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Chapter 1 Outline I. Section I A. The Global Challenge of Comparative Politics 1.

Critical juncture: events that describe a particularly important moment, that help define key transitional moments a. 1989: Berlin Wall, that separated communist-controlled East Berlin from West Berlin, was dismantled. The crumbling of the Berlin wall was soon followed by a series of peaceful revolutions against the communist party-states of East Central Europe and the Soviet Union. It marked three important changes: the end of a bipolar world, the emergence of a unipolar world, and a gateway to globalization b. 2001: 9/11, the war on terror, c. 2008: a cascade of economic challenges. Crude oil reached $100 a barrel. Worldwide recession. Global awareness of climate change and global warming B. Globalization and Comparative Politics 1. Globalization: begins with accounts of economic activities, including the reorganization of production and the global redistribution of the work force, as well as the increased extent and intensity of trade, finance and foreign district investment. Also involves the movement of people due to migration, employment, business, and educational opportunities 2. New applications of tech and new ways to deliver news 3. Forged new forms of international governance, from the European Union (EU) to the World Trade Organization (WTO) 4. Has also provoked challenges from grassroots movements in every region of the world that are concerned w/ its negative impact on, for ex, the poor people, the environment, and labor rights 5. Important problems related to globalization: pandemics like AIDS, global climate change, financial panics, competition for scarce resources, and international terrorism C. Making Sense of Turbulent Times 1. The four themes: a. The world of states: the historical formation, internal organization, and interaction of states within the international order b. Governing the economy: the role of the state in economic management c. The democratic idea: the spread of democracy and the challenges of democratization d. The politics of collective identities: the sources and political impact of diverse collective identities, including class, gender, ethnicity, nationality, and religion Section II A. What-and How-Comparative Politics Compare 1. Comparative politics: is a subfield within the academic discipline of political science as well as a method or approach to the study of politics a. The subject matter of comp. politics is the domestic politics of countries or peoples

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2. Involves the comparing of domestical political institutions, processes, policies, conflicts, and attitudes in diff. countries 3. Keynesianism: an approach that gives priority to gov regulation of certain aspects of the economy 4. Neoliberalism: emphasizes the importance of market-friendly policies B. Level of Analysis 1. The best way to begin the study of comparative politics is with countries 2. State: the key political institutions responsible for making, implementing, and adjudicating important policies in a country 3. Legitimacy: the significant segment of the citizenry that must believe that the state is entitled to command compliance from those who live under its rule and acts lawfully in pursuit of desirable aims 4. Nation-state: distinct, politically defined territory in which the state and national identity coincide 5. Regime: a term that is generally synonymous w/ gov or political system C. Causal Theories 1. Political culture: the attitudes, beliefs, values, and symbols that influence political behavior 2. Rational choice theory: focuses on how individuals act strategically in an attempt to achieve goals that maximize their interests a. Use deductive & quantitative methods to construct models b. Criticized for claiming to explain large-scale and complex social phenomena by reference to indiv. Choices. Also criticized for dismissing the importance of variations in historical experience, political culture, identities, & institutions 3. Middle-level theory: theories focusing on specific features of the political world, such as institutions, policies, or classes of similar events, such as revolutions or elections 4. Democratic transitions: the process of a state moving from an authoritarian to a democratic political system Section 4 A. A typology of political systems 1. Typology: a method of classifying by using criteria that divide a group of cases into smaller numbers. For example, in this book, we use a typology of countries that distinguishes among consolidated democracies, transitional democracies, and authoritarian regimes. 2. Authoritarianism: refers to political systems in which power (or authority) is highly concentrated in a single individual, a small group of people, a single political party, or institution. a. They frequently claim that they are a democracy. For example, according to the Chinese Communist Party, the political system of the Peoples Republic of China is based on socialist democracy. But its not democracy 3. Totalitarian regimes: seek to control nearly every aspect of public and private life a. Stalin and Mao