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Introduction & Ecosystem Concepts

Totality of everything that exists, including all physical matter and energy, the planets, stars, galaxies, and content of intergalactic space

Universe Galaxies super macro Solar system ASTRONOMI

Earth -----------SAINS KEBUMIAN

Biosphere Ecosystem Community Macro world Population Organisms Organs Tissues Micro world Cells Molecules SAINS HAYATI

BIOSPHERE (Ecosystems) EARTH: Atmosphere, Lithosphere, hydrosphere GALAXY, PLANETS, STARS



HUMAN (ACTIVITIES) Awareness Knowledge Attitude Skills Participation


ORGANISMS Organs Tissues Cells, Molecules

Penciptaan obyek sbg hasil manifestasi budaya

BIDANG AS, BUMI, SR: 1. Pengantar, galaksi & kosmologi 2. Bintang 3. Tatasurya 4. Dinamika bumi & Siklus batuan 5. Siklus air & siklus atmosfer 6. Arts, Crafts, Design and The Environment 7. Understanding the impacts of lifestyles, behaviors and built environment to the earth UTS / UA

BIDANG SAINS HAYATI: 1. Pengantar & konsep ekosistem 2. Konsep ekosistem , & koneksinya dengan kehidupan manusia 3. Komunitas, biodiversity dan Evolusi 4. Se, molekul dan faktor hereditas 5. Populasi manusia & Isu lingkungan 6. Dampak kegiatan manusia thd kualitas lingkungan 7. Masyarakat dan Pembangunan berkelanjutan berwawasan lingkungan




Biosphere: ecosystems



the earths life-support system A system made up of a community of animals, plants and microorganisms interrelated together with its physical and chemical environment

Chapter 19
Great Idea: Ecosystems are ecological systems, interdependent communities of living things that recycle matter while energy flows through in a given area, their physical surroundings (environments).

ECO-SYSTEM SYSTEM - ECOLOGY System - interaction (living & non-living) System - interconnection System - networking System - symbiosis System - nature Konteks dalam 4 dimensi (ruang & waktu), mencakup informasi tentang: komponen/struktur penyusun, proses, fungsi, nilai sosio-ekonomi-ekologi (direct & indirect).


Science of Natural living systems


Biotic and abiotic interaction, interconnection systems Producers, consumers, decomposers


Every Ecosystem consists of both living and nonliving parts Energy flows through ecosystems Matter is recycled by ecosystems Every organism occupies an ecological niche Stable ecosystems achieve a balance among their populations Ecosystems are dynamic, not permanent, but change over time


Chemical and physical environment


Living organisms Ecological community

All in area interacting each other

Food Web

Interactions of organisms Photosynthetic plants Herbivores Carnivores Decomposers 10% is transferred

Trophic Levels

Most energy is lost as heat


Most energy in most ecosystems is stored in the bodies of primary producers. Only about 10 percent of the energy at one energy level passes to the next highest trophic level.

Atoms continuously cycle

Ecological niche

Mode of survival

Each plant/animal fills a niche

Organisms compete for dominance


Balance among populations

Resources are limited

Some variation in population sizes Overall relatively constant distribution

Long Time Scale

Plate tectonics

Short Time Scale

Glaciers Human impact

Fig. 54.21
Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

It is virtually impossible to change on aspect of a complex system without affecting other parts of the systems, often in as-yet unpredictable ways. Examples:

Everglades Restoration in Florida Lake Victoria in Africa

Lake Victoria

Largest freshwater lake in Africa Nile perch (Ikan duri)

Introduced species

Aggressive predator Algae blooms Snail populations carry disease Roasting fish
Decimated (Membunuh) forests Increase in erosion

Invasive species attacking Lake Victoria Africa

These images show water hyacinth infestation and control of such invasive species

1995: Image shows several water-hyacinth-choked bays (yellow arrows) 2001: A visible reduction of water hyacinth on Lake Victoria

Solid Waste

Nothing is ever thrown away


Decay slowed enormously

Recycling Large depositories

% different kind of trash


Molecule of 3 oxygen atoms Absorbs ultraviolet radiation Detection

Aircraft sampling Measure spectral lines from

The Ozone Layer


Highest concentration

The Ozone Hole

Concentration of ozone reduced

Yearly occurrence over


Linked to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

Breaks apart O3 molecule

Dealing with the Threat to the Ozone Layer

Reduction of CFCs

Burning introduces chemicals

Nitrogen oxides Sulfur compounds Hydrocarbons Air pollution Acid rain Reduce emissions
Power plants Vehicles


Production of bad ozone


Greenhouse Effect

Traps heat on earth

Climate change

Global Warming

3 main points
CO2 is a greenhouse gas Burning fossil fuels increases CO2 Average global temperature has significantly increased
1990s warmest decade

Measurements in 1958 read 316 ppm and increased to 370 ppm today

Fig. 54.26
Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Increased CO2 levels

Responsible for temperature increase? CO2 exchange with atmosphere Current circulation Varies over time

Worlds Oceans

Solar energy output


Warming of Northern Hemisphere Ecological impacts Meteorological impacts Kyoto accord


Understanding shoreline movement allows us to avoid avoid settlement in vulnerable locations (SOPAC, 2007).
2004 1984

Source: Dr. Arthur Webb


Accommodatio n Protect

Soft Hard

People flooded (Millions/yr)