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Q1. Explain the working of a moving iron type instruments. Derive the expression for torque produced. Answer.

These instruments are widely used in laboratories and switch board at commercial frequencies because these are cheaper in cost, robust in construction and can be manufactured with required accuracy. These are generally of two types:1. The attraction type. 2. The repulsion type. The attraction type instrument operate on the principle of attraction of a single piece of soft iron into a magnetic field and repulsion type instrument operate on the principle of repulsion of two adjacent iron pieces magnified by the same magnetic field. Repulsion type instrument are more sensitive than attraction type instrument as in repulsion type instrument large separating torque is developed by having two iron element positional class together inside the field coil where the magnetizing effect is maximum. In both type of these instruments, the current under measurement is passed through a coil of wire. This current carrying coil set up the necessary field depending on the magnitude of the current to be measured. The coil may be of a few turns of very heavy conductor or of many turns of fine wire. The instrument to be used as an ammeter is provided with a coil of few turns of thick wire in order to have low resistance and carry large current and that to be used as a voltameter is provided with a coil of large number of turns of wire in order to have high resistance and draw as small current as possible. EXPRESSION FOR TORQUE Let L be the self inductance corresponding to a total angular deflection of radians and change in inductance be dL correponding to small change in deflection angel d due to small change in current. The change in energy of magnetic field, dw = Td d Since change in energy dE = workdone, dw Td d = I2dL Td = I2dL/d where I is in amperes, L is in Henry and is in Radians. Thus toruqe is proportional to the square of the instrument current and to the rate of change of inductance with deflection. Q2. An energy meter revolves 10 revolutions of disc for unit of energy. Find the number of revolutions made by it during an hour when connected across when connected 20A at 210V and 0.8 power factor leading. If energy meter revolves 350 revolutions, find the % error. Answer. Energy consumed in one hour = VI cos / 1000 = 210 x 20 x 0.8 / 1000 = 3.360 kwh. The number of revolution the meter should make it is correct = 3.360 x registration const in revolution per kwh = 3.360 x 100 = 336

Number of revolution actually made = 350 % error = (350-336) x 100 / 350 % error = 0.1466 % Q3. Explain how following torque are produced in pmmc instrument and attracted type moving iron instruments 1. Deflecting torque 2. Control torque 3. Damping torque Answer. ANSWER NEEDS TO BE VERIFIED 1. DEFLECTING TORQUE:- The deflecting torque is produced by making use of one of the magnetic, chemical, electrostatic and electromagnetic induction effects of current or voltage and causes the moving system of the instrument to move from its zero position when the instrument is connected in an electrical circuit to measure the electrical quantity. The method of producing this torque depend upon the type of instrument. In attracting the type of instrument, this torque to equal to Td = 1/2 I2 dL/d Whereas in Pmmc instruments Td = Bilur Where B - magnetic density i - current flowing l - length of coil u - number of turn r - radius of coil 2. CONTROLLING TORQUE:- The magnitude of the movement to the moving system would be somewhat indefinite under the influence of deflecting torque unless some controlling torque exist. This torque opposes the deflecting torque and increases with increase in deflection of the moving system without controlling system the irrespective magnitude of current and moreover, once deflected it would not return to its zero position on removing the current. In attraction type instrument it is produced by spring control and in PMMC too it would be produced by spring control. 3. DAMPING TORQUE:- This torque is also necessary to avoid oscillation of the moving system about it's final deflected position owing to the inertia of the moving parts and to bring the moving system to rest in it's final deflected position quickly.

Q4. Explain in brief why energy meter reads energy while wattmeter does not. An energy meter has a registration constant of 100rev/kwh if the meter is connected to a load drawing 20A at 230V and 0.8 power factor for 5 hours. Find the number of revolution should be made by it of it is actually made 1800 revolutions. find the % age error and explain it from consumer point of view? Answer. An energy meter is fitted with some type of registration mechanism whereby all the instantaneous reading of power are summed over a definite period of time. ENERGY = POWER X TIME So, an energy meter can read energy. Whereas, a wattmeter indicates the value of power at a particular instant when it is read and hence it can not read energy. Registration constant= 100 rev/Kwh I = 20 A, V = 230 V, cos = 0.8 Energy in 5 hours = VI Cos x 5 / 1000 = 20 x 230 x 0.8 x 5 / 1000 = 18.4 Kwh The number of revolution of the meter should make it is correct = 18.4 x 100 = 1840 revolution. Number of revolution actually made = 1800 revolution % error = 1840 - 1800 x 100 1840 = 0.0217% It would be better from the customer point of view % age error is very less. Q5. Briefly discuss the construction and working of a PMMC instrument. Why is the linear scale. How range is extended in moving coil ammeter and voltameter? Answer. Answer needs to be Verified. CONSTRUCTION:- In a permanent magnet with soft iron pole pieces, a cylindrical iron core is mounted between the two poles of the magnet giving very narrow air gap in which the sides of a pointted light rectangular coil lies. The rectangular coil is wound of many turns of coil. The purpose of using core is to make the field uniform and to reduce the reluctance of the magnetic circuit. A low reluctance helps to retain permeance of magnet for a longer period. WORKING OF TORQUE EQUATION:- When the current to be measured is passed through the coil, say in the direction as shown in fig. (a), deflecting torque is produced. On account of relation between permanent magnetic field and coil magnetic field, the direction of deflecting torque can be determined by applying Fleming's left hand rule. It is the current in amperes flowing through the coil of turns N and length l meters B is flux density in test as in air gap:Then, deflecting force F = BilN newtons. If r is the distance in meters in between the centers of the coil and force F. Then deflecting torque Td = F x r = BilNr Nm From the above expression it is obvious that if flux density B in the air gap is constant, then deflecting torque Td i , Tc= Td

So, i And since is directly proportional to current, the scale of the basic dc PMMC instrument are usually linearly spaced. Hence scale is linear.

Figure (a)

Q9. Compare merits and demerits of moving iron type instruments and dynamometer type instruments. Which one is superior why? Answer. ANSWER NEED TO BE VERIFIED

1. TORQUE HEIGHT RATIO:- Dynamometer type instruments have equal small torque height ratio.

2. FRICTION ERROR:- Dynamometer type instruments have considerable friction error.

3. FRICTION LOSS:- Owing to heavy moving system, dynamometer type instruments have more friction losses.

4. COST AND SENSITIVITY TO OVERLOAD:- As a result of measures to reduce the frictional error, the dynamometer type instruments are more sensitive to overloads and mechanical impactsis in comparison to moving iron type instruments.

5. SENSTIVITY:- The senstivity of dynamometer instrument is typically very poor due to poor deflecting torque.

6. POWER CONSUMPTION:- Dynamometer type instrument have comparatively higher power consumption.

7. EFFECT OF STRAY MAGNETIC FIELD:- There is no effect of stray magnetic field on moving iron type while dynamometer type are most sensitive towards it.

8. HYSTERISIS AND EDDY CURRENT ERRORS:- Dynamometer type instruments are free from these erors while moving iron have these errors.

9. EFFECT OF WAVE FORM:- Dynamometer type instruments are very useful for accurate measurement of runs voltage while frequency change serious e rrors in AC measurement in moving iron type instruments.

10. CALIBRATION:- Dynamometer type instruments have same calibration for AC and DC measurements while moving iron type have a difference between AC and DC calibration.

Clearly Dynamometer type instrument are superior because of it's inherent advantage.

Q10. Differentiate amongst indicating, recording and integrating type of instruments giving example of each type?


(a) INDICATING INSTRUMENT:- These are those which indicates the magnitude of an electrical quantity at the time taken when it is being measured. The indications are given by a pointer moving over a graduated dial. Ordinary ammeters, voltmeters are example of it.

(b) RECORDING INSTRUMENT:- These are those which keep a continuous record of the variation of magnitude of an electrical quantity to be observed over a definite period of time. Such instruments are generally used in power houses where the current, voltage and power ect. are to be maintained within certain specified values.

(c) INTEGRATING INSTRUMENTS:- These are those which measure the total amount of either quantity of electricity or electrical energy supplied over a period of time. The summation given by such an instrument is the product of time and an electrical quantity under measure.

Q11. Explain construction and principle of operation of dynamometer type instrument. Why is this instrument suitable for both AC and DC measurements?


Dynamometer type instruments are very similar to PMMC instrument except that the permanent magnetic field is replaced by a coil which carry the current to be measured. The coil are usually aircored to avoid hysterisis, eddy currents and other errors when the instrument is used on dc. The fixed coil divided into two parts connected in series with the moving coil and placed together and parallel to each so as to provide a fairly uniform field within the range of the movement of the two halves of the fixed coil must be sufficient enough to allow the movement to moving coil shaft. The instrument develops deflecting torque by the interaction of magnetic field, one field due to current in a moving coil and the other due to current in the fixed coil is not constant but varies with the magnitude of current flowing through the fixed coil. Hence the deflecting torque of this instrument is determined not only by the moving coil current but also by the fixed coil current and due to it's this properly. This is determined not only by moving coil. This is a versatile measuring device for several other applications such as for measurment of power, reactive volt amperes and with some

modifications for measuring power factor and frequency in ac circuit. Hence it can be used for measuring AC as well as DC.

Q12. Why shunt is usually used voltmeter and ammeter? A moving coil instrument has a resistance of 5 and gives full deflection of 100mv. Show how the instrument may be used to measure:-

1. voltage upto 50V 2. current upto 10A


Shunt is usually used in voltmeter and ammeter to extend the range of voltmeter and ammeters.

Rm = 5 Vm = 100mv Im = Vm/Rm = 100mv/5 = 20mA

1. For measuring voltage upto 50V.

Series resistance is used with the instrument whose resistance is

R = V/Im - Rm = 50/(20 x 10-3) - 5

R = 2.5 x 10-3 - 5 = R = 2495

2. Such resistance of resistance Rf is used to be connected

Rf = Rm/[I/Im - 1]

= 5/[10/20 x 10-3 -1] = 5 x 2/998

Rf = 0.01002004

Q13. A moving coil instrument gives full scale deflection with 15mA. The resistance of coil is 5. It is desired to convert this instrument into an ammeter to read upto 2A. How to acheive it further how to convert this instrument to read upto 30V

Im = 15mA , Rm = 5

Answer. 1. Shunt of resistance R is required to be connected with the instrument where

R = Rm/[I/Im-1]

= 5/[2/5 x 10-3-1]

= 5 x 15/[2 x 10-3-15]

= 5 x 15/ 1985

R = 0.03778

2. Series resistance Rs is required to be connected with the instrument.

Rs = V/Im - Rm = 30/15 x 10-3 - 5 = 2000 - 5 Rs = 1995

Q14. Explain the principle of operation of attraction type moving iron instruments and explain how the controlling and damping forces are obtained?


The earliest and simplest form of attraction moving iron instruments uses a solenoid and moving oval shaped soft iron pinoted eccentrically. To this iron a pointer is attached so that it may deflect along with the moving iron over a graduate scale. The iron is made of sheet metal specially shaped to give a scale as nearby uniform as possible. The moving iron is drawn into field of solenoid when

current flows through it. The movement of the iron always from weaker magnetic field outside the coil into the stronger field inside the coil regardless the direction of flow of current. When the current to be measured is passed through the solenoid, a magnetic field is set up inside the solenoid, which in turn magnetises the iron. Thus the iron is attached into the coil causing the spindle and the pointer to rotate. So much instruments normally have spring control and pneumatic damping forces.

Q15. A moving coil instrument gives a full scale detection of 20mA. When a potential difference of 50mV is applied. Calculate the series resistance to measure 500V on scale? Answer. Im = 20mA V = 250V Vm = 50mV R= V/Im - Rm = (500/20) x 103 - 2.5 = 25000 - 2.5 R = 24997.5

Ques1: A 3 4 pole 50 hz induction motor runs at 1460 r.p.m. find its %age slip. Solution N s = 120f/p = 120*50/4 = 1500r.p.m. Running speed of motor = n= 1460r.p.m. Slip S=( N sN)/ N s*100 =(1500-1460) x 100 / 1500 = 2.667% Ques2: A 12 pole 3 alternator driver at speed of 500 r.p.m. supplies power to an 8 pole 3 induction motor. If the slip of motor is 0.03p.u, calculate the speed. Solution Frequency of supply from alternator, f=PN/120 =12*500/120 = 50hz where P= no of poles on alternatev N=alternator speed is r.p.m. Synchronous speed of 3 induction motor N=120f/Pm =120*50/8 = 750 r.p.m. Speed of 3 induction motor N=Ns (1-s) =750(1-0.03) = 727.5 r.p.m. Ques3: A motor generates set used for providing variable frequency ac supply consists of a 3- synchronous and 24 pole 3 synchronous generator. The motor generate set is fed from 25hz, 3 ac supply. A 6 pole 3 induction motor is electrically connected to the terminals of the synchronous generator and runs at a slip of 5%. Find i) the frequency of generated voltage of synchronous generator ii) the speed at which induction motor is running Solution Speed of motor generator set Ns=(120*f1(supply freq))/(no of pole on syn motor) =120*25/10 = 300 r.p.m. (1) frequency of generated voltage fz=speed of motor gen set voltage *no of poles on syn gen/120 = 300*24/120 = 60hz (2) Speed of induction motor , Nm=Ns(1-s) =120 fz /Pm(1-s) = 120*60/6(1-0.05) = 1140r.p.m. Ques4: A 3- 4 pole induction motor is supplied from 3 50Hz ac supply. Find (1) synchronous speed (2) rotor speed when slip is 4% (3) the rotor frequency when runs at 600r.p.m. Sulution 1) Ns =120f/p =120*50/4 = 1500 r.p.m. 2) speed when slip is 4% or .04 N=Ns (1-s) =1500(1-0.04) = 1440 r.p.m. 3) slip when motor runs at 600 r.p.m. S=(Ns N)/Ns =(1500-600)/1500 = 0.6 Rotor frequency f = Sf = 0.6*50 = 30Hz. Ques5: A 12 pole 3- alternator is coupled to an engine running at 500r.p.m. If supplied a 3 induction motor having full speed of 1440r.p.m. Find the %age slip, frequency of rotor current and no of poles of rotor. Ans Frequency of supply from alternator f=Pa*Na/120 =12*500/120 = 50Hz Full load speed Nf =1440 r.p.m.

The no of poles (nearest to and higher than full load speed of motor =1440) should be in even nos. P=120f/n = 120*50/1440 = 4 Ns = 120f/Pm = 120*50/4 = 1500 r.p.m. % Slip s = (Ns-N)/Ns x 100 =(1500-1440) x 100 / 1500 = 4% Rotor frequency f = sf = 0.04*50 = 2Hz No A poles of the motor = 4 Ques6: The rotor of 3 induction motor rotates at 900r.p.m. when states is connected to 3 supply .find the rotor frequency. Solution Nr =980 r.p.m., f=50Hz, Ns=120f/p When P=2, Ns=3000r.p.m.,P=4, Ns=1500 P=6, Ns=1000, P=8, Ns=750r.p.m. As we know that synchronous speed is slightly greater than rotor speed. Ns=1000 r.p.m. P=6 Fr=Sf=(Ns-N)/Ns*f=Sf = (1000-980) x 50 / 1000 Ques7: A 3 50Hz induction motor has a full load speed of 960 r.p.m (a) find slip (b) No of poles (c) Frequency of rotor induced e.m.f (d) Speed of rotor field w.r.t. rotor structure (e) Speed of rotor field w.r.t. Stator structure (f) Speed of rotor field w.r.t. stator field Solution: Given f = 50 Hz(supply frequency) N = 960r.p.m The no. of pole will be 6 only(because at P=6, Ns = 1000 which is nearer nad greater then 960 r.p.m.) (a) Slip, S = (Ns-N)/Ns * 100 = (1000 960) / 1000 * 100 = 4% (b) No of poles = 6 (c) Frequency of rotor induced emf = fr = SF = .04 * 50 = 2Hz (d) Speed of rotor field w.r.t rotor structure = 120fr/p = 120*2/6 = 40 r.p.m. (e) Speed of rotor field w.r.t. stator structure os actually the speed of stator filed w.r.t stator structure, Ns = 1000r.p.m (f) Speed of rotor field w.r.t stator field is zero Ques8: A 3 , 400V wound rotor has delta connected stator winding and star connected rotor winding. The stator has 48 turns/phase while rotor has 24 turns per phase. Find the stand still or open circuited voltage across the slip rings Solution Stator e.m.f/phase E1 = 400V Statur turns/phase N1 = 48 Rotor turns/phase N2 = 24 K= N2/N1 = 24/48 = 1/2 Rotor e.m.f/phase = KE1 = 1/2 * 400 = 200V Voltage between slip rings = Rotor line voltage = 3 x 200 = 346 volt Ques9: A 6 pole 3 50Hz induction motor is running at full load with a slip of 4%. The rotor is star connected and its resistance and stand still reactance are 0.25 ohm and 1.5 ohm per phase. The e.m.f between slip ring is 100V. Find the rotor current per phase and p.f, assuming the slip rings are short circuited. Solution Rotor e.m.f./phase at stand still E2 = 1003 = 57.7V Rotor e.m.f./phase at full load = sE2 = 0.04 * 57.7 = 2.31 V

Rotor reactance/phase at full Load = SX2 = .04 * 1.5 = .06 ohm Rotor impedance/phase at full load = ((0.25)2 + (0.06)2) = .257 ohm Full load Rotor current/phase = 2.31/0.257 = 9A Rotor P.f = 0.25/0.257 = 0.97 lag Quest10: A 50 Hz, 8 pole induction motor has full load slip of 4%. The rotor resistance and stand still reactance are 0.01 ohm and 0.1 ohm per phase respectively. Find: i) The speed at which maximum torque occurs ii) The ratio of maximum torque to full load torque Solution: Synchronous speed Ns = 120f/P = 120*50/8 = 750r.p.m. Slip at which maximum torque occurs = R2/X2 = 0.01/0.1 = 0.1 Rotor speed at maximum torque = (1-0.1) Ns = (1- 0.1) 750 = 675 r.p.m. Tm/Tf = (a2 + s2)/2as Where s = Full load slip = 0.04 a = R2/X2 = 0.01/0.1 = 0.1 Tm/Tf = ((0.1)2 + (0.04)2)/(2*0.1*0.04) = 1.45 Ques 11: An 8 pole 3 , 50 Hz induction motor has rotor resistance of 0.025 ohm/phase and rotor standstill reactance of 0.1ohm/phase. At what speed is the torque maximum? What proportion of maximum torque is the starting torque? Solution Ns = 120f/P = 120*50/8 = 750 r.p.m. R2 = SX2 ------------ for maximum torque S = R2/X2 = 0.025/0.1 = 0.25 Corresponding speed N = (1-s)Ns = (1 0.25)750 = 562.5 r.p.m. ii) Ts/Tm = 2a/(a2+1) = 0.47 where a = R2/X2 = 0.025/0.1 = 0.25 Ques12: A 500 V, 3 , 50 Hz induction motor develops an output of 15 KW at 950 r.p.m. If the input p.f. is 0.86 lagging, Mechanical losses are 7.30 W and stator losses 1500W, Find i) the slip ii) the rotor Cu loss iii) the motor input iv) the line current Solution: VL = 500V, motor output Pr = 15KW N = 950 r.p.m. P.f. = cos = 0.86lags Mech. Loss = 730 W Stator loss = 1500 W Ns = 120f/P = 120 * 50/6 = 1000r.p.m. i) S = (Ns-N)/Ns * 100 = (1000 960)/1000 *100 = 0.05*100 = 5% ii) Rotor output = Motor output + Mechanical output = 15 + .730 watt = 15.73 KWatt There fore (Rotor Cu loss)/(Rotor output) = s/(s-1) Or Rotor Cu loss = 15.73 * (0.05)/(1-0.05) = 827.89 watt Power flow diagram for finding the motor input Motor input = 15kw + 730 + 1500 + 827.89 = 18.058KW Line Current = 3V2I2Cos I2 = 24.25A Ques13: A 6 pole 3 induction motor develops 30hp including 2 hp mechanical losses at a speed of 950 r.p.m. on 550V, 50Hz Mains. The P.F. is 0.88 lagging. Find: 1) Slip 2) Rotor Cu loss 3) Total input if stator losses are 2kw 4)

5) Line current Solution Ns = 120f/P = 120 * 50/6 = 1000 r.p.m. 1) S = (Ns N)/Ns = (1000 950)/1000 = 0.05 Rotor output Pmech = 30hp = 30 * 735.5 = 22065 watt Power input to rotor = Pmech/(1-S) = 22065/(1-0.05) = 23,226 2) Rotor Cu loss = s * rotor input = 0.05 * 23226 = 1161 Watt 3) Total input = Power input to rotor + stator losses = 23226 + 2000 = 25226 Watt Motor output = Rotor output Mech loss = 30 2 = 28 HP = 28 * 735.5 = 20594 Watt 4) = (Motor output)/(Motor input) * 100 = 81.64% 5) IL = (Motor Input)/( 3 * 550 * 0.88) = 30A Ques14: A 4 pole 50 Hz 3 induction motor running at full load, develops a torque of 160N-m, when rotor makes 120 complete cycles per minute, find what power output Solution Supply frequency f = 50Hz Rotor e.m.f. frequency = f = 120/60 = 2Hz Slip S = f/f = 2/50 = 0.04 Ns = 120f/p = 120 *50/4 = 1500 r.p.m. Shaft power output = Tsh * 2N/160 = 160 * 2 * 1440/60 = 24127W Ques15: The power input to a 500V 50Hz, 6 pole, 3 squirrel case inductor motor running at 975 r.p.m. is 40kw. The stator losses are 1 kw and friction and windage losses are 2kw. Find: 1) Slip 2) Rotor Cu loss 3) Brake hp Solution: i) Ns = 120f/P = 120*50/6 = 1000 r.p.m. S= ( Ns N)/Ns = (1000 975)/1000 = 0.025 Power input to station P1 = 40Kw Stator output power = P1 stator losses = 40 -1 = 39kw Power input to rotor P2 = Stator output power = 39 KW ii) Rotor Cu loss = sP2 = 0.025 * 39 = 0.975KW Pmech = P2 Pcu = 39 0.975 = 38.025 iii) Motor output = Pmech friction and windage loss = 38.025 2 = 36.025KW