-trip time and improves the tracking of fast channel variations

Link adaptation, which maximizes channel usage and enables the ] base station to operate close to maximum cell power

Fast scheduling, which prioritizes users with the most favorable' channel conditions

Fast retransmission and soft-combining, which further increase capacity

16QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation).

By the end of 2007, there were 166 commercial HSDPA networks in 75 countries with a further 38 networks committed to deployment.

UMTS Air Interface

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UMTS and HSPA is continuously evolving. Even afCm HSDPA/HSUPA (HSPA), new technology enhancements are being added such as higher order modulation, MIMO and recently Dual-Cam'er HSDPA.



DL => 28 Mbps UL => 12 Mbps


DL => 21Mbps UL => 9Mbps

64QAM & MlMO

DL,=>42 Mbps UL => 18 Mbps


Evolved High-Speed Packet Access, also known as HSPA+, is a wireless broadband standard defined in 3GPP release 7.

HSPA+ provides HSPA (High-Speed Packet Access) data rates up to 42 Mbit/s on the downlink and 12 Mbit/s on the uplink with MIMO technologies and higher order modulation (64QAM). MIMO on CDMA based systems acts like virtual sectors to give extra capacity closer to the mast. The 42Mbit/s and 12Mbit/s represent theoretical peak sector speeds. The actual speed for a user will be lower. At cell edge and even at half the distance to the cell edge there may only be
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slight increase compared with 14.4 Mbit/s HSDPA unless a wider channel than 5MHz is used.

To increase the speed of HSPA from its top theoretical downlink of 14 Mbit/s, vendors have three techniques available to them: MIMO, multi-carrier, and QAM64. MIMO uses more than one pair of antennas, typically 2-by-2 or 4-by4, to increase data send and receive speeds. Multi-carrier modulation (MCM) is a technique that splits up the data being transmitting and sends it over a number of smaller channels (or "carriers") as a way to boost speed while cutting radio interference. QAM64 is a type of Quadrature amplitude modulation, also frequently used by cable vendors, that varies the amplitude and phase of a signal to increase the data capacity.

MIMO can double speeds, and multi-carrier will increase speeds by the number of carriers being bonded. In the case of two carriers involved, these techniques combined will increase the peak rate to 56 Mbit/s (14 x 2 x 2 carriers). QAM64 modulation techniques multiply data speeds by about 1.5 times. Future revisions of HSPA+ support up to 168Mbps using multiple carriers (MIMO, 64QAM, 4 carriers)..

As of November 2009, there are 20 HSPA+ networks running in the world at 21Mbit/s and two are running at 28Mbit/s.

UMTS Air Interface

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To ensure competitiveness of the 3GPP systems in a timefvame of the next 10 years and beyond, a long-term evolution of the 3GPP access technology needs to be considered


*EPS- Evolved Packet System *LTE- Long Term Evolution *SAE System Architecture Evolution


To enhance the capability of the 3GPP system to cope with the rapid growth in IP data traffic, the packet-switched technology utilised within 3G mobile networks requires further enhancement. A continued evolution and optirnisation of the system concept is also necessary in order to maintain a competitive edge in terms of both performance and cost. Important parts of such a long-term evolution include reduced latency, higher user data rates, improved system capacity and coverage, and reduced overall cost for the operator.


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Additionally, it is expected that IP based 3GPP services will be i .provided through various access technologies. A mechanism to I support seamless mobility between heterogeneous access networks, e.g. I-WLAN and 3GPP access systems, is a useful i feature for future network evolution. In order to achieve this, an evolution or migration of the network architecture, as well as an evolution of the radio interface, should be considered. The standard development in 3GPP is grouped into two work items, where the Long Term Evolution (LTE) targets the radio network evolution and the System Architecture Evolution (SAE) targets the evolution of the packet Core Network. The result of these work items are the Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) and Evolved Packet Core (EPC).These together (E-UTRAN and EPC) build the Evolved Packet System (EPS). LTE/SAE is specified from Release 8. The E-UTRAN standard is based on OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) downlink operation and Single Carrier Frequency Domain Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) uplink operation. These choices support .great spectrum flexibility with a number of possible deployments from 1.4 MHz up to 20 MHz spectrum allocations. It will support both FDD and TDD mode of operation and targets both a paired spectrum allocation with uplink and downlink separated in frequency, and unpaired spectrum with uplink and downlink operating on the same frequency. Furthermore, E-UTRAN supports use of different multiple antenna configurations (MIMO).This increases the data rates and spectrum efficiency. EPS in Release 8 is based on a simplified network architecture f compared to Release 6. The number o user-plane nodes is reduced from four in Release 6 (NodeB, RNC, SGSN and GGSN) to only two (e-NodeB and S-GW) in EPS. Only a Packet Switched (PS) domain is defined in LTE. This means that the traditionally Circuit Switched (CS) services will be carried by PS bearers.

UMTS Aiu Interface

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Third Generation Partnership Project ATM Adaptation Layer Advanced Mobile Phone System Adaptive Multi-rate Codec Access Network Application Programming Interface Access Point Network Authentication Centre Authentication Token Asynchronous Transfer Mode Broadcast Channel Border Gateway Breakout Gateway Control Function Bearer Independent Call Control Base Station Controller Base Stations Subsystem Customized Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic CAMEL Application Part t Call Control Code Division Multiple Access Core Network Circuit Switched Call Session Control Function (P-Proxy, I-Interrogating, S-Serving) Digital-AMPS Dedicated Control Channel Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Domain Name System Drift RNC Direct Sequence Downlink Shared Channel Dedicated Traffic Channel Evolved UTRAN Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution Equipment Identity Register Evolved Packet Core Evolved Packet System European Telecommunication Standards Organization Enhanced Uplink Forward Access Channel Frequency Division Duplex Frequency Division Multiple Access Freedom Of Mobile multimedia Access GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network Gateway GPRS Support Node Gateway Mobile services Switching Center General Packet Radio Services Global System for Mobile communications


GPRS Support Node GPRS Tunnelling Protocol Home Environment Home Location Register High Speed Downlink Shared Channel High Speed Shared Control Channel High Speed Circuit Switched Data High Speed Downlink Packet Access High Speed Packet Access Home Subscriber Server High Speed Uplink Packet Access Integrity Kev International Mobile Equipment Identity International Mobile Subscriber Identity IP-Multimedia CN Subsystem International Mobile Telephony Internet Protocol Integrated Services Digital Network International Telecommunication Union Inter-Working Function Location Area Local Area Network Location Services Long Term Evolution Medium Access Control Mobile Application Part Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service Mobile applications Execution Environment Media Gateway Control Function Media Gateway Multiple Input Multiple Output Mobility Management Multimedia Messaging Service Media Resource Function Media Resource Function Control Media Resource Function Processor Mobile Station Mobile services Switching Centre Mobile Termination Message Transfer Part Nordic Mobile Telephony Network Service Access Point Identifier Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Open Services Access (Architecture) Paging Channel Personal Digital Cellular Packet Data Network Packet Data Protocol Personal Service Environment Packet-TMSI

UMTS Air Interface

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Quality of Service Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Packet Switched Public Land Mobile Network Public Switched Telephony Network Radio Access Bearer Random Access Channel Radio Access Network Application Part Request For Comments Radio Link Control Radio Network Controller Radio Network Subsystem Radio Resource Control System Architecture Evolution SIM Application Toolkit Service Capability Feature Service Capability Server Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Description Protocol Serving GPRS Support Node Session Initiation Protocol Subscription Locator Function Serving RNC Serving RNS Signalling Transport Converter Total Access Communication System Time Division Time Division Duplex Time Division Multiple Access User Equipment Tunnel End-point ID Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity Transmission Time Interval User Datagram Protocol User Equipment Universal Mobile Telecommunications System UMTS SIM Application Toolkit UMTS Subscriber Identity Module UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Value Added Service Provider Virtual Home Environment Visitor Location Register Wide Area Network Wideband Code Division Multiple Access Wireless LAN World Radiocommunication Conference

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